Document Sample
wipo_caps_ip_bei_05_www_54900 Powered By Docstoc
					Workshop on Management of Intellectual Property by Photographers
Beijing, China, December 8 and 9, 2005

The Business of Photography
Part 1: Marketing Photography and the Role of Intellectual Property
Lien Verbauwhede
Consultant, SMEs Division World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)


From agent to buyer
• Old days:
– getting photos to wide public was costly and time consuming – most photographers needed to rely on employers or agencies to do sales for them

• Digital photography & Internet:
– allows to produce a lot of good quality images – allows photographers to market and sell directly to the buyer

Consequence of Internet:
• Getting noticed among the “noise” of images that buyers see  marketing has become leading competitive tool • Marketing itself has also changed

• Type of marketing method will depend on personal business model
– Assignments (travel outfitters, marriage,
portraits, fashion, business, etc) • market your services • mouth-to-mouth; reputation; local market

– Stock photography (licensing images for
commercial use or print orders) • market your pictures - marketable pictures • reach the large public; worldwide

– Combination
• OnRequest Images


1. First find your market, then create

Rohn Eng: The Buyers Are Waiting
• But: they need to know you exist • You need to supply them what they need + at the time they need it

How to market your business?

How to find your market?

Who are the buyers?
•wedding •business •fashion •travel •portraits •ad agencies

Stock photography
•book publishers & magazines •newspapers •stock photo agencies •paper product companies •ad agencies, web designers, graphic design studios, et •art photography sales

What do they need?
Stock Photography: Marketable pictures
• Marketable picture
• Good picture is not always marketable
– Difficult to market on your own – Sell only once in a while – Place in stock agenccy

– Photo illustrations – Sells and resells and resells … – Extra income at retirement – Passes over to your heirs

• How to create marketable pictures?
– Express single idea
• simple background

– Include people
• involved in some activity (doing or observing something) • not posed portraits • showing enjoyment, unhappiness, fear, etc • model release

– Include a symbol
• brings certain idea to mind • Tractor, pilot‟s uniform, fishing pole, etc
Source: Rohn Engh, Sell and Re-sell your Photos, 2003

2. Become a monopoly

• Specialize • Find yourself: determine what you love
– animals, adventure, fashion, sports, etc

• And find buyers who need it • More chance that buyers will target their search

3. Target your audience

• Cfr your specialization
• Build personalized market list
– Directories: Photographer‟s Market – Online resources: www.photosource.com – Internet search engines – Photo newsletters

• Narrow down your market list
– Competition – Purchasing power, etc

4. Customize to your clients

• Give what the customer exactly needs to see
– Artsy images, showing your skills with camera – Images that demonstrate you know to address real-world client needs – Just showing you are out there (famous)

• Understand how customer makes choices
– Passions, social background, etc.

• Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity

5. Choose your marketing model

• Traditional (off-line)
– You may loose business opportunities – Look unprofessional

• Digital (online)
– Simply as business card or portfolio
• E.g. Picture of the month + contacts

– Platform to sell online
• Stock photography

• Own website
– – – – If many marketable pictures Create yourself? Outsource web development: ownership? Linking, using other‟s copyright material, choosing DN, etc.

• Join existing websites
– No need to design website – Profit from other‟s reputation – But: search engines usually do not index such sites – But: some sites do not allow to sell pictures – But: customer service in hands of others – But: fee

6. Choose a good domain name …
and USE it !

• Easy to remember
• Associated with you
– your name, unless difficult to read and spell – “www.abcdidier.ch”

• No trademark conflict

• Use wherever possible
– advertising, watermarks, copyright information, business cards, stationary, invoices, emails – Website should be part of your signature

• Ask others to use it:
– Publishers – When you license photos, request clients to link back to your website – If you participate in photo reviews

• Make sure people find your website
– Contact search engines – Links

7. Choose a good trademark or logo …

and USE it !

What is a trademark?
• A distinctive sign: distinguishes your goods or services from those of competitors • Exclusive rights: To prevent others from using identical or similar marks on identical or similar goods • Renewable indefinitely ! • Registration is required in most countries

• Distinctive logo or design
– Common error: obvious logo
• camera, tripod, etc

– Adapt it to make it unique – Associated with your specialization – Simple and easy to remember
• Export markets

– E.g. “Windigo” (Wendy – windsurfing)

• • • •

Trademark search Register Use it! Indicate that it is protected: ® or TM

• Can help your correspondence to start looking familiar


Place a copyright notice

• No legal obligation
• Advantages
– Warning to infringers – Information who owns the rights – In some countries: requirement to get compensation for certain damages – Free advertising

• Require others to include notice
– Publishers, agencies, licensees, etc – Also electronically

If you join existing website, choose carefully

(a) Photo-forum websites
– – – – Have your images onto their website Often for free Generally not possible to sell Benefit:
• No need to build own website • Benefit from their goodwill • Forums: interaction with other photographers

– Drawback:
• Many photographers: buyers not likely to find yours – Photos.yahoo.com; photos.msn.com – www.photo.net; www.pbase.com

(b) Websites that allow sales
– Upload your photos and set your own prices – Benefit:
• don‟t need to build a website • No part of ordering, printing an delivery

– Drawback
• Editing criteria: paper size, style, etc • Customer service not in your hands • Search engines rarely index such sites

– www.shutterfly.com

(c) Stock agencies
– Traffic number (ranking) – Entrance fees & royaltie split
• Long term or short term • Royalties vary from 10 – 90% of sales price

– Specialization
• Big libraries: Getty Images, Corbis • Small, specialized agencies

– How many photographers do they take
• Competition • Where are you in the ranking

– Marketing strenghts
• Can they make your images more visible to a target market segment • (beware of agencies that ask fee for promotion)

– Do they have royalty-free work?
• Can you opt out?

– Do they demand exclusivity over your work?

– Length of contract


Provide big images online

• Big images encourage longer visits, more page views, more interest …so more business • High resolution: risk of „stealing‟ • Low resolution: less attractive + risk to loose opportunity

* Big enough to see in detail, but nothing that could be copied for print use * If client asks higher resolution: watermark


• A photographer‟s contribution doesn‟t start and end with “taking pictures”. • A good marketing strategy shows all assets: that is, photography + business sense

Thank You for your Attention.
WIPO‟s website for SMEs :