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the introduction to anatomy and physiology

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author Jerry S. Fugate; intro to anatomy and physiology

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									Case Study: John
• John has been suffering agonizing pain with each breath and has been informed by the physician that he has pleurisy. (a) Specifically, what membranes are involved in this condition? (b) What is their usual role in the body? (c) Explain why John’s condition is so painful. (d) What conditions could cause pleurisy? (e) What might be the treatment for this condition?

Chapter 1
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

• Describes the structures of the body:
– what they are made of – where they are located – associated structures

• Is the study of:
– functions of anatomical structures – individual and cooperative functions

Specialties of Anatomy (1 of 3)
• Gross anatomy, or macroscopic anatomy examines large, visible structures:
– surface anatomy:
• exterior features

– regional anatomy:
• body areas

Specialties of Anatomy (2 of 3)
– systemic anatomy:
• groups of organs working together

– developmental anatomy:
• from egg (embryology) to maturity

– clinical anatomy:
• medical specialties

Specialties of Anatomy (3 of 3)
• Microscopic anatomy examines cells and molecules:
– cytology:
• cells and their structures • cyt = cell

– histology:
• tissues and their structures

Specialties of Physiology
• Cell physiology:
– processes within and between cells

• Special physiology:
– functions of specific organs

• Systemic physiology:
– functions of an organ system

• Pathological physiology:
– effects of diseases

The Scientific Method: A powerful way of “knowing”.
Starts with a question or problem, based on observations of the natural world. 2. Propose a hypothesis, a possible answer that presents a reasonable explanation or solution. 3. Make a prediction that tests the hypothesis. 4. Design an experiment to see if the prediction is correct. Example: 1. Problem: The computer cannot connect to the internet. 2. Hypothesis: The cable is faulty. 3. Prediction: If I use the cable from my roommate’s laptop, which is working, I should be able to connect. 4. Experiment: Connect the known good cable and try to connect. 5. (Using a cable that is known to be good and changing just that one thing while keeping the rest the same provides a “control”) 1.

The Hierarchy of Structural Organization

Organizing a Muscle
• • • • • Protein molecules (chemical level) Protein filaments (organelle level) Muscle cells (cellular level) Cardiac muscle tissue (tissue level) Heart (organ level)

Mechanisms of Regulation
• Autoregulation (intrinsic): – automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ • Extrinsic regulation: – responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems


Homeostasis is controlled by feedback loops
Example of negative feed back: blood glucose regulation

A positive feed back mechanism: blood clotting and wound healing

means working together
• Systems integration: – systems work together to maintain homeostasis


Anatomical Landmarks

Figure 1–6

Positional terms
• Anatomical position:
• Supine: • Prone:
– hands at sides, palms forward

– lying down, face up
– lying down, face down

• 4 abdominopelvic quadrants around umbilicus

Quadrants and Regions

• 9 abdominopelvic regions

Figure 1–7b

• Internal organs associated with abdominopelvic regions

Figure 1–7c

Which Direction?
• Lateral:
– side view

• Frontal:
– front view

• Anatomical direction:

– refers to the patient’s left or right

Which Direction?

3 Dimensions
• Plane:
– a 3-dimensional axis

• Section:
– a slice parallel to a plane

3 Dimensions

• Coelom:
– divided by the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

The Ventral Body Cavity

Serous membranes

The pericardium

The 11 organ systems Some structural associations
1. Integumentary - skin 2. Skeletal - bones, cartilage, joints 3. Muscular - skeletal cardiac and smooth 4. Nervous - central & peripheral, voluntary & involuntary 5. Endocrine - glands & hormones 6. Cardiovascular - blood, blood vessels & the heart 7. Lymphatic & Immune - lymph vessels, organs, tissues & cells 8. Respiratory - nasal structures, larynx, airways & lungs 9. Digestive - alimentary canal & accessory organs 10. Urinary - kidneys, ureters & urethra 11. Reproductive - gonads, accessory organs (primary and secondary structures)

The 11 organ systems Some general functions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Integumentary - protection, water regulation, endocrine Skeletal - protection, support, movement Muscular - movement, transportation, heat Nervous - communication & control, rapid to intermediate Endocrine - communication & control, short to long term Cardiovascular - transportation, thermal regulation, defenses, water Lymphatic & Immune - water balance, absorption, immunity Respiratory - gas exchange Digestive - absorption, energy storage & production, filtration Urinary - water & pH balance, blood pressure, toxin removal Reproductive -makin’ babies!

Some main points:
• Scientific method
– Hypothesis – Theory – law

• •

Complementarity of structure and function Hierarchy of structural organization
– – – – – – – – – – –


Homeostasis - the balancing act of living systems
– Negative feedback – Positive feedback

Atoms Molecules Compounds Biochemical Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems (we organize them into distinct 11 systems) Organisms Populations


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