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									An Introduction to ECommerce

Week 16: I18n, privacy, legal issues

Globalization quiz
• These are issues that relate to location, language, and culture. • Customers are more likely to stick with a company that gets these right:
– What does red stand for?
• ‘danger’ or ‘good fortune’?;

– Which is correct: colour’ or ‘color’?; – What do these icons mean:

– What do we call Miss Zhang after she marries Mr Zhou? – What day is meant by 09/10/07?
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monster.co.uk

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monster.com.hk

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Language
• • • • In Belgium, there are two language communities: French and Flemish. They don’t like each other very much. Which language do you use on your web site? – Ideally both (and maybe English as well?) Which one do you show first? – Whichever one the consumer wants? – How do you tell? • Cookies linked to user profile? • Browser preferences – do you need to educate the consumer? • Buttons to switch between languages
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Privacy, security, and the law

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Basic Security Issues
What kinds of security questions arise? From the user’s perspective: • How can the user be sure that the Web server is owned and operated by a legitimate company? • How does the user know that the Web page and form do not contain some malicious or dangerous code or content? • How does the user know that the owner of the Web site will not distribute the information the user provides to some other party?
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Basic Security Issues
What kinds of security questions arise? From the company’s perspective: How does the company know the user will not attempt to break into the Web server or alter the pages and content at the site? How does the company know that the user will not try to disrupt the server so that it is not available to others?

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Basic Security Issues
What kinds of security questions arise? From both parties’ perspectives: How do both parties know that the network connection is free from eavesdropping by a third party “listening” on the line? How do they know that the information sent backand-forth between the server and the user’s browser has not been altered?

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Basic Security Issues
authentication The process by which one entity verifies that another entity is who he, she, or it claims to be authorization The process that ensures that a person has the right to access certain resources auditing The process of collecting information about attempts to access particular resources, use particular privileges, or perform other security actions
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Types of Threats and Attacks
malware A generic term for malicious software A number of factors have contributed to the overall increase in malicious code. Among these factors, the following are paramount: Mixing data and executable instructions Increasingly homogenous computing environments Unprecedented connectivity Larger clueless user base
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Types of Threats and Attacks
virus A piece of software code that inserts itself into a host, including the operating systems, in order to propagate; it requires that its host program be run to activate it worm A software program that runs independently, consuming the resources of its host in order to maintain itself, that is capable of propagating a complete working version of itself onto another machine 12

Managing EC Security
Security Risk Management security risk management A systematic process for determining the likelihood of various security attacks and for identifying the actions needed to prevent or mitigate those attacks Security risk management consists of three phases: Asset identification Risk assessment Implementation

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Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues
Major Ethical and Legal Issues: – Privacy – Intellectual property rights and online piracy – Unsolicited electronic ads and spamming – Free speech versus censorship – Consumer and merchant protection against fraud

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Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues
EC Ethical Issues Non-Work-Related Use of the Internet Employees are tempted to use e-mail and the Web for non-work-related purposes In some companies, this use is tremendously out of proportion with its work-related use The utility of monitoring employee usage can be considered “one of the most controversial EC issues”

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Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues
Codes of Ethics: Useful guidelines for a corporate Web policy: • Issue written policy guidelines about employee use of the Internet • Make it clear to employees that they cannot use copyrighted trademarked material without permission • Post disclaimers concerning content, such as sample code, that the company does not support • Post disclaimers of responsibility concerning content of online forums and chat sessions16

Privacy
privacy The right to be left alone and the right to be free of unreasonable personal intrusions Collecting Information about Individuals – Web Site Registration – Cookies – Spyware and Similar Methods – RFID’s Threat to Privacy – Privacy of Employees – Privacy of Patients
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Protection of Privacy Notice/awareness Choice/consent opt-out clause Agreement that requires computer users to take specific steps to prevent the collection of personal information opt-in clause Agreement that requires computer users to take specific steps to allow the collection of personal information
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Intellectual Property Rights
intellectual property Creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs, used in commerce

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Intellectual Property Rights
copyright An exclusive grant from the government that allows the owner to reproduce a work, in whole or in part, and to distribute, perform, or display it to the public in any form or manner, including over Internet • Literary works • Musical works • Dramatic works • Artistic works • Sound recordings, films, broadcasts, cable 20 programs

Intellectual Property Rights
trademark A symbol used by businesses to identify their goods and services; government registration of the trademark confers exclusive legal right to its use Domain Name Disputes and Resolutions cybersquatting The practice of registering domain names in order to sell them later at a higher price

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Unsolicited Electronic Ads: Problems and Solutions
E-Mail Spamming unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE) The use of e-mail to send unwanted ads or correspondence What Drives UCE? Many spammers are just trying to get people’s financial information

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Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues
On the Internet, censorship refers to government’s attempt to control, in one way or another, the material that is presented “Donham’s First Law of Censorship.” This semiserious precept states: “Most citizens are implacably opposed to censorship in any form —except censorship of whatever they personally happen to find offensive.”

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