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					Unit 8

Teaching Objectives
1. Enlarge vocabulary 2. Talk about the advantages and disadvantages cloning brings to us 3. Learn to identify the writer’s purpose 4. Learn to write a letter of thanks

Section A Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning Who Will Take Advantage of Human Cloning? Twins Six Years Apart

Section B

Section C

Section A Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning

Table of Contents
 Background Information  Warming-up Activities

 Text Analysis
 Vocabulary and Structure  Vocabulary Test

 Writing

What is cloning ?
There are different types of cloning, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing the genetic twin of another organism. The three types of cloning technologies are: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning(基因重组克隆技术), (2) reproductive cloning(再生克隆技术), and (3) therapeutic cloning(干细胞疗法克隆技术).

Celebrity Sheep Dolly (1)

Dolly, the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA, was put down by lethal injection on Feb. 14, 2003. Prior to her death, Dolly had been suffering from lung cancer and crippling arthritis.

Celebrity Sheep Dolly (2)
Although most Finn Dorset sheep live to be 11 to 12 years of age, postmortem examination of Dolly seemed to indicate that, other than her cancer and arthritis, she appeared to be quite normal. The unnamed sheep from which Dolly was cloned had died several years prior to her creation. Dolly was a mother to six lambs, bred the old-fashioned way.

What animals have been cloned? (1)
Scientists have been cloning animals for many years. In 1952, the first animal, a tadpole, was cloned. Before the creation of Dolly, the first mammal cloned from the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells. Since Dolly, researchers have cloned a number of large and small animals including sheep, goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, rabbits, and a gaur. All these clones were created using nuclear transfer technology(细胞核移植技术).

What animals have been cloned? (2)

Dolly First cloned mule

Cloned monkeys

First cloned horse

First cloned cat

Cloned twin goats

What are the risks of cloning? (1)
Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. More than 100 nuclear transfer procedures could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders.

What are the risks of cloning?(2)
Japanese studies have shown that cloned mice live in poor health and die early. About a third of the cloned calves born alive have died young, and many of them were abnormally large. Many cloned animals have not lived long enough to generate good data about how clones age. Appearing healthy at a young age unfortunately is not a good indicator of long term survival. Clones have been known to die mysteriously.

Group Discussions (1)
1. As far as you know, what are the advantages and disadvantages that cloning brings to us?

Some fatal diseases can be cured with the application of cloning; the rate of success in organ transplant will be greatly improved; and the infertile couples are hopeful to have their own babies, etc. However, it may bring confusion and fear to us; it will threaten human society and dignity; and those clones may feel miserable if they are treated as organ donors instead of independent human beings.

Group Discussions (2)
2. Should Humans be cloned? Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning and the lack of understanding about this technology, I’m strongly against it. Not only do most attempts to clone mammals fail, several cloned animals have died prematurely from infections. Moreover, we don’t know how cloning could impact mental development, which is crucial for the development of healthy humans. With so many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning, the attempt to clone humans at this time is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible.

Comprehension of the Text (1)
1. How did the world react to the first successfully cloned sheep?

The world was amazed by the news at first, then worried about and puzzled over a long list of wild possibilities.

Comprehension of the Text (2)
2. What are the two broad categories human cloning situations often fall into? One of the situations is that parents want to clone a child who can serve either as a transplant donor or as a substitute for the original. The second is that adults want to clone themselves for a variety of reasons.

Comprehension of the Text (3)
3. According to the author, why are twins more alike than clones? Because clones are only physically identical while twins share the same environment within the mother and are usually raised in the same family.

Comprehension of the Text (4)
4. Biologically speaking, what is the only possible major difference between a clone and the original? The only possible major difference is bearing children, as scientists are not sure if Dolly will be able to have lambs.

Comprehension of the Text (5)
5. Why do some parents want to save their fatally ill child through cloning?
Because cloning would increase the chances for a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent. 6. Could cloned animals be used as organ donors? If technology was improved, this could be realized.

Comprehension of the Text (6)
7. How did Judith Martin suggest referring to one’s DNA donors?
It might be proper to refer to them as “Most honored sir or madam”. 8. What is the gravest concern about human cloning for society? The creation of a new and disrespected social class: the clones.

Text Analysis (1)
Main idea of the text When a world with human clones was suddenly within reach, people’s reactions to it were strong and varied. They puzzled over a number of questions about the legal and moral implications that had arisen from cloning.

Text Analysis (2)
Main Ideas of Each Part
Part I (Para. 1)

With the success of cloning an adult mammal, the world was suddenly brought into the reality of human cloning. This part is about the world’s strong and immediate responses in the wake of Wilmut’s announcement. This part offers complete or partial answers, from the up-to-date knowledge, to the six questions on the legal and moral implications of cloning. This part is intended to reaffirm the author’s opinion that, although the list of questions could go on, people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the world after cloning.

Part II (Paras. 2-3)

Part III (Paras. 4-18)

Part IV (Paras.19)

Words and Expressions
implication prohibit mount resemble minor fatal deliberate classify word that…/of… succeed in doing draft guidelines for fall into in theory be identical to/with in terms of be concerned about be comparable/similar to


1. Typical patterns for advancing one’s arguments 2. Typical patterns for comparison and contrast 3. Typical patterns for showing sb.’s reactions to sth.

implication n.
1. sth. that is suggested or sth. that is not openly stated 含义,暗示 He smiled, but the implication was that he didn't believe me.

2. involving or being involved, esp. in a

crime 牵连,卷入 The implication of the general manager in the criminal case further complicated the whole situation.

prohibit vt.
fobid, esp. by law or rule; prevent; make impossible 禁止,使不可能,阻止 Smoking is strictly prohibited in the process of handling explosive materials.
在处理易爆物时, 严格禁止吸烟。

The loudness of the music prohibits serious conversation in most nightclubs.

mount vi./vt. (1)
vi. increase gradually esp. in a way that makes a situation worse 增加,上升

Four days after the accident, the death toll continued to mount.

vt. 1. go up or on to 登上

I really feel sorry for the old lady when I find she can mount the stairs only with difficulty.

mount vi./vt. (2)
vt. 2. prepare and produce, organize 准备并进

The united opponent parties are getting ready to mount a powerful attack on the government.
联合起来的反对党正准备向政府发动有力的 攻势。

resemble vt.
look or be like; be similar, esp. in appearance to (sb./sth.) 像,类似

She resembles her mother in the way she moves her hands when she talks.

We have produced a cloth made of pineapple fiber, closely resembling cotton but stronger.
我们生产出了一块由菠萝纤维制成的衣料,很像棉布 但质地更结实。

minor a./n.
a. smaller or lesser in degree, size,numbers or importance when compared with others 较小的,

The important thing is to finish it quickly; cost is only a relatively minor consideration.

n. a person who is below the age at which he or she becomes an adult legally 未成年人 In Britain you are a minor until you are eighteen.

fatal a.
a. very serious and having an important bad effect in the future or (of illness, accidents, etc.) causing death 决定命运的,致命的 Global warming is fatal to the world and therefore scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. 全球变暖对于世界的影响是灾难性的, It is fatal to drive after drinking alcohol and exceed the speed limit. Such driving habits can lead to fatal accidents.
酒后驾车和超速驾驶会带来严重后果。这些驾驶恶习会导致致 命的车祸。


deliberate a./vi./vt. (1)
a. 1. planned 故意的,蓄意的

He is the very witness who testifies under oath that the fire which had broken out in the company was deliberate.
2. moving, acting, or thinking slowly and usu. carefully 谨慎的,慎重的 When confronted with such a delicate situation, you are supposed to take deliberate actions.


deliberate a./vi./vt. (2)
vt./vi. think or talk seriously and carefully about 认真考虑,研讨
The senate has been deliberating the question for three days.

They met to deliberate on possible solutions to the problem.

classify vt.
divide things into groups according to type

The books in the library are classified by/according to subject.

Would you classify her novels as serious literature or as mere entertainment?
你认为她的小说属于“严肃文学”类,还是 “纯娱乐”类?

word that…/of… 关于······的消息 关于食品价格即将大幅上涨的消息在街 上传得很快。
Word that there would be great increase in food prices has been spread fast on the streets.

succeed in doing sth. 成功地做了某事
如果他们成功地达成了停火协议,联合 国将派驻维和部队。
If they succeed in establishing a cease-fire, the UN will send in peacekeeping forces.

draft guidelines for… 为······起草指导方针

她正忙着为下月的 演讲比赛起草演讲 稿。 She was busy drafting her speech for next month’s speech contest.

fall into 可分成;属于

物以类聚,人 以群分。 Things of a kind come together; people of a mind fall into a group.

in theory 在理论上

你的计划理论上听 起来不错,但我不 知道实际上是否行 得通。
Your plan sounds fine in theory, but I don’t know if it will work in practice.

be identical to / with 与······一模一样;就 等于

他的意见似乎和我的一样,这真的是我 没有料想到的。
It seems that his opinion is identical to mine, which is really out of my expectation.

in terms of 从······方面(来说); 根据; 按照

令我大为吃惊的 是,现在他考虑 任何事情都从金 钱的角度出发。
To my great surprise, he thinks of everything in terms of money now.

be concerned about / over 担心,担忧

作为成年人,我们应该关注非洲儿童的 健康成长问题。
As adults, we should be deeply concerned about the healthy growth of the children in Africa.

be comparable / similar to 可与······相比; 类似于 在一些人眼里,爱情就像是个迷宫,充 满了诱惑和陷阱。 In the eyes of some people, love is comparable to a maze, full of lures and traps.

1. Typical patterns for advancing one’s arguments
原句: If cloned animals could be used as organ donors, we wouldn’t have to worry about cloning twins for transplants. (L. 48)
如果把克隆的动物用作器官捐赠,那我们就不 必考虑为器官移植而克隆双胞胎了。 句型提炼

If sb. / sth. could be / do sth., we wouldn’t have to worry about (doing) sth. else. 假如 某人 / 某物可能是 / 做某事,我们不必担 心······

应用:如果每个人都能够认识到自然资源并非取 之尽,那我们就不必再担心人们对资源的盲目 开发了。

If everyone could realize natural resources are not inexhaustible, we wouldn’t have to worry about any blind exploitation of them.

2. Typical patterns for comparison and contrast (1)
原句:Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly’s appearance has generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. (L. 11)
就像相对论、原子裂变和第一次太空飞行一 样,多莉的出现给科学家、政治家和哲学家 们提出了一长串难以解答的问题。

句型提炼 Like sth. else, the appearance / arrival / birth / invention of sth. new generates / produces / makes… 像某些事/ 物一样,某事
/ 物的出现/ 诞生 / 发明产生 / 带来了······ 应用:就像历史上的任何一场战争一样,伊 拉克战争给世界带来了一长串的战 后难题。

Like any other wars in history, the Iraq war has generated a long list of difficult postwar problems for the world

3. Typical patterns for showing sb.’s reactions to sth.
原句:In the wake of Wilmut’s announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, a future filled with incredible possibilities. (L. 6)
就在威尔莫特宣告成功之后,为了一个未知世界,一 个充满各种不可思议的可能性的未来,各国政府立即 起草指导方针。

In the wake of sth., sb. hurries / begins to…
在某事之后,某人急着 / 开始······

应用:那次失败以后,他急着寻找机会 重新证明自己。
In the wake of that failure, he hurried to look for chances of reproving himself.

Vocabulary Test
Directions: For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. 1. To understand the _______ of a situation, we have to know something about the kind of situation. A. passages B. relations

C. implications C. implications

D. findings

2. The tension ______ as the guest of honor was about to announce the winner. A. climbed B. raised C. descended D. mounted D. mounted 3. I suspect this is _______ attempt to discredit their critics. B. a deliberate A. an intentional B. a deliberate C. a purposeful D. a considered 4. Salaries for ______ positions seem to be higher than for permanent ones. A. legal B. optional D. temporary temporary C. voluntary

5.Research universities have to keep up with the latest computer and scientific hardware ______ price. A. on account of B. regardless of B. regardless of C. in addition to D. not to mention 6. The ship’s generator broke down, and the pumps had to be operated ______ instead of mechanically. A. manually B. artificially A. manually C. automatically D. synthetically 7.First published in 1927, the charts remain an ______ source for researches. A. identical B. indispensable B. indispensable C. intelligent D. inevitable

8. Harry _____ his pants at the seams (接缝) when he bent over. A. sliced C. cracked B) split B. split D. broke

9. The boy cycling in the street was knocked down by a minibus and received ____ injuries.

A. fatal B. excessive fatal C. radical D. exaggerated 10.Remember that customers don’t ______ about prices in that city. A. debate B. consult D. bargain C. dispute D. bargain

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change the form where necessary.
succeed in doing work for regardless of be identical to provide for in the wake of in terms of be concerned about within reach fall into refer to as well

refer to 1. I didn’t know the word. I had to _______ a dictionary.

in the wake of 2. Airport security was extra tight ____________ yesterday’s bomb attacks.

succeed in doing work for regardless of be identical to provide for in the wake of in terms of be concerned about

within reach fall into refer to as well

succeeded in 3. The astronauts __________ returning from the moon to the earth according to the plan.
regardless of 4. He went ahead __________ all warnings about the danger of his mission. been concerned about 5. He has never ________________ what other people think of him.

succeed in doing work for regardless of be identical to provide for in the wake of in terms of be concerned about

within reach fall into refer to as well

In terms of 6. __________ customer satisfaction, the policy cannot be criticized. is identical to 7. His behavior __________ betraying us. work for 8. The rules of safe driving ______ everyone. 9. He’s grown so much that now even the top within (his) reach of shelf is _____________. falls into 10. This book _________ the class of modern fiction.


Letter of Thanks
写作方法 参考范文

Useful words and phrases
appreciate 感激 appropriate 恰当的 beyond words 难以言表 convey 传达 awesome 棒 极 了 be obliged to 感 激 的 considerate 体贴的 indebted 感恩的 generous 慷慨的 grateful 感激的 gratitude 感激之情 heartfelt 衷心的 hospitality 好客,热情款待 thankful 感谢的 kindness 好意 thoughtful 考虑周到的 understanding 善解人意的 unselfish assistance 无私的帮助 make lasting impressions 留下永久的记忆 cherish/ treasure 珍藏,珍视 extend heartfelt thanks 表达衷心的感谢

Useful Sentence Patterns
1. I am grateful to you for... 我非常感激你的…… 2. I am greatly indebted to you for all you have done for me. 我十分感激你为我所做的一切。 3. I take this opportunity to express to you my deep appreciation for the kind assistance you rendered me. 我借此机会对你所给予我的帮助表示深深的谢意。 4. Many thanks for your kindness and hospitality. 多谢你的好意和好客。 5. Words fail to convey my gratitude to you. 感激之情,难以言表。

Useful Sentence Patterns
6. Thanks so much for the gift you sent me. It's

one of the most wonderful gifts I got on my birthday. 非常感谢你送给我的礼物 , 这是我生日时收到 的最好的礼物之一。 7. Nothing will be able to erase our fond memories, and we will nurture them forever. 没有什么能抹掉我们美好的记忆,我们会永 远铭记在心。

Writing Process

1. State the purpose of your letter. 表明写信目的。 2. Express sincere gratitude to the receiver. 向收信人表示诚挚的感谢。

Writing Process
1. Recall the happy minute /event. 回忆快乐时光 ( 事件 ) 。 2. Highly praise the past favor. 高度评价 ( 赞赏 ) 收信人的帮助 。 3. List the reasons why you are grateful to the recipient. 列举为何对收信人心存感激。 4. Express your feeling. 表达你的感受 ( 感情 )。

Writing Process
Ending 1. Restate your great appreciation for the favor and help rendered to you. 再次表达你对收信人的帮助的谢意。 2. Express your wish to have the opportunity to reciprocate /repay the past favor. 希望有机会回报收信人的好意和帮助。

Writing Practice

A Letter of Thanks
1.向对方邀请自己到家里做客表示感谢。 2.回忆在对方家庭度周末的快乐时光。 3.再次表达对对方款待的谢意。

Writing Practice
1. 首先,在引言部分,应表明自己的写信目的, 并向对方表示诚挚的感谢 。 2. 接着,在正文部分,回忆在对方家庭度周末 的快乐时光 。可以从以下两点切入:1)描写 对方的热情款待 2)表达自己心中的感受。 3. 最后,在结尾部分,应再次表达对对方款待 的谢意,并表达希望有机会回报对方的好意 和帮助的心情。

Reference Model
Dear Mr. Ng, It is a pleasure to write this letter because it gives me an opportunity to tell you how much I enjoyed your hospitality last weekend. It was my first visit to an American family and, at first, I was very anxious about my limited English and my knowledge of American customs. Then I saw you and your children waiting for me at the station with warm smiles of welcome and your wonderful family put me at ease right away.

Reference Model
There are many happy memories of the weekend that I will keep with me forever. I will remember that you made me feel at home. There were so many new and different things for me to see and do. I particularly enjoyed driving through the countryside and seeing the charming colors of the leaves on the trees. I liked playing baseball with your lovely son and daughter, Chain and Linda. They were patient with me and full of fun. Tell them I will teach them how to play soccer next time.

Reference Model
I also had a good time at the community square dance on Saturday night. It was my first square dance, and I cannot forget how friendly and kind everyone around was. I am back at school now and I am very happy because I know now a real American family and it is one of the nicest families I have ever met. Because my English is still not very good, I cannot express my feelings better. I can only say "thank you" and hope that someday you will visit my country and I can return your hospitality.
Sincerely yours, Wendy Wu

Section B

Who will Take Advantage of Human Cloning

Table of Contents
Reading Comprehension Vocabulary Study

Vocabulary Test

Reading Comprehension(1)
1. Why did the public feel panic at the news that scientists had cloned a sheep? Because they were worried that human cloning may come soon. 2. What is the author’s attitude towards human cloning? While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a convincing case that it would do any real harm, either.

Reading Comprehension(2)
3. Who hold the idea that cloning a human constitutes a gross attack on human dignity?

The conservative spiritual leaders.
4. According to the author, why do many of the vivid warnings of science-fiction concerning the prospect of human cloning turn out to be improbable?

Because parents of identical twins don’t view one child as an organ farm for the other.

Reading Comprehension(3)
5. What is the other disturbing thought about human cloning mentioned in the passage? It will lead to efforts to breed individuals with genetic qualities perceived as desirable. 6. In a democracy what do we do about things we don’t know well? We don’t pass laws against them before there is actual or probable evidence of harm.

Reading Comprehension(4)
7. What does the author suggest we should do before we go any further into the experiment of human cloning? To require a temporary pause on research into human cloning in order to make a systematic enquiry into the grave questions it raises. 8. What is the more important thing about human cloning according to the author? It should be governed by the same laws that now protect human rights.

Vocabulary Study
panic at the prospect of/that constitute grow out of voluntary make sense turn out (to be) consent perceive as artificial carry out dispose resume make an enquiry into

panic n./vt.
n. (a) sudden very strong feeling of anxiety and fear 恐慌,惊慌 When the theater caught fire, there was a panic among the crowd.
剧院失火时,在人群中引起一阵恐慌。 Vt. (cause 惊慌

sb./sth. to) be affected with panic(使)

When the earthquake took place, he panicked and ran as fast as he could to safety.

constitute vt.
1. be or be considered as 是,构成 Correct grammar and sentence structure do not in themselves constitute good writing.

2. form or make up sth. 组成,构成 "England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland constitute / compose / make up the United kingdom."

voluntary a.
done, made, or given willingly, without being forced or paid to do it 自愿的,志愿的 Numerous voluntary organ donors are needed to help those who are badly in need of organ transplant.

The 2008 Olympic Games which is to be held in Beijing call for innumerable volunteers who will make their contributions to the Games in various aspects.
将于2008年在北京举办的奥运会需要无数志愿者在比赛的各个方 面做出自己的贡献。

consent n./vi.
n. agreement 同意,准许 She was chosen by common consent to give the speech on behalf of the committee. vi. give one’s agreement 同意,准许 According to the contract, they can’t publish your name without your consent.

Compare: content n. 文字作品的主题内容
She was content to step down after four years as chief executive. 她在担任了四年主管之后甘愿让位。 adj.满意的, 不再有所求的 We should never content ourselves with a little book knowledge only. 我们切不可满足于仅仅有一点点书本知识。

artificial a.
1. made by people, often as a copy of sth. natural 人造的,人工的 This brand of tinned beans contains no artificial coloring.

2. insincere; lacking true feeling 矫揉造作的 I can tell he is lying from the artificial smile on his face.

artificial flowers 假花 artificial intelligence 人工智能

dispose vi./vt.
1. get rid of sb./sth. that one does not want or cannot keep 摆脱,扔掉,处理 We have to dispose of this pile of old papers and magazines.

2. arrange; place sb./sth. in a suitable way 安排,布置 Man proposes. God disposes.

resume vt. (1)
begin (sth.) again or continue (sth.) after stopping for a time 再继续,恢复 He stopped to drink some water and then resumed speaking.

In recent years the traditional friendship between the people of these two countries has resumed and developed.

resume vt. (2)
Compare: assume v. 承担责任, 假定
assume responsibility/the presidency/control The experts assume that the prices would rise.

presume v.推测,假定; 是指在没有证据表明结果是相反

I presume you're tired after the long ride. We cannot presume the existence of life on other planets.

consume v.吃光:消耗:花费;consumption n.

at the prospect of 当意识到…可能时
At the prospect of very potential profits that were to be derived, the small enterprise spared no efforts to prepare for the negotiations with the famous company.
一想到可能从谈判中获得的潜在的利润,这家小企业 不遗余力地准备与那家有名的公司进行谈判。

The youngster set off home, smiling to himself at the prospect of surprising his family with good news.
小伙子面带笑容启程回家,期待着他的好消息能给家 人一个惊喜。

grow out of 由……而生,起因于

Most international firms have grown out of small family businesses.
大多数国际公司是由小的家庭企业发展而 成的。 The idea grew out of a remark made unthinkingly by the chairman.

归纳记忆: grow 构成的短语动词
grow from 由...长大; 由...发展起来 grow in 增加; 在...方面成长

grow into 成长为; 变得成熟有经验
grow up 长大; 成人[熟]; 兴起; 发展 grow up into 长大成为……

make sense (话等)有意义;有道理
What you’ve said makes no sense.

归纳记忆: sense构成的短语
bring sb. to his senses 使某人恢复理性
come to one’s senses (昏迷后)苏醒过来 in one’s right senses 有理性;神志清醒

out of one’s senses 失去理智,精神错乱
in a sense 从某种意义上说 make sense of 理解,弄懂······的意思

turn out (to be) 证实是,原来是
Things turned out to be exactly as the professor had foreseen. 后来证实事情是完全按照教授的 预见发展的。
归纳记忆: turn构成的短语
turn against (使)变成和······敌对 turn down 减弱;拒绝,不接受 turn in 睡觉;上交 turn to 向······求助;求得安慰 turn up 出现 turn upside down 把······倒过来;把······完全颠倒



perceive…as: see…/think of….consider… /view…as They will not be perceived as enemies. On the contrary, we will regard/think of/view them as friends who are to be relied upon.
他们不会被当作敌人来对待,相反,我们会把他们看成 可信赖的朋友。

He is perceived as a strong candidate for the job.

carry out 进行,实施

If my instructions had been carried out, the accident would not have happened.

Every possible test was carried out to decide the nature of her illness.

make an enquiry into 调查,打听
Ever since the outbreak of SARS, medical experts have been making enquiries into its causes and the possible remedy for it.
自从非典爆发以来,医学专家一直在对其病因和可能的 治疗方法进行调查。

An enquiry is being made into the diseases caused by smoking.

Vocabulary Test
Directions: Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change the form where necessary.
pass on perceive as make sense for the sake of seek out dispose of in the name of send into turn out carry on take advantage of grow out of

1. How todispose ofthe nuclear waste is a pressing _______ problem for scientists and politicians alike.

pass on perceive as make sense for the sake of seek out dispose of in the name of send into

turn out carry on take advantage of grow out of

For the sake of 2. ______________ simplicity, we may put the

theory briefly as follows. 3. The possession of language enables man to
pass on ___________ his wisdom and experience to his

children and grandchildren.

4. It ___________ to buy large packet because it makes sense
works our cheaper in the end.

pass on perceive as turn out make sense for the sake of carry on seek out dispose of take advantage of in the name of send into grow out of
in the name of 5. The prime minister spoke ____________ the king.
Take advantage of 6. ______________ the cheap prices while they last. seek out 7.The ship’s mission is to _______ new life on other planets.

pass on perceive as make sense for the sake of seek out dispose of in the name of send into

turn out carry on take advantage of grow out of

perceive as 8. I _______ him _____ a rather shy sort of man.

into sent 9. The remark ______ him ______ into a fit of laughter.
turned out 10. The man _________ to be the best player on the team.

Directions: Complete each of the following sentences with the proper form of the word given in brackets.

1. This complicated situation has led to confusion considerable ________. (confuse) spiritual 2. Painting helps fill a _______ (spirit) need for beauty. 3.The rule “Look before you leap” is applicable almost always ________. (apply) improbable 4. It is highly ________ (probable) that he will come to our party tonight because he is busy preparing for the final exams.

reflection 5.After a few days of ________ (reflect) she decided to write back.

6. The news of the plane crash filled us with horror ______ (horrible). 7.The critics speak highly of this kind of art since they believe it belongs to one of the democratic _________ (democracy) art forms. 8. In his will, he arranged for the disposal ______ (dispose) of his property after his death.

9.The administration (administrate) of a large __________ project like this is very complicated. 10. Slim people generally eat according to appetite, in a fairly relaxed fashion not governed _________ (government) by rules or diet sheets.

Section C

Twins Six Years Apart

Directions: Read the following statements carefully, and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.

1. The goal of Wilmut’s experiment is to develop a way to produce medicine for humans. T
2. Human cloning meets with strong opposition as it can help infertile couples clone a child. F 3. It’s Wilmut who made other scientists realize that a specialized cell could be used to form a living thing.

Directions: Read the text first and then provide short answers to the following questions.

4.What’s the difference between Wilmut’s Dolly and the Danish scientist’s lamb? Dolly was made through an udder cell while the Danish lamb through an embryo cell.

5. Can you give some evidence to show that Wilmut’s success didn’t come easily according to the passage?

He has been studying the problem for more than two decades. He once used embryos to successfully clone two sheep. Then he went ahead to clone an adult sheep. But of 227 udder cells he fused with egg cells, only 30 began to develop into embryos. He implanted 29 of those into female sheep. Only one adult gave birth to a lamb.


Nature never deceives us; it is always us who deceive ourselves.
--- Rousseau