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					CITY-DELTA WORKSHOP MATERA FREE UNIVERSITY BERLIN CONTRIBUTION: LONG TERM MODELLING OF OXIDANTS AND AEROSOLS IN EURPOPE: EURODELTA PRELIMINARY RESULTS
R. Stern, A. Kerschbaumer Free University Berlin Institute of Meteorology Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, D-12165 Berlin, Germany

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

RCG-APPLICATION STATUS FOR EURODELTA
 8 Runs EUROPEAN SCALE : Base Run 1999, 7 scenario runs (0.5° lon, 0.25° lat)  SCENARIOS:
• • • • • • • Scenario 1 : CLE 2010 Scenario 2 : CLE + MFR1 (NOX ,SO2, PM) Scenario 3 : CLE + MFR2 (VOC, CO, NH3) Scenario 4 : MFR 2010 Scenario 5 : CLE 2010 Europe, but Germany MFR1 (NOX ,SO2, PM) Scenario 6 : CLE 2010 Europe, but Germany MFR2 (VOC ,CO,NH3) Scenario 7 : CLE 2010 Europe, but Germany MFR 2010

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

Large Scale RCG model area
RESOLUTION: 0.25° LATIDUDE, 0.5° LONGITUDE 80 x 123 grid cells

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

RCG-Model Configuration
 5 vertical layers: • a 20 m thick surface layer • two equal-thickness layers below the mixing height • 2 above the mixing height and extending to the domain top at 2500 m.  Results are for 10 m
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

LARGE SCALE EMISSIONS EUROPE
• EMEP Emissions : NMVOC, NOX, CO, NH3 (1999) • CEPMEIP (EMEP) PM10, PM25 (1995) • Resolution 0.5° long, 0.25° lat (transformed from EMEP grid)

Natural NMVOC, NOX, PM EMISSIONS
• On-the-fly-calculation based on landuse, biomass • Simpson/Guenther method: Simpson et al., 1995: Biogenic emissions in Europe (JGR 100, D11): ISOP, TERP, OVOC • Sea salt emissions, wind blown dust emissions
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

MODELLING OF WIND BLOWN DUST I
Release mechanisms of wind blown dust:
 Direct release of small dust particles by the wind  Indirect release by collisions with bigger soil grains, that are lifted by the wind but return to the surface because of their weight („Saltation“ process)

Emissions are functions of
    Shear wind speed (friction velocity) u* Soil texture (Soil grain size of sand, silt, clay, etc) Soil moisture Vegetation cover
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

MODELLING OF WIND BLOWN DUST II Empirical Formulations
 Direct release (Loosmore and Hunt, JGR, 105,D16,2000):
 Derived from experiments with alumino-silicate dust, particle size < 10 µ m (15%< 2.5 µ m) Dust flux F = 3.6 u*3 µg/m2 s

Indirect release (Gilette, JGR 93, D12, 1988;Claiborn et al.
JGR 103, D16, 1998): Derived from dust flux measurements over different soils: Dust flux F = C u*3 ag (u* - u*t) g/m2 s C, ag empirical constants u*t threshold friction velocity that incorporates the effects of soil type, soil moisture,soil texture, vegetation cover
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

PRELIMINARY MODELLING OF WIND BLOWN DUST IN RCG
 Direct and indirect dust flux release formulations are applied to landuse classes Arable land Pasture Bare soil with threshold friction velocities taken from the literature for dry, medium erodible soil types
Has to be improved based on more information about soils (Urban areas?)
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

Transformation of Emissions Data from EMEP grid to RCG Lon-Lat grid
Transformation is performed country-by-country using a 4-step procedure for each country:
Step 1: Select all EMEP grid cells that contain emissions of the country Step 2: For each of those EMEP grid cells select the RCG grid cells that overlap Step 3: Check which of those RCG grid cells overlap with the country area Step 4: Redistribute the EMEP grid cell emissions to those RCG cells that overlap via area weighting
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

Uncorrected (without step3, German emissions are smeared over the neighbour countries)

Corrected (including step 3)

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

EMEP NOX Emissions in RCG grid with 100% mass conservation

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

SOME EVALUATION RESULTS BASE CASE O3, NO2, PM
EURODELTA:  EMEP emissions, EMEP time profiles, EMEP height distribution  SOA added to the model  New parametrization of sulfate formation
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

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REM/CALGRID: SOA and SO4

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

COMPARISON with OBSERVATIONS:O3

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

COMPARISON with OBSERVATIONS:PM10

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SUMMARY first model evaluation based on EMEP stations
 • •  • •  • • •
• •

Ozone Slight overestimation of observed peaks Underestimation in winter time NO2 Overestimation of low winter concentrations Underestimation of high summer concentrations PM10 Underestimation of the high observations , in particular in summer Overestimation of the low winter observations SIA seems to be in reasonable agreement with measurement levels (overestimation in the low ranges due to bug in the new SO4 parametrization scheme?) SOA ? What do we still miss? Primary PM in the coarse, fine mode?
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

Some Scenario Results
IF YOU LOOK AT RGC RESULTS, PLEASE UPDATE: SCENARIO 1 (CLE) AND, SCENARIO 2 (MFR1 :NOX ,SO2, PM)

What you see now: Δ = f (Δ Em + Δ Met)
Interesting Question: How sensitive are the Δs to a change of the reference year ?
City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003

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O3 Annual Mean: MFR Germany – CLE Europe

City-Delta Workshop Matera, October 2003


				
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