The perspective of fusion and fission power plans by ytrusdm7

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 53

									Researches and applied measurements on
 nuclear physics and atomic power plants
                    fields
        in the Institute of Isotopes
                     Árpád VERES
                   Scientific advisor
     Institute of Isotopes of HAS 1525 Bp. Pf. 77
              e-mail: veres@iki.kfki.hu



                    6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                 Contents of lecture
• Research Departments of Institute of Isotopes.
• Nuclear isomers and its applications.
• Present state of nuclear fission power plants.
  (Comparison of IKI-measurements and Paks-
  calculations for burn up of fuel assembles). The
  electricity and the nuclear wastes produced by critical
  power plants.
• Accelerator-Driven (spallation), subcritical nuclear
  fission power plants.
• Nuclear fusion power plants.

                       6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Departments of the Institute and its research areas:
Radiation Chemistry: Radiation and photochemistry of hydrocarbons;
   Degradation of environmental pollutants e.g. chlorinated aromatic
   hydrocarbons, reactive textile dyes; Polymer radiation chemistry and
   mechanism of radiation induced polymerization; Radiation methods for
   synthesis of polymers for biomedical applications.
Surface Chemistry and Catalysis: Studies on surface of highly dispersed
   metal particles. Structure, catalytic effect of carbonaceous deposits
   formed during refinery model reactions; Study the selective oxidation of
   CO (PROX) in presence of hydrogen for fuel cell application; Study of
   surface species formed on platinum upon chemisorption of low
   molecular weight hydrocarbons applying Auger spectroscopy.
Radionuclide Applications: Identification of various oxidation and
   coordination states in iron or tin containing catalysts by in situ
   Mössbauer spectroscopy. Study of radioisotope migration typical of
   high-level nuclear waste in geological samples (borecores).




                           6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Nuclear Research Department

•Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA)
and its applications.
•Nuclear spectroscopy with neutron-induced
reactions.
• Nuclear data measurements and evaluation.
Gamma-ray spectrometry and metrology.
•In-beam Mössbauer spectroscopy.


Research Reactor   20 MW, water cooled, water moderate, thermal flux 1014 cm-2 s-1




                               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
     Radiation Safety Department

• Dosimetry section: Chemical dosimetry; Solid state
  dosimetry; environmental, accidental, reactor and
  personal dosimetry; Radiation processing
  dosimetry; Dosimetry control at high-activity
  gamma and at high-energy electron irradiation
  facilities; Radiation protection services
• Radioactive Material Registry Section: Center
  registry of radioactive materials in Hungary;
  Software development for the central registry.
• ICP-MS Mass Spectrometry Laboratory
• Nuclear section


                    6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
           Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
            (ICP-MS)-IAEA secondary standard laboratory

•   Environmental samples
•   Samples in connection with
    radiation protection
•   Safeguards samples
•   Confiscated samples (illicit
    trafficking)
•   Samples from the field of Nuclear
    Physics
•   Investigation of catalysts
•   Food samples for authenticity
    studies




                                6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
 Nuclear section: Nuclear safeguards; Combating illicit trafficking of
               nuclear materials; Photo excitation; Reactor

Spent Fuel Attribute Tester                      Safeguards measurements
   at Paks Power Plan                       of the damaged,re-encapsulated fuel
         (SFAT)                                      at Paks Power Plan




                              6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                          Nuclear section:
                 Age determination of Uranium sample
                       by gamma-spectrometry
                                                                            234U

                                                                            230Th

                                                                            226Ra


                                                                            222Rd

Low-background iron chamber (20 cm wall thickness) with coaxial
HPGe detector Large area (~20 cm2) planar HPGe detector                     218Po


                             Our laboratory                                 214Pb
     Other laboratories                                 Clock: 214Bi/234U
                               (gamma-
    (mass-spectrometry)
                             spectrometry)
                                                                            214Bi
      22.2 - 22.6 years
      22.4  1.2 years        23  3 years
      23.5  0.5 years



                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                               Nuclear section:
                        Identification Neutron Sources
                by neutron coincidence technique: R/T-T method

Neutron coincidence counting:                         • Total neutron count, T
•    3He  tubes around the source +                   • Coincidence neutrons, R, from
•    shift register or pulse train register                –   n-induced fission inside sources
                                                           –   9Be(n, 2n)8Be reaction

                                                           –   spontaneous fission


    Moderator




    Neutron detectors            source
      (3He tubes)                holder



                                   6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Nuclear section:
PHOTO EXCITATION




   6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
        Short chronology of nuclear isomers
•1921. Otto Hahn observed the isomeric state of        234Pa   from the -
decay of 234Th
•1935. V. Kurcsatov et al. produced 80Brm by (n,) reaction
•1936. C. F. Weizsäcker recognized that the nuclear isomerism may
occur whenever the angular momentum of a low-lying state of
nucleus differs from the angular momentum of any lower state by
several units of h/2.
•1938. M. Goldhaber, R. D. Hill, L. Szilard reported conclusive
evidence of nuclear isomerism in a stable nucleus. They found that
the 4.1 hour - activity of indium could be product by fast neutron




                           6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
•1939. Pontecorvo et al. observed isomeric state of stable 115In
nuclear by x-ray excitation.
•1939. M. Goldhaber et al. irradiated indium target with the -rays
emitted by 0.5 g 226Ra to obtain isomeric activity by the
115In(,’)115Inm reaction. Negative results.

•1954. G. Harbottle estimated the activity of 6oCo and of 182Ta γ-
sources from the measured isomeric number of 115In(γ,γ’)115Inm
reactions.
•1956. N. Ikeda, K. Yoshihara measured the cross section (σexp) of
111Cdm and 115Inm by 60Co γ-source.

•1963. Á. Veres also measured the cross section of isomeric state of
ten stable nuclei (77Sem, 87Srm, 89Ym, 107,109Agm, 111Cdm, 115Inm, 179Hfm,
191Irm, 195Ptm, 197Aum, and 199Hgm) by gamma rays of 60Co and

estimated its partial level width of activation levels (~1.1 MeV) too.
There where between in the range of 10-4-10-7 eV.

                             6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
5-09-1962. One of the first measurements of photoactivation
   of isomers by γ-rays of 60Co. (L. Szirtes, Á. Veres, P. Bedrossián)




                           6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                                                          Ea
Irradiation facility
                                                          Em
                                                          Eg


                            The ↻ shows the irradiation and store
                                  position of the source.
                            The ↥ shows the install the target in
                                  irradiation position.
                            1.    Target nuclei which are excited
                                  by γ-rays to the isomeric state.
                            2.    60Co source (1.3 kCi ~ 48 TBq)
                            3.    Lead container (shielding 2.2
                                  tons)



               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
          Chart of the isomers of stable nuclei
N   43       44      47       49      50       52       56       58       60       62       63       64   65
Z   77Sem

34   17.4 s
              79Brm

35            4.9 s
                      83Krm

36                    1.83 h
                               87Srm

38                             2.8 h
                                       89Ym

39                                     16 s
                                       90Zrm

40                                     0.8 s
                                                93Nbm

41                                              16.1 y
                                                         99Tcm

43                                                       6.01 h
                                                                  103Rhm

45                                                                56 m

                                                                           107Agm   109Agm

47                                                                         44.3 s   39.6 s

                                                                                             111Cdm        111Cdm

48                                                                                           48 m          48 m




                                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
N        63         65         67        69       71       73        75       77         79         80         81       99       106          The codes of colors
Z        113Inm     115Inm

49        1.7 h      4.5 h
                                117Snm    119Snm
                                                                                                                                           1 sec to 1 hour: 20   scarlet
50                              13.6 d 293 d
                                                   123Tem   125Tem
                                                                                                                                           isomers
52                                                 120 d    57.4 d                                                                         1 hour to 1 day: 10   Yellow
                                                                      120Xem   131Xem

54                                                                    8.9 d    12 d                                                        isomers
                                                                                          135Bam     136Ba      137Bam

56                                                                                        28.7 h 0.3 s          2.6 m                      1 day to 1 year : 8   green
                                                                                                                         167Erm

68                                                                                                                       2.6 m
                                                                                                                                           isomers
                                                                                                                                  176Ybm

                                                                                                                                  11.4 s
                                                                                                                                            1 year: 5           blue
70

     N           105         106        107       108           N        109      113        114        116
                                                                                                                                           isomers
     Z           176Lum                                         Z        183Wm

     71           3.64 h                                         74        5.2 s

     72
                  177Hfm2

                  51 m
                              178Hfm2

                              31 y
                                         179Hfm1

                                         18.7 s
                                                   180Hfm

                                                   5.5 h         76
                                                                                    189Osm

                                                                                    5.8 h
                                                                                               190Osm

                                                                                               10 m
                                                                                                          192Osm

                                                                                                          6.1 s
                                                                                                                          It was brought up the question
                                         180Tam                                                191Irm     193Irm
                                                                                                                          in the literature, that whether
     73                                  1.2 Py                  77                            4.9 s      10 d
                                                                                                                          the mechanism of the isomeric
     N                                                          N
     Z
                  117
                  195Ptm
                              118        119
                                                                 Z
                                                                           122
                                                                           204Pbm
                                                                                    125
                                                                                    207Pbm
                                                                                               127        143
                                                                                                                          activation has non resonant
     78           4.02 d
                              197Aum
                                                                 82        67 m     0.8 s
                                                                                               210Bim
                                                                                                                          character or not.
     79                       7.73 s                             83                            3 My
                                         199Hgm                                                           235Um

     80                                  43 m,                   92                                       25 m




                                                                               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                      Photo excitation in next years
                                            IDEA OF NON-RESONANT PROCESS
                                        (primary gamma 662 keV directly excitation
                                                         isomers)
                                   •    In this situation, in 1981, during the studies of (,’)
                                        reaction being basis on the resonance fluorescence,
                                        Ljubicic, Pisk, and Logan [1] suggested that the
                                        nonresonant-type process might be dominant in
                                        nuclear photoactivation of 115In by 60Co source
                                   •    A technique was give for distinguishing between
                                        resonance and non-resonant process


Integral cross section of 115In by 60Co excitation




                                  6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                           NO-RESONANT and RESONANT
[1] A. Ljubicic, K. Pisk, and B. A. Logan, Phys. Rev. C 23, 2238 (1981).
[2] M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic, K. Pisk, B. A. Logan, and M. Vrtar, Phys. Rev. C 25, 2097 (1982).
[3] M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic, B. A. Logan, and M. Bistrovic, Phys. Rev. C 33, 293 (1986).
[4] K. Yoshihara, Zs. Nemeth, L. Lakosi, I. Pavlicsek, and A. Veres, Phys. Rev. C 33, 728 (1986).
[5]I. Bikit, J. Slivka, I. Anicin, L. Marinkov, A. Rudic, and W. D. Hamilton, Universitet Novi Sad Report 17. Physics
      Seriet (1987).
[6] I. Bikit, J. Slivka, I. Anicin, L. Marinkov, A. Rudic, and W. D. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. C 35, 1943 (1987).
[7] J. A. Anderson, M. J. Byrd, and C. B. Collins, Phys. Rev. C 38, 2838 (1988).
[8] P. vonNeumann-Cosel, A. Richter, J. J. Carroll and C. B. Collins Phys. Rev. C14, 554 (1991).
[9] M. Krcmar, S. Cancic, T. Tustonic, A. Ljubicic, B. A. Logan, and M. Bistrovic, Phys. Rev. C 41, 771 (1990).
[10] M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic, B. A. Logan, and M. Bistrovic, Phys. Rev. C 47, 906 (1993).
[11] T. Tustonic, ] M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic and M. Bistrovic, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48, 45 (1997).
[12] D. A. Bradby, Ithnin Abdul Jalil, M. Krcmar, and A. Ljubicic, Journal of Radianalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
      244, 475 (2000).
[13] Chea-Beng Lee, D. A. Bradley, Ithnin Abdul Jalil, Y. M. Amin, Mohd Jamil Maah, Khairul Zaman M. Dahlan,
      Radiat. Phys. Chem. 61, 367 (2001).
[14] K. Pisk, M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic, and B. A. Logan, Phys. Rev. C 25, 2226 (1982).
[15] M. Krcmar, A. Ljubicic, and K. Pisk, FZKAAA 18, 171 (1986).
[16] Ljubicic, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 51, 341 (1998).
[17] Drukarev. 2000. No-resonant excitation of nuclear levels by photon. In: R. W.Dunford, D. S . Gemmel, E. B.
      Kanter, B. Krassig, S. H. Southworth, L. Young, (Eds), X-rays and Inner Sell Processes, 18 th International
      Conference, Chicago, IL, August, AIP Conference Proceedings 506, American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY,
      pp. 496-500




                                             6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
         Explain in other way
without using the non-resonant process
Compton effect in shielding-, absorber-
material and in target on Resonant flux




             6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Nuclear Power Plants

   Fission Power Plants
   Fusion Power Plants




       6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
  The present state and perspectives of fission and
                fusion power plants
               (Types of the nuclear power plants)

             I. Nuclear fission power plants:
I.1. Critical reactor convert energy released from the nucleus
     of an atom, mainly via of 235U.
I.2. Accelerator-driven subcritical reactors used by
     transmutation of nuclear wastes as fuel.
   II. Nuclear fusion power plants use the fusion of
               deuterium and tritium as fuel.
II.1. Magnetic confinement . Tokamak-driven.
II.2. Inertial confinement. Laser-driven.

                         6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
     I.1. The first n-pile and nuclear power plant




December 2, 1942. Nuclear           June 27, 1954. Nuclear Power
reactor Chicago-Pile-1. USA.        Plant, USSR, Obninsk. It
(Led by Enrico Fermi, the           produced 5 MW electric
idea of Leo Szilard).               power.

                       6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                The critical power plants
1. Generation I. Early prototype reactors, i.) 1954, the first nuclear
   power plant (5 MW) Obninsk, USSR; ii.) 1956, Calder Hall in Sell
   afield, England a gas-cooled Magnox reactor (50 MW, later 200
   MW); iii.) 1957, the Shipping port Reactor (Pennsylvania, USA),
   pressurized water reactor.
2. Generation II. Commercial reactors 1965-95 (more than 400), LWR-
   PWR, BWR, CANDU, WWR/RBMK. (4 VVR-440 units of Paks,
   Hungary was installed between 1982-87)* The next 8 slides.
3. Generation III. 1995-2010 Temperature Advanced LWRs, System
   80+, AP600, EPR. Gen. III+ 2010-2020 Improved economist.
4. Generation IV. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) called Next
   Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Completed 2021. Primary goals:
   improve nuclear safety, proliferation resistance, and to minimize
   the nuclear wastes.

                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
      *Earlier achievements in Paks (Hungary)
•Total safety evaluation of the units was accomplished in 1994.
•An efficiency enhancement due to reconstruction of the secondary loop
and replacements of the turbines increased the original 440 MW of
electric power to 470 MW. The total 1790 MW is about 40 % of the
Country electricity.
•Between 1996 and 2002 the costs of the Programme of Safety
Measurements (PSM) amounted to 60 billion Fts. (~ 300 M$). The average
sale price of the Paks NPP was 10.16 Ft/kWh in 2008.
•The specific costs of generation of the extra-power, the investment cost of
the extra-capacity enhancement was shown to be the lowest as compared
to the cost of building new different type power plants.
Power plant                   Specific investment costs [bFt/MW]
New lignite                               350
New gas turbine                           125
Biomass                                  400
Capacity upgrading of Paks NPP            ~40

                               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
            Nuclear section:
     COMPARISION OF IKI-MEASUREMENTS
  AND PAKS-CALCULATION FOR BURNUP OF FUEL




4 block of Paks Nuclear Power plant, Hungary
              6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
    STRUCTURE OF ONE BLOCK
VVER-440 REACTOR




             6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
STRUCTURE OF VVER-440 REACTOR




               REACTOR CORE




        6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
    C-PORCA BURNUP-CALCULATION
FOR EVERY 126-RODS OF ALL-ASSEMBLIESS




                                 48 Nodes




             126 Rods



 FUEL ASSAMBLE


                 6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
IKI- BURNUP-MEASUREMENTS
        MEASUREMENTAL SET UP



          Spent fuel assemble


   Fission Chamber + Si diode detector



            HP-Ge detector


               Collimator


              CZT detector



            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
            A TYPICAL GAMMA SPECTRUM
        MEASURED BY HP-GERMANIUM DETECTOR
                                    Ru-Rh106      Cs137
                                    622 keV       661.7 keV
                                                          Cs134
                                 Cs134                    795.8 eV   Ru-Rh106
                                 604,7 keV                           1050 keV

                                                                         Ru-Rh106
                                                                         1128 keV
                      Ru-Rh106                          Cs134             Cs134
        1000          512 keV                           802 keV           1168 keV
                                                                                Eu154
                                                 (a)
                                                                                1274 keV
                                                                                           Cs134
                                                            (c)                            1366 keV
                                                  (b)
                                                            (e)                              Ce-Pr144
                                                                                             1489 keV
                   (a): Ce-Pr144                            (d)
Couts




        100            696.6 keV
                   (b): Eu154
                       723 keV
                   (c): Eu154
                       873 keV
                   (d): Eu154
                       1005 keV
                   (e): Cs134
                       1039 keV
         10




               0                     500                    1000                     1500               2000
                                                       Energy (keV)




                                               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                                 THE RESULT OF 56993-ASSEMBLE
                          56993 Axial frofile
                                                                                                                                56993 3.bl. 4. Radius profile

        30
                                                                                                               0,7                                                50
                                                30                                                             0,6
                                                                                                                                                                  40




                                                     BU calculation




                                                                                                                                                                       BU calculation
        20                                                                                                     0,5




                                                                                                 Cs134/Cs137
                                                                                                                                                                                        326
Cs137




                                                20                    Mear.Cps                                 0,4                                                30
                                                                      számolt                                                                                                           350
                                                                                                               0,3                                                20
        10                                                                                                                                                                              cal..
                                                10                                                             0,2
                                                                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                               0,1
        0                                0                                                                      0                                                  0
        1700 2200 2700 3200 3700 4200 4700                                                                       -180    -120   -60       0       60      120   180
                   Vertical position                                                                                                    szög



                                                                                 24.pozíció él

                                                                                                                                EXPECTED APPLYCATION
                                                                                   40
                                                                                        1
                                                                                                                                OF THE IKI-TECHNIQUE
                                                                                                                                •Control the Burnup
                                                                                   30

                                                                       6           20                                2

                                                                                   10

                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                calculation
                                                                                                                                •Studying the asymmetry of
                                                                       5                                             3

                                                                                                                                the Reactor
                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                •Problems of security of the
                                                                                                                                Reactor.
               Comparison
                                                                                                                                •Control yield of some fission
                                                                                                                                production
                                                                      6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
 The electricity and the nuclear wastes produced by
                 critical power plants
1. In 2007 operated 440 power plants in 32 countries of the
   world and produced 370 GW-year (~2.6×1012 kWh). This
   is about 16 % of the world's electricity.
2. If we assume the above level of global nuclear power
   generation, then in the year 2015 there will be more
   then 250 000 tons of spent fuels worldwide, containing
   over 2000 tons of weapons-usable Pu. Over 70 000 tons
   of this spent fuel (<500 t of Pu) will be in the USA, > 1/3
   in Russia and < 1/3 in Europe and others.


                        6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
  The amount of TrU and fission products in 1 ton
         spent fuel (33 MWd/kg) [g/t]
  TrU    T1/2 (y) [g/t]                   Fp.           T1/2 (y)   [g/t]
  239Pu    24 400 5450*                   99Tc           210 000 810
  237Np 2 100 000 450

  243Am      7 400 100                    135Cs         2 300 000 360
  245Cm     8 500     1,2                 129I     16 000 000 170
     * Total: Pu : 9 700
The problem: Nuclear waste from commercial power plants
contains large quantities of Pu, other fissionable actinides, and
long-lived fission product that create challenges for storage and
that are potential hazardous proliferation concerns.

                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
I.2. Accelerator-Driven (spallation), subcritical power plants
The spallation is a high-energy nuclear reaction in which a target
nucleus struck by an incident particle of energy (usually < 500 MeV)
ejects numerous lighter particles and becomes a product nucleus
correspondingly lighter than the original nucleus.




                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
                                                   50

                                                   45

The neutron-yields                                 40


of heavy elements




                         Secund neutrons (n/GeV)
                                                   35

                                                   30

(U, W, Pb) produced                                25


by 0.5-5 GeV proton                                20                                        U-238

                                                   15                                        W

energy [Y = 18-45                                  10                                        Pb



neutrons per                                       5

                                                   0

proton].                                                0   0,5    1    1,5       2      2,5
                                                                              Protonenergy (GeV)
                                                                                                     3   3,5   4   4,5   5




The accelerator can drive 2×500 MWe power plants by transmutation
of 400 kg/year of 239Pu and 100 kg/year of other fissionable actinides.

                                                        6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
A block diagram of accelerator and ATW configuration




                    6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
  USA concept for the transmutation of spent fuel nuclear wastes.
                    Beller et al, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A463, 468, (2001)




On 2036 year the amount of spent fuels will be: > 86 000 ton, in
which the most problematic fission products are the 99Tc (93 t) and
the 129I (20 t).
The ATW systems could be used in a series of different scenarios.
                                 6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Time schedule and milestones for the development of an accelerator
  driven systems (ADS) and accelerator driven transmutation (ADT)
                       technology in Europe




                          6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
       Some Accelerator-Driven programs for
         Transmutations of nuclear wastes
•1987. CERN, JRC (Dubna), BNL (13-28 MeV proton-cyclotrone, TRU
target/fuel, 900 MWt
•1989. JAERI (Japan) OMEGA project salt-solution target
•1990. BNL PHOENIX project, 1,6 GeV-104 mA p-linac
•1991. LANL ATW, 1016 n/cm2s, 100-180 MeV p-linac, actinide fuel.
•1993. CERN (Rubbia), 0,8 GeV-6,25 mA accelerator as driver for a
power reactor a target with thorium as fuel and lead as a coolant.
•1996. Belgium, MYRHA project, 250 MeV-2 mA proton-cyclotrone. n
~1,5×1015 n/cm2, the volume of zone: 35 cm3
•Many institute of 12 Countries co-operate in 20 project.




                         6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
FUSION POWER PLANTS
               II. Nuclear fusion power plants
             Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE). Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE).


 Fusion is the joining
 together of small, light
 nuclei to form a larger,
 more massive nucleus (the
 deuterium-tritium is the
 most popular reaction, but
 there are others).


The problem is that combination of high temperatures and densities
are required to force positively charged nuclei together, but the
resulting high pressure will tend to blow fusion plasma (hot ionized
gas) apart.
                                6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
        Fusion Methods: 3 primary plasma confinement.
i.Magnetic confinement;
ii. Gravitational confinement -- astrophysical contexts;
iii.Inertial confinement -- inertia of the fuel confines it for the nanoseconds
(10-9 s) required for the fusion reaction to proceed.
Difference between magnetic- and inertial confinement:
1. In magnetic confinement, the tendency of the hot plasma to expand is
    counteracted by the Lorenz force between currents in the plasma and
    magnetic fields produced by external coils. The particle densities tend to
    be in the range of 1018 to 1022 m-3 and the linear dimensions in the range
    of 0.1 to 10 m.
2. In contrast, with inertial confinement, there is nothing to counteract the
    expansion of the plasma. The confinement time is simply the time it
    takes the plasma pressure to overcome the inertia of the particles, hence
    the name. The densities tend to be in the range of 1031 to 1033 m-3 and
    the plasma radius in the range of 1 to 100 micrometers.


                                6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
Types of fusion                           Methods of fusing nuclei
Magnetic             Tokamak – Spheromack – Stellator – Reversed fiel pinch – Field-
confinement          Revised Configuration – Leviated Dipole
Inertial             Laser driven – Z-pinch – Bubble fusion (acoustic confinement) –
confinement          Fusor (electrical confinement)
Other forms of       Muon-catalised fusion – Pyroelectric fosion – Mignon – Polywell –
fusion               Dense pasma focus

Devices                                  List of fusion experiments
Magnetic            ITER (International) | JET (European) | JT-60 | Large Helical Device
confinement         (Japan) | KSTAK (Korea) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | Tore Supra
devices (20)        (France) | DIIID | TFTR | NSTX | ULCEAT | Alcator C-Mod | LDX (all
                    USA) | H-INF (Ausztralia) | MSAT | START (UK) | ASDEX Upgrade
                    (Germany) | TCV (Switzerland) | DEMO (Commercial)


Inertial confine-   NIF | OMEGA | Novette laser | NIKE laser | Argus laser | Ciclop laser |
ment devices.       Janus laser | Long path laser | 4 laser | Vulcan laser (all USA) |
Laser driven (16)   LMJ | Luli2000 (France) | Gekko XII (Japan) | ISKRA lasers
and non laser       (Russia) | Asterix IV laser (Czeh Republik) | HiPER (European).
driven (2)          Non laser driven: Z-machine | PACER (USA)

                                   6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
        II.1. Magnetic fusion (ITER) program
• ITER is an international tokamak
  (magnetic confinement fusion)
  experiment. It builds upon research
  conducted on devices such as TFTR,
  JET, JT-60, T-15. The program is
  anticipated to last for 30 years and
  cost € 10 billion. Announced in 2005
  that ITER will be built in Cadarache,
  France.
• It designed to produce ~ 500 MW of
  fusion power sustained for up to 1000
  seconds. It is intended to be an
  experimental step between today's                 Magnetic fusion has long been
  studies of plasma physics and future              heralded as the future of
  electricity-producing fusion power                renewable energy, but could it
  plants (DEMO).                                    be lasers that hold the key.

                             6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
              II.2. Laser fusion, inertial confinement.
                 Indirect fusion (central ignition heavy ion beams or ion beams)
                        Intense laser beams, focused into a tiny gold cylinder called a hohlraum, will
                        generate a "bath" of soft X-rays that will compress a tiny hollow shell filled with
                        DT to 100 times the density of lead. In the resulting conditions – a temperature
                        of more than millions of degrees and pressures 100 billion times the Earth's
                        atmosphere – the fuel core will ignite and thermonuclear burn will quickly
                        spread through the compressed fuel.


                                             In 2010, National Ignition
                                             Facility (NIF) will begin
                                             experiments that will focus
                                             the energy of 192 giant laser
                                             beams on a target filled with
                                             DT fuel. NIF's goal is to fuse
                                             the hydrogen atoms' nuclei
                                             and produce net energy gain.
                                             Chamber is 10 m diameter.
                                             Livermore.
Nova laser opened in 1985 (chamber, 10
laser beams converge to heat and shock a
tiny hohlraum) It is 9 m high and 4.5 m
diameter. Livermore.
                                           6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
         Laser fusion, inertial confinement.
                   Direct fusion (fast ignition)
• It will capable of firing more
  than a petawatt of energy
  at a 2 mm fuel pellet held in
  place by a bottle. The laser
  barrage will compress the
  pellet to just a few microns,
  that can generate millions
  of degrees of heat needed
  for fusion to occur.
  Compression → Ignition →
  Burn

                         6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
         High Power laser Energy Research facility (HiPER)
•   It is the first experiment
    designed specifically to study
    the "fast ignition„ (direct
    fusion) approach to
    generating nuclear fusion,
    which uses much smaller
    lasers than conventional
    designs. The design for
    possible construction in the
    EU starting 2010.
•   NIF: Input E (1 beam) = 4 MJ.
    Output E (1 beam) = 20 MJ.
    Output/Input; Q = 5. But the
    input E of 192 beams = 330 MJ
    (Q< 1). HiPER: Input E = 270 kJ
    (driver and heater lasers).     The smaller lasers are much less expensive, therefore the
    Output E ~ 25-30 MJ. Q ~ 90 - power-for-cost of HiPER is expected to be about an order
    100.                            of magnitude less expensive than like NIF.


                                     6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
              The High Average Power Laser Program
                                                          •    Participants (Institutions): DoD/DoE Labs.
Phase I. The goal is to establish the technology
    required for the lasers, target fabrication,               (8); Industry (6); University (4).
    target injection, chambers, and final optics,         •    Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE). Direct
    as well as to identify one or more credible                ignition. A schematic appears below.
    chamber concepts (2001-2005).
Phase II will provide an integrated demonstration
    that the main laser IFE components can
    operate together in a predictable manner
    and that the performance will scale to a
    fusion power plant, (2012).
Phase III is the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). It
    would be the first Laser IFE facility to
    repetitively produce significant
    thermonuclear burn, (2025). It would expect
    the laser energy to be between 1.4-2.0 MJ,
    with a gain of approximately 120, and a
    fusion output of between 160 to 240 MJ.




                                            6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
     Birds view of the power plant KOYO-F (Japan)
Basic specification of
KOYO-F (direct fusion)
Net output           1200 MWe
                     (4×300)
Laser Energy         1.1 MJ
Fusion out-          200 MJ
put/pulse
Pulse rep-rate       4 Hz
in reactor
Total output         1519 MWe
Thermal to           41.5 %
electricity effic.
                                Some data: Compression laser Heating laser
Laser efficiency     11.4 %
                                Wave length   3ω               1ω
                                Energy/pulse  1.1 MJ           0.1 MJ
                                Beam number   32               1 bundle
                                Rep-rate     16 Hz            16 Hz
                                6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
     Some Major Laser Fusion Facilities in the World
                    LMJ, CESTA, Bordeaux,            SG-III, Menyang, CAEP,
NIF, LLNL, USA
                           France                             China




GEKKO XII-FIREX,         OMEGA-EP, LLE,               ISKRA-5" laser target
ILE, Osaka, Japan         Rochester US                  chamber (Russia)




                         6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
IAEA- FC 2008, 50 years’ Ann. Fusion Res., Oct. 15, 2008, Geneva, SW
            (Kunioki Mima, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University)




                                 6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
              Short summary and conclusions
I.   Current critical reactors in operation around the world are generally
     considered II- or III-generation systems. Generation IV reactors are a set
     of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. These designs are
     generally not expected to be available for commercial construction
     before 2030.
II. The subcritical accelerator driven (AD) power plants can also produced
     electricity and considerably to diminish the nuclear waste from 2030.
     Most important advantage of the ADS is that the reactor coming to
     standstill if we switch off the accelerator and with this we can avoid the
     very hazardous runaway accidents.
III. Magnetic fusion has long been heralded as the future of renewable
     energy, but could it be lasers that hold the key. It is intended to be an
     experimental step between today's studies of plasma physics and future
     electricity-producing fusion power plants (DEMO).


                               6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
IV. Laser fusion power plants are the devices of future. The smaller
    lasers are much less expensive, therefore the power-for-cost of
    HiPER is expected to be about an order of magnitude less
    expensive than like NIF types. Its hopeful that it could become a
    commercial reality within the next 20 years.
V. EXPECTED APPLYCATION OF THE IKI-TECHNIQUE
• Control the Burnup calculation
• Studying the asymmetry of the Reactor
• Problems of security of the Reactor.
• Control yield of some fission production


         THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTANTIONS



                           6-10-2009, Hanoi, Vietnam

								
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