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ELECTRIC SUPPLY ELECTRIC SUPPLY Generally, a supply of electricity is usually required on construction sites to: - provide lighting to the various units of accommodation - provide the power to drive small and large items of plant. Two sources of electrical supply to the site are possible, namely: -portable self-powered generators -metered supply from the local area electricity company To ensure that the supply and installation is available when required by the builder, it is essential that an application for a temporary supply of electricity is made at the earliest possible date. For the construction site located near the residential area, the electric supply is taken from there. For the construction site located far apart from any residential area, the electric supply is taken from the generator which they have to apply from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). EQUIPMENT TO DISTRIBUTE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY Incoming Site Assembly (ISA) Supply, control and distribution of mains supply on siteaccommodates supply company’s equipment and has one outgoing circuit. Main Distribution Assembly (MDA) Control and distribution of mains supply for circuits of 400 V three phase and 230 V single phase. Incoming Site Distribution Assembly (ISDA) A combined ISA and MDA for use on sites where it is possible to locate these units together. Extension Outlet Assembly (EOA) Similar to outlet assembly except outlets are not protected. WATER SUPPLY WATER SUPPLY FUNCTION -water is used widely at construction site. -it is one of the most important element in producing concrete. -it also needs in the daily use of the workers, at the canteen and etc. -it is also very useful in curing process (to strengthened the concrete). HOW DO WE GET THE WATER SUPPLY? It really depends on the location of the site: a) Close to the natural resources (river, lake) -we can used the water from those resources by using pumps. -the cost can also be cut short b) Far apart from the natural resources -asked the water supply from Jabatan Bekalan Air (JBA). -built the water tank/ reservoir -it will be a little bit costly. COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION FUNCTION: -to communicate with the upper people -normally it is placed in the site office (refer to the telephone) TYPES OF COMMUNICATION METHOD USED: a) telephone -asked TELEKOM to fix it into the site b) walkie-talkie -cheaper -but only in the limited area. SITE OFFICE SITE OFFICE? Office in site area. Build in site area as temporary office. Site Office - cabins which its already modified . - there are toilet, other facilities like airconditions, water supply , furniture like table, cupboard and etc. FUNCTION Use as management office in site area. Place where is “site meeting” held. All documents about the site keep there. ADVANTAGE Make the management at site more easier and more systematic . SITE OFFICE CANTEEN What is canteen? Place where the workers get their meals (breakfast, lunch, diner and other) The canteen also located in the site area. Usually in site there will be two canteen. - for workers - for other professional workers such as an engineer, consultant members and other. WORKERS HOUSE WHAT IS WORKERS HOUSE? • PLACE WHERE THE WORKERS STAY IN THE CONSTRUCTION TIME. • USUALLY WORKERS HOUSE IS MADE FROM WOOD AND SOME TIME THEY JUST ONLY USE THE CABIN. • WORKERS HOUSE IS BUILD IN THE CONSTRUCTION AREA. FUNCTION : As workers house Give more comfortable to the workers More easy to workers to come work because workers house is only in site area. Place where workers get their rest in the gab time. ACCESS ROAD DEFINITION Access roads are graveled areas or pads which allow construction equipment and workers to enter and leave the work site Access roads should be used on all construction sites and in forestry and mining to allow the mud on tires to fall off onto the access road before vehicles enter the main (primary road). APPLICATION Use anywhere equipment or vehicular access is necessary, including, but not limited to: transportation; urban; forestlands; mining; and recreation. Access roads are particularly important in areas that have highly erodible soils, soft soils, or steep slopes, including areas subject to rainy conditions or heavy winds. The road should not be placed in wetlands, flood plains, rivers, streams, or drains. STORAGE Design Considerations No shoulders, to accommodate oneway traffic only, and have a minimum top width. Slopes should be 2:1. Where access to the construction site is limited in length (such as in urban areas), daily street sweeping may be needed to keep soil that is tracked onto primary roads from reaching sewers. It usually uses to place the material that we used for the project at site. It make from plywood and the roof make from Zink. TYPES OF STORAGE For sensitive material Like cement , paint, and timber. Placed in store that have a roof, wall and no water can enter the store because the cement become hard when water mix with it. Like brick and reinforcement. Placed it under the roof without wall. Save in different with material. Lock it for safety. It has a roof and wall. For material For tools and machineries HOARDING/FENCING HOARDING/FENCING The builder or person responsible for the workside must ensure that all hazards are identified and risks are assessed and controlled during each stage of building work The area of construction site and the dangerous construction area such as material storage area and logistic store . HOARDING A hoarding means a substantial and fully sheeted screen a minimum of 1.8 metres in height. It is intended to be used where a greater measure of protection is necessary or where construction work is of a more permanent nature. For example, a hoarding is often used on a demolition site to exclude members of the public and to prevent debris from spilling out of the site boundaries FENCING A 1.8 metre high link mesh is an acceptable alternative to a hoarding if the only requirement is to secure the site from members of the public. The fence should be erected to all elevations of the site. FUNCTION Prevent material being stolen Protect the structure under construction from being vandalized Prevent animals getting inside the area Prevent children playing inside the area and getting injured Why do you need to fence your worksite? A perimeter fence can prevent unauthorised persons gaining access to site, where they could be exposed to hazards such as building debris, exposed steel reinforcing, trenching and excavations. The main group of people exposed to hazards on building sites during nonwork hours are children and adolescents. A fence will not always stop those who are determined to gain access to a site, however it will discourage most people and may demonstrate that you have taken reasonably practicable steps to meet your responsibilities. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOARDING AND FENCING HOARDING No space Noisy cannot be heard Made from zink FENCING Have a space Noisy in site will be heard Made from wood Pictures of Hoarding Chain link Pictures of Fencing Wood fencing Silt trap No Silt Discharge Into Public Drains As far as possible, reduce the extent of exposed surfaces within the worksite. Turf or pave all exposed areas immediately after the earthworks for the area is completed. Surface water run-off from the worksite should be free of silt. This can be achieved through the following means: a) Provide a perimeter drain all around the site. Silt fences shall be provided along the perimeter drain. The silt fence should be made of a fabric which can retain the silt but allow water to filter through and flow into the perimeter drain. The drain should have a silt trap just before it connects into the public drain. b) Temporary internal drains, if provided, should also drain into a silt trap before discharging into public drains. c) Have only open drains. Covered drains are difficult to maintain and should not be provided. To be effective, all silt traps and drains must be of adequate size. Regular cleansing of the silt traps and drains must also be carried out. Before: Poor housekeeping at construction site can lead to clogging of perimeter drains. After: Good housekeeping at construction site facilitates the maintenance of the perimeter drain. Wash through The function is to put out all the dirty particles from the tyres before leaving the site Measures To Prevent Earth Or Construction Waste Littering From Vehicles a) Do not overload lorries transporting earth. Ensure that their tyres and undercarriages are cleaned before leaving the worksite. b) Construct a paved wash bay for washing all vehicles before they leave the worksite. Carefully wash all tyres and undercarriages of every lorry. Washings from the wash bay should be channelled to a silt trap. c) Cover all vehicles carrying refuse, earth, construction debris, or any other load completely and adequately before they leave the construction site. A clean earth-laden vehicle coming out of the worksite onto road free of dust and earth-litter.
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