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Most Commonly Used Flavors

VIEWS: 105 PAGES: 31

									Flavors and Poteniators
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Flavors are seldom listed individually on the label Potentiators are listed on the label The chemistry of food flavor is very complex
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More than 500 compounds in the flavor of coffee Up to 400 compounds in the flavor of aged cheese

Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact
Name Ethyl Vanillan Vanillan Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde Ethyl Butyrate Methyl Salicylate Benzyl alcohol Menthol Isoamyl Acetate D-carvone L-Carvone Thiamin-HCl Diacetyl Ethyl propionate Flavor Character Vanilla Vanilla Cinnamon Cherry Fruity Wintergreen Fruity Mint Banana Caraway Spearmint meat-like Butter, cream Fruity

Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact
Ethyl Maltol Ethylacetoacetate Ethyl Anthranilate Allylisothiocyanate Anethole Citral Butyl Butyrllate Cinnamyl Alcohol Isoamylacetate -decalactone Sweet sugar Green fruity Concord grape Mustard Anise Lemon/citrus Dairy Cinnamon Banana Peach

Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact
Piperonal Eugenol Maltol Isobutylacetate -dodecalactone Linalool 3-Hexen-1-ol a-terpineol Ethylmethylphenyl glycidate 4-(p-hydrophenyl)-2-butanone Floral Clove Sweet sugar Banana Peach (Fries peach) Floral Green, grassy citrus floral Strawberry Raspberry

Where do flavors come from?
Essential oil$ Extracts - Water, solvent, super critical
Oleoresins, spinning cone

Fermentation Hydrolysis Maillard - heating of sugars with amino acids, proteins,etc. Pyrolysis Chemical synthesis

Essential Oils
Name
Almond Anise Basil Bay Caraway Cardamon Cassia Celery Clove Cumin

Plant Part %Yield
Ripe kernal .5-2% Fruit 2.5-3 Flower 0.2 Leaves 1-3.5 Ripe seed 3-6 seed 3.5-7 leaves/twigs 0.3 seed 2-2.5 Dry bud 15-20 seed 2-3

Major Constituent
Benzaldehyde Anethol Methylchavicol Eugenol D-carvone Cineole Cinnamic aldehyde D-limonene Eugenol Cumin aldehyde

Essential Oils
Coriander Dill Dill Garlic Ginger Grapefruit Lemon Mustard Nutmeg Onion Orange Dry,ripe fruit seed weed Bulb Root Peel Peel seed Dry seed bulb peel .4-1 2-3.5 0.3-1.5 0.02 1.5-3 0.3 .3-.4 1 6-18 0.02 .3 D-linalool D-carvone D-carvone allylsulfides Zingerone D-limonene D-limonene Allylisothiocyanates Terpenes propylsulfides D-limonene

Essential Oils
Pepper Peppermint Pimento
(Allspice)

Dried, ripe fruit Dried leaves Dried ripe fruit Leaf Flowers,leaves Leaves Flowers,leaves Leaves,stems Flowers Plant

1-3 .3-.5 3.5-4 .5-1 .5-.7 .7-2 .5-1.5 0.7 .7 .7

Terpenes, piperine Menthol Eugenol Eugenol Cineole Thujone Thymol L-carvone Thymol Methylsalicylate

Pimento Rosemary Sage Savory Spearmint Thyme Wintergreen

Fermentation
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Cheese Beer Wine Yogurt cocoa

Protein Hydrolysates
Sec. 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the ingredient and shall include the identity of the food source from which the protein was derived. (a) ``Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,'' ``hydrolyzed soy protein,'' and ``autolyzed yeast extract'' are examples of acceptable names. ``Hydrolyzed casein'' is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas ``hydrolyzed milk protein'' is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names ``hydrolyzed vegetable protein'' and ``hydrolyzed protein'' are not acceptable because they do not identify the food source of the protein.

Protein Hydrolysates
Produced using heat, acid, enzymes Content: Salt Glutamate Peptides Partial hydrolysates may be allergenic

MSG -Monosodium glutamate
Sodium salt of L-glutamic acid Taste Threshold about 0.02% Use levels 0.1 -0.8 % as consumed Taste "umami" Using higher MSG allows salt reduction in "clear soup” (Yamaguchi and Takahashi, JFS 49, (1984) 82-85.

Ribotides
5’nucleotides Guanosine monophosphate Inosine monophosphate Known as flavor “potentiators” Synergistic response with MSG GMP > IMP usual substitution - 5% of MSG Uses: savory and snack foods

MSG and Nucleotide Content of Some Foods (mg%)
Food Beef Pork Chicken Clam Shitake mushr. Squid Grape Tomato MSG 42 29 56 8 296 300 53 44 5 IMP 163 186 115 286 0 0 0 0 GMP 3.7 2.2 0 0 216 0 0 AMP 7.5 8.6 13.1 Tuna 5.9 12 321 184 1

Stability of Nucleotides During Heat Processing
Compound % Recovery

IMP 52 GMP 36 Inosine 90 Guanosine 95 (60 min. at 124 C, pH 4.5)
(Nguyen and Sporns, JFS 50 (1985) 812-814,822.)

Stability of Enhancers
Sample Compound "Soup"
MSG IMP GMP (30 min. at 124 C, pH 5)

%Recovery
94 72 57

Maillard Reaction
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Can produce up to 150 different flavor compounds Different amino acids produce different flavor profiles One example is cheese crackers
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Most of the flavor of cheese crackers is from pH and salt – Maillard products can differentiate the different crackers

Pyrolysis
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Requires sugars and high temperature processing The flavor notes of carament is one example

Delivery Systems For Flavors
l. Neat 2. Solutions
Oil Soluble Solutions In vegetable oils, animal fats Water 'Soluble Solutions In alcohol, propylene glycol, glycerin

3. Emulsions
Gum arabic, modified starch stabilized Emulsifier stabilized
Density balancers
Brominated Vegetable oil (BVO) 1.23-1.33g/mL Glyceryl abietate (Glycerol esters of wood rosin, not on label -ester gum) 1.10 g/mL

4. Solids
Coated onto solids
maltodextrins, sugars, cellulose, etc.

Encapsulated
Fat Carbohydrate (gum arabic,, modified food starch) Gelatin

Technical Problems With Flavors
1. Stability of concentrate/solution a. Oxidation b. Loss of more volatile components c. Physical separation d. chemical interactions 2. Flavor quality a. Lack of notes b. Harshness

c. Incompatibility with other flavors in product

Technical Problems With Flavors
3. Carry through stability in product
a. Volatilization
Heat Vacuum "Salting out"

b. Partitioning between water and oil

Technical Problems With Flavors
3. Carry through stability in product
c. Reaction, with other components
Maillard reactions - aldehydes, ketones, sugars, amines Esterification Hydrolysis

d. Packaging
Permeability to flavors, oxygen Adsorption to polymers Light

Technical Problems With Flavors
4. Authentication / labeling / legality 21CFR 100.22

Density Balancers
Brominated Vegetable oil (BVO) 1.23-1.33g/mL Glyceryl abietate (Glycerol esters of wood rosin, not on label -ester gum)

Choosing a Flavor
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Cost What do you want?
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Match a product Natural Heat Pressure Mixing Precise description

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Processing issues
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Product issues
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Interaction with other components
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Adsorption Reaction – Maillard, esterification etc
Fat vs water solubility Need to mask other flavors

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Compatibility with matrix
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Partition within the product

Packaging Issues
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Light Oxygen Scalping

Safety Issues
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FEMA GRAS Allegenicity

Marketing Issues
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Natural 21 CFR 100.22


								
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