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					Science- from the Latin word “sciencia,” which means “to have knowledge” ( It is the study of nature and the physical world by testing, experimenting, and measuring, including any of the branches or fields of such study, as biology, physics, or geology. ) Life Science- the study of living things Cell- the smallest unit of an organism that can perform life functions Stimulus- anything an organism responds to such as light, sound, touch, smell, color, movement, hunger, pain and pleasure Response- the reaction of an organism to a stimulus

Homeostasis- the ability of an organism to keep itself alive, despite (life threatening) changes in its environment Adaptation- any physical or behavioral trait that helps an organism survive in its natural environment Development- all the changes that occur to living things as they grow Spontaneous generation- false theory that states life comes from non living things Biogenesis- theory that states life only comes from other living things Skepticism- an attitude of doubt common in science when proving something new Validity- acceptability or believability of a concept in science; how truthful something is

Data- information obtained from an experiment (usually through measurement) Control- part of am experiment that does not change; it stays the same; it is used as a standard for comparison Variable- the changeable part of an experiment Observation- the act of gathering information using all the senses 3 Levels of Scientific Validity!! 1) Hypothesis- scientific guess 2) Theory- a hypothesis that has been supported over a long period of time but never proven true 3) Law- a theory that has been tested, validated and proven to be true

Biogenesis-the theory that states life only comes from other living things. Quantitative Measurement- measurement of amount or how much is present Qualitative Measurement- how well something is made or done Organism- anything that is made up of one or more cells, uses energy, moves, responds to stimuli, consumes food, exchanges gases, reproduces, develops, has a life span, and produces waste. The Scientific Method 1) Identify the Problem 2) Do the Test 3) Analyze Results 4) Draw Conclusions

1 Scientists
Spallanzani (Italy) Canned sterilization experiment for napoleon.

2 Scientists
Redi (Italy) Conducted the covered jar experiment disproving spontaneous generation.

3 Scientists
Pasteur (France) known for pasteurization, heating fluids to kill germs

4 Scientists
Oparin (Russia) theorized that life on Earth orginally formed from simple chemicals

5 Scientists
Miller (US) conducted an experiment based on Oparin’s hypothesis

Name______________________Class__________ Life Science Ch.1A Study Sheet Be able to identify the following terms from memory: 1. life science 2. organism 3. science 4. 4 steps of the scientific method a. b. c. d. 5. hypothesis 6. theory 7. law 8. variable 9. data 10. control 11. observation 12. homeostasis 13. adaptation 14. there is no number 14 15. response 16. development 17. spontaneous generation 18. biogenesis 19. 5 scientists a. Redi b. Spallanzani c. Pasteur d. Oparin e. Miller

Be able to identify the following definitions from memory: 20. information obtained from an experiment 21. all the changes that occur to living things as they grow 22. anything that is made up of one or more cells, uses energy, moves, responds to stimuli, consumes food, exchanges gases, reproduces, develops and has a life span 23. any behavior or physical trait that enables an organism to survive in it’s environment 24. the part of an experiment that stays the same; used as a standard for comparison 25. “having knowledge” 26. theory that states life only comes from other living things 27. scientific guess 28. analyze results 29. the act of gathering information using all the senses 30. the study of living things 31. the reaction of an organism to a stimulus 32. identify the problem 33. (Italy) disproved spontaneous generation with covered jar experiment 34. draw conclusions 35. the ability of an organism to keep itself alive despite (hostile) changes in its environment 36. the changeable part of an experiment 37. idea that has been accepted by scientists but never proven true 38. (France) proved that bacteria that spoil food are found in dust specks 39. (Italy) did the canned sterilization experiment for Napoleon 40. do the testing 41. (Russia) theorized life on Earth originally formed from chemical compounds 42. theory that has been tested, validated, and proven to be true 43. (US) performed experiment based on Oparin’s hypothesis

CHAPTER 1B Measurement

Notes On Chapter 1B Measurement
The International System of Units (SI) uses units and standards agreed upon throughout the world (so scientists can understand one another) (SI= Standards)

Chart on Next Slide




Length Mass
Weight Temperature Liquids Time

Meters Grams
Newtons Kelvin Liters Seconds

Meter stick Balance
Scale Thermometer Graduated cylinder Stop watch

Standard- a unit of measurement; the exact quantity people agree to use while measuring Mass- the amount of matter or substance in an object Weight- the measure of gravitational pull between two objects (usually between the Earth and objects on its surface) Ex: an object in space will still have mass but no longer have weight

Length- distance between two points Area- the amount of surface an object has Volume- the amount of space taken up by an object Meniscus- curved upper surface of a liquid in a container; the lowest point of a meniscus is where an accurate measurement can be taken Kelvin- A temperature scale based on molecular movement O* Kelvin = -273* Celsius = absolute zero 273* Kelvin = 0* Celsius = 32* Fahrenheit (water freezes) 373* Kelvin = 100* Celsius = 212* Fahrenheitm (water boils)

SI Prefixes
Kilo- 1,000 units; ex: kilometer, kilogram Hecta- 100 units; ex: hectacre Deka or Deca- 10 units; ex: decade, decathlon (no prefix)- one of each unit Deci- 1/10th of one unit ; ex decimate, decimal Centi- 1/100th of one unit ; ex: centurion (soldier in a unit of 100 men,) centimeter(1/100th of one meter) Milli- 1/1,000th of one unit ; ex: milligram, millimeter, millipede

3 M’s
Mean- average of a series of measurements. EX: Warrick Dunn’s rushing yards per game. Game 1: 100 Yards Game 2: 200 Yards Game 3: 150 Yards Mean= 150 Yards

3 M’s
Median- the middle number when a list is placed in order EX: number of Pokémon killed per tournament 5,2,7,8,9 But in order they are 2,5,7,8,9 7 is therefore the median

3 M’s
Mode- number of the measurement that occurs most often in a list Ex: Homer Simpson’s grades F,F,C,B,B,B,C The mode is therefore B. Ex: Pi, Pi, Pi Pi ala mode

Length: Millimeter = mm Centimeter = cm Decimeter = dm Dekameter = dam Hectameter = hm Kilometer = km

Mass: Milligram = mg Centigram = cg Decigram = dg Dekagram = dag Hectagram = hg Kilogram = kg

Liquids Milliliter = mL Centiliter = cL Deciliters = dL Dekaliters = daL Hectoliter = hL Kiloliter = kL

So, if we were to make a new form of number line, for each step we go up or down the scale we multiply or divide by 10- the values to the right are of greater amounts. milli----centi-----deci---(none)----- deka----hecta----kilo 10 milligrams = 1 centigram (one step = 10) 1 decigram = 100 milligrams (two steps removed- 100) 1 centiliter = 1/1000th of a dekaliter 1 milliwatt = 1/100,000th of a hectawatt 1 kilowatt = 1,000,000 milliwatts

Measurement Lab
Be able to measure a line segment in centimeters and millimeters. Be able to measure mass in grams. Be able to measure liquids in milliliters.

CH. 10C & 6A VIRUSES & DNA
Virus-a piece of genetic material (DNA) surrounded by a protein coat. They may remain crystallized and dormant for many years without water or air. “Virus” is Latin for the word poison. Viruses are extremely small, even compared to the smallest cells. A special electron microscope must be used to observe them. The cell a virus invades is called a “host cell.”

(1) Poliovirus Polio kills human nerve cells and causes paralysis or death. (active)

(2) HIV virus- attacks human immune system,
keeps sick people from getting well (latent)

(3) Tobacco Mosaic- kills tobacco plants (active)

(4) T4 or Bacteriophage Kills bacteria (active)

(5) Ebola- Kills human cells (active) (6) Herpes Cold Sores- kills human lip cells (latent) Active viruses begin destroying cells immediately. Latent viruses stay dormant and wait before becoming active. Sometimes, latent viruses can be triggered to become active through emotional or physical stress. When latent viruses become active, they enter what is called the lytic or lysogenic cycle.

Vaccine- Weakened virus or bacteria parts that are injected to help the body develop an immune response. When the real threat appears, the body is prepared to identify and dispatch it quickly. Antibodies- act as “hitchhikers,” marking foreign invaders in the body that need to be removed! They act as “red flags” that tell white blood cells what to eat. The Story of Edward Jenner : a scientist in the 1790’s realized cow maids that contracted cow pox never caught small pox. He made the first vaccine.

Virus Reproduction
VIRUS REPRODUCTION (1) Attach- Virus attaches to the cell it was designed for. (2) Invade- Enzymes dissolve cell membrane, DNA enters cell and then the nucleus; the cell is directed to change its activities (3) Copy- copies of virus are produced by host cell, repeatedly (4) Release- cell bursts and is destroyed, releasing new viruses.


DNA means Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the substance that directs cell activities. Its is shaped as a double helix, which is like a twisted ladder.

Tiny threads of DNA make up the nucleus of the cell. The threads are made up of 4 chemicals, called nucleotides.

Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine AGCTthese chemicals are called nucleotides

This molecule is called a nucleotide base.
One of the four nucleotides



The sugar and phosphate make up the yellow rung on the outside of the DNA molecule.

Nucleotides pair up with one another- they fit together like puzzle pieces. Adenine always goes with Thymine, and Guanine always goes with Cytosine. A-T G-C

RNA is like DNA but it is only half a strand, like half of a zipper. RNA is found in the ribosomes of cells. In RNA, the nucleotide Thymine is completely replaced by a different chemical called Uracil. Therefore the pairs in RNA look like this: A-U G-C

Close up of Ribosome Chemicals floating in the cell called amino acids attach to the RNA. Once the RNA is completely filled, the amino acids bond to each other becoming a protein molecule. and the protein then detaches from the RNA to make room for another to form.

mRNA and tRNA
Messenger (mRNA) makes the protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) moves the amino acids into the position on the mRNA so that the correct protein forms.

Chapter 10A Bacteria or Monerans

Ch. 10A
Characteristics of Bacteria (Monerans) (1) NO organized nucleus (2) No membrane-bound organelles (they are very simple organisms) (3) They DO have ribosomes (4) Most DO have a cell wall made of cellulose.

Ch. 10A
(5) Some have chlorophyll (6) Because of these characteristics, bacteria are known as prokaryotes or prokaryotic which means “before kernel.” There are two types of bacteria, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.

Ch. 10A
I Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria) These are characterized by living in extremely hostile environments. Unlike all other bacteria, some Archaebacteria do not have cell walls. When they do have a cell wall, its composition is different than any other type of bacteria.

3 Types of Archaebacteria
1) Halophiles (salt lover) live in extremely salt water, such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea. 2) Thermoacidophiles- live in very hot and/or acidic environments, such as can be found near natural hot springs or mud flats 3) Methanogens- live in swampy bogs where methane gas is formed Archaebacteria ex: Nanoarchaeum Equitum (tiny ancient horse)

II Eubacteria (true bacteria) These bacteria are very common, and are for the most part harmless. They are the most populous organism on earth. Eubacteria ex: escheria coli

3 Bacteria shapes

1. Rod shaped Bacilli, bacillus 2. Ball shaped, spherical Cocci, coccus 3. Spiral, shapes Spirilla, spirillum

Features found in/on Bacteria
Ribosome- small black spaces that manufacture protein, the building blocks for the cell (they resemble specks of pepper within the cell) DNA-(deoxyribonucleic acid) complex structure that controls cell functions. Flagella- whip like tail that helps the cell move

Features found in/on Bacteria
Cell wall- rigid structure that supports and protects the cell Cell membrane- flexible covering that allows some substances to pass through (water, food, waste, dissolved gases) Gel capsule- sticky layer that helps some bacteria stick together

Features found in/on Bacteria
Pili, Pilus- tiny threads that help some bacteria stick to surfaces

Good Bacteria
Can be used to make cheese, yogurt, sauerkraut, and vinegar (pickles).

Bacteria Reproduction
Bacteria reproduce by fission, a simplified form of cell mitosis. This results in identical offspring. An advantage to this type of reproduction is that if the organism is successful in the environment, *all* of its offspring will be successful as well. Some disadvantages are that bacteria adapt to changes very poorly and there is little change between generations. Also, if one dies due to the environment, the entire colony will likely die.

Bacteria Reproduction
Sometimes bacteria reproduce by simple form of sexual reproduction (DNA exchange where they exchange genetic material) Some bacteria live in large groups or chains called colonies. Most bacteria are aerobes- (they use oxygen to get energy.)

Aerobes and Anaerobes
Most bacteria are aerobes- (they use oxygen to get energy.) Anaerobes do not need oxygen. Typically anaerobes are more dangerous to humans than aerobes. A bulging can of food can mean that it contains dangerous anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotic- any substance produced by an organism that inhibits or kills another organism. ex: penicillin, which prevents cell walls from forming in bacteria (causing them to burst like thin water balloons)

Ch. 10A
Pathogen- any organism that produces disease ex: strep throat, mono, anthrax, tetanus Some pathogens produce poisons called toxins. ex: Botulism (food poisoning) which is an anaerobe Cyanobacteria- blue-green bacteria that have chlorophyll


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Ch. 3 Cells

Cell Theory
All organisms are made Cells are the basic units of structure and furction. All cells come from anther cells that already

Ch. 3 Cells
These organelles are found in both animal and plant cells: Ribosome’s Vacuoles Cell membranes Nucleus (DNA) Mitochondria Golgibodria Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Ch. 3 Cells
Cell membrane- flexible boundary that allows food oxygen to enter & wasted to leave; serves as a fitter for the cell.

Ch. 3 Cells
Nucleus- structure inside the cell. That alrects cell activities; contains chromo- somas made of DNA. Nucleolus- (Noeldi) small round section inside the nucleus that make ribosome’s Ribosome’s- small black specks that make protoenis out of amino acids; sometime found sticking to the ER

Ch. 3 Cells
Cytoplasm- a gel like fluid in side the cell that is in continuous motion Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)- a folded membrane that moves materials within the cell; the conveyor belt of the cell. Golgi bodies- membrane covered sacks that package and remove waste from the cell.

Ch. 3 Cells
Mitochondria- potato or bean shaped organelles that break down food and release energy; the power house of the cell. Lysomes- contain chemicals (enzymes that dissolve both food and waste.

Ch.3 Cells
Vacuole- fluid filled storage area; they regulate the amount of water in the cell; in plant cells they contain sap. Organelles- found in plant cells only Cell wall- rigid boundary made of cellulose (a type of sugar) that surrounds, supports and protects the cell membrane.

Ch. 3 Cells
Chloroplast- melon shaped organelle that contains chlorophyll; use sunlight, water and carborn diocide to make food. Plastids- small organelles that contain oils, storches and pigments EX: Chloroplasts and corticoids

4 Steps of Mitosis
Prophase- nuclear membrane dissolve; chromosomes thicken; centrioles appears (animal cells only) Metaphase- chromosomes line up; spindle fibers appear and attach to the Centro mere of each chromosome. Anaphase- spindle fibers shrink; chromosomes get pulled apart. Telophase- cell membrane pinches in (animals cells) or cell plate forms (plants cells) spindle fibers and centrioles dissolve; two new nuclear membranes form.

Ch. 3 Cells
Osmosis- the pass of water through a membrane.

Ch. 3 Cells
Diffusion- the tendency of a substance to spread out in a liquid or gas. Genes- physical section on a chromosome that controls a tart

Ch. 3 Cells
RNA-½ of a DNA stand found in a ribosome; they produce protein.

Ch. 3 Cells
Cytokinesis- the movement of cytoplasm into a new cell

Endocytosis-to draw within Exocytosis- to spit out Pinocytosis- “cell drinking” Phagocytosis- “cell eating”

Ch. 3 Cells
Active Transport- when a transport protein mole- culet in a cell membrane uses energy to pull food into a cell against the flow of diffusion. Passive Transport- cell allows food to enter without using energy. Meiosis- the process of cell division that produces sex cells (gametes)

Ch. 3 Cells
Gametes half the normal number of chromosomes. Meiosis is mitosis doubled. In meiosis, genes are different ways resulting in off spring that are different from both parents. (genetic) recombination Diploid cells have two of each kind of chromo some Diploid means paired. Haploid-cells have one of each kind of chromosome. Haploid means “single form.”


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Ch. 5+6
Heredity- the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Genes- physical are on a chromosome that control traits; in meiosis and fertilization, each sex cell (gamete) carries K the gene for each trait.

Allele- one form a gene may have for a trait, usually represented by a letter EX: BB, Bb, yy, Aa
Crosspollination- deliberate polliation of a plant to get a desired result

Ponnett Square- a tool (chart) that shows how alleles can be cambined. Dominant trait, fator or allcle- one form of a trait that over rides other; it always expresses itself in an organism.

Recessive- trait, factor or allele- these traits are never expressed unless they are the only trait present. These traits seem to disappear in a population, but may become expressed depending on the way alleles combine.

Probaility- the branch of mathematics that helps predict the chance something will happen. Gregory Mendel- was the father of genetics. He was a monk in Austia who used probability to predict the traits in successive generations of plants. His experiments lasted many years.

Capital letters (alleles) represent dominant/ traits. Small letter represent recessive traits. These allcle show the genotype, the genetic makeup of an organism. EX: Tt/AA/yy The phenotype is the trait that can be seen or ahseived. EX: tallness, colors, temperature

Ponnett Squares
1st example- plant T=Tallness (dominant) t=shortness (recessive)

Genotype- all It/phenotype- all tall

Genotype: 1 TT 2 Tt 1 tt Phenotype: 3 tall 1 Short 2nd Example-Bunnies!! B-Brown b-Pink Phenotype: 2 Brown/ 2 Pink

nd 2


B-Brown b-Pink

Phenotype: 2 Brown/ 2 Pink EX: RR, bb, kk, ww

Homozypous- alleles are the sameEX: RR, bb, kk, ww Heterozypous- alleles different EX: Rr, Nn, Gg, Qq

Incomplete Domingnce- This occurs when two dominant alleles get crossed. This can result in a inter mediate phenotype. EX: 4 o’clock Flowers

Multiple alleles- when more than 2 alleles control trait EX: blood type Type: A blood- dominant Type: B blood- dominant Type: AB blood- in complete dominant Type: O blood- recessive

 Polygenetic Inheritance- occurs when

genes act together to form a trait. EX: Eye Color


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Ch. 9 Classification
Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities. The largest, most genend group for these organisms is the kingdom. Each kingdom is divided into subgroups called phyla (phylum) or divisions.

Science Notes Most Kingdoms Sub categories Are called Phyla

Plants & Fungi Sub categories are called divisions

End of these is further subdivided into classes, then orders, them families. The must specific groups are genus and species. These two name together (genus and species) make up the organisms scientific name. EX: canis familiars Dichotomous keys and tables or charts that are used in helping to identify unknowns organisus.

Organisms from broad to specifies
Broad: kingdom, phylum (ordivisom), class, order family, specifies, Genus, species Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms:

1. Archacbacteria are small prokaryotic organisms that live in hostile environments “Anchae” means “ancient.” 2.Eubacteria are common bacteria which live in soil and (other organisms.) 5. Protists are single called or simple multi celled organisms. Protists include protozox, animal-like protists; algae, plant-like pontsts; and fungus-like protists.

4. Fungi are multi-cellular organisms (usually) which do not contain chlorophyll Instead they dissolve and their surrounding 5. Plants are more complex than fungi. They contain chlorophyll which using sunlight. 6. Anomalies is the Kingdom with the most complex

Organisms- They are different from most kingdoms in that they have cells without cell walls. Animals tend to move around, react to their surroundings and obtain food from outside sources.


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Ch. 11A Protists
Protists- single or many celled organism that lives in wet or moist surroundings. They are more complex than monerans (bacteria) having specified organelles for specific purposes. All protists are eukaryotic, they all have cells with a nucleus.

I 1. Algae- are plant-like protists. All algae contain chlorophyll. But not all algae are green. Algae can be broken down into six sub groups or phyla: Euglena have chlorophyll, a flagellum, an eyespot, and are single celled. (Euglehophyla- east glzne= “good eyeball,” phyla

They have characteristics of both plants and animals. 2. Diatoms are photosynthetic, golden brown algae that store a drop oil as food. Their small glass shells have many commercial uses: road paint, toothpaste, and insulation.

(The sparkly, gritty stuff comes from a clay called kaolin)

(chrisopyta- chrisom means golden brown)

3. Dinoflagellates- (Dino means to have power or to spin; Dinoflagellates means “spinning tail whipper”) These red color algae have two flagellum; one to spin them around and the other to move them forward. Great humbers of these organisms cause the red tide. Dinoflagellates ( Pyrrophyta- “fiery Plant”)

4. Green Algae can be singular or multi-called. It produces starch as food.

(chlorophy- green plant)

5.Red Algae- usually many celled; it’s color helps absorb light wavelengths at deep ocean depths. Used to make pudding smooth.

6. Brown Algae is found near the water surface and is many celled.

II. Protozoa are single called animal- like protists that are classified according to how they move.

7.Sarodines move about by extending parts of their bodies called pseudo pods. (pseudo- pod means false foot) EX: Amoeba Pseudo pods are also used to trap food.

8. Flagellates move about using whiplike tails. EX: Trypanosoma (from African Tse-Tse Fly, Causes African sleeping Sickness)

9. Ciliates move about by waving short hair-like threads called cilia. EX: paramecium stentor

10. Sporozoans- do not move on their own; a are parasites. EX: plasmodium vivat which causes malaria

III. Fungus- like Protists 1. Slimes (slime molds) consumers that cat bacteria and small bits of decaying plants. They often live in cool shady place. EX: Scrambled egg slime mold they can br red, yellow, blue, black

2. Water Molds caused the Irish Potato Famine in the mid 1880’s. Water Mold also affects fish with ichthyoids, which causes fish to be covered with fuzz. (itch means fish)

3. Other Fungus like Protists white Rust and Downy Mildew


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Ch. 11B Fungi
Fungi- simple organisms that lack chlorophyll and the specialized tissues that plants have such as leaves and roots. Mushrooms and only one type of fungus. Yeast is a single celled fungus. Certain types of mold and mildew are also fungi.

Topical Fungi Characteristics
Fungi are made up of masses of threadlike tubes called hyphae. Hyphae-

Because fungi lack cholorphyll they must get their food from the enviloment. Most fungi are get food from dead or decaying things. Others are and feed on living things. EX:

Athlete’s foot “Myco” means fungus

Fungus Reproduction
Fungi reproduce using spores which are for med asexually. Spores are tiny cells that can grow into new organisms. Fungi are classified according to how they produce spores. REFER TO NEXT PAGE

1. Zygote fungi-(zygomycota) this fungus produces spores in tiny brown spheres called sporangia ( this grows on bread) when the sporangia break hundeads of spores and released.

2. Sac Fungi- (asomycota) this fungus produces structure called an accuse EX: ye7ast, molds, moles and traifies 3.Club Fungi- (basdiomycota) this fungi produces a cap shapes structure called a besides that contains gills where spores all formed. Some mushrooms are extremely poisons. They hyphae that extend underneath the mush room are called my cerium.

4. Imperfect fungi do not fit into any categories of fungus until they are ready to repioduce. Then they morph and fit into one of the other categories. EX: Penicillium

5. Lichens are made of a fungus and an algae living together in symbiosis (two or genesis live together and help each other survive.)

Lichens are important.

1. As food sources for animals 2. To break up rocks into soil 3. Because they are a pioneer species.


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Biome- a large area characterized by the same types of plants and animals and environmental factors. 1. Grasslands

Characteristics: flat plains average temperatures & rainfall; Few trees. The Breadbasket of crop fertility. EX: Sheep, cows and horses.

2. Savannah Characteristics; flat plains seasonal rains greater than average rainfall (s9”) warmer than hormal temper-a true’s. EX: Zebras, elephants, Kangaroos, lions, giraffes, and antelopes.

3. Artic alpine Tundra

Characteristics; little precipitation, low tempera-tares, ground is frozen solid year round EX: Muskoxen, Caribou wolves, penguin, polar bear, Seals

4. Tropical rain Forest Characteristics: highest rainfall (158”) highest biblical diversity (which makes the ecosystem more stable) some organisms live in the canopy (tops of trees) EX: Monkey, macaw, Polson dart. Frog, toucan, brazilin, nut tree

5. Temperate Deciduous Forest

Characteristics: leaves fall off most trees to conserve water average rainfall, average temperatures EX: Woodpeckers, deer, opossums, turkey, shanks, southern, pines oak trees

6. Taiga or Coniferous Forest Characteristics; core-bearing trees (evergreens) with need les, cold temperatures average rainfall. EX: bears, owls, eagles, rub bits, spruce, trees, pine trees.

7. Chapparal

Characteristics: combines the teatures of grasslands, and desert ware temperatares, limited rain EX: vultures, condor, parries dogs, tumbleweeds, coyote

8. Desert

Characteristics; wide grange in temperature, limited sporadic rain, many nocturnal organisms, (active at night) EX: Scorpions, sidewinder, rattlesnakes Gila monsters, camels, cactus.

Oceanic Biomes
A marine ecosystem is one that is based on salt water. A biotic chrematistics are non-living features that affect the environment. In oceanic biomes, salinity (amount of dissever salts and solids) amount of sunlight distance from land and water depth and temperature are all a biotic factors.

1. The Intertribal Biome is found between the high and low tide narks. Organisms are sometime underwater are sometime underwater sometime exposed to air. They must adapt to the san’s ultraviolet radiation as well as well as strong currents and waves. Mud flats, rocky shores and sandy beaches are found in this biome. High tide Low tide
EX: Crabs, clams, limpets, snails, sea grass

2. The Sub tidal or Neuritis Biome Consists of submerged shallow areas that receive sunlight. Water depth is usually less than 200 meters deep Colorful coral reels contain many diverse organisms.

EX: sea anemones, starfish, coral, sponges, clownfish, sea urchins octopi

3. The Oceanic or open Ocean Biome is characterized by wide open spaces with no place to hide. Some adaptations that organisms have mode to survive:

A. translucency- (being partially see through) jelly fish use this to catch prey B. fact swimming to essayer predators C. Schooling (swimming in groups) to confuse predators D. counter shading (silvery metallic belly and dark gray back for commonplace)

E. symbiotic or parasite relationships EX: whales, sharks, jelly fish squid, tuna

4. The Benthic, Benthos (bottom-most) biome: found on the ocean floor in the deep parts of the ocean called the Abyssal Plain. Here there is no light Animals have highly developed senses of smell. No plants grow here Bacteria use Chemosynthesis to make food from chemicals, and this is the basis of the food chain found there. EX: angler fish, Tule warms, blind crabs, bacteria


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Ch. 12A Plants

Plants characteristics: eukaryotic (nukes) , monycelld; multicelled have chlorophyll, cells with walls have roots or roots like structures, and are immobile.

•Vascular-having tubes that allow liquids to be transported easily. Vascular Non-Vascular Ferns Mosses Horsetails liverworts Club mosses •Simple Plants have tow stage life cycle. •Gametophyte stage, sex cell are pranced. •Saprophyte stage; spores get produced.

Mosses ample:
____________ ______________

-Sporophtte -Sporophtte - Generation

-Gametophyte - Generation

Alternation Of GenerationsOccurs when organisms switch back and forth between spore and gamete-bearing organisms!

Cell walls, mode of cellulose, provide support and protection of the plant from harm and dehydration.


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Ch.12B Complex Plants

Ch.12B Complex Plants
Most of the plants we are familiar with are seed plants. Allseed plants have roots, stems, leaves and Vascular tissue. •Seed- the reproductive part of a plant that contains an embryo and often staved food. Seed plants are classified into two groups:

•Gymnosperms “ Gymnosperm” means “Make seed.” They produce seeds on the scales of female cones. “They never produce fruits or flowers” Their leaves are needle, like or scale like. Most gymnosperms are evergreen plants that keep their leaves year round.

Divisions OF Gymnosperms •Geophytes (shrubs)



•Conifers EX: pines, fir, spruce, cedar

•Aniosperms Angiosperms (flowering seed) produce seeds which are enclosed inside a fruit. All angiosperms produce flowers as well. 2 type of angiosperms; •Monocots (Monocotyledon)

•Vascular bundles form a random pattern. • Veins in leaves run parallel. •Petals come in groups of three. EX: corn, grass, wheat, rice, oats (any gram plants) •Dicots/ Dicotyledons. (Two seed leaves)

•Branching veins

•Flower parts come in 4’s or 5’s •Vascular tissue in stem forms a pattern ring EX: apple tree, orange trees, watermelons, lettuce (Any non-grain plant)

Economic Importance of Plant
•Gymnosperms are used for wood and paper products •Resin a waxy substance secreted by conifers is used for chemicals, paint rarnish, soap and medicines

•Angiosperms form the basis of diets of most animals. •Flax and cotton fibers are used to makes clothes

Ports of Complex Plants •Roots are important because they support plants through wind & rain. They also absorb water & nutrients. •Stems support the move-mint of water and nutrients between the leaves and roots. Three types of vascular tissues are found in the stem:
•Xylem- transport water to the leaves (inside ring) •Phloem- transports sugar form the leaves to the rest of the plant (outside ring) •Cambium- cell layer which produces new xylem & phloem each year; found between, these two byres.

•Herbaceous- plants stems are soft and green.
•Woody- stems are hard and rigid.

Flower Definitions
•Sepal- proective outer part of a flower (leaves the protect the bud) •Stamens- make reproductive part of the flower •Anther- produces pollen grains
•Filament- thin stem that supports the anther

•Pistil- female reproductive part of a flower •Stigma- sticky fanlike growth where pollen grains sometime land

•Style- central part of pistil; supports stigma
•Ovary- in plants, these contain ovyles or eggs

•Pollen tube- grows from the pollen grain through the pistil allows sperm to fertilize ovules to make seeds.

•Stomata- pores in leaver surfaces that allow, C0z (carbon dioxide) to enter and h2O (water vapor) to leave
•Gvard Cells- cells that open & close stomata

•Palisade layer- cells near the least surface filled with chloroplasts •Spongy layer- lower section of leaf with air pockets for C0z for photosynthesis
•Transpirations- evaporation through plants

•Pollinations- transfer of pollen from stamen to stigmas.
•Germination- the develop-mint of a seed into a plant.

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Unit 7 Human Body Systems
5 Functions of the Skeletal System. •Gives shape and support to the body
•Protects the internal organs

•Provides an attatchmen point for muscles •Formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow
•Calcium and phosphorus are stored here

Penosteum- tough, tight-fitting membrane that contains blood vessels that carry natvients to the bone. Spongy bone- contains open spaces that make the bone light weight.
Marrow- a fatty tissue that produces red and white blood cells

Cartilage- a thick, smooth rubbery layer of tissue that reduces friction between bones Ligament- though, elastic connective tissue (rubber band rope) that joins bone to bone (ACL tear) Tendon- connective tissue that that joins muscle to bone

1. Ball and socket joint (EX: Sholder and hip)

2. Hinge joint (EX: elbow and knee

3. Gliding joint (EX: Wrist, vertebrae & neck)

4. Pivot joint (EX: ferearim)

5. Suture Joint (EX: Skull)

1st Class lever

2nd Class Lever

3rd Class Lever

Muscles Muscles are organs that contract to perform a task, such as moving body parts. 1.Voluntary Sketctal Muscles-those that can be consciously controlled and are attached to the skeleton Ex: arm muscles

2. Involuntary Smooth Muscles cannot usually be controlled; found in skin irises & the digestive tract

3. Cardiac Muscles- heart muscle which is in like other muscles in that it generates it own electrical

Skin Epidermis- Surface layer of skin made of dead cells Dermis- livings skin layer; contains blood vessels and nerve endings Melanin- pigment that gives skin its color protects us from ultraviolet radiation

Crematory System Arteries- thick elastic- walked blood vessels (tubes) that move oxygen- rich blood away from the heart through the body Veins- flat blood vessels with one way valves that moves carbon dioxide- rich blood back to the heart
Capillaries- microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins, oxygen, nutrients, and wastes; veins, oxygen, nutrients are exchanged through capillary walls

Plasma- the liquid part of blood; made mostly of water but also containing nutrients, minerals & oxygen; 90% of blood is made from plasma. Platelet- irregularly- shaped cell fragment that from clots (scabs) when chemicals in torn or cut skin combine with blood. Platelets stick together to from tiny threads of fibrin which clog the wound.
Side view- skin; close up

•Skin torn •Chemical in skin released •Platelets from the threads of fibrin which clots the wound, stopping blood loss Your skin hair and nails make up the Intequmentory System.
The Lymphatic System

Generally speaking, it is responsible for re-absorbing liquids- from your body’s tissues (lymphatic fluids.) These liquids are collected into lymph vessels. Skeletal move slowly through these tubes. Lymph nodes in your neck remove pathogens and dead cells, as many white blood cells, are found there. Purified lymphatic flund

then drains into your neck veins. The thymus just above the heart releases white blood cells. The spleen, located in the upper let abdomen, is the “oid fitter” for dead red blood cells.
The tonsils are located at the back of the nasal (avity, and help fight infection. Hemoglobin- protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen.

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Ch . 15 A Intro to Animals

Characteristics of all animals:

1) They all move some time in their lives 2) All use oxygen (O2) to get energy, by way of respiration. 3) All are multi-celled 4) NO eukaryotic
5) NO cell walls or chlorophyll

Sponges (Porifer) •Porifer a means “pore bearing” in Latin Sponges are animals with simple body plans.
•Sponges have no organs or organ systems. They live in water. Sponges are sessile (don’t move around as adults

Sponges- fitter feeders *They are ocean’s vacuum cleaners Spicules- sharp needle- like structures insides sponges that give them shape and support.

Sponge Reproduction Sponges can reproduce asexually by budding or regeneration. They can also reproduce sexually. They are hermaphrodites and can produce both sperm and egg develops into a larva, which shims around until it settles to grow into a sponge.
Larva- immature organism that doesn’t have the abilities of grown adults.

Symmetry- the way an organism repeats itself in its design. Bilateral symmetry- left & right sides are identical
Radial symmetry- where on organism can be split into several equal parts in a circular manner. EX: starfish, jellyfish, sand dollar, sea anemone, sea urchin

Asymmetrical- (without symmetry) organism cannot be divided equally EX: fiddler crab

Cnidarians Cnidarians is Greek for stinging nettles “These animals have tentacles with nematocysts, cells which shoot a stinger and poison into other organisms

EX: of cnidarians: Jellyfish, sea anemones, and the Perfumes Man O’War Cnidarians can come in medusa (bell-shaped) form, Jelly fish or polyp from (Corals)

Echinoderms Echinoderm mean “spiny Skin.” EX: Sea stars, sea urchin, sand dollar, and sea cucumbers. Their bodies are supported by calcium plates. Starfish have a water voscubr system where water is pumped causing suction in the tube feet.


1. Platyhe;minther (flatworms) Planarians- have eye spots and move with cilia: they

Have great regenerative abilities Flukes- parasites that grow in the liver Tapeworms-parasites live in the intestines

2. Nematodes (roundworms)

Heartworms- commonly found in dogs, they clog arteries and cause death
Trichinella can coves a disease trichinosis, obtained by eating undercooked park. 3. Annelids (aka annelid, which means “little ring.” these are segmented worms) Earthworms have repeated body parts in their segments. Setae- bristles on worms that helps them move

Aortic Arches- earthworms have spoirs (10 total of these hearts that pomp blood Crop- storage sac where flood is kept until digested Gizzard- muscular stitch where tiny stones help break up food.

Leeches are parasitic segmented worms drain blood from animals. They have an anesthetic saliva- it numbs the skin so it can brite the host w/c alerting it. The saliva also acts as an anticoagulant, keeping the blood from clothing. Polychaetes are segmented marine worms. There are more polecats than any other kind of segmented worm.

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Q: #1 Discuss the 6 kingdoms and give an example of each. Final Exam Review 1. Archacbacteria: thrive in hostile environments; no competition for resources when reproducing they make exact copies: very poor at adopting to change; prokaryotic; otic; simple organisms with no membrane-bound organelles: Types include Methanogens holophotes, & Thermoascidophiles EX: honoarchaeum Equitom Eubacteria- thrive easily; mostly harmless; decomposers; include cyanobacterria; they are producers and consumers and rarely cause disease EX: escheria coli

Protists: eukaryotic; single or multicolor; Specialized membrane- bound organelles; comprised of consumers and producers: more complex then monerans ( bacteria) 3 types: Plant like (algae) Animal like (algae) Fungus like ( ) EX: amoeba protease Fungus: saprophytes that grow on decaying malted as they absorb nutrients; they are eukaryotic and have cell walls; made of tubes called hyphae; reproduce using-spores; lack chlorophyll EX: Truffle Plants: Characterized by the presence of chlorophyll and cell walls; eykary otic malt celled; reproduce with seed and spores; have specialized fissures; use photosynthesis to make food as producers EX: onions Animals: highly complex eukaryotic, multicolor consumers EX: canis familiars

#2 Discuss and give examples of plant and 2 animal adaptations Q: #2 Adaptations Animal behaviors
•Polar bear hibernate thro the winter without food this shows metabolism and allows them to survive •During winter snakes gutter in groups for self defense they do this be souse they are cold-blooded. In wind cats, move mint along the ground trigger a hunting instinct

Animal Physical Adaptations •Basting (2 humps) and Dromedary (1 hump) camels have unusually long eye lashes that protect their eyes from sand.
•A beaver’s teeth grow on wood constantly or their teeth grow too long and they will starve to death.

•They arctic have changes its for color to white in the winter to ported it from predators. It’s for is brown in the summer. Plant Adaptations
•Cactus have a very thick cuticle which keeps it from drying out- Spines are modified leaves to protect them from animals. •Cypress trees have wide roots that keep them from falling over in the swung ocean.

•Kept plant have special leaves filled with gas to hold the organism upright.

Q: #3 Discuss what food chains, food webs and energy pyramids are and why they are important. •A food chain is a simple model that shows limited relationships between predator and pray in a habitat.
•A food web is more extensive in that it shows multiple relation. Ship on multiple levels.

•An energy pyramid in addition to showing the above also includes population levels and fetal energy available in the system. All are import tent because they show how all organisms are interdependent.

Ch. 15B Arthropods and Mollusks

Arthropod means “jointed foot.” These organisms make up largest group of animals.
They have a nervous system similar to annelids but with a larger brain. Arthropods have an exoskeleton (hard outer shell to which muscle attach; acts as to armor to protect organism) It is made up of chitin (the substance that makes up fingernails.) Because expand they are shed as the arthropod grows-this is called molthing. Insects Insects have 3 body regions the head, thorax and addomen.

Insects are the only invertebrates that can fly. Compound eye are used to detect color and motion. Antennas are used to detect smell and touch. Chemicals that are used to send massages ate called pheromones. Insects have an open circulatory system. They absorb oxygen through soiracles. Metamorphosis- changes in body from during a life cycle. Metamorphosis is controlled by the animal. EX: butter flies and moths

Arachnids have 8 legs and two body segments. They do not have true antennae. EX: spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites are examples.

Other Arthropods Centipedes have one pair of legs per segment. They are fast hunters. Top down View

Millipedes have two pairs of legs per segment. They are slow grazers.

Side view

Same centipedes and millipedes poisonous. Mollusk means “Soft bodied” in Latin. This refers to soft bodied animals that usually have shells. They usually have shells. They usually have bilateral symmetry and are found on land and in water. They have three body sections: foot, matte, and visceral mass. The montle is the layer of tissue that makes a shell or protects the body. It covers the visceral mass (aunts) where the organs are located. All mollusk have a muscular foot for movement. Most have and open crematory system.





visc. Mass


There are three major classes of mollusks: cephalopods, gastropods, and bivalves 1. Gastropod means “belly footed.” This group includes snails, slugs, abalones, whells, sea slugs and conches. They are sometimes called univalves if they have one shell snails obtain food with a rasp-like tongue called a radula: they scrape algae off of rocks. Land- based gastropods have glands that produce a loyal of mucous that they slide along in. (the mucous contains little water)
2. Bivalves “two shells” (pelecypod- hatchet footed) These mollusks have a two part shell joined by a hinges. Clams, mussels, oysters and scallops are bivalves. They close their shells with story muscles which we eat. Bivalves protect them selves:

Mollusk Clams + mussels Scallops Oysters

Behavior dig and hide clap shells and swim away cement them selves together

3. Cephalopod means “head footed.” Cephalopods are specialized, complex and

intelligent animals. EX: squid, octopi, cuttlefish and the nautilus Cattle fish use chromatopores ( Skin cells that change color) to communicate .

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