PM_Insv01

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• Leaks • Water Quality

• Common Plants and Algae and Control
– Control Methods – Grass Carp – Barley Straw Update

– Muddy water, fish kills, animals

• Fish Topics

• Miscellaneous Problems • New Resources

– Common species, trout, fish kills

– Canada Geese, muddy water

• • • • •

Avoid with proper design and construction! Nearly always necessary to drain pond Simple compaction if good clay present Make-up water – sometimes possible Sealing products
– Plastic liner - $$$$ – Bentonite (one pound/ft2) – also $$$
• disc into soil 3 or 4 inches, swells when wet • better for coarse textured soils • white granular form, mix to 8” then compact • breaks soil into fine particles • 6 inches in depth and compact, refill pond quickly

Pond Leaks

– Sodium polyphosphate (0.05 lbs./ft2) – blanket of clay

Pond Water Quality for Farms
• nitrate-N should be less than 100 mg/L • fecal coliform bacteria • • • • • blue-green algae - toxins pH should be 5.1 to 9.0 for dairy cows watch use of aquatic herbicides (copper) iron and manganese - taste problem sulfate < 250 mg/L (mining)
– <10 per 100 ml for adult animals – 0 fecal coliform for calves

Pond Water Quality for Fish
• temperature
– all fish have temperature limits – difficult to control – must match fish to temperature – used to determine fish spawning times

• dissolved oxygen
– – – – –

normal = 10-15 mg/L warmwater fish like D.O. > 3 mg/L coldwater fish like D.O. > 5 mg/L depletion caused by decay of organic matter most common cause of fish kills in ponds

Pond Water Quality for Fish
• pH
– can be treated with chemical additions – warmwater fish (6 to 9), coldwater (pH 5 to 9) – low pH may cause stunted growth of fish

• aquatic herbicides • herbicide runoff

– many are toxic to fish (especially young fish) – obtain a permit and read the label carefully
– some are extremely toxic to fish – especially high following first rain after application

Fish Kills in Ponds
• #1 oxygen depletion
– decay of organic material

• #2 undetermined disease
• #3 pesticides

– Noted by death on only one or two kinds of fish

– runoff or drift from fields, improper aquatic use

• #4 cotton wool disease

– occurs in spring around spawning time – soil bacteria infects bluegill, bullhead, crappie

• #5 winter kill

– shallow ponds with persistent ice and snow cover

Pond Water Quality for Swimming
• coliform bacteria
– 2000 total coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water – 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml

• swimmers itch
– free swimming parasite – can be controlled with copper sulfate or predator fish introductions

Water Quality for Aquatic Herbicides
• hardness
– affects dose of some chemicals

• temperature
– Many labels recommend temperature range of 60 to 75 F

Aquatic Plants and Algae

First Step – What is the Objective?

Cause of Plant and Algae Problems
• Natural aging of the pond • Transport of plants from pond to pond
– Canada Geese!!

• Nutrient inputs • Ideally – 10-20% of pond bottom and surface will be covered with aquatic plants

Nutrient Management
• N and P cause increased plant and algae growth • Sources
– runoff from barnyards, cropland, feedlots – sewage systems – managed turf (golf courses, developments)
– – – – redirect runoff reduce fertilizer use buffer strips (tall grass or forests) maintain on-lot septic systems

• Control (BMP’s) - impact will not be immediate!

Plant Identification
• Field Guides
– Through the Looking Glass … (available from Wisconsin Lakes Partnership for $20, 715-346-3424). – Many web pages - How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae and Aquatic Pesticide Application Assistant CD – both available at 800-647-5368

• Send digital pictures to brs@psu.edu

Filamentous Algae – many species

Chara – hardwater areas, encrusted, usually beneficial except in some shallow ponds

Algae Control
• Mechanical • Chemical
– Raking, netting, aeration (??)

– Copper sulfate or chelated copper compounds

– Dyes

• Rapid acting, non-selective, contact herbicide (0.25 to 0.5 ppm), cheap • more toxic in soft and acidic water • may kill sensitive fish (trout, catfish, carp) • accumulates in sediment! • block sunlight (blue/yellow dyes), no permit, cheap • safe for fish but “artificial” appearance

• Biological

– Grazing insects, bacteria products (??)

Barley Straw Update
• Fungi decompose barley in water releases inhibitory chemical (hydrogen peroxide?) • Not all algae susceptible • Results inconsistent
– species, water condition, climate

Barley Straw Use
• • • • • Break bales apart into loose netting Place in shallow water (< 5 feet) March or April best 225 lbs/acre (~5 bales per acre) Higher dose in muddy water (double)

Barley Straw Regulation
• EPA considers barley straw a pesticide • It cannot be sold as a pesticide since it is unregistered • Important for commercial user but homeowner can still use it as “home remedy” • Extension should use care in recommending its use to commercial applicators

Exotic

Curly-leaf Pondweed

Floating-leaf Pondweed

Thin-leaf Pondweed

Large-leaf Pondweed

Leafy Pondweed Common problem, very dense growth

Coontail – dense, may float, fragments

Watermilfoil – reddish, fragments, feather-like leaves

Elodea – dense, common in northern PA ponds, aquarium plant, good habitat

Bladderwort – tiny oval bladders, may float, found in cold, acidic ponds, yellow or purple flowers

Naiad – brittle, grows in deeper water, fragments

Physical/Mechanical Control
– cutting, raking, mowing, digging, pulling
• • • • • most effective for small quantities near shore usually need to repeat several times per year need to harvest plants if possible mechanical harvesters for larger lakes ($$) can make some problems worse! (naiad, elodea, coontail, etc.)

– blanket – shade

• gravel or sand
• black plastic for 30 days

– deepen pond edges – drawdown

• expose and freeze root stock

Biological Control
• triploid grass carp (white amur) • Will eat most submerged aquatic plants – pondweeds, naiads, elodea, coontail, muskgrass – Not for floaters (somewhat for duckweed) – Not for emergents – Little control of algae • thrive in warm water (68°F+) • can reach 25 pounds or more • may cause water discoloration • sterile fish must be stocked • permit required (1 to 15 per acre) • koi, carp not recommended

Herbicides for Submerged Plants
– Hydrothol 191 (monopotassium endothall) – Aquathol-K (dipotassium endothall) – Weedtrine-D (diquat dibromide) – Reward (diquat dibromide) – Sonar SRP (fluridone) – Copper Compounds
• slow acting, inhibits carotene • same as above, contact stops photosynthesis, • rapid, non-selective, no root kill, high fish toxicity

• rapid adsorption, stops photosynthesis, degrades fast

• rapid, non-selective, high fish toxicity, accumulate, inhibits cell growth, generally algaecides

Herbicide Use
• Important to make clients aware of state permit requirement
– – – – – There is a large-scale failure to use permit system This could lead to tighter regulation Liability issue Permit ensures correct herbicide and dose Simple, takes about two weeks to get permit, available online

• Chemical must be EPA registered, PDA listed, and labeled for aquatic use • Important that client reads and follows label directions • Careful pond measurements are critical

Cattails – mechanical removal?, can use Rodeo also

Purple Loosestrife – problem exotic plant in much of PA, Rodeo effective

Emergent Plant Control
– Mechanical • Pulling • Cutting – may drown plant • Digging • Drawdown

– Chemical • Rodeo (glyphosate) – moves through plant from contact to roots • Weedtrine (2,4-D) – roots lose ability to take up nutrients

Watershield – common in acidic ponds, underside of leaf is purple with gelatinous film, dull red or purple flowers, spreads quickly, BIG problem, Rodeo or 2,4-D product

Spatterdock – heart shaped leaf, yellow flower

Water Lily – often desirable, mechanical control possible

Watermeal

Duckweed

These are BIG problems in PA, especially stagnant ponds, Sonar best herbicide ($$)

Floating Plant Control
– Mechanical • Netting or aeration (duckweed) • Pulling or cutting (watershield) – Chemical • Rodeo (glyphosate) – moves through plant from contact to roots • AquaKleen/Aquacide/Navigate (2,4-D) – roots lose ability to take up nutrients • Sonar A.S. (fluridone) – absorbed by leaves and roots, inhibits carotene – Biological • Grass Carp (limited duckweed control)

Herbicides Can be Expensive!
cost per acre
• Reward® (diquat dibromide) - $200 to $400 • Sonar® (fluridone) - $500 to $1,000 • Rodeo® (glyphosate) - $100 to $250 • Copper compounds - < $100
– emergents, some floaters – algae – floaters, some submerged

– submerged

• Navigate (2,4-D) - $300 to $600
– some floaters, some submerged

Fish Topics
• bass/bluegill
– most common and most successful option – thrive in warmer water (77 - 86° F) – dissolved oxygen > 3 mg/L, pH 6 to 9

• requires management and patience
– abundant small bass – abundant bluegill
• harvest bass, slot limit, stock bluegill?, patience • harvest bluegill, limit bass harvest, 15:1 harvest ratio

Other Options
• bass only
– 150-200 fall fingerlings – add 8-10 adults bass in spring before spawn – great for lots of 9-12 inch bass – summer stocking 100 bass, 400 golden shiners – faster bass growth, aquatic plants helpful – 500 catfish, 1,000 fathead minnows in Feb-Mar – 100 bass fingerlings added in May-July

• bass/shiner

• bass/catfish

Other Fish Species
• • • • • •

may muddy the water, have low water quality requirements • crappie - some success in PA with cool, deep ponds, also good for ice fishing

shiners - need to be continually stocked perch - prolific, spawn before bass, ice fishing! pike, muskie, walleye - not for ponds channel catfish – spawning and survival unpredictable sunfish - lower winter survival, slower growing bullhead catfish -prone to stunting and overcrowding,

Trout in Ponds
• not well suited to most PA ponds • like cold water with dissolved oxygen > 5 mg/L and pH of 5 to 9

• cannot compete with warmwater fish
• “put and take” option

– stock catchable size trout in spring – fish them out before water warms (June)

Miscellaneous Topics
• supplemental feeding • liming/fertilization • pond regulations

• adding fish structure

Muddy Water
• “natural” color cannot be removed • common in new ponds (exposed soil) • other reasons - muskrats, crayfish, fish, livestock, waterfowl, zooplankton, wind • control - remove cause? • chemical addition (per acre)
– – – – – 1,000 lbs. ground agricultural limestone 740 lbs. hydrated lime 1,000 lbs. agricultural gypsum (not as good) 250 lbs. aluminum sulfate (alum) 2 lbs. copper sulfate (zooplankton)

Canada Geese
• spread plants from pond to pond! • coliform bacteria from waste can be a problem for swimming • try to maintain <2 ducks/geese per acre • eliminate if using for water supply • short-term migrational stops generally not a problem

Canada Geese
• Man-made barriers
– Fence – Goose Grid -plastic line, checker board, temporary – 20 lb. monofilament tied to stakes around pond at 6” and 12” – Riprap – 2 to 3 foot band around pond

• Repellent
– Turfshield – artificial grape flavor with sticking agent

Canada Geese
• Harassment • Ice
– Scarecrows like owls, hawks – short-lived – Noise
– Turn off aeration to allow pond to freeze in winter – Like bluegrass, ryegrass, red fescue – Dislike tall fescue, common periwinkle, English ivy, Japanese pachysandra – Vegetative barriers – cattails, bulrushes, shrubs, etc.

• Vegetation

Resources
• • • • Pond Management Circular Plant Control Publication (for sale) NRCS Design Publication PSU Fact Sheets (2)
– Barley Straw – Aquatic Plant and Algae Control – Others???

• • • •

Web sites – lots of them! APD display – panels, What’s in My Pond? CD and Book on Aquatic Plants Pond Downlink (video)
– Repeat??

Muskrats
• build dens in banks 6-18” below surface • burrow extends upward into bank • may cause leaks and collapse in poorly designed ponds • riprapping shoreline with large gravel from one foot above to 3 feet below water surface • may be killed for property destruction in PA

Leeches
• flat, dark-colored, parasite • attach to swimmers, fish, birds • harmless but frightening and detract from swimming use • need 5 mg/L of copper sulfate treatment • this treatment will kill fish! • partial treatment (< 20% of pond area) of swimming area best but temporary

Swimmer’s Itch
• not common but occasionally found in PA • free-swimming parasite that burrows under skin and causes itch and rash for 3-7 days • develops mostly in snails in pond • More common in ponds with few predator fish • must control snails
– Largemouth bass – redear sunfish (shellcrackers) – Copper sulfate at 4 mg/L will kill snails but also kills fish


				
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