THE SYLLABUS OF HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY Department Of Histology And Embryology And Neurobology,Sichuan University Histo1ogy and embryology is one of the basic medical course.Histolosy is the science for researching normal microscopic structures , ultrastructures and their related function,whereas embryo1ogy is the scienee for researching the embryo and fetus development. Through patterns of class lecture ,experiment and selfstudy.the students will be made to master the basic knowledge and theory of histology and embryology ,the human histological structures and the general development of main organs of human body.During studying the students should train themselves to use microscope correctly and cultivate their abilities in analysis, description of histological structures and promote their drawing skills .In addition ,the attention should be paid to cultivate the students ’ abilities to use the syllabus,textbook ,laboratory guide and to study by themselves ,For elevating the students ’ foreign language level,this course demands the student to master main Eng1ish technical terms which are also included in the examination.Through studying this course the students will be given the basis for studying other basic courses and medical clinical course. Instruction Master the following knowledges Master the definition,contents and position of the histology and embryology in medical science. The resolution power of light and electron microscopes.Length units(um,nm,A).Hematoxylin and Eosin(H.E)stain. The basic structures of human body:cells ,tissues ,organs, systems and their ralationships with the whole body. Know the following knowledges The progress and the research methods of histology and embryology. The observing methods for living cells,histochemistry,cytochemistry and ultrastructure etc. Chapter 1 The Review of cell Know the following knowledges Structure and function of the cell membrane(Plasmalemma).The structure and fuction of the cytoplasmic organelles(mitochondria,Golgi complex,ribosome, endoplasmic ruticulum,lysosome, Microtubule and microfilament,microbody,centrosome). the cell inclusions. The structure and function of the nuclear menbrane,nucleolus,chromatin and chromosome. Chapter 2 Epithlial tissue (Epithelium) Master the following knowledges The structural characteristics,distribution and function of the epithelium,The structure,function and distribution of simple squamous epithelium(including endothelium and mesothelium),simple cuboidal epithelium ,simple columnar epithelium,pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium,stratified squamous epithelium and transitional epithelium. The specializations of the epithelium:the specializations of the freesurface(cilia and microvilli),lateral surface(junctional complex), The structure of basal surface(basement menmbrane). Concept of the glandular epithelium and gland. Structural characteristics of the endocrime gland and exocrine gland. Know the following knowledges Know intercellular junctions(tight junction,desmosome,intermediate junction and gap junction. The regeneration of the epithelium. Chapter 3 Connective tissue Master the following knowledges The structural characteristics and classification of the connective tissue.Concept of mesenchyme. The structural characteristic and function of loose connective tissue.The chemical constituents,morphological structure and function of 3 fiber types (collagenous,elastic and reticular fibers ).The chemical constituents and characteristics of the mtrix of intercellular substance. The structure and function of several main cell types in connective tissue (fibroblast,macrophage,plasma cell ,mast cell ,fat cell and mesenchymal cell.).The structual feature and classification of cartilage .The composition and structure of the osseous tissue.The structure of cancellous (spongy ) bone and compact bone,the structure and function of the periosteum and endosteum. Know the following knowledges The structural characteristics and function of dense connective tissue ,adipose tissue and reticular tissue.The tissue fluid. The generating conditon of the bone formation.Two modes of osteogenesis ( intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification ). Chapter 4 Muscle Tissue Master the following knowledges The structural characteristic,function and classification of muscle tissue. The form and structure of skeletal muscle fiber .Striation and sarcomere.The structural characteristic of myofibril (types of myofilament ),transverse tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum and their ralationship with the muscle contraction. The structural characteristic of cardiac and the intercalated discs. Know the following knowledges The structural characteristic of myofilament and the ralationship with the muscle contraction. The structural characteristics of smooth muscle.Recent research of myofilament,dense bodies. Chapter 5 Nervous Tissue Master the following knowledges The components,structual characteristics and functions of nervous tissue. The structure and function of neuron:the features of the cell body,cell menbrane,cytoplasm (Nissl ’s body and neurofibril ) and nucleus .the structural characteristics and function of the dendrite and axon. the connection between neurons synapses ( classification,sructure ,location and function ). The problem of nerve cell division. The type of nerve fiber.The structural and functional difference between myelinated and unmyelinated nerve. The types of Neuroglia .The structure and function of Neuroglia. Know the following knowledges The classification of neuron. the degeneration and regeneration of the nerve fiber.The classification and function of nerve endings. Chapter 6 The Histology of the Nervous System Know the following knowledges The composition and function of the nervous system.The structural characteristics of the spinal cord,cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex.The structure and function of the meninges.The concept and functional significance of the blood-brain barrier. The structural characteristics of nerve and ganglions. Chapter 7 The Histology of the Circulatory System Master the following knowledges The general structure and function of blood vessel.The structural characteristics and functions of large,medium-sized,small arteries and veins .The distribution,classification of capillary and relationship between its structure and function .The concept of blood sinus. Heart:The structure and function of cardiac Wall and valuves. Know the following knowledges The structural basis and functional significance of microcirculation. The structural characteristics of cardiac conducting system. The structure and function of lymphatic vessel. Chapter 8 Blood and Blood cell Formation(Hemopoiesis) Master the following knowledges The composition of the blood.The classification of blood cell.The form,size,structure and normal value of red blood cell.The characteristics of morphology and normal value of reticulocyte.The classification and normal value of white blood cell.The morphologic structure and function of 3 granulocyte types.The morphologic structure of lymphocyte. The function of T and B lymphocytes,the morphologic structure and function of monocyte.the normal value and clinical significance of each series of white blood cell.The morphologic structure ,function and normal value of platelets. Know the following knowledges Histological structure and function of red bone marrow.Rules of morphologic changes of blood cells and platelet in hemopoiesis. Chapter 9 The Histology of the Immune System Master the following knowledges The function composition and distribution of immune system.The structural characteristic, functional significance and modes of lymph tissue. The characteristics and function of lymph node .The structural characteristic of lymphoid nodule and paracortical zone.Structural characteristic of medulla.The structure of lymphoid sinus and pathway of lymph circulation.The distribution and recirculation of T and B lymphocytes. The structural characteristic and function of spleen.The structure of white pulp (splenic cord and splenic sinus).The features of splenic blood circulation. The concept ,components and function of mononuclear phagocyte system. Know the following knowledges The classification of lymphoid organ:central lymphoid organs (thymus) and pheripheral lymphoid organs(Lymph node,spleen and tonsil).The structure,function and variation with age of the thymus. The structural characteristic of the tonsil. the concept of reticulo-endothelial system. Chapter 10 The Histology of the Digestive System Master the following knowledges The layer of digestive tube .The structural characteristics of mucosa,submucosa,muscularis and adventitia. The structural characteristic of esophagus.The structural characteristic of stomach. The morphology,function and distribution of chief cell,parietal cell and neck mucous cell in fundic gland of stomach. The structure and function of the small intestine. The structure of villi and gland of small intestine.The structural characteristic and function of large intestine and appendix. The types of digestive gland.The classification,structure and function of salivary gland.The division of the pacreas.the structure and function of exocrine portion ( acini and excretory duct ).The endocrine portion-the structural characteristic,cellular types and function of pancreatic island.The division of the liver.The sructure of liver lobule and portal area.The structure of liver cell and hepatic sinusoid.The relationship between liver cell,sinusoid and space of Disse. Know the following knowledges The general structures of oral mucosa,tongue,taste bud and tooth. The classification of gastric glands. The morphology,structure,distribution and function of endocrine cells of digestive tube,The concept of diffuse neuroendocrine system. Excretory duct of liver.Blood circulation of liver.The structure of gall bladder. Chapter 11 The Histology of the Respiratory System Master the following knowledges The general structure of trachea,bronchus and lung.The conducting portion of lung — the structural characteristic and the changing rule of small bronchus,bronchiole and terminal bronchiole.Each segment of pulmonary respiratory portion — the structural characteristics of respiratory bronchiole,alveolar duct,alveolar sac and pulmonary alveolus,The structure and function of 2 epithelial cell types of pulmonary alveolus.The structure of interalveolar septum.The compositon of the blood — air barrier.The concept of pulmonary lobule.t Know the following knowledges The structural characteristics of the olfactory mucosa and larynx mucosa. he features of pulmonary blood circulation. Chapter 12 The Histology of the Urinary System Master the following knowledges The structural characteristics and division of kidney(nephron and collecting tubule,cortex and medulla).The subdivisions of a nephron.The structural characteristics of the renal corpuscle (glomerulus and renal capsule)and filtration barrier.The position,structure and function of proximal tubule,the medullary loop and the distal tubule. The structure and function of collection tubule. the position ,structure and function of the juxtaglomerular complex. Know the following knowledges The structural characteristics of the superficial cortical nephron and juxtamedullar nephron. Renal connective tissue. The features of the renal blood circulation .The structural characteristics of excretory passages of urine (renal calyx,renal pelvis,ureter,urinary bladder and urethra). Chapter 13 The Histology of the Endocrine System Master the following knowledges The structural characteristic and function of endocring gland. Histological structure of thyroid gland.The structure of follicular epithelium. The structure and function of parafollicular cell.The structure and function of parathyroid gland.The division of adrenal gland .The structural characteristic and function of each zone of adrenal cortex.The structure and secretory substance of adrenal medulla. The morphology and division of the hypophysis – adenohypophysis(pars distalis,pars intermedia.and pars tuberalis) and neurohypophysis.The structural characteristic and function of each cell type of pars distalis.The relationship between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis – the position ,organization and function of hypophseal portal system.the structural characteristic of neurohypophysis and its relationship with the hypothalamus – the composition , initiation,termination and hormone secretion of hypothalamohypophyseal tract. Know the following knowledges The synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone. Adrenal blood supply and its functional relationship between cortex and medulla.The structure and function of pineal gland. Chapter 14 The Histology of the Male Reproductive System Master the following knowledges General structure of testis.The structure of the seminiferous tubule and spermatogenesis.(spermatogonium,spermatocyte,spermatid and sperm).the morphological structure and functional characteristic of supporting cell.The significance of blood – testis barrier.The structure of spermatozoon.The structure and function of the interstitial cell. The structural characteristic of reproductive dects – epididymis (ductulus efferentes and ductulus epididymis ).and ductus deferens. Accessory gland – the prostate gland. Know the following knowledges The structure of the tubulus recrus and rete testis,age variation of the testis. Chapter 15 The Histology of the Female Reproductive System Master the following knowledges The division (the cortex and medulla ),structural characteristic and function of the ovary.Development and maturation of ovarian follicle and ovulation .The formation ,structure and degeneration of the corpus luteum.Atretec follicle and interstitial gland.the endocrine function ,cycle and age variation of ovary. The layers of uterus.The structure and cyclic change of the endometrium and its structural characteristics in proliferative phase and secretory phase. The neuroendocrinc regulation of the cyclic change of the endometrium and ovary. Know the following knowledges The structure and function of oviduct. The strucrural characteristic of cervix and vagina. The structure of the mammary gland.The structural characteristic of the mammary gland. Chapter 16 The Histology of the Skin Master the following knowledges The layers of the skin.The structural characteristic and layer divisions of the epidermis (stratum basale,stratum spinosum,stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum).The structure of each layer and cornification process . The cutaneous appendages – the structure of hair,sebaceous gland and sweat gland. Know the following knowledges The structure and layer division of dermis.The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis). The regeneration skin. Chapter 17 The Histology of the Sense Organ Master the following knowledges 3 types of neuron of retina and their relationship. The structure and function and organ of Corti.The structure and function of vestibular macula and crista ampullaris. Know the following knowledges Eye ball:The structure characteristic of 3 layers of the wall.The structure and function of cornea,iris and ciliary body.The organization,function of the pigment epithelium. Chapter 18 General Embryology Master the following knowledges Germ cell and fertilization.the cleavage,blastocyst formation and implantation.Germ layers formation – embryonic disc.Germ layers differentiation and embryonic body formation. The fetal membranes:the yolk sac and allantois,the formation and function of the amnion,the development and structure of chorion ,the umbilical cord.The composition,structure,function and blood circulation of the placenta. Know the following knowledges Twins and conjoined twins. Estimation of embryonic or fetal age. Chapter 19 The Development of the Digestive and Respiratory System Master the following knowledges The formation of primitive gut (foregut,midgut and hindgut). The derivatives of pharyngeal pouches and the formation of pharynx. Know the following knowledges The development of the esophagus,stomach and intestine and partition of the cloaca.The malformation of digestive system.The development of liver and pancreas. The development of the lower respiratory system. Chapter 20 The Development of the Urogenital System Master the following knowledges The development of the pronephros and mesonephros (urogenital ridge ).The development of metanephros.The differentiation and malformation of urogenital sinus. The development and differentiation of gonad.The origin of the primitive germ cell .The development of the genital duct(mesonephric duct and paramespneohric duct ).The descending of the testes and ovary. Know the following knowledges The development of the external genitilia. Sexual differentiation of the genital system .Major malformation. Chapter 21 The Development of the Cardiovascular System Master the following knowledges The partition of heart. The congenital abnormality of heart.. Know the following knowledges The establishment of early blood circulation . The establishment of the external appearance of the heart. The development and derivatives of the aortic arches. Chapter 22 The Development of the Nervous System know the following knowledges The development of the central and peripheral nervous system from neural tube and neural crest respectively.Major congenital malformations.