Diploma/BSc (Hons) Occupational Therapy - SC400 (Under Review) 1. Special Note The Programme is designed to be a professional course, like the BSc (Hons) Medical Science and the BSc (Hons) Biomedical Sciences Programmes currently run by the Department of Health and Medical Sciences. Accordingly, the degree of flexibility will differ from most BSc (Hons) Programmes being run by the Faculty. All modules are compulsory and assessment methods will be specific to the modules. The programme design has taken into account the minimum requirements for the training and education of occupational therapists set by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) to enable the department to seek accreditation of the course once it is running. 2. Objectives The work of the Occupational Therapist is essential to ensure a good quality of life of individuals (ranging from children to the elderly) with various disabilities (physical, neurological, psychosocial, sensory and other…) and rehabilitation needs and their integration in the community. The specific objective of the occupational therapist is to function as an integral part of a multidisciplinary team to enable those whose abilities in productivity, self- maintenance and play/leisure are threatened, restricted or lost due to impairment, developmental delay, aging or lack of opportunity, to become full and productive members of the community. Occupational therapists are therefore of paramount importance in the effective operation of the healthcare, social welfare and education systems. The first three years of study have been designed to equip students with all the basic training needs of an Occupational Therapist for general practice and lead to the award of a Diploma in OT. The fourth year of study is designed to meet the research and developmental needs of the profession and leads to the award of a BSc (Hons) in Occupational Therapy. The fieldwork and practical training will provide the opportunity for translation of theoretical knowledge into hands-on practice of immediate relevance and will further help students in acquiring professional competence. Graduates with this degree can either pursue higher studies (MSc, MPhil/PhD) or seek employment locally and internationally. The Programme being proposed is a very wide-reaching programme, open to private candidates as well as in-service trainees from various Ministries (including Health and Quality of Life, Social Security, Education and Scientific Research), Non-Governmental Organisations and Private Organisations as well as individuals. Occupational therapists are employable in a wide range of areas (public and private health institutions, schools, NGOs) and can also choose private practice. 3. General Entry Requirements As per General Entry Requirements for admission to the University for undergraduate degrees. 4. Programme Requirements Credit in five subjects (School Certificate) including Biology, Mathematics and at least one Science subject. GCE Advanced Level passes (or equivalent) in three Science subjects. Mathematics will count as a Science subject. Preference will be given to holders of ‘A’ Level Biology. 5. Programme Duration Normal Maximum Diploma in Occupational Therapy: 6 Semesters (3 years) 10 Semesters (5 years) BSc (Hons) Occupational Therapy: 8 Semesters (4 years) 12 Semesters (6 years) 6. Credits per Semester: Minimum 9, subject to regulation 5. 7. Specifications Professional Training in the form of fieldwork in MoH hospitals and other public/private institutions will form an essential part of the professional programme. Fieldwork will be undertaken for 5 continuous weeks per semester over four semesters (Sem 2, 3, 4 and 5). Professional Training will also be undertaken in the Professional Practice I (Semester 6) and Professional Practice II (Semester 8) modules. A formal agreement will need to be worked out with the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life for students to use existing facilities for practicals and fieldwork. Formal lectures will be scheduled over three days a week and another two days a week will serve for self-study and practicals/fieldwork. Students must pass all modules offered in the first three years in order to be awarded the Diploma in Occupational Therapy. 8. Assessment Continuous and Written Assessment of Modules Each module will carry 100 marks (i.e. expressed as %) and will be assessed as follows (unless otherwise specified): Written exams Each module, except where specified, will be assessed by a 2 hr written exam paper. Modules will be examined at the end of the semester in which they are taught. The Foundation modules in year 1 carry no credits. Professional Training/Fieldwork Fieldwork is distributed throughout every year of the curriculum. To ensure a depth of learning, fieldwork will be guided and workplace skills assessed by a learning contract (an agreement about the particular knowledge, skill, or attitudes the student will develop as well as the roles and responsibilities of the student) and supervised and assessed by an occupational therapist preferably with at least three years’ experience or an occupational therapy educator. The amount and frequency of supervision will progress as students progress through the programme. It is proposed students demonstrate that he or she has achieved the learning specified in the learning contract in the form of a concise student-prepared log book and a supervisor’s report in the form of a structured questionnaire, summarizing and rating the work training and experience based on a list of all therapeutic techniques used and skills acquired. Both log book and report will be signed by the immediate work supervisor. These will have to be submitted to the professional training/fieldwork co-ordinator (to be identified) and to the UoM programme co-ordinator at the end of each relevant semester. Students will need to submit a satisfactory log book (Grade S) and obtain a satisfactory report (Grade S) in order to be awarded a Diploma/Honours Degree in Occupational Therapy with professional standing. Unsatisfactory reports and unsatisfactory logbooks will be awarded Grade U. Professional Training at the end of Semesters 2, 3, 4 and 5 does not carry any credit. Professional Training/Fieldwork will also be assessed by a formal clinical exam at the end of each year where the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes for competent practice will be assessed. In years 3 and 4 the clinical exam will carry a weighting of 70% of the total marks for each of the Professional Practice I and Professional Practice 2 modules with continuous assessment counting for the remaining 30% of the marks. Practical work and Continuous Assessment Modules including a practical component There will be no practical exams. Practical work will be assessed on a continuous assessment basis and will carry a weighting of 50% of the total marks awarded for the respective modules involved. The pass mark for the continuous assessment of practical work will be 50%. Continuous assessment for the theory part of modules having a practical component may be in the form of assignments and should include at least one class test and will carry a weighting of 10% of total marks for the module. Modules not including a practical component Continuous assessment for modules not including a practical component may be in the form of assignments and should include at least one class test and will carry a weighting of up to 30% of total marks for the respective modules. 9. Restrictions (a) A student is required to repeat all modules in which s/he has obtained an E or F or G grade unless otherwise specified by the Faculty Board. (b) A student who repeats a module must submit new assignment(s), take part in the class test and re-write the examinations. (c) A student will not be allowed to repeat a module in which s/he has already achieved a D grade or above. 10. Modules of Special Nature Audit Modules Students who wish to follow specific module(s) or are advised to do so by the Department may audit same. Such Audit modules are not examinable but will appear in their transcript subject to satisfactory attendance (Grade S). 11. Professional Training/Fieldwork that needs to be completed by the end of Year 3 A minimum of one thousand hours are required as per WFOT, 500 of which must be full time in the field. This needs to be completed in Year 3 given that Occupational Therapy Diploma holders may have to practise as full-fledged Occupational Therapists. In this programme, fieldwork is divided into the following stages: Orientation and observation: Occupational Therapy I & II – 60 hrs Treatment under direction –part time in the field (Occupational Therapy Neurology, Mental Health, Cognitive, Neuro musculo skeletal, Sensory motor, Gerontology) – 265 hrs Independent treatment – full time in the field. This will take place for 5 continuous weeks at the end of semesters 2, 3, 4 and 5 (33 hrs x 5 weeks x 4) – 660 hrs BOT 3251 in Semester 6 – 70 hrs Total Professional Training/Fieldwork = 1055 hours. 12. List of Modules Code Module Name Hrs/Yr Credits L/P Year 1 (Optional Modules as per individual requirement) BMS 1011 Foundation Course in Biology 60/30 - BMS 1012 Foundation Course in Physics 60/30 - Semester 1 BMS 1121 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 45/0 3 COMS 1010 Communication Skills D.E. 3 MED 1111 Medicine in Society 1 30/30 3 CSE 1010e Introduction to Information Technology O.E. 3 BOT 1111 Occupational Therapy I 30/30 3 BOT 1121 Basic Pathology 45/0 3 Semester 2 MED 1211 Medicine in Society 2 30/30 3 MED 1231 Cardiovascular System 30/30 3 MED 2251 Skeletal and Locomotor Systems 30/30 3 BOT 1211 Cognitive and Emotional Processes 45/0 3 BOT 1221 Therapeutic Media I 45/0 3 BOT 1231 Occupational Therapy II 30/30 3 Semester 3 MED 2111 Medicine in Society 3 30/30 3 MED 2141 CNS (Head & Neck) 30/30 3 MED 2151 CNS (Peripheral Nervous System) 30/30 3 BMS 5121 Biology of Disease 45/0 3 BOT 2111 Kinesiology 35/20 3 Semester 4 MED 2211 Medicine in Society 4 30/30 3 BOT 2211 Occupational Science I 40/10 3 BOT 2221 Therapeutic Media II 30/30 3 BOT 2231 Psychiatry 30/30 3 BOT 2241 Occupational Therapy (Neuro musculo skeletal) 30/30 3 Semester 5 BOT 3111 Occupational Therapy (Neurology) 30/30 3 BOT 3121 Occupational Therapy (Mental Health) 30/30 3 BOT 3131 Gerontology & Specific Disabilities (15/15)/ 3 (15/15) BOT 3141 Occupational Therapy (Cognitive) 30/30 3 BOT 3151 Occupational Therapy (Sensory-Motor) & Paediatrics 30/30 3 Semester 6 BOT 3211 Rehabilitation 30/30 3 BOT 3221 Therapeutic Media III 25/40 3 BOT 3231 Therapeutic Media IV 40/10 3 BOT 3241 Interpersonal Communication and Counselling 30/30 3 BOT 3251 Professional Practice I 10/70 3 Semester 7 MED 3111 Medicine in Society 5 30/30 3 BOT 4111 Health Research Methods 30/30 3 BOT 4000 Research Project 9 Semester 8 BOT 4211 Specialist Option in Occupational Therapy 30/30 3 BOT 4221 Professional Practice II 10/70 3 13. Programme Plan - Diploma/BSc (Hons) Occupational Therapy Semester 1 Semester 2 Code Module Name Code Module Name BMS 1011 or Foundation Course in Biology or BMS 1011 or Foundation Course in Biology or BMS 1012 Foundation Course in Physics BMS 1012 Foundation Course in Physics BMS 1121 Introduction to Human Anatomy MED 1211 Medicine in Society 2 and Physiology COMS 1010 Communication Skills (D.E.) MED 1231 Cardiovascular System MED 1111 Medicine in Society 1 MED 2251 Skeletal and Locomotor Systems CSE 1010e Introduction to Information BOT 1211 Cognitive and Emotional Technology (O.E.) Processes BOT 1111 Occupational Therapy I BOT 1221 Therapeutic Media I BOT 1121 Basic Pathology BOT 1231 Occupational Therapy II Semester 3 Semester 4 Code Module Name Code Module Name MED 2111 Medicine in Society 3 MED 2211 Medicine in Society 4 MED 2141 Central Nervous System (Head & BOT 2211 Occupational Science I Neck) MED 2151 Central Nervous System (Peripheral BOT 2221 Therapeutic Media II Nervous System BMS 5121 Biology of Disease BOT 2231 Psychiatry BOT 2111 Kinesiology BOT 2241 Occupational Therapy (Neuro musculo skeletal) Semester 5 Semester 6 Code Module Name Code Module Name BOT 3111 Occupational Therapy (Neurology) BOT 3211 Rehabilitation BOT 3121 Occupational Therapy (Mental BOT 3221 Therapeutic Media III Health) BOT 3131 Gerontology & Specific Disabilities BOT 3231 Therapeutic Media IV BOT 3141 Occupational Therapy (Cognitive) BOT 3241 Interpersonal Communication and Counselling BOT 3151 Occupational Therapy (Sensory- BOT 3251 Professional Practice I motor) & Paediatrics Semester 7 Semester 8 Code Module Name Code Module Name MED 3111 Medicine in Society 5 BOT 4211 Specialist Option in Occupational Therapy BOT 4111 Health Research Methods BOT 4221 Professional Practice II BOT 4000 Research Project BOT 4000 Research Project 14. Outline Syllabus This outline syllabus is not prescriptive and is intended to serve as a guide only. BMS 1011 - FOUNDATION COURSE IN BIOLOGY This module will be equivalent in level to Biology A level and will be compulsory for students not holding A levels in Biology. The A level syllabus (Core subjects + relevant electives) prevailing at the time the module is being taught will be adopted. Includes a practical component. BMS 1012 - FOUNDATION COURSE IN PHYSICS This module will be equivalent in level to Physics A level and will be compulsory for students not holding A levels in Physics. The A level syllabus (Core subjects + relevant electives) prevailing at the time the module is being taught will be adopted. Includes a practical component. BMS 1121 - INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Introduction to human anatomy: anatomical terminology and topography. The endocrine system. The central and peripheral nervous system. The gastrointestinal system: nutrition and digestion. Structure and function of circulatory system: heart, blood vessels, lymphatics, lymph nodes, spleen. Control of Heart Beat and the Cardiac cycle. Structure and function of kidneys: excretion and osmoregulation. Mechanism and control of breathing. Control of growth and reproduction in man. Support, movement and muscle contraction: major muscle groups, ultrastructure of skeletal muscle, contractile mechanisms, skeleton, hard connective tissue. Integument: structure and function of skin, buccal cavity, teeth. General principles and social aspects of human health and disease: diet, gaseous exchange, exercise, drugs, infectious diseases. Fundamentals of the immune system and immune responses. Immune regulation. Autoimmune diseases. BMS 5121 - BIOLOGY OF DISEASE Aspects of medical physiology. Introduction to the molecular aspects of human diseases. This module will involve a study of the pathology of diseases of various systems including cardiovascular, respiratory, blood, endocrine, urinogenital, immune system and gastrointestinal. Aspects of the pathophysiology of infection, developmental pathology and environmental pathology will also be covered. BOT 1111 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY I Definition of occupational therapy; the place of occupational therapy in the health care system; the occupational therapy process; the tools of practice; the different roles of the occupational therapist; history of the profession; recipients of occupational therapy; professional ethics. Practicals: Observation of the occupational therapy process in the physical and psychiatric areas of practice. Students to submit a written report in each area of practice on the (i) process observed (ii) role that the occupational therapist played (iii) tools of practice observed. BOT 1121 - BASIC PATHOLOGY Review of basic cell biology. Introduction to pathology. Characteristics of disease. Nomenclature and classification of disease. Genetic and environmental causes of disease. Diagnostic pathology. Sublethal and lethal injury. Toxic and hypoxic injury. Agents causing injury. Apoptosis and necrosis. Abnormal tissue deposits. Acute inflammation : basic mechanisms and sequelae. Chronic inflammation. Healing and repair, including skin repair. Overview of: cardiovascular disease, urinary and reproductive system disease, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal and liver disease. BOT 1211 - COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL PROCESSES Perception, memory, intelligence and creativity.Thinking processes such as problem solving, critical, analytical and integrative thinking. Appropriate and inappropriate affect; blunted, restricted, flat and labile affect; mood; other emotions like anxiety, apathy, guilt, impulse; physiological disturbances associated with mood. Introduction to child and adult psychological development. BOT 1221 - THERAPEUTIC MEDIA 1 Ergonomics. Work study – methods improvement and work measurement. Practicals: Crafts and creative activities Domestic activities Recreational activities Work study BOT 1231 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY II International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the place of occupational therapy in this model; Generic approaches in health care: biomedical, bio psychosocial and occupational foundation for therapy. Practicals/Fleldwork: Observe patient(s) and identify impairment(s) of body structures and function and activity and participation restrictions and submit a written report. BOT 2111 - KINESIOLOGY Application of (bio) mechanical principles to the musculo skeletal system, equipment and orthotics; muscle function and co-ordination; posture; joint classification and function; surface anatomy; principles of muscle testing and joint range measurement. Movement analysis and joint range measurement. BOT 2211 - OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE 1 Performance components, performance areas and performance context; Different way of classifying what people do; Major life areas in which people participate; Personal and environmental factors that influence participation; The relationship between occupation and human development over the life span. Practical: Comparing AVAactivity configuration of (i) a person with and without a health condition (medical condition) and (ii) two age groups (without a health condition). BOT 2221 - THERAPEUTIC MEDIA II Neurophysiological techniques to facilitate normal muscle function. Practicals: Assessment of muscle tone and movement patterns; inhibition and facilitation Orthotics. Manufacture a static splint. BOT 2231 - PSYCHIATRY Psychiatric terminology and classification; aetiology, symptoms treatment and prognosis the most prevalent psychiatric conditions. BOT 2241 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (NEURO MUSCULO SKELETAL) Assessment of impairments and activity limitation of people with neuro muscular conditions like spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injuries, arthritis and other movement restrictions like burns. The use of therapeutic occupations and treatment techniques to restore movement; interventions to restore participation in personal care, leisure and production. Practicals/Fieldwork: Assessment and treatment of patients. BOT 3111 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (NEUROLOGY) Assessment of impairments and activity limitation of people with neurological conditions like stroke, head injury and cerebral palsy. The use of therapeutic occupations and treatment techniques to restore movement; interventions to restore participation in personal care, leisure and productive activities. Practicals/Fieldwork: Assessment and treatment of patients. BOT 3121 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (MENTAL HEALTH) Assessment of impairments and activity limitation of people with mental health problems/psychiatric conditions. The use of therapeutic occupations and treatment techniques to restore mental health; interventions to restore participation in personal care, leisure and productive activities. Practicals/Fieldwork: Assessment and treatment of patients. BOT 3131 - GERONTOLOGY & SPECIFIC DISABILITIES Gerontology (1/2 module): The ageing process; Special needs of the elderly; Maintaining maximal independence. Specific Conditions (1/2 module): Surgical conditions - including post-surgery rehabilitation; Medical physiology of skin repair including skin grafts and complications; Management of burn injuries, amputations and trauma. BOT 3141 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (COGNITIVE) Assessment of impairments and activity limitation of people with cognitive deficits like stroke, head injury and cerebral palsy. The use of therapeutic occupations and treatment techniques to restore cognitive functions; interventions to restore participation in personal care, leisure and productive activities. Practicals/Fieldwork: Assessment and treatment of patients. BOT 3151 - OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (SENSORY MOTOR) & PAEDIATRICS The general aspects of normal development of a child with emphasis on gross motor, fine motor, visual, hearing and social. Normal psychological development of the child, including memory and the learning process. Assessment of impairments and activity limitation of children with sensory-motor impairments like developmental delay and learning disability. The use of therapeutic occupations and treatment techniques to improve sensory-motor ability and integration; interventions to restore activity participation in school, play and social activities. Practicals/Fieldwork: Assessment and treatment of patients. BOT 3211 - REHABILITATION Definition, scope of and teamwork in rehabilitation; Community reintegration; Work/vocational rehabilitation, job analysis: Rehabilitation equipment such as wheelchairs, assistive devices and adapted seating. Practicals: Basic wheelchair maintenance and repair; The manufacture of simple devices and equipment, using appropriate technology. BOT 3221 - THERAPEUTIC MEDIA III Restoring independence in Activities of Daily Living; play activities. Practicals: Wheelchair dexterity, transfers, dressing and other personal activities. Manufacturing of a leisure/play device (e.g. toy), using appropriate materials and technology. BOT 3231 - THERAPEUTIC MEDIA IV Selecting, presenting and grading activities with the aim of improving patients’ physical and mental functioning and according to their potential to restore motivation and action. BOT 3241 - INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND COUNSELLING Characteristics of a therapeutic relationship; techniques in listening and responding; grief counselling; instilling hope and responsibility for recovery. The value of group work in occupational therapy. Practicals: Practising therapeutic communication skills and group work. BOT 3251 - PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE 1 Fieldwork. This module will be complementary with Professional training (Fieldwork) being undertaken. Students will be expected to integrate knowledge, professional reasoning and professional behaviour within practice and to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes to the level of competence required of qualifying occupational therapists. Teamwork aspects of professional practice will be addressed. BOT 4000 - RESEARCH PROJECT This will be a fieldwork-based project equivalent to three modules spanning over two semesters. Students will be expected to select a specific topic in Occupational Therapy for their project. The project is aimed at further developing the student’s understanding of the principles of Occupational therapy research, providing in-depth knowledge and fieldwork experience in one research area and further developing analytical, IT, reading and critical writing skills. The student will be required to submit a project report which will be in the prescribed format and between 8,000-10,000 words. BOT 4111 - HEALTH RESEARCH METHODS Importance of research in occupational therapy Research in occupational therapy: Quantitative and qualitative Measurements in occupational therapy Research designs: survey, single subject, group comparisons The writing of a research protocol Ethical considerations BOT 4211 - SPECIALIST OPTION IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Students choose an area of practice and gain in-depth knowledge and skill in this area. BOT 4221 - PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE 2 This module will enable students to acquire further fieldwork experience and achieve and demonstrate professional competence. COMS 1010 - COMMUNICATION SKILLS Writing skills, non-verbal communication, modes of speech delivery and presentation aids, speeches, perception and listening skills, business and technical writing. CSE 1010e - INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IT and Computers; Stepping in the Computer; Input and Output Devices; Secondary Storage; Programming; Systems Software; Applications Software; Systems Development; Computer Networks; The Internet ; Computer Security; Software Utilities; Issues and Trends in IT. MED 1111 - MEDICINE IN SOCIETY 1 This first module focuses on the ‘family’ and includes Family Study project work on pregnancy, birth, and the impact of a baby in a family setting, human development from infancy to adolescence, and sociological and psychological perspectives of families. Communication and research skills will be developed in the module. MED 1211 - MEDICINE IN SOCIETY 2 In this module people will be considered in ‘Populations and Societies’. Epidemiological science will be introduced: causes, spread, measurement, determinants and prevention of disease will be closely examined. The life cycle strand which addresses adulthood includes work on sexuality. Ways people behave in groups, communities and societies are considered in the psychology and sociology sessions. MED 1231 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (CVS) The basic anatomy and function of the heart and pericardium will be discussed with the function and microanatomy of cardiac muscle. Septation of the heart and the foetal circulation will be considered in outline. Pressure changes and sounds during a single cardiac cycle together with the associated electrical events will be stressed. In addition nervous control of heart rate and hormones which have major effect will be included as will drugs such as atropine, calcium channel blockers and cardiac glycosides which have major effects. MED 2111 - MEDICINE IN SOCIETY 3 This module focuses on ‘People as Patients’ and patients as people. It includes a Patient Study based on the impact of a chronic condition on the life of a person, and his immediate family or carers. There will also be sessions on ageing, which is a continuing part of the life cycle strand. MED 2141 - CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (HEAD AND NECK) Anatomy of the head: gross topography of the brain and spinal cord; anatomy of the skull. The meninges and blood supply to the brain. The cranial cavity and its contents, including osteology of the bone of the skull, cranial nerve exits, reflections of the dura mater and dural venous sinuses. Production, circulation and reabsorption CSF. Development of the head and neck: development of neural tube and spinal cord anatomy; embryology of pharynx and its derivatives, the face and palate, and the tongue and thyroid gland. Face, nose and paranasal sinuses; cranial nerve V and VII; facial sensation and facial expression. Common abnormalities of cleft face and lip and cleft palate. Bell’s palsy. Anatomy of the infratemporal fossa and oral cavity; cranial nerve V; mastication and deglutition. The tongue and pharynx; cranial nerves IX and XII. MED 2151 - CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Neuroanatomy and physiology of the somatosensory systems: receptors, spinal cord and brainstem pathways. The thalamus and introduction to the cerebral cortex: sensory areas. Audition and balance: anatomy and physiology of the outer, middle and inner ear; VIII cranial nerve and the central pathways for hearing and balance. ‘Glue ear’. Vision: anatomy and physiology of the eye, optic nerve, optic tract and visual pathways. Anatomy of the orbit and extraoccular apparatus; cranial nerves III, IV and VI. Visual and retinal fields. Visual reflexes. Neuroanatomy and physiology of motor system: motorcortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum; motor pathways in the brainstem and spinal cord. Upper and lower motor neurones. Phonation: anatomy of larynx and pharynx; anatomy of neck. Physiology of speech and its neural control. Neurophysiology of higher functions: the limbic system and memory. Rhinencephalon, taste and olfaction. MED 2211 - MEDICINE IN SOCIETY 4 This module turns its attention to ‘Healthy People’. It includes work on relationships and health, health promotion and stages in adjustment to dying and responses to bereavement. MED 2251 - SKELETAL AND LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM Biochemistry and physiology of connective tissues and collagen. Review calcium homeostasis.Classification, structure and function of joints. Anatomy of the upper limb: shoulder joint and the rotator cuff; the axilla and the brachial plexus; elbow joint and cubital fossa; flexor and extensor compartments of upper arm; wrist joint and hand; flexor and extensor compartments; movements of pronation and supination. Blood and nerve supply to the upper extremities. Axial skeleton and load bearing: anatomy of the vertebral column; regional variations in vertebral structure; intervertebral joints; low back pain and herniation of intervertebral disc. Anatomy of lower limb: hip joint; flexors, extensors and adductors of the hip; surgical anatomy of the femur. The knee joint; flexors and extensors of the knee. Ankle joint and movement at the ankle. The foot. Biomechanics of joint. Nerve supply to the lower limb. Blood supply to lower limb. Fracture repair. Rheumatic disorders and arthritis. Introduction to rehabilitation. Muscle contraction mechanisms and nervous control. MED 3111 - MEDICINE IN SOCIETY 5 Students will be introduced to various health organisations existing in Mauritius: Primary health care, community health, Area Health Centres, Occupational health, Public health, WHO, Private clinics. The impact of these health organisations on health care will be examined.