STATUS OF SLUM by domainlawyer

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									Center for Education and Documentation (www.doccentre.org/) Digest on slum issues
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This article taken from the book Life and Labour in a Bombay slum. India's urban population, at present around 155 million, is likely to rise by the end of the century to 350 million. As this happens, the percentage of those living in slums and shanties will rise. During the UN International Year of Shelter, the Slum-dwellers Federation of India undertook a census of the slums, the counting being done by the people themselves...Jeremy Seabrook, , "Why Migrate To The Cities?", 'Life And Labour in a Bombay Slum', Quartet Books, London. 1987, [C.J10a] /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M021.html "Urban Poverty - Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation", Vol. II. Part III. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M023.html " Manifestions of Urban Poverty:Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation", Vol. II. Part III. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M025.html Growth of Slums and Bustees. Growth of the Informal Sector.Increasing Casualisation and Underemployment of Labour.Crushing Pressure on civic amenities. Madhura Swaminathan, " Aspects of Urban Poverty in Bombay", Environment and Urbanization, IIED, United Kingdom. April 1995, [C.J10a],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M026.html In 2001,the population living in the urban slums numbered as many as 40.6 million. This was 23 per cent of the 178.4 million living in the 607 towns that reported slums,and 14 per cent of India's total urban population of 285.3 million....Our Special Correspondent," Maharashtra Reports Largest Slum Population", The Hindu,Chennai, 27 November 2001. [C.J10a.271101H]. We no longer depend on the water supplied by the hydrants. It takes over an hour to get the required water pressure of 150 gallons per minitue from a hydrant. Instead of wasting an hour, we quickly despatch our water tankers (with a capacity of 16,000 litres each) to the spot and extinguish the fire within minutes. Somit Sen, "BMC Looks on as Slum Dwellers Steal Water From Fire Hydrants", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 January 2003. [C.J33.120103TOI]. Subsequently, in the face of limited possibities of labour absoption in the organised sector, particularly in industry, the rural migrant workers are belived to create a situation of unlimited supply of labour in the urban job market. This leads to a residual absorption of labour in the informal sector, generally said to be characterised by low productivity. Those in the middleincome groups have a higher propensity to migrate than those in the bottom or upper income brackets. Indrani Gupta, & Arup Mitra, "Rural Migrants and Labour Segmentation - Micro-Level Evidence from Delhi Slums", Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, 01 December 2002. [J.01DEC02EPW]. In particular, this corner of India produces everything from garments to tallow to watch-strap buckles to lip smaking savouries like Chikki, much of it for export. Much of this activity is illegal and unsafe, but that matters to nobody, For these reasons, For all its awful squator, Dharavi has been a magnet of opportunity that has reached out to every corner of the country. D'Souza, Dilip, "Twilight City", The Hindu, Chennai, 16 February 2003. [C.J10a.160203H]. For the first time, the census has attempted to collect data on the slum population of the country and put the number of slum dwellers at 40.6 million...The urban development ministry has, however, chosen to reject the provisional data and termed it "defective" and "faulty". The

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ministry claims that the slums population in the country should be between 61 million and 70 million in 2001...The figure is important because it is used as the basis for preparing slum improvement and urban poverty alleviation programme. Mamata Singh, , "Number Crunchers and Slum Sums", Business Standard, Mumbai, 10 December 2001. [C.J10a.101201BSB]./eldoc/j10a/10dec01bsb1.html http://www.businessstandard.com/archives/2001/dec/50101201.054.asp

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Of the 70.8 million people living in 26 of India's largest cities,16.9 million live in slums, according to data collected in the census of 2001,which works out to 23.86 percent. Mamata Singh, "23.86% of City Dwellers Live in Slums", Business Standard, Mumbai, 26 November 2001. [C.J10a.261101BSB]. "A Case Study of Ecohealth in the Urban Slums of Jerimeri Bombay", South-South Solidarity, New Delhi. Pg. 13-18. [R.J10a.22]. The slum dweller have become an integral part of the life. It is quite abvious that without them the present opluence visible in the city could not have been. They work in the construction sites, households etc. The city, without any hesitation, embraces them when it needs them. When the same people complete their job of building the city and make any attempts to find a niche for themselves,they are treated as unwanted elements. Rahul Singh, "Do Slum Dweller Have The Right To Life?", The Lawyers Collective, Mumbai, 01 August 2000. [J.J10a.01AUG00LAW]. Jeremy Seabrook, "The City, Our Stepmother", New Internationalist, UK, May 1997. [C.J10a.010597NI] /eldoc/j10a/01may97ni1.html http://www.newint.org/issue290/keynote.htm Sharmila Joshi, "To go global, evict the poor", [J10b], /eldoc/j10b/forcedeviction.htm http://www.humanscapeindia.net/humanscape/hs0301/hs020310t.html Aruna Chakravorty, "The struggles people go through put mine to shame", Humanscape, Bombay, 01 Sept. 2003, [C.J10a],/eldoc/j10a/01sep03hus8.html http://www.humanscapeindia.net/humanscape/new/sept03/thestrugglespeople.htm "The Urban Poor", Population Reports, New Delhi, 01 May 2003, [C.J10a] /eldoc/j10a/01may03por.html "India’s poor present a latent opportunity for growth: Prahalad", Business Std(Bombay), 17 Jan 2002, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/17jan02bsb1.html http://www.businessstandard.com/archives/2002/jan/50170102.051.asp Health Correspondent, "Awareness levels about malaria is low among slumdwellers: Survey", Times of India, Bombay, 27 July 2001, [C.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/27jul01toi1.html

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Resettlement and Rehabilitation; Policy related to Slums

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According to the report, the Committee had completely reversed the earlier emphasis, in official policy, on improvement to the demolition of slums, It recommended summary eviction and demolition of large slums with police aid until a 'measureable decrease' in their proliferation was definitely indicated. According to the committee's estimates, 5-6 million people or half the population of Bombay, would be forcibly shifted to the far end of the suburbs. This extreme measure was thought necessary because the squatter settlements were on high value land that the private sector urgently required; they would now be able to acquire these plots, after the demolitions, through, open market sales... The Urban Development Minister even went to the extent of promising builders extra FSI on condition that they built in slum areas or rebuilt dilapidated buildings, and was hailed by the 'Tenants Association'... Since the government has no money for an extensive development, housing and rehabilitation

scheme, the private sector is presumed most admirablay suited to undertake this work... Projects and programmes that pull the population towards Bombay should be discouraged. The Nariman Point and New Cuffe Parade Complexes would never have come up except for the fact that buildings contributed heavily to the personal and party accounts of the politicians and parties in power. The bridge planned across the Harbour to Uran from South Bombay first not be constructed. Estimated at 500 crores, for a road link alone, this bridge is expected in dramatically increase the number of persons travelling in the North South corridor by the suburban trains every day, for to go to Uran people will anyway have to come to South Bombay from the suburbs. Colin Gonsalves, "Bombay: A City Under Seige", Inst. of Social Research Education, pg. 117, August 1981. [R.J06.3].

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Nauzer Bharucha, "Shabana's Plan May be Approved", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 June 2002. [C.J10.240602TOI] Sayyed Ahmed, Minister of State for Housing, Slum Improvement, House Repairs and Reconstruction, Aukaf in conversation with Manoj Mahanta, Highlights the achievements of the government in fulfilling the ‘Home For All’ dream of every individual. Manoj Mahanta, "We Would Like to See Mumbai Become A Slum-Free City in the Next Ten Years", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 19 October 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M016.html Nominal price to be charged now. Developers lost interest in Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. The much hyped SRS failed during the Sena BJP regime,although the then government blamed the depression in the real estate market and red-tapism for the failure of their electyion plank. Express News Service," No More Free Houses for Slum-Dwellers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 08 November 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M019.html Those hutments,which were constructed before January 1995 and those eligible for state protection will be provided with alternate accommodation before the demolition exercise begins. the entire cost of rehabilition of these slum dwellers will have to be born by the Union government as the slums had come up on land belonging to the Airport Authority of India (AAI). Times News Network, "2000 Hutments Adjoining Airport Will Be Razed", The Times of India, Mumbai, 09 October 2001. [C.J10a.091001TOI]. Sources said that with civic elections around the corner,politicians were reluctant to support the demolition of huts. Unlike middle class voters, slum dwellers turn up in large numbers on polling day and no potician risks alienating them Archana Sharma, "Politicians Did Not Want to Alienate Airport Slum Dwellers Before Civic Polls", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 December 2001. [C.J10a.071201TOI]. Srinivas Laxman, "Focus Shifts to Slums Near Airport After Attack on Parliament", The Times of India, Mumbai, 14 December 2001. [C.J10a.141201TOI]. About 400 structures, including several tea stalls,eateries,grocery shops and offices of courier companies were razed with bulldozers at Sanjay Gandhi Nagar near Centaur Hotel. There are 733 structures in this slum. The occupants of 333 huts are ineligible for rehabilitation since they belong to the post-January 1995 category. Times News Network, "400 Huts Near Airport Razed as Demolition Drive Finally Takes Off",The Times of India, Mumbai, 22 December 2001. [C.J10a.221201TOI]. Populist measures seen to have taken priority over security considerations once again, with the state government on Thursday staying the demolitions of slums around Mumbai airport. The decision was reportedly prompted by the forthcoming elections to the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation BMC). Archana Sharma, "Slum Demolitions Near Airport Stayed", The Times of India, Mumbai, 28 December 2001. [C.J10a.281201TOI].

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Times News Network, "New Laws Likely For Slum Rehab Scheme", The Times of India, Mumbai, 25 February 2003. [C.J10b.250203TOI]. The township project will cost about Rs.420 crores. Each of the 16,500 families will contribute Rs.25000 and the remaining amount will be given by Sumer corporation. The township will consist of 14 schools, two hospitals,six places of worship, 700 shops, two community halls,180 welfare centres. 180 balwadis, a four-acre maidan and 26 neighbourhood open spaces. Times News Network, "NGO, Not Developer, Will Construct Slum Project", The Times of India, Mumbai, 06 February 2003. [C.J10b.060203TOI]. Under the scheme, Sumer must provide free tenements to the slum families on the Chandivli land. In return, It will get TDR worth severral hundreds of crores which can be used for development purposes anywhere north of the Chandivli plot This TDR can also be sold to a third party by summer. Nauzer Bharucha, "Slum Authority Approves TDR Valued at Rs. 10 cr to Developer", The Times of India, Mumbai, 01 February 2003. [C.J10b.010203TOI]. Barely 27,000 slum families, constituting less than two percent of the 12 lakh slum families eligible for rehabilitation in the city have been shown as rehoused by private developers under the state government's flatering slum policy over the last decade... An official of the slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) said about 15 percent of the 27,000 rehoused families has illigally sold it tenements and moved out. However, government sources claimed that the number could be as high as 50 per cent. Nauzer Bharucha, "Jittery Builders Lobby for Support on Slum Policy", The Times of India, Mumbai, 23 January 2003. [C.J10b.230103TOI] The judges directed the government and the SRA to give the NGO's inspection of records pertaining to plots in respect of which proposals has been sanctioned since 1998. The documents to be given to the NGOs would also include sanctioned plans which would indicate areas where the slums-dwellers are sought to be rehabilitated,buildings which are meant for free sale by the builders and particulars of the reservations on the plots. "A sharp decline in open spaces is witnessed in the last two three decades,even though the 1947 development plan had recommended a ratio of close to four acres per 1000 persons." Times News Network, "HC Curbs Rehabilitation Plans on Reserved Plots", The Times of India, Mumbai, 16 January 2003. [C.J10b.160103TOI]. Times News Network, "Plan to House Slumdwellers on Salt Pan Land", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 January 2003. [C.J10b.080103TOI]. Under the scheme, developers are alowed to build higher apartment blocks than normal. They can sell these extra apartments to cross-subsidise the free homes they provide slum dwellers. Times News Network, "Slum Rehabilitation Scheme Runs Into Rough Weather", The Times of India, Mumbai, 10 November 2002. [C.J10b.101102TOI]. "A builder,who undertakes a rehabilitation project to rehouse project -affected slum dwellers, is entitled to additional benefits. The developers get a whopping floor space index (FSI) of 4.5 as transfer of development rights (TDR) for every 2.5 FSI consumed on site for rehabilitation," a source said. Under the normal slum redevelopment scheme ,no such TDR facility is given to the builder. Nauzer Bharucha, "HC will Decide on Rehab Plan for Park Encroachers", The Times of India, Mumbai, 26 August 2002. [C.J10b.260802TOI]. Our Correspondent, "State's Slum Rehabilitation Plan Welcomed", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 28 March 2002. [C.J10b.280302AA] Nauzer Bharucha, "Mhada Plan May Choke Suburban Life", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 May 2002. [C.J10b.020502TOI].

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It is learnt that since January 1998, the SRA has approved 67 slum rehabilitation schemes on encroached land under the development plan for recreation grounds,playgrounds,gardens,roads,markets and welfare centres. Times News Network, "Slum Land 'Freed' For Gardens, Playgrounds", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 April 2003. [C.J10b.020403TOI]. Abraham, Renni , "Aarey colony rehab plan forwarded to slum body", Business Std(Bombay), 13 Oct 2003, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/13oct03bs1.html http://www.businessstandard.com/archives/2003/oct/50131003.033.asp Madhura Swaminathan, "Slums in Bombay:Deprivation and the Environment", 'The Hindu Survey of the Environment' , The Hindu, Chennai, 1995, [C.E10], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M017.html People in slums will continue to lead a life of misery unless concerted efforts are made I by the powers-that-be and voluntary groups I to raise their standard of living by improving the environment around their dwellings, says MADHURA SWAMINATHAN, of the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research, Bombay. Dr. Amita Bhide, "Whither The Urban Poor?", Combat Law, Mumbai, 01 April 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M020.html A review of the Slum Areas of Maharashtra (Improvement, clearance and Redevelopment ) (Second Amendment) Act, 2001. Sharma, Dr.R.N & Narender, Dr.A., "Policies and Strategies For Slum Improvement and Renewal - The Bombay Experience", 'Urban Explosion of Mumbai: Restructuring of Growth', Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, April 1996. [C.J06], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M022.html The proliferation of slums and squatters in large Indian cities has become the central theme of discussion among policy-makers, public officials and academics. So many solutions are suggested. For some, the urban crisis is synonymous with the 'housing crisis'. Ample data can be cited to prove the phenomenal growth of sub-standard dwellings in urban' areas.. "Urban Poverty-Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation",'Summary of Recommendations, Vol. II. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20] /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M024.html Slums, squatters colonies and unauthorised colonies should be recognised as part of peoples effort to provide shelter for themselves in the absence of the State being able to meet this need. Therefore the approach to such colonies should be one aiming at regulation rather than removal. THE State Goverment 's decision to allow height of slums to be raised to feet has raised the hackles of denizens."Mumbai will soon become Slumbai" is the common refrain. Express New Service, "SEC Seeks Details on Move to Allow Slums More Space", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 22 November 2001. [C.J10a.221101IE]. With the view to boost development of urban infrastructure in the country,the Government has alredy permitted 100 foreign direct investment (FDI) for development of an entirely new township in the country. Our Special Correspondent, "Ministry to announce National Slum Policy", The Hindu, Chennai, 18 October 2001. [C.J10a.191001H]. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/10/19/stories/0219000x.htm Or take Mumbai.In 1976,half the city's population (2.5million out of 5.9million)lived in 1680 slums that dotted the place .A 1983 count showed there were 1930 slums in the city and some 4.3 million people lived in them. Today,40 percent of mumbai's 15 million residents still dwell in slums and nearly 2 million people have no toilet facilities... But Shanghai's response to its urban challenge was clear and quick. The municipal government simply razed all illegal migrant setlements and launched a highly sucessful Housing Relief Project to give all residents a decent living space of 10 squre meters per person. Old houses

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were demolished, million s of square meters of new apartments space were built, new residential zones were developed, and some 47,000 households that previously lived in tiny 2.5sq m .units were resettled in more spacious surroundings.In Shanghai today,some 83,000 square meters of housing are being routinely renvoated every year.

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Barun Roy, "The ‘slumming’ of India", Business Standard, Mumbai, 03 November 2000. [C.J20.031100BSB]. http://www.business-standard.com/archives/2000/nov/50031100.037.asp By an estimate,12 lakh slum dwelling families are to benefit from the latest pampering by the government. It means either the existing slum dwellers will get additional space to live,as the decision ostensibly aims or worst it will facilitate an influx of 12 lakh families with living space ready for them. Parag Rabade, "Mumbai To Slumbai", Deccan Herald, Bangalore, 09 December 2001. [C.J10.091201DH]. As we consider each successful slum reconstruction scheme in the past, three features stand out. Once is that the urban poor neither need nor expect free housing. With the help of occasional voluntary organisation, they seen to have managed their own construction process perfectly well in the past. So there is no need to involve buildersin the rehabilitation process at all. All that the poor need is land, with security of tenure and basic urban infrastructure... If slum rehabilitation is to work, the first step must be the transfer of ownership of land to the occupants, or if not ownership,at least some measure of long term security of tenure. Shirish B Patel, "Tackling Mumbai's Slums", Seminar, New Delhi, 01 September 1996. [J.01SEP96SEM]. Observers feel that the move could also lead to a spurt in population as some owners could lease out the upper storey of their homes to other families Times News Network, "Govt Allows Mumbai Slums to Raise the Roof", The Times of India, Mumbai, 15 June 2002. [C.J10b.150602TOI]. The scheme to give free 225sq ft tenements to each slum family free of cost, with involvement of builders, was initiated by the Shiv sena-BJP aliance and is being continued by the Congress-led Democratic Front government in the state... Although builders who undertook these slum projects have earned huge profits by selling the slum dwellers have not benefited from the scheme. Nauzer Bharucha, "Slum-Dwellers Must be Spurred to Upgrade Homes with Savings, Loans', The Times of India, Mumbai, 01 April 2002. [C.J10b.010402TOI]. Times News Network, "Centre Set to Unveil New Slum Policy", The Times of India, Mumbai, 16 February 2002. [C.J10b.160202TOI]. Changes will also be initiated in the definition of a protected occupier, he said "The earlier ordinance said that a photo-pass issued by the state government will be treated as the sole document of proof of residence prior to January 1,1995. The new amendment will also include a string of any other authentic documents which will certifh the slum dweller's existence prior to January 1,1995." an official said... "Govt will Redraft Slum Bill, Clear Anomalies", The Times of India, Mumbai, 21 July 2001. [C.J10a.210701TOI]. Express News Service, "Amended Slum Act Will Not Encourage More Encroachers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 09 July 2001. [C.J10a.090701IE]. Demolition of any illigal structure will now take at least a month instead of the earlier 24 hours, because of the recent amendments, evidently made withan eye to the amendments bestow on the owners of illigal structures the right to a ten-day notice (as opposed to the 24hour notice which had been the practice earlier ) as well as to hearings by the assistant municipal commissioner... After the hearing,if the structure is proved to be illigal, the owner will be given ten more days to demolish it himself. The BMC or the collector can demolish the structure only if the owner fails to do so. If the slum dweller rebuilds the structure the same procedure will have to be

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followed all over again... Archana Sharma, "Act Demolishes Dream of Slum-Free City", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 July 2001. [C.J10a.080701TOI].

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Express News Service, "State Govt to Withdraw GR on Rent and Identity Cards for Slumdwellers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 02 August 2001. [C.J10a.020801IE]. Times News Service, "Charges Approved for Slum Dwellers", The Times of India, Mumbai, 29 September 2002. [C.J10a.290902TOI]. Express News Service, "Bill Introduced to Give Slums Protection", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 28 July 2001. [C.J10a.280701IE]. In this scheme, the BMC provides free dustbins and garbage disposal van to these slums. Workers are hired to clean the area for which the slum dwellers have to pay a nominal amount Sugandha Indulkar,"City Slums Get a Facelift", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 July 2001. [C.J10a.240701TOI]. Express News Service, "Slums to Get More Breathing Space", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 20 November 2001. [C.J10a.201101IE]. The Maharashtra legislative assembly on wednesday passed a bill making penal punishment for helping and abetting construction and use of unauthorised hutments in Mumbai and other cities in the state. The Times of India News Service, "Assembly Okays Slum Area Amendment Bill", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 August 2001. [C.J10a.020801TOI]. "The People's Charter of Mumbai",YUVA, Mumbai. [C.J10a.]. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation general body on Friday passed the administration’s controversial Rs 419-crore slum and tenements redevelopment project for Tardeo’s Tulsiwadi area. TIMES NEWS NETWORK, "BMC clears slum project",Times of India, Bombay, 22 November 2003, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/22nov03toi2.html, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/articleshow?msid=295821

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"Poverty Reduction in India : Towards Building Successful Slum-Upgrading Strategies", 06 November 2003, [J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/slum_upgrade.htm http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/External/Urban/UrbanDev.nsf/0/E32E18C4F3DED8EC85256 944006A8372?OpenDoc Charubala Annuncio,"Heaven In A Chawl",Outlook, New Delhi, 27 October 2003, [C.J10b], /eldoc/j10b/27oct03out1.htm: http://www.outlookindia.com/full.asp?fodname=20031027&fname=Dharavi+%28F%29&sid= 1 Express News Service, "No more free houses for slum-dwellers", Indian Express, Bombay, 8 November 2002, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/08nov02ie1.html, http://cities.expressindia.com/archivefullstory.php?newsid=34492&creation_date=2002-11-08 "Housing & slums : related government interventions", [J10b], /eldoc/j10b/slumhousing_gov_intv.htm, http://www.indianngos.com/issue/housing&slums/govt/index.htm TIMES NEWS NETWORK, "Charges approved for slum dwellers", 29 August 2002 Times of India, Bombay,[C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/29aug02toi1.html

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Nauzer Bharucha, "Activist threatened for opposing illegal slums", Times of India, Bombay 05 July 2002, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/05jul02toi1.html Times News Network, "BMC plans to get tough with squatters", Times of India, Bombay 06 June 2002, [C.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/06jun02toi1.html http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?msid=12098660 Special Correspondent, "Ministry to announce National Slum Policy", Hindu, Madras, 19 October 2001, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/19oct03h1.html http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/10/19/stories/0219000x.htm The Times of India News Service, "Assembly okays slum area amendment bill", Times of India, Bombay, 02 August 2001, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/02aug01toi1.html /eldoc/j10a/02aug01toi1.html Mantralaya Correspondent, "Govt will redraft slum bill, clear anomalies", Times of India Bombay, 21 July 2001, [C.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/21jul01toi1.html "Urban Basic Services for the Poor: Poverty alleviation through community cooperation" 15 March 1999, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/15mar99urban.html http://www.serd.ait.ac.th/umc/bestprac/ubsp.htm "In the making, a hot, upscale residency called Dharavi", [.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/dharavi.htm http://www.indianngos.com/issue/housing&slums/index.htm Laurie Baker, "What can we do with a slum?", [J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/mumbaislums.htm http://www.flonnet.com/fl1416/14161160.htm Rajindar Sachar, "Civil and political rights of slum dwellers", [.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/slumdweller_rights.htm http://www.pucl.org/reports/National/slumdwellers.htm

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/eldoc/j10b/slum_upgrade.htm .J10b. Title :Poverty Reduction in India : Towards Building Successful Slum-Upgrading Strategies Date : 06/11/2003 http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/External/Urban/UrbanDev.nsf/0/E32E18C4F3DED8EC85256944006A8372?OpenDoc UU1

/eldoc/j10a/01sep03hus8.html C.J10a. Title :‘The struggles people go through put mine to shame’ Author :Aruna Chakravorty Date : 01/09/2003 Public : Humanscape Place : Bombay http://www.humanscapeindia.net/humanscape/new/sept03/thestrugglespeople.htm UU1

/eldoc/j10a/01may03por.html C.J10a. Title :The Urban Poor Date : 01/05/2003 Public : Population Reports Place : New Delhi UU1

/eldoc/j10_/09jan03ie1.html C.J10. Title :High-rise chaos: Blame it on the slum authority Author :Shailesh Gaikwad Date : 09/01/2003 Public : Indian Express Place : Bombay http://cities.expressindia.com/archivefullstory.php?newsid=40481&creation_date=2003-01-09 UU1

/eldoc/0307/010402EAU159.pdf C.zzz. Title :Beyond evictions in a global city: people-managed resettlement in Mumbai Author :Sheela Patel, Celine D'Cruz and Sundar Barra Date : 01/04/2002 Pages :159-172 Public : Environment and Urbanisation Place : UK/Argentina http://tamino.ingentaselect.com/vl=6715404/cl=29/n UU1

/eldoc/j10a/17jan02bsb1.html C.J10a. Title :India’s poor present a latent opportunity for growth: Prahalad Author :Our Correspondent Date : 17/01/2002 Public : Business Std(Bombay) http://www.business-standard.com/archives/2002/jan/50170102.051.asp UU1

/eldoc/j10a/02aug01toi1.html C.J10a. Title :Assembly okays slum area amendment bill Author :The Times of India News Service Date : 02/08/2001 Public : Times of India Place : Bombay UU1

/eldoc/j10b/slumhousing_gov_intv.htm .J10b. Title :Housing & slums : related government interventions Date : 00/00/0000 http://www.indianngos.com/issue/housing&slums/govt/index.htm uu1

/eldoc/j10a/mumbaislums.htm .J10a. Title :What can we do with a slum?

Author :LAURIE BAKER Date : 00/00/0000 http://www.flonnet.com/fl1416/14161160.htm uu1

/eldoc/j10a/slumdweller_rights.htm .J10a. Title :Civil and political rights of slum dwellers Author :Rajindar Sachar Date : 00/00/0000 http://www.pucl.org/reports/National/slumdwellers.htm uu1

/eldoc/j10_/housingright.htm .J10. Title :A Right to Housing? Author :Jayna Kothari Date : 00/00/0000 http://www.indiatogether.org/opinions/rhousing02.htm uu1


								
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