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					Exploring Threats to Human Security – Poverty and Water in Southern Africa
DR ANNIE BARBARA CHIKWANHA
AFRICAN HUMAN SECURITY INITIATIVE PROGRAM (AHSI2)

achikwanha@issafrica.org

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Introduction
“The value of living is in the living itself, and this implies the ability to secure the basic necessities of life” Amartya Sen (1995).

Human security Human security is at a low ebb in the country. Zimbabweans are grappling with 1.reduced access to basic services, 2. the aftermath of several years of drought, 3.the economic meltdown and 4. the effects of Aids. The government is thus struggling to provide the basics that are needed by all to participate in society: health, education, water, housing and employment. These are essential factors that make up the concept human security.
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Human Security in Zimbabwe
• The UNDP 1994 report defines human security in 7 categories: economic, food, health, environmental, community, personal and political security. • The quality of life has declined dramatically for Zimbabweans as most of them experience rather severe shortages of all basic necessities. • Currently, more than 65% are living below the poverty datum line of 1.2 million dollars [214 dollars]. • Current inflation figures (official rate 1043%), the high unemployment rate (over 80 %) and acute shortages of water, power and gasoline have left everyone vulnerable.
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Table : 1 HDI trends 1975 to 2004

[

HDI trends in Zimbabwe

Year HDI

Change mean 0.548 0.576 0.643 0.659 0.591 0.525 0.491 0.576

1975 1980

1985 1990

1995

2000

2004

Change 1975-2004 0.057

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• Many of the areas in Zimbabwe are now ‘spatial poverty traps’ (Bird et al 2002a:25) with low geographic capital [the natural, physical, social and human capital of an area that limits the chances to escape from poverty. • Recent policy developments, migratory patterns and dwindling resources, have all contributed to the rise in urban poverty. • In the same way that the Millennium Development Goals (1990-2015) are interrelated, poverty is also a result of inter-related factors that cut across all the eight goals.
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:

Table 2: Zimbabwe development indicators 2006 (2004 data)

’

Zimbabwe’s gini index is Life expectancy School enrolment People without access to improved water source Children underweight for age (0-5)

50.1 36.6 52.4 19 13

Source: Human Development Report 2006 (2004 data)

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Zimbabwe development indicators contd

• In 1990/1991, national estimates (Bird et al 2005) • 25% of the citizens were poor • 7 % were very poor • In urban areas, less than 10 % were poor, just under 2% being very poor • In rural areas, 31% were poor and 9% very poor • Even though 71% of the population was resident in the rural areas, rural poverty accounted for 88% of the poverty in the country.
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Access to Water
Before 2004, rural areas were divided into 3 categories: Communal areas- semi-arid to arid, natural low levels of capitalpoverty high 33% Resettlement areas –poverty 41% Commercial farms.
Area Urban areas Communal areas Pop(mill) Shallow wells 3.1 5.4 7, 463 6,157 310 26, 000 water points 10,494 1,735 Deep wells Boreholes Coverage VIP % latrines 100 55 100 70 60 000 187 000 Coverage % 100 21 19 24

Resettlement 0.3 areas LSCF areas 1.5

State land Total

0.3 10.6

80 73 44

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oc st n ve io /li at lth le c a tt du he g ca e f n o of o hi N ck els rty ... a v e d L le ev tan ow f s ng L o k ing hi t ac v ot en L li f cl lter m ow o e y L ck f sh plo a L k o emney ac f o L ko m d ac of o L ck f fo a L ko ac L
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

In your opinion, what does it mean to be poor?

Understandings of poverty (2005)

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What Poverty Means to Southern Africans

Poverty Lack of food Lack of shelter Lack of clothing Lack of money Low living standards Lack of social amenities Lack of education/knowledge Lack of employment/jobs Low levels of health Lack of agricultural inputs (land/fertilizers/seeds) Laziness/person who won't work Lack of family/social support network No water No cattle or livestock No land Lack of everything/not having anything Lack of everything/not having anything

Botswana Lesotho Malawi Namibia 39 53 74 54 32 9 16 32 17 30 41 18 19 19 56 41 20 16 22 13 0 2 4 0 4 2 2 7 23 29 5 36 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 0 1 31 1 9 3 2 4 4 1 27 18 13 7 1 1 3 1 3 2 0 2 1 5 1 4 7 2 4

South Africa Zambia 60 53 44 21 10 28 47 43 6 22 1 1 5 12 41 17 2 4 0 0 4 5 5 0 0 7 9 8 8 3 1 2 2 3

Question wording: In your opinion, what does being poor mean to you? (2003 Afrobaromter survey)

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Food shortages

Category Often Sometimes Once or twice Never

% 40% 19% 17% 19%

Question Wording: 2005- Over the past year, how often, if ever, have you or anyone in your family gone without: A. Enough food to eat

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Experiential Poverty by Habitat (rural/urban) 2005

Water 2005 Urban Never Just once twice Several times Many times Always Rural Never Just once twice Several times Many times Always or 18 19 15 14 32 or 29 15 13 11 35

Food Medical Care 2005 2005 35 24 17 12 12 11 14 20 29 27 21 15 17 23 23 9 10 18 32 30

Cash income 2005 11 23 20 28 18 4 9 15 35 37

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Lived Poverty

Province

LP cash LP food income 62 43 54 61 73 66 57 83 75 44 43 26 26 33 42 28 35 63 81 53

Zimbabwe Harare Bulawayo Midlands Masvingo Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Mashonaland Central Matebeleland South Matebeleland North

LP medical care LP many times/always Water 56 41 39 30 40 22 58 43 81 46 39 39 71 49 53 75 52 39 64 36

Lived poverty refers to actual experiences of basic shortages/poverty

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Most important problems
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
d an L lth ure ea lt . H icu ri.. gr l A tica li t ... Po ugh nd ro a D es ag y W ert rt nt v o e Po nsp ym ra lo T mp y es ne m g U no rta co ho E ds o Fo
In your opinion, what are the most important problems facing the country that gocvernment should address? [up to 3 answers accepted]

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Human Development Index by Habitat 2001

Location

Life Average yrs Education expectancy of schooling index index

Income index

HPI %

HDI

Urban

40.6

0.543

0.825

0.426

26.4

0.504

Rural

35.5

0.307

0.687

0.303

31.1

0.388

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Human Poverty Index by Habitat 2001
% in cohort not surviving to 40 yrs Adult literacy rate % HPI % without Living Pop without Pop Under to standard access to safe access weight deprivation % healthcare% chrn 5yrs water % 1999 %

Urban Rural

38 44

0.0 16.9

7.5 15.6

0.1 15.0

6.3 4.1

7.3 8.8

26.4 31.1

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Table 10 HPI indicators 1995-2001

HDI trend across provinces

Province

HPI 1995

HPI 2001

Change

Harare Bulawayo Midlands Masvingo Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Mashonaland Central Matebeleland South Matebeleland North Manicaland

22.3 20.9 22.9 21.7 25.2 26.5 28.8 23.8 23.4 23.2

25.7 23.7 28.1 20.3 28.9 32.9 30.2 24.9 34.6 30.2

-3.4 -2.8 -5.2 1.4 -3.7 -6.4 -1.4 -1.1 -11.2 -7.0

No access to safe water 1995 1.5 0.1 31.4 31.8 41.4 22.6 28.4 28 .8 23.9 30

No access to safe water 2001 0.4 0.0 14.6 20.4 11.4 7.4 6.0 10.3 13.3 12.0

Change

1.1 0.1 16.8 11.4 30.0 15.2 22.4 18.5 10.6 18

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Table 11: HDI Table 11: HDI trend across provinces

trends across provinces

HDI trend across provinces
Province Harare Bulawayo Midlands Masvingo Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Mashonaland Central Matebeleland South Matebeleland North Manicaland HDI 1995 0.587 0.564 0.512 0.461 0.471 0.467 0.450 0.494 0.472 0.439 HDI 2001 0.511 0.513 0.425 0.406 0.411 0.410 0.400 0.445 0.433 0.406 Change 0.076 0.051 0.087 0.055 0.060 0.057 0.050 0.049 0.039 0.033

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In the last month, how much of the time: Have you been so worried or anxious that you have felt tired, worn out, or exhausted?

Mental toll on citizens

Often Sometimes Rarely Never

Urban 12 6 6 3

Rural 12 5 6 4

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Physical and mental health of Zimbabweans
Harare Bulawayo Midlands Masvingo Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always Mashonaland Central Matebeleland South Matebeland North Manicaland Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always Many times Always 14 10 7 1 13 9 11 16 7 23 14 5 9 3 6 6 6 5 13 23 16 11 23 7 23 7 21 1 15 14 35 5 18 18 18 5 22 3 24 5 15 10 8 3 14 14 7 9 6 21 17 11 9 5 5 6 9 4 9 20

2005

24 13 19 14 32 21 18 20 24 17 40 17 21 27 11 14 11 14 27 6

Question Wording: In the last month, how much of the time: Has your physical health reduced the amount of work you normally do inside or outside your home? Have you been so worried or anxious that you have felt tired, worn out, or exhausted?

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Table 16 GDP of Zimbabwe 1999-2006

GDP Trends in Zimbabwe 1999-2006
Year
2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999

GDP
$25.05 billion $25.69 billion $24.37 billion $24.03 billion $26.07 billion $28.00 billion $28.20 billion $26.50 billion

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AFRICAN HUMAN SECURITY INITIATIVE

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