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									Non-Prescription Protocols for Prescription Problems:
Solal Technologies has a range of non-prescription nutraceuticals and protocols, designed to help manage prescription problems.

In cases of insulin resistance (pre-diabetes), where type II diabetes has not yet fully developed, use only the lipoic acid and chromium polynicotinate, but not Glucose Regulating Diabetic Formula TM. This is because Glucose Regulating Diabetic FormulaTM stimulates insulin production, which is not needed, since pre-diabetes insulin resistance is characterised by already high levels of circulating insulin.

Low Thyroid Function Protocol:




Arthritis Protocol:
· Thyroid Support FormulaTM (contains Guggulipid(35), Tyrosine(36), Iodine(37)), one capsule three times daily.



1. For faster and better effectiveness, all of the products mentioned in each protocol can be combined from the onset, without waiting for the intervals described before new products are added. 2. In each of these protocols the most important and effective product to take is listed first; the second most important is listed second, etc. 3. All products should be taken with or shortly after food, unless stated otherwise. 4. All protocols, except the Menopause and Anti-depressant protocols, can be combined with prescription medicines to improve effectiveness of treatment, or reduce side-effects.

Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol:
· Inflammation Pain & Healing IPH Joint FormulaTM (contains Boswellia(14), Curcumin(15) [Turmeric], Ginger(16), Glucosamine sulphate(17)), two capsules twice daily, after meals. If not enough relief is obtained after one month, add: · Fish Oil Extract Omega 3(18), two capsules after supper. If not enough relief obtained after another month, add: · CMO (cetyl myristoleate wax(19)), one capsule twice daily, after meals.

High Blood Pressure Protocol

Non-Prescription solutions for Prescription problems Protocols

Depression Protocol:
· Co-enzyme Q10(1), one capsule twice daily. If not enough blood pressure reduction is attained after one month, add: · The Anti-Aging PillTM (contains resveratrol(2)), one tablet twice daily. If not enough blood pressure reduction is attained after another month, add: · Fish Oil Extract Omega 3(3): Take two capsules after supper. If not enough blood pressure reduction is attained after another month, add: · Magnesium Glycinate(4): Take two capsules twice daily.

· The Natural Anti-bioticTM (contains olive leaf(38), elderberry(39), ginseng(40), andrographis(41), zinc(42), selenium(43)), two capsules twice daily.

Menopause / PMS protocol:

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High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Arthritis Depression Anxiety Low Thyroid Function Cold / Flu / Infections Menopause / PMS Insomnia

High Cholesterol Protocol:

· Naturally HighTM (contains 5-HTP(20), Tyrosine(21), Phenylethylamine(22) [extracted from cocoa], Passionflower(23), Pyridoxine(24), Ginseng(25), Ginkgo(26)), two capsules twice daily on an empty stomach (not after meals). If not enough relief is obtained after two months, add: · 5-HTP(20) (used to top up the 5-HTP already contained in Naturally HighTM), one capsule twice daily, before or after meals. If not enough relief is obtained after another two months, add: · Fish Oil Extract Omega 3(27), two capsules after supper. NOTE: Although combining the above protocol with conventional anti-depressant will improve their effectiveness, such combination could cause side-effects if serotonin levels are raised too much. Therefore such combination with prescription anti-depressants should ONLY be used if under the supervision of a doctor. This does not apply to Fish Oil Extract Omega 3, which can quite safely be used with prescription anti-depressants.

· CholestAwayTM (contains Red Yeast Rice(6)), one capsule twice daily. If not enough blood pressure reduction is attained after another two months, add: · CholestGoTM (contains Policosanol(5)), one tablet twice daily. If not enough cholesterol reduction is attained after 2 months, add: · Flush Free Niacin(7), one tablet twice daily. NOTE: Co-Enzyme Q10 (one capsule twice daily) should be used with any statin containing prescription cholesterol lowering medicine, as well as with CholestAwayTM (Red Yeast Rice is a natural statin source). This is because statins deplete the body’s co-enzyme Q10 reserves (coenzyme Q10 is an important heart-protector)(8).

· Hormone BalanceTM (contains Black Cohosh(44), Ipriflavone(45), Vitamin D(46)), one capsule twice daily. If not enough relief is obtained after one month, add: · Soy Isoflavones(47), one capsule in the morning. If not enough relief is obtained after another month, add: · Calcium glycinate(48), two capsules twice daily. If not enough relief is obtained after another month, add: · Pregnenolone(49): Take one tablet twice daily. If not enough relief is obtained after another month, add: · Fish Oil Extract Omega 3(50): Take two capsules after supper. NOTE: Hormone BalanceTM and Soy Isoflavones can interfere or block conventional prescription hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Therefore these two products should not be used at the same time as conventional HRT. The last three products will not interfere with conventional HRT and can effectively be combined with conventional HRT if desired.

Anxiety Protocol:


Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol:

For Type I and type II Diabetes, take all of the following three products, with or shortly after meals: · Glucose Regulating Diabetes FormulaTM (contains Gymnema Sylvestra(9) herbal extract, Pinitol (10) and Goats Rue (11) herbal extract), one capsule three times daily. · Lipoic acid(12), one capsule twice daily. · Chromium polynicotinate(13), one tablet three times daily.

· Theanine(28), one or two capsule twice daily on an empty stomach (not after meals) AND take: · Stress Damage ControTM (contains Rhodiola Rosea(29), Ashwagandha(30)), one capsule twice daily AND take: · Magnesium Glycinate(31), two capsules twice daily with meals. If not enough relief is obtained after one month using these three products, add: · 5-HTP(32): one capsule twice daily, before or after meals. If not enough relief is obtained after one month, add: · Naturally HighTM (contains 5-HTP(32), Tyrosine, Phenylethylamine [extracted from cocoa], Passionflower(33), Pyridoxine, Ginseng, Ginkgo(34)), two capsules twice daily on an empty stomach (not after meals). NOTE: This anxiety reducing protocol can be combined with prescription anti-anxiety medicines to enhance their effectiveness, but only under the supervision of a doctor.

· If over the age of forty, use Melatonin(51): Take one tablet at bed time. If you find it difficult falling asleep take the melatonin regular (quick releasing). If you find it difficult staying asleep, take the melatonin-SR (sustained release). · If under forty years of age: use Herbal SleepTM (valerian(52), corydalis(53), passionflower(54)): Take 2-4 capsules at bedtime. This Insomnia protocol can be combined with prescription medicines to enhance their effectiveness.
For information on anti-aging products and protocols or for any health need, contact:

Solal Technologies: Tel: 011 783 3939 s Fax: 011 783 3399 email:

(1) High Blood Pressure Protocol (Co-Enzyme Q10) · Langsjoen P,Willis R, Folkers K.Treatment of essential hypertension with Co-Enzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med 1994;S265-72. · Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble Co-Enzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:203-8. · Hodgson JM,Watts GF, Playford DA, et al. Co-Enzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:1137-42. (2) High Blood Pressure Protocol (Resveratrol) · Soares De Moura R, Costa Viana FS, Souza MA, Kovary K, Guedes DC, Oliveira EP, Rubenich LM, Carvalho LC, Oliveira RM,Tano T, Gusmao Correia ML.Antihypertensive, vasodilator and antioxidant effects of a vinifera grape skin extract. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;54(11):1515-20. (3) High Blood Pressure Protocol (Fish Oil Omega 3) · Prisco D, Paniccia R, Bandinelli B, et al. Effect of medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients.Thromb Res 1998;1:105-12. · Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension.A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. · Yosefy C,Viskoper JR, Laszt A, et al.The effect of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids and hemostasis in hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999;61:83-7. (4) High Blood Pressure Protocol (Magnesium) · Sanjuliani AF, de Abreu Fagundes VG, Francischetti EA. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol 1996;56:177-83. · Widman L,Wester PO, Stegmayr BK, et al.The dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure through administration of magnesium.A double blind placebo controlled cross-over study. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:41-5. · Jee SH, Miller ER 3rd, Guallar E, et al.The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:691-6. (5) High Cholesterol Protocol (Policosanol) · Canetti M, Moreira M, Mas R, et al. A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinaemia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995;15:159-65. · Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, et al. Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and tolerability to treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;14:27-33. · Torres O, Agramonte AJ, Illnait J, et al.Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with policosanol. Diabetes Care 1995;18:393-7. · Batista J, Stusser R, Saez F, Perez B. Effect of policosanol on hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease in middle-aged patients. A 14-month pilot study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;34:134-7. · Castano G, Canetti M, Moreira M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in elderly patients with type II hypercholesterolemia: A 12-month study. Curr Ther Res 1995;56:819-23. · Castano G,Tula L, Canetti M, et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:691-5. · Chen JT,Wesley R, Shamburek RD, et al. Meta-Analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:17183. (6) High Cholesterol Protocol (Red Yeast Rice) · Heber D,Yip I, Ashley JM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:231-6. · Am Heart Assn. Am Heart Assn meeting report: Chinese condiment cuts blood cholesterol. News/AHA News Releases/03-25-99chinese.html (Accessed 2 August 2000). (7) High Cholesterol Protocol (Flush Free Niacin) · Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J, et al. Extended-release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan-Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1177-84. · National Cholesterol Education Program. Cholesterol Lowering in the Patient with Coronary Heart Disease. 1997. Available at: low.pdf · Illingworth DR, Stein EA, Mitchel YB, et al. Comparative effects of lovastatin and niacin in primary hypercholesterolemia. A prospective trial. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1586-95. · Vacek JL, Dittmeier G, Chiarelli T, et al. Comparison of lovastatin (20 mg) and nicotinic acid (1.2 g) with either drug alone for type II hyperlipoproteinemia.Am J Cardiol 1995;76:182-4. · Vega GL, Grundy SM. Lipoprotein responses to treatment with lovastatin, gemfibrozil, and nicotinic acid in normolipidemic patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:73-82. · Guyton JR, Goldberg AC, Kreisberg RA, et al. Effectiveness of once-nightly dosing of extended-release niacin alone and in combination for hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:737-43. · Lal SM, Hewett JE, Petroski GF, et al. Effects of nicotinic acid and lovastatin in renal transplant patients: a prospective, randomized, open-labeled crossover trial. Am J Kidney Dis 1995;25:616-22. · McKenney J. New perspectives on the use of niacin in the treatment of lipid disorders. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:697-705. (8) High Cholesterol Protocol (Co-Enzyme Q10) · Silver MA, Langsjoen PH, Szabo S, Patil H, Zelinger A; Effect of atorvastatin on left ventricular diastolic function and ability of coenzyme Q10 to reverse that dysfunction. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Nov 15;94(10):1306-10 · Nawarskas, James J. PharmD; HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors and Coenzyme Q10; Cardiology in Review. 13(2):76-79, March/April 2005. · Levy HB, Kohlhaas HK; Considerations for supplementing with coenzyme Q10 during statin therapy; Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Feb;40(2):290-4. Epub 2006 Jan 31. (9) Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol (Gymnema Sylvestra) · Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, et al. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:281-94. · Baskaran K, Kizar-Ahamath B, Shanmugasundaram MR, Shanmugasundaram ERB.Antidiabetic effect of leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295-300. · Head KA.Type 1 diabetes: prevention of the disease and its complications.Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 1998;180:72-84. · Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:127794. · Persaud SJ, Al-Majed H, Raman A, Jones PM. Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability. J Endocrinol 1999;163:20712. (10) Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol (Pinitol) · Kang MJ, Kim JI,Yoon SY, Kim JC, Cha IJ; Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):182-6. · Kim JI, Kim JC, Kang MJ, Lee MS, Kim JJ, Cha IJ; Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study; Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;59(3):456-8. · Bates SH, Jones RB, Bailey CJ; Insulin-like effect of pinitol; Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;130(8):1944-8. · Davis A, Christiansen M, Horowitz JF, Klein S, Hellerstein MK, Ostlund RE Jr; Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance; Diabetes Care. 2000 Jul;23(7):1000-5. (11) Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol (Goats Rue) · Blumenthal M, ed.The Complete German Commission E Monographs:Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines.Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA:American Botanical Council, 1998. · Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998. · Neef H, Augustijns P, Declercq P, et al. Inhibitory effects of Galega officinalis on glucose transport across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Pharm Pharmacol Lett 1996;6:86-9. (12) Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol (Lipoic Acid) · Konrad T,Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:280-7. · Jacob S, Henriksen EJ,Tritschler HJ, et al. Improvement of insulin-stimulated glucose-disposal in type 2 diabetes after repeated parenteral administration of lipoic acid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabet 1996;104:284-8. · Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Schiemann AL, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:872-

4. · Jacob S, Ruus P, Hermann R, et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebocontrolled, pilot trial. Free Rad Biol Med 1999;27:309-14. (13) Diabetes / High Blood Sugar Protocol (Chromium Polynicotinate) · Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52. · Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91. · Rabinovitz H, Friedensohn A, Leibovitz A, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2004;74:178-82. (14) Arthritis Protocol (Boswellia) · Ammon HP, Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J. Mechanism of antiinflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;38:1139. · Kimmatkar N,Thawani V, Hingorani L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2003;10:3-7. · Etzel R. Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H 15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Phytomedicine 1996;3:91-4. (15) Arthritis Protocol (Curcumin) · Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. Preliminary study on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane). Indian J Med Res 1980;71:632-4. · Surh YJ.Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:10917. · Araujo CC, Leon LL. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2001;96:723-8. · Takada Y, Bhardwaj A, Potdar P, Aggarwal BB. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-kappaB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 2004 Oct 18 (16) Arthritis Protocol (Ginger) · Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarth Cartilage 2000;8:9-12. · Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2531-38. · Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Medical Hypotheses 1989;29:25-8. (17) Arthritis Protocol (Glucosamine sulphate) · McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Treatment of Osteoarthritis A Systematic Quality Assessment and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. · Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AA.Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980;3:260-72. · Lopes Vaz AL. Double-blind, clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in outpatients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982;8:145-9. · Pujalte JM, Llavore EP,Ylescupidez FR. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980;7:110-4. · Forster K, Schmid K, Rovati L, et al. Longer-term treatment of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee with glucosamine sulfate- a randomized controlled, doubleblind clinical study. Euro J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50:542. · Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. · Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. · Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1514-22. · Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C.The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 2003;37:45-9. · Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004;11:138-43. · Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;1:CD002946. · Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD002946. · Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol 2001;28:1347-55. (18) Arthritis Protocol (Fish Oil Extract Omega 3) · van der Tempel H,Tulleken JE, Limburg PC, et al. Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1990;49:76-80. · Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Lund JA, Riise T, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and naproxen treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1992;19:1531-6. · Astorga G, Cubillos A, Masson L, Silva JJ. Active rheumatoid arthritis: effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 oils. A controlled double-blind trial. Rev Med Chil 1991;119:267-72. · Fortin PR, Lew RA, Liang MH, et al.Validation of a meta-analysis: the effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Epidemiol 1995;48:1379-90. · Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Osteoporosis. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E012-1; 2004. Available at: . · Curtis CL, Hughes CE, Flannery CR, et al. n-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. J Biol Chem 2000;275:7214. (19) Arthritis Protocol (CMO) · Hesslink R Jr,Armstrong D 3rd, Nagendran MV, et al. Cetylated fatty acids improve knee function in patients with osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 2002;29:1708-12. (20) Depression Protocol (5-HTP) · Nakajima T, Kudo Y, Kaneko Z. Clinical evaluation of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan as an antidepressant drug. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 1978;32:223-30. · Shaw K,Turner J, Del Mar C.Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(1):CD003198. · Coppen A,Whybrow PC, Noguera R, et al.The comparative antidepressant value of L-tryptophan and imipramine with and without attempted potentiation by liothyronine. Arch Gen Psychiatr 1972;26:234-41. · Poldinger W, Calanchini B, Schwarz W.A functional-dimensional approach to depression: serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan and fluvoxamine. Psychopathology 1991;24:53-81. (21) Depression Protocol (Tyrosine) · McLean A, Rubinsztein JS, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ.The effects of tyrosine depletion in normal healthy volunteers: implications for unipolar depression.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Jan;171(3):286-97. Epub 2003 Sep 4. · Roiser JP, McLean A, Ogilvie AD, Blackwell AD, Bamber DJ, Goodyer I, Jones PB, Sahakian BJ.The subjective and cognitive effects of acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion in patients recovered from depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Apr;30(4):775-85. (22) Depression Protocol (Phenylethylamine) · Nakagawara M. Beta-phenylethylamine and noradrenergic function in depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Jan;16(1):45-53. (23) Depression Protocol (Passionflower) · Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Shayeganpour A, et al. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26:363-7. (24) Depression Protocol (Pyridoxine) · Calderon-Guzman D, Hernandez-Islas JL. Pyridoxine, regardless of serotonin levels, increases production of 5-hydroxytryptophan in rat brain. Lee NS, Muhs G,Wagner GC, Reynolds RD, Fisher H. (25) Depression Protocol (Ginseng) · Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):687-700. · Kennedya DO, Scholeya AB,Wesnes KA. Dose dependent changes in cognitive performance and mood following acute administration of Ginseng to healthy young volunteers. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(4):295-310. (25) & (26) Depression Protocol (Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba) · Kennedy DO, Scholey AB,Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults. Physiol Behav. 2002 Apr 15;75(5):739-51. · Lingaerde O, Foreland AR, Magnusson A. Can winter depression be prevented by Ginkgo biloba extract? A placebo-controlled trial.Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100:626. (27) Depression Protocol (Fish Oil Extract Omega 3) · Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder.A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol

2003;13:267-71. · Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, et al. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999;85:275-91. · Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, et al. Plasma fatty acid composition and depression are associated in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study.Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:406. · Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Hintikka J, et al. Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:512-513. · Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet 1998;351:1213. (28) Anxiety Protocol (Theanine) · Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, et al.The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 2004;19:457–65. (29) Anxiety Protocol (Rhodiola Rosea) · Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BIu, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IuB. [The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress] Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1994 Nov-Dec;57(6):61-3. Russian. · Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E,Wikman G,Wagner H. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):365-71. (30) Anxiety Protocol (Ashwagandha) · Upton R, ed. Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera): Analytical, quality control, and therapuetic monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2000:1-25. (31) Anxiety Protocol (Magnesium Glycinate) · Banki, C. M., et al. Cerebrospinal fluid magnesium and calcium related to amine metabolites, diagnosis, and suicide attempts. Biol Psychiatry. 20(2):163-71, 1985. · Henrotte, J. G: Type A behavior and magnesium metabolism. Magnesium. 5:201-210, 1986. · Werbach, M. R. Nutritional influences on aggressive behavior. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 7(1), 1995. · Poleszak, E., et al. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 78(1):7-12, 2004. · Webb,W. L., et al. Electrolyte and fluid imbalance: Neuropsychiatric manifestations. Psychosomatics. 22(3):199-203, 1981. (32) Anxiety Protocol (5-HTP) · Kahn RS,Westenberg HG,Verhoeven WM, Gispen-de Wied CC, Kamerbeek WD. Effect of a serotonin precursor and uptake inhibitor in anxiety disorders; a doubleblind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987 Jan;2(1):33-45. · Kahn RS,Westenberg HG. L-5-hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord. 1985 Mar-Apr;8(2):197-200. (33) Anxiety Protocol (Passionflower) · Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Shayeganpour A, et al. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther 2001;26:363-7. · Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;78:165-70. (34) Anxiety Protocol (Ginkgo Biloba) · Ward, C. P., et al. Ginkgo biloba extract. Cognitive enhancer or antistress buffer. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 72(4):913-922, 2002. · Kuribara, H., et al. An anxiolytic-like effect of Ginkgo biloba extract and its constituent, ginkgolide-a, in mice. J Nat Prod. 66(10):1333-1337, 2003. (35) Low Thyroid Function Protocol (Guggulipid) · Antonio J, Colker CM,Torina GC, et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: a pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:220-7. · Tripathi YB,Tripathi P, Malhotra OP,Tripathi SN.Thyroid stimulatory action of (Z)-guggulsterone: mechanism of action. Planta Med 1988;54:271-7. · Panda S, Kar A. Gugul (Commiphora mukul) induces triiodothyronine production: possible involvement of lipid peroxidation. Life Sci 1999;65:PL137-41. (36) Low Thyroid Function Protocol (Tyrosine) · Maurizis JC, Marriq C.Thyroid hormone synthesis and reactivity of hormone-forming tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin. FEBS Lett. 1981 Sep 14;132(1):29-32. (37) Low Thyroid Function Protocol (Iodine) · McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998. (38) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Olive Leaf) · Tranter, H. S., et al. The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus. J Appl Bacteriol. 74(3):253-259, 1993. · Koutsoumanis, K., et al. Modelling the effectiveness of a natural antimicrobial on Salmonella enteritidis as a function of concentration, temperature and pH, using conductance measurements. J Appl Microbiol. 84(6):981-987, 1998. · Bisignano, G., et al. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol. 51(8):971-974, 1999. · Juven, et al. Studies on the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of oleuropein. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 35:559-567, 1972. · Tassou, C. C., et al. Effect of phenolic compounds and oleuropein on the germination of Bacillus cereus T spores. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 13(2):231-237, 1991. · Walker, M., DPM. Olive leaf extract: The total antimicrobial. Nutrition Science News. 3(1):18-19, 1998. · Tassou, C. C., et al. Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis by oleuropein in broth and in a model food system. Lett Appl Microbiol. 20(2):120-124, 1995. (39) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Elderberry) · Turpin, J. et al. Antiviral evaluation of elderberry extracts and standardized powder. Southern Research Institute. 2000. · Shibuya, N., et al. The elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark lectin recognizes the Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)Gal/GalNAc sequence. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262(4):15961601, 1987. · Zakay-Rones, Z., et al. Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra) during an outbreak of influenza in Panama. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1(4):361-369, 1995. · Zakay-Rones, Z., et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 32(2):132-140, 2004. (40) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Ginseng) · Scaglione F,Weiser K,Alessandria M. Effects of the standardized ginseng extract G115 (Reg.) in patients with chronic bronchitis:A nonblinded, randomized, comparative pilot study. Clin Drug Invest 2001;21:41-5. · Scaglione F, Cattaneo G,Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardized Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:65-72. (41) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Andrographis) · Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo study. Phytomedicine 1999;6:217-23. · Melchior J, Palm S,Wikman G. Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata in common cold- a pilot trial. Phytomedicine 1996;97;3:315-8. · Hancke J, Burgos R, Caceres D,Wikman G. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 1995;9:559-62. · Melchoir J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan Jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 2000;7:341-50. · Thamlikitkul V, Dechatiwongse T,Theerapong S, et al. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adults. J Med Assoc Thai 1991;74:437-42. (42) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Zinc) · Duchateau, J., et al. Beneficial effects of oral zinc supplementation on the immune response of old people. American Journal of Medicine. 70(5):1001-1004, 1981. · Duchateau, J., et al. Influence of oral zinc supplementation on the lymphocyte response to mitogens of normal subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 34(1):88-93, 1981. · Fraker, P. J., et al. Interrelationships between zinc and immune function. Fed Proc. 45(5):1474-1479, 1986. · Mocchegiani, E., et al. Zinc and immunoresistance to infection in aging: new biological tools. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 21(6):205-208, 2000 (43) Cold / Flu / Infections Protocol (Selenium) · Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L., et al. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biol Trace Elem Res. 41:115-127, 1994. · Rayman, M. P. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet. 356(9225):233-241, 2000. · Beck, M. A., et al. Selenium deficiency and viral infection. Journal of Nutrition - Supplement: 11th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals. 133(5 Supplement):1463S-1467S, 2003. · Taylor, E.W., et al. Genomic structures of viral agents in relation to the biosynthesis of selenoproteins. Biol Trace Elem Res. 56:63-91, 1997. · Beck, M. A., et al. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J. 15(8):1481-1483, 2001. (44) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Black Cohosh) · Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:163-74. · Wuttke W, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C.The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas 2003;44:S67-77. · American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Practice Bulletins--Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Use of botanicals for management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:suppl 1-11.

· Osmers R, Friede M, Liske E, et al. Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:1074-83. · Wuttke W, Gorkow C, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause 2006;13:185-96. (45) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Ipriflavones) · Ohta H, Komukai S, Makita K, et al. Effects of 1-year ipriflavone treatment on lumbar bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Horm Res 1999;51:178-83. · Agnusdei D, Bufalino L. Efficacy of ipriflavone in established osteoporosis and long-term safety. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61,Suppl 1:S23-7. · Gennari C, Adami S, Agnusdei D, et al. Effect of chronic treatment with ipriflavone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61,Suppl 1:S19-22. · Gennari C, Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, et al. Effect of ipriflavone-a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones-on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause. Menopause 1998;5:9-15. · Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, Isaia G, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal spinal bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:142-7. · Ushiroyama T, Okamura S, Ikeda A, et al. Efficacy of ipriflavone and 1 alpha vitamin D therapy for the cessation of vertebral bone loss. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1995;48(3):283-8. · Agnusdei D,Adami S, Cervetti R, et al. Effects of ipriflavone on bone mass and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone Miner 1992;19,Suppl 1:S438. · Valente M, Bufalino L, Castiglione GN, et al. Effects of 1-year treatment with ipriflavone on bone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Calcif Tissue Int 1994;54:377-80. · Agnusdei D, Zacchei F, Bigazzi S, et al. Metabolic and clinical effects of ipriflavone in established post-menopausal osteoporosis. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1989;15(2):97104. · Maugeri D, Panebianco P, Russo MS, et al. Ipriflavone-treatment of senile osteoporosis: results of a multicenter, double-blind clinical trial of 2 years. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1994;19:253-63. (46) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Vitamin D) · Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1246-52. · American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ACOG practice bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Number 50, January 2003. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:203-16. · Minne HW, Pfeifer M, Begerow B, et al.Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces falls in elderly women via improvement of body sway and normalization of blood pressure: a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study. Abstracts World Congress on Osteoporosis 2000 · Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 1997;337:670-6. · Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, et al.Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1637-42. · Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, et al. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int 2002;13:257-64. · NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 2001;285:785-95. (47) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Soy Isoflavones) · Kaari C, Haidar MA, Junior JMS, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing conjugated equine estrogens and isoflavones in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Maturitas 2006;53:49-58. · Nahas EP, Neto JN, DeLuca L, et al. Benefits of soy germ isoflavone in postmenopausal women with contraindication for conventional hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2004;48:372-80. · Huntley AL, Ernst E. Soy for the treatment of perimenopausal symptoms--a systematic review. Maturitas 2004;47:1-9. · Albert A,Altabre C, Baro F, et al. Efficacy and safety of a phytoestrogen preparation derived from Glycine max (L.) Merr in climacteric symptomatology: a multicentric, open, prospective and non-randomized trial. Phytomedicine 2002;9:85-92. · Burke GL, Legault C,Anthony M, et al. Soy protein and isoflavone effects on vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women: the Soy Estrogen Alternative Study. Menopause 2003;10:147-53. · Han KK, Soares JM Jr, Haidar MA, et al. Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:389-94.Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, et al. Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause 1999;6:7-13. · Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, et al.The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:6-11. · Tham DM, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2223-35. · Kurzer M. Hormonal effects of soy isoflavones: Studies in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2000;130:660-1. · Balk JL,Whiteside DA, Naus G, et al.A pilot study of the effects of phytoestrogen supplementation on postmenopausal endometrium. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002;9:23842. · Setchell KDR, Lydeking-Olsen E. Dietary phytoestrogens and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:593S-609S. · Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, et al. Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:4740-7. · Ho SC, Chan SG,Yi Q, et al. Soy intake and the maintenance of peak bone mass in Hong Kong Chinese women. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16:1363-9. · Alekel DL, St. Germain A, Peterson CT et al. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:844-52. (48) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Calcium Glycinate) · Alvir JM,Thys-Jacobs S. Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull 1991;27:145-8. · Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Intern Med 1989;4:183-9. · Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1246-52. (49) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Pregnenolone) · Wang M, Seippel L, Purdy RH, Backstrom T. Relationship between symptom severity and steroid variation in women with premenstrual syndrome: study on serum pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate, 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1076-82. · George MS, Guidotti A, Rubinow D, et al. CSF neuroactive steroids in affective disorders: pregnenolone, progesterone, and DBI. Biol Psych 1994;35:775-80. · Devlin TM, ed.Textbook of Biochemistry With Clinical Correlations. third ed. New York:Wiley-Liss Inc., 1992 (50) Menopause / PMS Protocol (Fish Oil Extract Omega 3) · Weiss LA, Barrett-Connor E, von Muhlen D. Ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and bone mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:934-8. · Kruger MC, Coetzer H, de Winter R, et al. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis.Aging (Milano) 1998;10:38594. · Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Osteoporosis. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E012-1; 2004. Available at: (51) Insomnia (Melatonin) · Garfinkel D, et al. Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet 1995;346:541-44. · Brusco LI, Fainstein I, Marquez M, et al. Effect of melatonin in selected populations of sleep-disturbed patients. Biol Signals Recept 1999;8:126-31. · Haimov I, Lavie P, Laudon M, et al. Melatonin replacement therapy of elderly insomniacs. Sleep 1995;18:598-603. · Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Nof D, et al. Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet 1995;346:541-4. · Zhdanova IV,Wurtman RJ, Regan MM, et al. Melatonin treatment for age-related insomnia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4727-30. (52) Insomnia (Valerian) · Schulz H, Stolz C, Muller J.The effect of valerian extract on sleep polygraphy in poor sleepers: a pilot study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1994 Jul;27(4):147-51. · Balderer G, Borbely AA. Effect of valerian on human sleep. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985;87(4):406-9. · Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R.Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Jul;17(1):65-71. (53) Insomnia (Corydalis) · Leung,W. C., et al. Anxiolytic-like action of orally administered dl-tetrahydropalmatine in elevated plus-maze. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 27(5):775779, 2003. (54) Insomnia (Passionflower) · Krenn L. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):404-6

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