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					LHCb at Tsinghua University: Progress and Prospect
Yuanning Gao Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University

• Introduction • Activities • Summary and prospect

• Center for High Energy Physics (TUHEP) is a research institute jointly formed by the department of engineering physics & department of physics, also people from other departments (computer science, mechanics…).

• As the 1st project of TUHEP, our research activities are funded by NSFC and Tsinghua Univ.
• We benefit from close ties with industry, NUCTEC, Motorola…

1. Outer Tracker
• Collaboration with NIKHEF - Local expense supported by NIKHEF for 4 engineers/students, about 30 person*month • Design the test system for HV cards – Hardware; – Software in Micro-controller; – Software in PC with Labview;


• Produce two Systems
• Jointly test about 2000 HV cards

Testing HV cars of LHCb outer tracker HV=2000V o o Thermal cycling= 20 C to 73 C, Time=24days

• One tester can test 32 HV boards at the same time.
• Leakage current and capacitance of HV capacitors in HV boards are the measuring objects.

Backplane on the 6U crate
Connect the control_board to 16 test_boards;
Power supply;

Control_board (in the 6U crate)
Receive command from PC through rs232; Control the leakage current measure;

Control the capacitance measure;
Transfer the measure result to PC;

Test_board (in the 6U crate)

Totally 16 test_boards in one tester; One test_board takes charge of two HV boards;

Adapter_board (with the HV board)

It’s out of the 6U crate and resides in the oven; It connects the signals from HV board to the test_board through multi-wire round cable;

• – – – • Completed: Hardware design; Software in Microcontroller; One set has been produced; To be done:


Software in PC

2. TELL1 Electronics
• Collaboration with LAUSANNE, CERN & Heidelberg • Group members work in home lab and abroad, to participate in the design, test, programming and production - main board - GBE card - ORC card


An Introduction to Tell1 Board
– A specific acquisition board developed for the requirements of the LHCb experiment and is used by essentially all sub-detectors in the experiment. – Input interface: • Optical receiver 24 fibres x 1.28 Gbit/s = 30.7 Gbit/s • Analog receiver 64 channel x 10-bit @ 40 MHz = 25.6 Gbit/s – Read out interface: • Gigabit Ethernet card = 4 Gbit/s

LHCb Front-end architecture
~1 million channels

Front End of detectors in cavern
Radiation tolerant
~50k ASIC’s of ~14 different types

~7000 Optical links (Velo: analog copper)

TELL1 in counting room
~300 boards Commercial components

Data Acquisition system
Custom front-end (TELL1)
Level-1 Traffic
Front-end Electronics FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE TRM

HLT Traffic 40KHz MEP  /16 Mux  x8

MEP /32 Mux x2






Multiplexing Layer

Readout Network
SFC /94




94 Links 7.1 GB/s ~100 SFC SFCs

Gb Ethernet Level-1 Traffic HLT Traffic Mixed Traffic

Switch Switch

Switch Switch

~1800 CPUs

Commercial computers and network equipment

CPU Farm

TELL1 Board …
Analog Rx-card or Optical Rx-Card Credit Card PC

Five million-gates FPGA

GigaBit Ethernet Card

…and it’s daughter boards: GBE & ORC



Number of modules
sub-detector VeLo+Veto ST OT RICH Calo Calo trig. Mu Mu trig. L0 DU N boards 84+4 89 24 (48) 18 ?? 22 5 7 4 1 comments 64 analogue inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs 24 optical inputs Custom input card

~260-280 + 15% spares = 300-320 boards

GBE card on TELL1
• Collaboration with CERN • Design/Test/production

One of the versions of GBE designed by Tsinghua members

It is not necessary cheaper to produce electronics in China, but more efficient…

A prototype PCB made in Beijing in 7 days, delivered to CERN within 3 days.

GigaBit Ethernet Card V2

GBE Version 2. 15 boards are assembled and Tested in Tsinghua in 2004.


GBE Version 5. One pre-series of 20 boards had been produced at Tsinghua University in 2005. 400 GBE cards in total will be produced and tested at Tsinghua University in 2005.

Setup the Test Bed for GBE in Tsinghua

Monitor the Data out of GBE

Linux PC

Giga-Bit Ethernet Switch

GBE Card

100 Meters Cat6 Cable

TELL1 main board

• Collaboration with Univ. of Lausanne • 3 Ph.D. to Lausanne (~18 person.month)

• Assembled 7 TELL1 in Beijing
Input:1.6G x 24 Output: 1G x 4 9U,12 layers PCB 1020Pin FPGA x5 330MHz DDR RAM

TELL1 test system
At Lausanne

At Tsinghua

Making FPGA’s on Tell1 functional…
• The function of FPGA – The high data flow can only be implemented by high-performance FPGA. – By programming FPGA, we can implement different data process algorithm for each sub-detector. • VHDL Programming – Common part has been implemented mainly by Tsinghua members. – Sub-detector specified parts are being designed now.

• The test procedure for TELL1 are being developed by Tsinghua group

• JTAG boundary scan…

CCPC and Its Server


We can access all the registers on Tell1 and GBE boards by CCPC. By this way, we can test the functionality of the boards.

ORC card on TELL1
• Collaboration with Heidelberg • ~400 ORC board will be produced and tested in Beijing in 2006

Activities 3. Software and physics
• Compare to the strong electronic group, limited manpower and travel budget on software and physics so far • Tsinghua group had (ever) been active in LHCb software development and physics - Offline upstream tracking program - Ks reconstruction - Development, update and maintenance of the XML database describing the Silicon tracker geometry; - …

• We are currently working on
- Systematic studies of Bc meson

- b Baryon
- Step into the more competitive area: CP violation

Summary and Prospect
• Tsinghua group has participated in, and will continue the activities in LHCb electronics Tell1 (+GBE+OTR), Test system for HV cards of the outer tracker With limited funding support, the group has well established our visibility in the collaboration. Real contribution >(>?) contribution in figure (~250K CHF) Close collaboration with CERN, Lausanne, NIKHEF, Heidelberg was essential to make such progress

Summary and Prospect (cont’d)
• As the 1st HEP project of TUHEP, we have been greatly benefited from research activities in LHCb. • Most of the work on electronics will be completed in 2006 on schedule. (find something else to keep them busy? ) • We will participate in detector installation and commissioning…

Summary and Prospect (cont’d)
• Focus on physics analyses in the future, we will continue to work on software, Bc, b, and challenge ourself with work on CP violation. • Share (a relatively smaller amount of) the computing facility with other LHC experiments. Tsinghua will have people from computer science join LHCb activities. • Travel money is the most wanted support at the moment.

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