Yoga Vidya Gurukul - DOC

Document Sample
Yoga Vidya Gurukul - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik (India) Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus
Prepared by Conny Smeets Conny Smeets <conny.smeets@skynet.be>

1

2

3

4

5

6

The Science of Yoga ................................................................................ 3 1.1 What is Yoga? ................................................................................... 3 1.2 The word Yoga .................................................................................. 4 1.2.1 Atman and Paratman.................................................................. 4 Ashtanga Yoga: the 8 fold Path ................................................................ 5 2.1 Ashtanga Yoga .................................................................................. 5 2.2 Other types of Yoga ........................................................................... 5 2.3 Ashtanga Yoga: the 8 fold Path ......................................................... 5 2.3.1 Yama: social discipline ............................................................... 5 2.3.2 Niyamas: self discipline .............................................................. 7 2.3.3 Asana Yogic Concept ................................................................. 9 2.3.4 Pranayama Sadhana ................................................................ 11 2.3.5 Pratyahara ................................................................................ 16 2.3.6 Dharana.................................................................................... 16 2.3.7 Dhyana ..................................................................................... 17 2.3.8 Samadhi ................................................................................... 17 Other types of Yoga ................................................................................ 18 3.1 Tantra Yoga ..................................................................................... 18 3.2 Hatha Yoga ...................................................................................... 18 3.2.1 Different aspects of Hatha Yoga ............................................... 19 3.3 Kundalini Yoga ................................................................................ 20 3.4 Swara Yoga ..................................................................................... 22 3.4.1 What is Swara Yoga? ............................................................... 22 3.4.2 Difference between Pranayama and Swara Yoga? .................. 22 3.4.3 Left and right Swara ................................................................. 22 3.4.4 How does Swara Yoga work? .................................................. 22 3.5 Karma Yoga ..................................................................................... 24 3.6 Antarang Yoga ................................................................................. 24 Yoga Nidra .............................................................................................. 25 4.1 What is sleep? ................................................................................. 25 4.2 What is consciousness? .................................................................. 26 4.3 Stages of Yoga Nidra....................................................................... 26 4.4 Application of Yoga Nidra ................................................................ 26 4.4.1 Perfect relaxation...................................................................... 26 4.4.2 Stress management ................................................................. 26 4.4.3 Recasting of personality ........................................................... 26 4.4.4 Yoga Nidra is useful for ............................................................ 27 Omkar ..................................................................................................... 28 5.1 Effect of Omkar Chanting ................................................................ 28 5.1.1 Mentally .................................................................................... 28 5.1.2 Physically ................................................................................. 28 5.1.3 Antaraya (remove obstacles) .................................................... 28 5.1.4 Pronunciation ........................................................................... 29 Teacher Training ..................................................................................... 30 6.1 Yoga Pravesh .................................................................................. 30 6.2 Responsibilities ................................................................................ 30 6.2.1 Teaching New Asana ............................................................... 30 6.2.2 Teaching New Revision Asana ................................................. 31 6.2.3 Preparatory Revision Asana ..................................................... 31 6.2.4 Full Time Revision Asana ......................................................... 31

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 1

6.3 Lesson Planning .............................................................................. 31 6.3.1 Natural state of mind ................................................................ 32 6.3.2 Teach Yoga for the Body .......................................................... 32 6.3.3 Prana ........................................................................................ 32 6.3.4 1 Hour lesson ........................................................................... 32 7 Yoga and Health ..................................................................................... 34 7.1 Anatomy and Physiology ................................................................. 34 7.2 Ayurveda ......................................................................................... 34 7.2.1 Aims and Objects ..................................................................... 34 7.2.2 Basic Principle .......................................................................... 34 7.2.3 Types of personalities............................................................... 35 7.3 Obesity ............................................................................................ 37 7.3.1 Causes ..................................................................................... 37 7.3.2 Assessment of Obesity ............................................................. 38 7.3.3 Hazards of obesity .................................................................... 38 7.3.4 Prevention and treatment ......................................................... 38 7.3.5 Advise as a yoga teacher ......................................................... 39 7.3.6 Dietary Regimen ....................................................................... 39 7.3.7 Yogic approach towards diet .................................................... 41 7.4 Yoga and Stress .............................................................................. 41 7.4.1 Stress management ................................................................. 41 7.5 Yoga and pregnancy........................................................................ 42 7.5.1 Yoga and pregnancy ................................................................ 42 7.5.2 Yoga for children ...................................................................... 43

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 2

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik (India)

1 The Science of Yoga
1.1 What is Yoga?
Two extreme views:  Yoga is highly difficult and complex  Yoga is too simple Yoga is a science that is approximately 2500 years old. The bases of this science are the “Patanjali Yoga Sutra‟s” Two levels of study of yoga:  Preliminary level: yoga in modern society  Advanced: yoga on a spiritual level Both are correct, but there is more to yoga than just asanas Yoga is to be studied in its‟ true form  Yoga is the highway to happiness and prosperity o While doing asanas: be happy, enjoy the pose o Happiness is part of practising yoga o Yoga brings prosperity: total personality development o Obtain the stage of “God” by practising yoga o Yoga needs development Material pleasure cannot give happiness and joy. The happiness obtained by material pleasure is only temporary Real happiness can last long and depends on the state of the mind We can loose our happiness by our expectations: we often make our happiness or sorrow depend on somebody else or on material pleasures Yoga suggest that you should not expect anything: do your duty and do not expect anything There is not limit for our expectations/desires to fulfil  Karma is not to expect in return. Base our expectations on our duty and enjoy the results Go on doing your duties without expectations: this leads to permanent happiness  Such impartial attitude towards life = YOGA

     

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 3

1.2 The word Yoga
Yoga is “to join”, connection “Join Atman with Paratman”

1.2.1 Atman and Paratman
Paratman = concept of God, ultimate energy source, controller of the Universe Atman = I, me  This is my body  This is my mind, but I is different from the body and the mind and this is my Atman o This is my spiritual existence if Atman leaves the body the body dies The ultimate purpose of yoga it to join Atman with Paratman  Add the drop to the ocean  For Atman to become Paratman = the goal of Yoga Practising yoga starts the way for joining Atman with Paratman 1. Tool available to obtain this goal: o o o 2. Body: perfectly healthy Mind: totally purified, is now contaminated with thoughts Intellect that is properly trained

Present condition: o o o Body: not healthy Mind: not purified Intellect: not trained

 Yoga practise helps in this evolution; it is a journey of evolution 3. Yoga practices can be used: o o o 4. To correct the disorders in the body To purify the mind To train the intellect

Yoga is a science of Personality development: o o o o Physical condition Mental control Emotional balance Intellectual development

The Ashtanga Yoga practised and taught at Yoga Vidya Gurukul is one of the yoga ways.

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 4

2 Ashtanga Yoga: the 8 fold Path
2.1 Ashtanga Yoga
Exists of 8 different paths: 1. Yama: social discipline 2. Niyama: self discipline 3. Asana: postures 4. Pranayama: control of energy through the process of breathing 5. Pratyahara: to isolate the mind from the senses, free the mind 6. Dharana: concentration (on an object) 7. Dhyana: meditation an advanced stage of Dharana 8. Samadhi: union, the ultimate goal of Yoga

2.2 Other types of Yoga
        Hatha Yoga Bhakti Yoga Mantra Yoga Tantra Yoga Kundalini Yoga Raja Yoga Kriya Yoga …

2.3 Ashtanga Yoga: the 8 fold Path
2.3.1 Yama: social discipline
     This is the first component of Ashtanga Yoga Rules for social discipline These are universal laws respected everywhere (laws of Nature) These are natural instincts and easy to follow There are 5 Yamas: 1. Ahimsa: non-violence 2. Satya: truthfulness 3. Asteya: non-stealing 4. Brahmacharya: sexual control 5. Aparigraha: non-possessiveness Ahimsa: non-violence o o Mode of behaviour towards all living creatures Absence of harmful intentions whatsoever on all levels: 1. physical 2. oral 3. mental Control your actions, words and mind Generate love & compassion towards all living creatures

1.

o o

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 5

2.

Satya: truthfulness o o o o o o Fact is fact, there is not other way than to accept We try to hide the facts We do not accept the facts One lie requires a number of other lies for its‟ support Untruthfulness in all its‟ forms creates all kinds of unnecessary complications in life Truthfulness is absolutely necessary for the enfoldment of reality

3.

Asteya: non stealing (Honesty) o o o o Stealing means to take anything without permission from its‟ owner Yoga Sadhak (practitioner) should not take anything which does not belong to him A Sadhak should not even take such an intangible and yet highly prized thing as credit for things he has not done It also means that you should not take something (e.g. money) you find somewhere even if you do not know who owns it

4.

Brahmacharya: sexual continence o o o o o o In its‟ real sense it means the abstinence from sex indulgence and higher yoga. No compromise it possible One cannot get real bliss & transcendent knowledge of higher yogic life and the sexual pleasures at the same time One may not be required to give up the sex life at once but one has to give it up completely before starting the higher yoga A real yogi should prepare to give up not only the physical indulgence but also the thoughts and emotions connected with the pleasures of sex completely In wide Brahmacharya means freedom from cravings of all kind of sexual enjoyments Attitude of mind for these cravings

5.

Aparigraha: non-possessiveness o Tendency to accumulate worldly goods is considered to be basic instinct in human life o Necessities – comforts – luxuries (subjective & not limits for it) o One needs to satisfy the childish vanity & desire to appear superior to other fellow men o One has to spend time & energy in the accumulation of things which one does not really need  Maintaining and guarding things accumulated  Constant fear of losing them

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 6

 o o

Regret of leaving them behind while bidding goodbye to the world We spend our limited resources and time and generate a constant source of disturbances Hence: cut down your needs to the minimum

Yamas: o o o o o o To be followed fully irrespective of place, time cast or exception For higher yoga practise the Yamas are to be followed 100% For preliminary Yoga practise try to follow the Yamas as much as you can If you follow the Yamas and Niyamas you can perform the Asanas and Pranayama better If you practice Asanas and Pranayama better you will automatically start following the Yamas and Niyamas Following the Yamas and Niyamas will help obtain the goal of Yoga which is: “CHITTA VRITTI NIRODHANA” = the control of mental activities

2.3.2 Niyamas: self discipline
  This is the second component of Ashtanga Yoga There are 5 Niyamas: 1. Shaucha: purity 2. Santosha: contentment 3. Tapa: endurance 4. Swadhyaya: self study 5. Ishwara Pranidhana: total surrender to God Shaucha: purity o o o o Purity of body, mind & intellect: these instruments became impure because something is added to them Shaucha helps to eliminate these additions Hatha Yoga prescribes many practises for purification of the internal body Cleansing processes are divided in 6 major categories called the Shatkarmas: 1. Dhauti: different cleansing techniques of the digestive system (Danta, Hrid, Varisar, Vanhisar) 2. Basti: technique for washing and toning the big intestines and the rectum 3. Neti: cleansing of the nasal passages 4. Trataka: concentrate on an object, helps to clean the eyes and the mind 5. Nauli: massaging and strengthening the abdominal organs

1.

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 7

6. Kapalbhati: breathing technique of cleansing of the lungs and purifying the mind 2. Santosha o Mental attitude which keeps the mind in condition of equilibrium  Learn to control our minds to react to different circumstances o Circumstances create impact on the mind and the mind has to react: this can disturb the equilibrium of the mind and the physical conditioning of the body o To avoid these disturbances train your mind to react with contentment: always say “Very Nice” o Constant practise of Ashtanga Yoga and training of the mind through Mantra Sadhana is necessary to develop this attitude 3. Tapa: Austerity, self discipline o o o This includes various practises, the object of which is to purify the body and the mind of the Sadhaka for further study of yoga This may include fasting, observing vows of various kinds. This is to control the functions of body and mind Systematic practise begins with simple exercise, which requires the exertion of willpower and is continued by progressive stages with more difficult ones

4.

Swadhyaya: self study o o Study is a process to acquire knowledge, theoretical as well as practical The explanation of “Study” is given by Patanjali as follows:  Deerghakal: for long period  Naiamtarya: continued uninterrupted  Satakarasevito: with full and unconditional faith Type of study will have to be selected according to the individual self

o

5.

Ishwara Pranidhana: total surrender to God o o o o o Progressive practice of Ishwara Pranidhana will definitely lead to Samadhi (the union) Ishwara Pranidhana is a process of transforming from human to God Ishwara Pranidhana starts from the concept of loosing the identity of self and emerging of it with Ishwara the God This effort takes many forms according to the temperament and the previous Sansakaras of the Sadhaka The details are explained in Bhakti Yoga

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 8

2.3.3 Asana Yogic Concept
1. Yogic Concept The body is designed to stay healthy but often is does not Positive level Normal level Negative level Asana is not exercise it is relaxation 2. Asana versus exercise Exercise = exertion, fast movements, movements carried out by the muscles, work the muscle fibres  the muscles need energy: they need oxygen and glucose, which gets burned to give the cells energy Exercise asks for more blood supply to the muscles which makes the heart pump more so the heart rate increases. Breathing rate also goes up during exercise. The metabolism increases through exercise. In Yoga: the heart rate, the breathing and blood pressure should not increase, they should reduce. Fast movements should be avoided; Yoga is a saving of energy Exercise Movements Movements Movements Heart Rate Respiration Rate Blood Pressure Dynamic Speedy Isotonic Increases Increases Increases Yoga Asana Steady Slow Isometric Decreases Decreases Decreases

Isotonic: length of muscles changing, needs oxygen and is exercise Isometric; relaxed muscles, toning of muscles is reduced; length of muscles remains the same. The muscles will not need extra energy Yoga Asana is not exercise but Yoga Asana is relaxation

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 9

3.

What is Asana? Asana does not mean exercise. Asana means: o Posture o Existence o Existence without doing anything o There is no movement in Asana o A steady posture is an Asana o Hence the definition: Sthir – Sukham – Asanam Asana is a steady and comfortable posture (Patanjali Yoga Sutra 2.47) Asana is movement without movements. But in order to obtain the asana movements are essential: 1. Pre-position 2. Attaining the asana with movements 3. Asana posture: maintaining 4. Releasing the posture with movements Step 3 = asana Step 1, 2 and 4 is NOT asana Asana = steady and comfortable posture, but movements are essential to obtain and release the asana o The movements must be VERY SLOW o The movements must be UNDER CONTROL o The movements must be supported by CORRECT BREATHING The steadiness and comfort must be in both the physical body and in the mental condition: these two are interdependent Steadiness and comfort are also interdependent

4.

Levels of Asanas Asanas can be practised on following levels: 1. Level 1: with fast movements & without steadiness o This is a non-yogic level o Type of exercise o Different muscles will be exercised and will be trained properly o Functions of joints will improve  this will not yield in the results as mentioned in Patanjali

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 10

2. Level 2: with slow movements but without steadiness o Type of asana useful for a person with joint problems e.g. arthritis, frozen shoulder and joint pains o Useful for physical weak persons o Improves blood circulation to different muscles and joints 3. Level 3: with slow movements and with steadiness for a certain period o = same advantages as level 2 o posture maintained for a certain period of time: the stretching and contracting of the muscles will improve blood supply of certain organs connected with the asana o the blood supply to the organs will improve 4. Level 4: with slow movements, steadiness for a certain period and relaxation of the muscles o = same advantages as level 2 and 3 o muscles relaxed means that the stretch will be transferred to some internal organs. As these organs are also made of muscles they get stretched as well o this action improves the functions of the organs o This act stimulates the blood supply to that organ providing the oxygen and glucose 5. Level 5: slow movements with steadiness for a certain period and concentration of the mind on any organ of the body o = same advantages as in levels 2, 3 and 4 o by concentrating the mind on any particular organ the mental energy will provided to the same o as a result the particular organ will improve its‟ functions 6. Level 6: slow movements and steadiness for a certain period (half an hour) and concentration of the mind on infinity o The aspirant who want to progress on higher levels can practice some of the asanas on this level o This level can only be achieved after practising the prior levels o This type of practise will lead to control of the mind o The practitioner can reach beyond the dualities of life as explained in Patanjali

2.3.4 Pranayama Sadhana
1. What is Pranayama? PRANA & AYANA Prana = energy source, vital force behind life activities Ayana = control

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 11

Life = movements (physical, mental, emotional, intellectual, spiritual) The study of Pranayama is the control over these movements Prana stimulates the cells to get the oxygen and glucoses from the blood = energy source behind all the activity of the body The mind controls the physical body and the physical and emotional activities: needs energy for this = Prana is the energy source for emotions as well Control of Prana = control of life activities = Pranayama Control of Prana is through control of breath Breathing is a continuous process from birth to death (= indication of life) Breathing is automatically controlled by our autonomous nervous system Breathing can be controlled at our will We can get control over our autonomous nervous system through Pranaymic Practices 2. The Pranic Body

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 12

o Prana: from the diaphragm to the throat: controls the heart and the lungs  Mudra: ring finger with thumb o Apana: from navel to perinea: controls the excretion and reproduction system  Mudra: ring finger and middle finger and thumb o Samana: between diaphragm and navel: control the digestion system. Assimilation of nutrients for food o Udana: clockwise rotation in the head, throat, hands and feet o Uyan: Coordinator of the 4 others, whole body reserve of energy 3. Breathing Process o Inhalation & exhalation o Roll of oxygen o Requirement of oxygen With every inhalation we inhale: o Tidal air: 600 cc o Air utilized 450 cc o Dead space: 150 cc o Oxygen: 25% Deep Breathing
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000
Normal breathing lungs ½ full Deep breathing

Liters of air

0

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32
Seconds

Breathing Air Analysis o Total lung capacity: 6000cc o Inspiratory reserve: 3000cc o Expiratory reserve: 1500cc o Vital capacity of lungs: 4500cc o Residue volume: 1350cc o Dead space: 150cc Pranayama – Kumbhak

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 13

o Inhalation (Purak) – pause (Kumbhak) – exhalation (Rechak) – pause (Kumbhak) o Practice of Pranayama is practice of Kumbhak o Practice of Kumbhak needs practice of Purak and Rechak o Practice of Purak & Rechak is easy and effective o Practice of Kumbhak is difficult and dangerous Study of Purak and Rechak Control must be: o Slow o Smooth o Uniform o Steady 4. Types of Pranayama 1. Nadi Sodhan = nadi purifying Pranayama, in 4 steps 1. Inhalation 2. Chin lock 3. Root lock 4. Abdominal lock  releasing 4, 3, 2 Practised with alternate nostrils: L R

R

L

2. Surya Bhedan = Revitalizing Pranayama, to know the sun R L

R

L

Inhale right, hold the breath, exhale left  helps for laziness and loss of weight 3. Bhasrika = bellow‟s breath Is fast breathing with Surya Bhedan: increases the heat 4. Bhramari = humming bee breath

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 14

Inhalation sounds like the male honey bee Exhalation sounds like the female honey bee This Pranayama practise had a soothing effect on the mind 5. Ujjaji = victorious, physic breath This is practised by contracting the epiglottis Increases the physic awareness, help relieve hypertension. Do not practise in case of low blood pressure 6. Sitkari = cooling breath Practise by sucking in the breath through closed teeth Brings down the temperature of the blood as is brings cool air into the lungs and stomach. Improves the function of the endocrine gland 7. Shitali = cooling breath Suck in the air via a folded tongue. Has the same effects as Sitkari 8. Moorcha = swooning breath or fainting Inhale and practise Maha Bandha for 20 seconds. Causes a „fainting‟ effect Important: do seek advice from a Guru before practising this Pranayama, do not start practising just from reading about it 9. Plavini: = floating breath “Eat” ear and keep it in the stomach Helps against ulcer, acidity and overeating

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 15

2.3.5 Pratyahara
Pratyahara is the 5th component of Yoga

External World

Eyes

External World

Intellect Skin Mind Mind

Ears

Atman

Mind Intellect Tongue External World

Mind

Nose External World

To isolate the mind from the senses = Pratyahara  Frees the mind 1. Function of the mind 1. Mind keeps constant contact between sense organs and intellect in the present 2. Mind remains busy with memories in the past 3. Mind remains busy in imagining the future The object of Pratyahara is to eliminate 1. completely 2. Cutting of external disturbances Yama: helps to cut off the disturbances due to interaction with other people Niyama: helps to eliminate the disturbances due to body and mind Asana: helps to eliminate the disturbances due to limits of the body Pranayama: helps to eliminate the disturbances by irregular breathing

2.3.6 Dharana
Desh bandhana chittasya Dharana

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 16

Limiting activities of the mind within the limited sphere allowed by the object Dharana is concentration (on an object)

2.3.7 Dhyana
Tatra pratya ekentana dyanam Further in the process of Dharana the mind should concentrate pin pointedly on any one aspect of the object instead of many aspects of the objects as in the case of Dharana is called Dhyana Dhyana is the advanced stage of Dharana Dhyana is meditation

2.3.8 Samadhi
Tadev arthmadthinirbhasa suroop shoonyan eva Samadhi Further in the process of Dhyana nothing else but the only pratyaya of the object is present and apparently the identity of the consciousness is dissolved totally This is the last stage of Ashtanga Yoga and the ultimate goal of Yoga Trayan eketra Samyama  all above three practices (Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi) is called Samyana Tat Jayat Pradnyalokana  after mastering the Samyana one is enlightened by the Pradya

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 17

3 Other types of Yoga
3.1 Tantra Yoga
Tantra = Tan & Tra TAN = expansion of the mind = Shiva TRA = liberation of energy = Shakti

Tantra = the science of self realisation = expansion of mind and liberation of energy Tantra is the origin of most yoga forms:  Hatha: is part of Tantra yoga, yoga of the body and the mind  Patarial Yoga/Raja Yoga (eight fold path)  Bhakti yoga: yoga of unconditional love  Karma yoga: selfless action, will lead to a stress less life  Mantra: yoga of the positive sound  Kundalini: yoga of the energy  Kriya: yoga of purification  Nada: sound meditation yoga  Laya: yoga of the breath  Swara: science of breathing  Gyan: yoga of knowledge  Antarang: internal yoga  Vedanta yoga: follows the tradition of Krishna The mind is the core focus of all types of yoga Yoga improves the quality of the mind: it relaxes, focuses and concentrates the mind. Mind 1. Body: concentrate the mind with the help of asanas 2. Breath: control breath and you can control your mind. Stop the breath and you can stop the mind 3. Emotion (yoga of devotion), see fear from a distance 4. Thoughts 5. Impressions (Gyan yoga)

3.2 Hatha Yoga
HA Pingala (right) Sun Body Represents Prana THA Ida (left) Moon Mind Represents the mind, the mental energy

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 18

Hatha yoga means the union of the pranic and mental forces Hatha yoga is part of Tantra = the tradition of lord Shiva. Hatha yoga starts with asanas while Ashtanga yoga starts with the Yamas and Niyamas

3.2.1 Different aspects of Hatha Yoga
1. Mudra Mudra = gesture/mental attitude Mudras can change the emotions, state of heart and realign the pranic energy, works on the pressure points of the body 1. Prana Mudra: thumb on ring finger and little finger (prana realignment) 2. Ashwini Mudra 3. Dhyana Mudra: thumb on index finger 60% of the cerebral cortex controls the hands 2. Bandha Energy locks 1. Jalandhar Bandha or chin lock o Why: the pressure of the air in the lungs is higher than on the outside by which the trachea opens in the chest cavity and exerts pressure. This causes pressure on the thyroid gland which controls our metabolism 2. Mulbandha or root lock o Tendon between genitals and anus needs to be pulled up 3. Uddiyan Bandha: pulling in the abdomen: increases pressure from the abdomen to the lungs 4. Maha Bandha: combination of the 3 previously described bandhas

Vajroli Mudra

Ashwhini Mudra

Root Lock

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 19

3.

The Nadi‟s Nadi = de physic passage of the Pranic energy, a wire of energy Prana is the life force There are 7200 nadis in our body, the three most important ones are Pingala (right), Ida (left) and Sushumna The kundalini prana rises through Sushumna nadi

4.

Shatkarma The six cleansing techniques 1. Dhauti: different cleansing techniques of the digestive system o Danta: cleansing of teeth and pallet with the finger o Hrid:  drinking of water (saline, warm) and throw up, this cleanses the heart  eating of cotton cloth  rubber tube (catheter) to be swallowed o Varisar or master cleansing, drink saline warm water, perform specific asanas in order to clean the intestines 2. Basti: technique for washing and toning the big intestines and the rectum 3. Neti: cleansing of the nasal passages 4. Trataka: concentrate on an object, helps to clean the eyes and the mind. The Pranic body will be purified 5. Nauli: massaging and strengthening the abdominal organs 6. Kapalbhati: breathing technique of cleansing of the lungs and purifying the mind. This shines the head, cleanses the mind and impures the thoughts. It also cleanses the lungs from impurities

3.3 Kundalini Yoga
KUNDA = PIT KUNDAL = COIL Kundalini is a sleeping energy at the base of the spine. It does not exist on a physical level Our brain is active for +/- 10%. Kundalini can wake it up to 100%, it is a dormant creative Pranic energy A person who has:  10% active brain = human  25% = successful people, often famous  50% = saints  100% = God, self realisation, Samadhi

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 20

Kundalini lies dormant in the unconscious mind: 3 ½ coils of a serpent

1. conscious 2. subconscious 3. Um ½

A U M

Past Present Future Beyond time

Chakra‟s are whirlpools of Kundalini energy, energy locations, evolution of level of mind. How to awaken the Kundalini energy?  By birth: Jesus, Yogi‟s, Krishna, Buddha  Chanting of mantra  Herbs  Tapaysa or purification  Practising Raja yoga (concentration of mind)  Pranayama  Kriya yoga  Tantric initation  Shaktipat (can only be done by a guru)  Self surrender Ref: “Kundalini Tantra” by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Yoga Publications Trust, Munger; Bihar; India, ISBN 81-85787-15-8

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 21

3.4 Swara Yoga
3.4.1 What is Swara Yoga?
1. Swara: is the sound of one‟s breath 2. Science of Pranic Body Rhythms (movement of Prana & manipulation of breath) Closely guarded esoteric Tantra.

3.4.2 Difference between Pranayama and Swara Yoga?
1. Tantra = expansion of the mind and liberation of the energy 2. Swara Yoga = all that goes on in the world is determined by Prana  the universal Prana and the individual PranaYoga

3.4.3 Left and right Swara
Left side of spinal cord
Ida Lunar Moon, female Shakti (energy) Mental activities Parasympathetic nervous system (relaxation) Connection to right hemisphere of the brain Cold Auspicious, smooth & virtuous Bright fortnight Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Monday Zodiac signs during Lunar flow: Tauras, Cancer, Virgio, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces

Right side of spinal cord
Pingala Solar Sun, male Shiva (consciousness) Pranic activities (physical) Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) Connection to left hemisphere of the brain Hot Rough, non virtuous Dominance during dark fortnight Sunday, Saturday, Tuesday Zodiac signs during solar flow: Aries, Acquarius, Libra, Gemini, Sagitarius, Lio

3.4.4 How does Swara Yoga work?
Exercise = right nostril Yoga = left nostril For meditation the ideal is to breathe through both nostrils: practise Pranayama before practising meditation.

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 22

Perfume: female stimulates left nostril. A man who wants to attract a woman should have his right nostril on. A woman who wants to attract a man should have here left nostril on. If you want to switch nostrils: put pressure under your armpit. In order to switch to your left nostril, put pressure under your right armpit and visa versa. Monks often carry a wooden stick (yoga danda) with a hook in order to do this, but a small ball (e.g. tennis ball) also works

1.

Swara yoga: o o Left nostril switched on for too long = indication of sickness (too long = up to 3 hours) Change it to the right in order to feel better

Food influences the usage of nostrils: Cold Banana Guava Milk Yoghourt Watermelon Orange  stimulates right nostril Hot Ginger Papaya Spices Chilli

 stimulates left nostril

2.

Recommendations o o o o o o Angry boss: change your nostril to the left one before talking to him/her Peaceful atmosphere: switch on left nostril Girls who breath through left nostril too much: menstruation problems Boys who breath through right nostril too much: too many male hormones If you inhale the breath of another person you get to know his mind After meal: nap on the left side, which switches on your right nostril = good for digestion

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 23

o o o o o o o

Lazy people do right nostril breathing  practise Kapalabhati Sleep on left side: right nostril active = dreamless sleep Creative work: left nostril Day: left nostril Night: right nostril In case of diarrhoea : block left nostril Headache/migraine: switch nostrils

Ref: “Swara Yoga”, The Tantric Science of Brain Breathing, Swami Muktibodhananda, Yoga Publications Trust, Munger; Bihar; India, ISBN: 81-85787-36-0

3.5 Karma Yoga
Is the yoga of selfless action Action according to Dharma = without expectations  Dharma is duty considering one‟s mental, physical and intellectual make up No attachment of the self, no emotions attached. We are often attached to the fruit of our action; Karma Yoga is not to get attached to the fruit. Krishna (Arjun: war)  The spirit, the soul is immortal, the body is like a dress for the soul  Self awareness is who you are Perform an action which is devoted, or in line with the nature (natural evolution)

3.6 Antarang Yoga
Means internal yoga Bahirang Yoga Yama Pratyahara
(see page 16)

Antarang Yoga Dharana Dhyana Sahmadi

Niyama Asana Pranayama

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 24

4 Yoga Nidra
Yoga Nidra is a meditative process. Yoga Nidra is Yogic Sleep Yoga Nidra is not “Sleep” Yoga Nidra is no a “Awakened State” Yoga Nidra

Awakened State Sleep

Yoga Nidra is neither Sleep nor Awakened State but it is on the borderline.

4.1 What is sleep?
Sleep state:  The mind stops receiving the external messages  The conscious brain does not forward to messages  Only in case of emergency (e.g. child crying) the conscious mind will forward the message  Dead body & unconscious body  Shavasana & Sleep Yoga Nidra = Conscious Sleep

Awakened State Connected with the Outer World

Consciousness

Connected with the Inner World = Yoga Nidra

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 25

4.2 What is consciousness?
Consciousness is connected to the outer world 1. eyes: to see 2. ears: to hear 3. nose: to smell 4. tongue: to taste 5. skin: to touch The sense organs are connected with the brains through the “MIND‟ The mind functions on three levels: 1. Conscious: mind connects the outer world to the brain 2. Subconscious: mind store of all the experiences 3. Unconscious mind = the Real Self = Atman

4.3 Stages of Yoga Nidra
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preparation for practise Resolve: change in our programming Rotation of consciousness Awareness of breath Opposite feelings Visualization Ending of practise

4.4 Application of Yoga Nidra
4.4.1 Perfect relaxation
   physical level emotional level mental level

4.4.2 Stress management
   Physical stress Emotional stress Mental stress

4.4.3 Recasting of personality
       Memory development Simplified learning Normal delivery Pain relief Relief from addiction Increase in bearing capacity Relief of old age/health problems

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 26

o o o o o

Hypertension Hearth diseases Psychosomatic diseases Acidity ulcer Mental instability

4.4.4 Yoga Nidra is useful for
       Busy persons Hypertensive persons Diseased person Addicts Students Pregnant women …

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 27

5 Omkar

AUM = Sanskrit for “Total controlling energy of the University” = God It is no physical existence but it does exist It is the seed of knowledge of the Universe, the concentrated form of knowledge. Chanting Omkar = be one with it, loose identity in order to receive the supreme bless

5.1 Effect of Omkar Chanting
5.1.1 Mentally
     Hear the internal voice Experience trance, away from the external world Awakening of Kundalini which helps the awakening of the brain cells (in most people only 10% is active)  to become Paratman

5.1.2 Physically
Omkar chanting causes vibration on a natural frequency: this influences the organs. These vibrations generate energy and this improves the function of the organs

5.1.3 Antaraya (remove obstacles)
Omkar can help you to remove obstacles:  Vyaddi = illness: Omkar chanting will improve your health  Styan = mental fatigue (test: start a lecture with Omkar chanting and see the difference in staying focused of your audience)  Sanshya = doubt: Omkar chanting helps making decisions, helps change the mentality in a positive way  Pramada = to not do things that are good for us, e.g. addictions. This mentality can be changed by Omkar chanting  Alasya = laziness (physical): Omkar chanting provides more oxygen.

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 28

5.1.4 Pronunciation
Omkar should be pronounced in 10 seconds: A 2 seconds U 3 seconds M 5 seconds

= 10 seconds

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 29

6 Teacher Training
Teacher:  Needs to have 100% knowledge of the subject  Is not allowed to make mistakes

6.1 Yoga Pravesh
       24 hours of classes Prayers are essential for the preparation of the body for the asanas Preparatory movements are important for warm up After a while: teach Sun Salutations as well Pre-positions should be taught Teach your students the 37 asanas Teach Pranayama o Normal breathing o Deep breathing o Fast breathing

6.2 Responsibilities
1. Teaching new practice 2. Getting it done from the students 3. Correction mistakes o General instructions o Individual instructions o Personal help 4. Revision o New asana o New revision o Preparatory revision o Full time revision

6.2.1 Teaching New Asana
          Students should be in relaxed sitting position, so they can pay attention Pronounce the names correctly Answer questions before they are asked, explaining the name Detailed oral explanation of the process Perfect explanation Give practical information Demonstration (or have co-teacher demonstrate) should done 2x from different angles Explain the probable mistakes While the students practise: move around to observe and correct mistakes Do not mention time

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 30



Correct mistakes o Correction with general instructions (do not pinpoint 1 student) o Individual instructions in a low voice to specific student o Help in person if necessary (gentle touch)  It is important to correct so they do not keep repeating mistakes

6.2.2 Teaching New Revision Asana
   This is an asana thaught in the previous lesson Give all the details with no demo Do not mention time

6.2.3 Preparatory Revision Asana
     Is an asana used as a stepping stone for a more difficult one Focus on corrections Explain the ideal position Explain the differences with the new asana which you will be teaching afterwards Do not mention time

6.2.4 Full Time Revision Asana
        Have the students perform the asana for the full length of time Final position should be correct Give the timing before the take the asana Before they start: explain thay they can release the asana at any moment if it gets uncomfortable (without waiting for your instructions) Start counting the time from the moment they are in the pose Give the balance of time, so they know how long they have to hold it (psychological aspect) Give instructions for relaxing in the asana Give instructions for a comfortable posture

6.3 Lesson Planning
Lesson should be based on the needs of the people. Different people have different reasons for practising yoga:  Looking for relaxation (physical, mental)  Focus  Flexibility  Health, both physical and mental  Spiritual  Weight loss  Life style  Re-energizing

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 31

6.3.1 Natural state of mind
Is relaxed, peaceful, calm focused and blissful Can be practised through:  Omkar  Meditation  Yoga nidra  Pranayama  Shavasana

6.3.2 Teach Yoga for the Body
 Preparation (preparatory movements or sun salutations as warm up)  Practise/revision of the asanas  New asanas, teach different types o Forward bends o Backwards bends (! Should be in every lesson as in every day life we hardly bent backwards) o Inverted poses o Twisted o Balancing o Resting/relaxing o Stretching

6.3.3 Prana
 Effect on mind and body  focuses the mind, physical body will improve, gives energy  Hyperventilation: oxygen level goes up, CO² goes down. E.g. fast breathing, Kappalabathi, increases the heat in the body  Hypoventiliation: ogygen level goes down, CO² goes up. E.g. deep breathing, retention of breath, lowers the body temperature, Sitkari, Shitari.

6.3.4 1 Hour lesson
1. Initial prayer to help focus the mind: 5 to 10 minutes 2. Preparatory movements or Sun Salutations  Shavasana 3. Revision of asanas  New revision  Preparatory revision  Full time revision  New asana  Shavasana 4. Deep breathing, fast breathing

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 32

Divide 6 to 8 minutes of Shavasana or Makrasana over 1 hour lesson Order of the asanas:  Supine  Prone  Sitting  Standing This is because of our natural evolution in live: new born baby‟s can only lie on their back (supine), the next thing they are able to do is turn around on their belly (prone), followed by sitting and standing.

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 33

7 Yoga and Health
7.1 Anatomy and Physiology
Please refer to the syllabus handed out by Yoga Vidya Gurukul.

7.2 Ayurveda
Ayur = life Veda = knowledge  Ayurveda = the knowledge of life 4 types: 1. Rigveda 2. Yajurveda 3. Atharyveda 4. Samveda Ayurveda is designed from Ahtaryveda

7.2.1 Aims and Objects
 Prevention is better than cure  Know how to adjust our body clock, awareness of body clock  Prevent stress/anxiety

7.2.2 Basic Principle
1. Pindi to Brahmandi o Human body to the whole Universe o The human body is a perfect mirror image of the whole universe 2. 5 Basic elements Construction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Space (Akash) Air (Vayu) Fire (Tey = light, energy) Water (Aap, Jal) Earth (Prithir, molecules things that are touchable) Destruction

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 34

3.

Seven basic metals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Rasa: all liquid parts in our body except for our blood Rakta: blood Mansa: muscular structure Meda: fats Ashti: bones and bony structure Majja: nervous system Shukra: reproduction

4.

Types of energy (Dosha) 1. Kafa: lubricants (popping joints) 2. Pitta: health energy, change substances 3. Vata: different types of impulses = Relationship between the 5 basic elements and types of energy Water Earth Space Air Fire Kafa

Vata Pitta

5.

Definition of a healthy person 1. Samadosha Samagnish Samdhatu Malkriya Prasanna Athmendriya Swath Ili  State of Equilibrium Samadosha: equilibrium of energy Samadhatu: equilibrium of metals Samagnish: equilibrium of digestion Malkriya: excretion system 2. Adbhidhiya Freshness of the soul, sensory organs and the mind of a healthy person Theory of absence: Abhava:  darkness does not

7.2.3 Types of personalities
These types are determined through physical exam (Sharir Pakriti) and a psychological exam (Manas Pakriti).

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 35

1.

Kafa (elements: water and earth) o o o o o o o o o o o Looks strong and stout, oily skin, good dental structure Calm and quiet way of walking Somewhat lazy Calm and quiet way of speaking without hurting anybody Obesity Never hungry Less quantity of thirst Prefers spicy food No quarrels Late comers Sleep: can sleep anytime, any place, is often drowsy in the morning and after food o Use of this personality:  Administration  Planning  Diet management  Stress management

2.

Pitta (element: fire) o Fast conversion in their body o Hungry, can eat every 2 to 3 hours. When hungry they can be very irritating o Need more water o Gentlemen o Clean o Mr. Cleaning personality o White coloured skin o Commanding look o Bitter tongue personality o Do not need much sleep: alert sleep o Good administrator o Grasping power is immediate

3.

Vata (elements: space & air) o o o o o o o o o o o o o Kinetic energy Can not sit or stand still Movements of body parts Dry skin Dry hair Colour variation in the skin No eating habits, can vary Like variation Break downs in their sleep Like pressure on joints and muscles Hard stools They do not walk they run Have a good imagination

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 36

Mishra Prukriti: we are all mixtures of the 3 types. Kafa Honey Herbel powders for baths Heavy exercise Spring Induce vomiting reflex Pitta Vata

Ghee Oil Scented bath (natural) Massages with oil before their bath Yoga, walking Change sports per season October Rainy season Laxative meal Medicated oil Bloodletting

7.3 Obesity
Obesity may be defined as an abnormal growth of the adipose (fat) tissue due to an enlargement of fat cell size (Hypertrophic) or an increase in fat cell number (Hyperplastic). Two types:  Abdominal obesity (Android type)  Gluteal type obesity (Gynoid type)

7.3.1 Causes
1. Age: risks generally increases with age 2. Sex o Male: risk increases during 29-35 years o Female: risk increases during 45-49 years 3. Family tendency 4. Physical inactivity (the vicious circle) 5. Eating habits: o Eating between meals o Preference to sweets, refined foods, fats and preserved foods o Composition & periodicity of the diet 6. Psychological factors: o Stress o Emotional disturbances o Frustration, loneliness 7. Endocrine factors 8. Drug induced

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 37

7.3.2 Assessment of Obesity
1. Body Mass Index Weight (kg) Height² (m) 2. Broca Index Weight kg = Height (cm) – 100 3. Lorentz formula Weight = Height (cm) -100 - Height (cm) -150 2 (female) or 4 male = BMI, normal is 18.5 to 23

4.

Waist/Hip ratio More than 1 in male is obesity More than 0,85 in female is obesity

5.

Others o Skin fold thickness o Total Body Water o Body density

7.3.3 Hazards of obesity
     Hypertension Coronary heart disease Diabetes mellitus Lowered pulmonary function Lower life expectancy

7.3.4 Prevention and treatment
        Motivation Dietary changes Increasing physical activity Appetite suppressing drugs Excision of fats (liposuction) Gastric bypass Jejunioleal bypass (bypass small intestines) Jaw wiring

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 38

Some of these treatments have weakness and lack of vitamins and irons as a consequence

7.3.5 Advise as a yoga teacher
 Dietary changes o ½ full stomach o ¼ liquids o ¼ empty Physical activity Cleansing processes (4 glasses/1 week) Non caloric fruits Pranayama: Kappalabathi, Bastrika, Surya Bhedan Yoga is a process of normalization (fast sun salutations) Yoga asanas practised as exercise Asanas which twist and pressure the abdominals are to be maintained

      

7.3.6 Dietary Regimen
Human existence on 5 levels:      1. Annamaya kosh (physical body) Pranayama kosh (Pranic system) Manomaya kosh (Mind system) Vidnyanmaya kosh (Extra sensory perception) Anandmay kosh (Supreme bliss) Purpose of food o o o o 2. To speed up the anabolism and catabolism To provide energy for body functions To increase immunity of body To develop the mind

Types of food o Satvik: healthy, fresh food o Rajas: very hot, spicy, very sour o Tamas: frozen foods, meat

3.

Vegetarian diet Why we humans are vegetarians: o Teeth: we have round teeth like vegetarian animals have (e.g. cows), meat eaters have sharp teeth o Nails: round nails, meat eaters of pointed nails

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 39

o Style of drinking water: vegetarians drink with their lips, meat eaters with their tongue o Digestive juices are different for meat eaters o Blood pH 4. Healthy diet o Carbohydrates (1g = 4 cal): rice, wheat, corn, sugar, potatoes, sweet potatoes o Fats (1g = 9 cal): oil, ghee, coconut, dried fruits) o Proteins (1g = 4 cal): pulses, soya beans, peas o Vitamins:  A: mango, papaya  B: milk, wild rice  C: guava, amla  D: sunrays  E: germs of wheat  K: fruits, greens, vegetables o Minerals:  Calcium: milk  Phosporus: fruits  Sodium: coconut water  Patassium: fruits  Magnesium: vegetables 5. Characteristics of healthy diet o o o o Take cooked food twice a day Quantity of food: 50% food, 25% water, 25% air Quantity of liquid: +/- 1.5 liter/day Food should include different types of food: sweet, sour,chilli, bitter, astingha, salty

6.

Unhealthy diet o o o o o o o o Saturated fats (cholesterol) Polished rice Tinned food Bakery products Tea, coffee Aerated drinks (soft drinks, alcohol) Frozen foods Genetically modified foods

7.

Required calories F: 2500 to 3000 Kcal/day M: 3000 – 3500 Heavy duty workers: 3000 to 4000/day

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 40

7.3.7 Yogic approach towards diet
It is a natural instinct to follow a healthy diet. The regular practise of yoga will stimulate following a healthy diet. The Anuloma Viloma Pranayama practised for 20 minutes a day helps with weight loss.

7.4 Yoga and Stress
Yoga will teach you the art of living. Yoga will increase the ability of concentration/observing /remembering Yoga helps for:  Personality development  Improve health  Increasing height  Improves creative talent

7.4.1 Stress management
Stress = tension  is a reaction to any situation  is a nature‟s provision to make us deal with what happens around us  is necessary for survival. Life = stress, the fight or flight response Stress is a defence mechanism 1. Necessary/positive stress o Force of gravity: it is stress we do not consider as stress o Changes of season o Deadline: motivation 2. Bad Stress Can cause illness or even untimely death Major stress: externalisation is necessary Minor stress: reaction to the day to day hassle  can be managed: avoid quarrels, imaginary stress

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 41

3.

Influence of stress on the body Adrenaline makes the heart rate and blood pressure and the respiration rate go up. It also narrows the blood vessels. Consequences: obesity, High Blood pressure, diabetes, strokes, heart attack, cancer

4.

How to manage stress No medicine Yoga teaches a different attitude, change your attitude towards things. This is very difficult, it takes regular practise. Physical activity: in our modern world, physical activity is lower. Stress management with resonance techniques and relaxation Omkar chanting A : stimulates muladhara chakra: eye/looking U: stimulates anahata chakra: strength of vision M: stimulates sahasrara chakra: knowledge Yamas and Niyamas covers stress management Time management: leave on time Conversational skills: wrong not listening, not talking releases stress Some advise from Jon Kobatt Zinn and Richard Carlson: o o o o o Let other be right Every day: do something nice for somebody Do not be judgemental Moment to moment awareness (be aware of yourself) Watching your body

7.5 Yoga and pregnancy
7.5.1 Yoga and pregnancy
Pregnant women are sometimes stressed and anxious. Yoga can help them relax and prepare for birth giving. Yoga therapy can help a lot for the development of the baby:  Diet  Rest  Exercise  Yoga nidra  Omkar meditation  Asana  Breathing (no Kumbhaka during pregnancy)

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 42

7.5.2 Yoga for children
As the bones of children are very elastic, they should only start practising asanas as of the age of 12. Before that they can practise preparatory movements and surya namaskar:      3 to 6 years: omkar and preparatory movements 10 year: surya namaskar 12 to 16 years: Pravesh postures 16-18 years: Parichay 18 years: Pranayama

Yoga Vidya Gurukul Nashik, India

Yoga Teacher Training Syllabus Page 43


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:288
posted:12/16/2009
language:English
pages:44
Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
About Some of Those documents come from internet for research purpose,if you have the copyrights of one of them,tell me by mail vixychina@gmail.com.Thank you!