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					OPERATING SYSTEMS
Part B'

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Contents
What is linux? Get ready Installation Basic commands Applications

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
 History  Overview  Licence / Cost  Distributions

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
History
1960 Need for something new
1968 Multics O.S. 1970 Unix based on Multics

1973 Unix based on C
1975 BSD (Berkeley)
The creator of Linux

Linus Torvalds
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department

1980 MSUnix - Xenix 1983 System 3 (Now System V) 1991 Linux based on Minix

Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Overview
 Linux can be divided into four major components:
Kernel
 Kernel is the core program that runs programs and manages hardware

devices such as disks and printers.

Shell
 Provides an interface for the user. It receives commands to the kernel for execution.

File Structure
 Organizes the way files are stored on a storage device such as a disk.

Utilities
 Are specialized programs, such as editors, compilers, that perform standard

computing operations.
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Overview - Kernel

The kernel is the heart of the entire operating system. All the various threads are brought together in the kernel: memory allocation, managing the process`tables, the administrations of multitasking and multiuser capabilities, management of access to the file systems, of drivers for access to specific hardware, AcademiX Group etc.
City Liberal Studies
Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

These features stand for modules.

What is Linux?
Overview - Shell
The shell provides an interface between the kernel and the user. It can be described as an interpreter. It interprets commands entered by the user and sends them to the kernel. There are two cateories of Shells: Command Line Grafical User Interface (GUI) - GUI's have many window managers (fvwm, olwm, etc) AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Shells are: Theodoros Bourne Shell (by Bell) Chrysafis CS Department C-Shell (by BSD) Academic Year: Korn Shell an enchanchement of Bourne 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Overview - File Structure

Directories are organized into a hierarchical tree structure, beginning with an initial root directory. All other directories are derived from this root directory.
Linux file system is one large interconnected set of directories, each containing files. Also with Linux user can set permissions on directories and files.
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Overview - Utilities

 Linux contains a great number of utilities. They can be devided in three general categories: Editors (Vi, Emacs) Filters: Read -> Examine -> Output Data (awk) Communication Programs (talk, telnet, ftp)
There are also many other utilities some perform file operations and other program AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies management.
Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Licence / Cost
Unlike the official Unix operating system, Linux is distributed freely under GNU General Public Licence (GPL) as specified

by the Free Software Foundation. Linux is copyrighted and it
is not public domain. However, a GNU Public Licence has much the same effect as being in the public domain. The licence is

designed to ensure that Linux remains free, and at the same
time standardised. There is only one official Linux.
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department

Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

What is Linux?
Distributions
Although there is only one standard version of Linux there are actually several different releases. Some popular releases are: AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies

http://www.caldera.com http://www.redhat.com

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

http://www.mandrake.com http://www.suse.com http://www.debian.com

Get Ready
Hardware / Software
 Hardware Requirements compatible Floppy Disk and / or Cd-Rom More than 8 Mb Ram At least 300 Mb free disk space A video graphics card A mouse or other pointing device  Software Requirements disks
Intel 80386, 80486, Pentium Family or

AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

An operating system to create the installation

Installation
Backup important files Installation Disks or CD-Rom Installation program LILO Kernel Configuration

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Installation
Disks / CD-ROM - Installation Program

After making the appropriate partitions in our hard disk(s) we run the command rawrite(3) or equivalent command, which writes the disk image to a floppy disk. We do the same procedure for modules.img file. Reboot with the image disk or boot from a CDROM. We have to know the settings of our computer (serial irq - addresses, card I/O, etc.) AcademiX Group  boot: (enter) City Liberal Studies Theodoros  login: root (enter) Chrysafis CS  setup (enter) folow instructions. Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Installation
LILO

 LILO stands for Linux Loader. Usually installation program install it at the first installation (Boot Manager).  Changes the MBR of the hard disk to allow user to boot with different O.S's. For further configurations /etc/lilo.conf or /sbin/liloconfig file. Run lilo to load them. To uninstall: fdisk /mbr fdisk from Dos to activate a partition to boot.
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department

Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Installation
Kernel Configuration

cd /usr/src/linux/ make config or make menuconfig or make xconfig (follow carefully the instrunctions) make dep (Set dependencies) AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies make clean Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department make zImage or Academic Year: 2000 - 2001 make zImage 2>&1 | tee kernel.out (to write the complilation in kernel.out file) or make bzImage for big kernels make modules (Compile Modules) make modules_install (Install Modules)

Installation
Kernel Configuration
(Continued)

The new kernel exists in usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/ as zImage or vmlinux.out file. We copy it to / (root) or /boot depending on the system as vmlinuz. Carefull to rename the already existing to vmlinuz.old. To avoid any supprises make a boot disk with make zdisk command.
AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Basic Commands
Linux vs cd / ls more less cp file mkdir rmdir Dos cd \ dir more copy md rd Linux vs mv rm man info touch find grep tee Dos move delete /help help copy con dir/s >

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies

Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department
Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Basic Commands
(Continued)

Linux vs Dos who du dir whoami whereis whatis echo echo

Linux vs free which dir date df

Dos mem dir date dir

AcademiX Group - City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Applications
StarOffice: Office Suite Application

AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Applications
Various Application (Web Development, Programming Development, Multimedia, Games)

AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Applications
Web Applications, Helpful Programs

AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001

Applications
Windows within Window

AcademiX Group City Liberal Studies Theodoros Chrysafis CS Department Academic Year: 2000 - 2001


				
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