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					Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Notes for class:

There are changes from syllabus – so check your Readers for reading assignments for this half of the semester!
Hand out Living Planet Report, 2004 on Wed. (guest speaker April 11)

EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Internal rural-to-rural, rural-to-urban migration (Billsborough & Carr)
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Causes Environmental consequences

International migration (Beyond Six Billion, 6 Million +, International Org. for Migration – 2003, Sara Curran)
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Definitions, trends Theory Globalization Future trends, policies Impacts on environment

EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Push factors inducing rural out-migration (econ-demographic response):
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high fertility rates….high population density = pop/ha arable land; resource degradation and declining yields….food insecurity; limited on-farm/off-farm employment options; natural or manmade/political crises (e.g. earthquakes, floods, civil war, persecution) …. (environmental) refugees.

Pull factors inducing rural-rural or rural-urban migration:
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town/city/free trade zone jobs in growth industries or traditional jobs – e.g. domestic help; labor demand in commercial, plantation agriculture and timber; colonization (directed/spontaneous) to frontier lands for subsistence ag., small ranching; other pull factors – city services, education, opportunity.
EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Examples of rural out-migration from Latin America:
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Central America/Caribbean
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Steep rural population increase since 1960s, delayed demographic transition, relatively high pop/ha arable land. High deforestation rates, “little left to clear”. Out-migration to frontier lands, cities and the U.S. Rural population density relatively low and declining with outmigration and reduced fertility levels. But, deforestation continues in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina, WHY? Colonization from poverty-stricken “interior” plus BIG grazing, timber and plantation agriculture operations.

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South America
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EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Both positive and negative environmental consequences of rural outmigration, depending on areas of origin and destination, agricultural practices and gov. policies:
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Rural subsistence to rural plantation:
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“save land for nature”, reduced pop. pressure, erosion, deforestation---+ increased use of ag chemicals, abandon labor-intensive land practices such as terraces, irrigation maintenance, reforestation--- -

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Rural subsistence to rural frontier (e.g. Chiapas):  Same as above---- +
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Deforestation of frontier lands, soil erosion--- Same as above + remittances finance rural improvements back home---+ (ex. From Machacos, Kenya) Increased consumption, waste and pollution in urban areas---EEP153 spring 2005

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Rural subsistence to urban:
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Internal/International Migration and the Environment

With continued population growth, diminishing available land and future intensification constraints, policy-makers at all levels will be challenged to improve the agriculture-population nexus in developing countries:
1.Technical assistance plus credit for crop production

intensification; 2.Improve access to reproductive health and family-planning; 3.Better conservation of what is left of the tropical forest through high taxation of logging concessions, less road-building and involvement of local people in NRM.
Billsborrow and Carr, p. 55

EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

International Migration: Definitions/flows  International migrants have “lived outside their homeland for 1 or more years”;  175 million in 2000, about 3.0% of world’s population, and growing;  Net migration = the difference between the rate of in-migration and the rate of outmigration;  Int’l migration flows from developing countries to richer countries, from relatively high to low % economically active in agriculture, but not the poorest individuals.  Positive net migration regions/countries:

___________________________________________________  Negative net migration regions/counties:
___________________________________________________ Types of migrants:  Economic: permanent and temporary or “return”;  Family reunification/”chain” migration;  Crisis – natural disasters, war;  Political refugees.

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Leading theories explaining international migration:
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2.

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4.
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Intra-regional and global demographic disparities w/corresponding labor surpluses and shortages (e.g. Philippines and Japan); Intra-regional and global wage/income differentials plus dual labor markets within developed countries; Risk management via remittances (missing markets back home – credit, insurance, social security); Migrant networks or “chain” migration; Failed states – refugees.
EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

GLOBALIZATION will tend to increase int’l migration:  Freer movement of information, images, ideas, toward “one culture’;  Reduced costs of transport/communications;  International capital seeks competent, cheap & flexible labor force (skilled & unskilled, brain drain);  Collapse of restrictive regimes, e.g. Soviet Union, China??  Dislocations (e.g. dams) and poverty resulting from economic liberalization….for some, increased need to seek jobs and remittances via out-migration.
EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

But int’l migration may be slowed by:
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Creation of “free trade/out-sourced” jobs in LDCs; Increased costs of illegal immigration (e.g. coyotes); Anti-immigration sentiment/policies (in response to negative impacts on national cohesion, welfare state (Europe); Post 9/11 – xenophobia, visa restrictions, security issues; Other reasons??
Uncertain numbers, but as population ages in Europe, Japan and U.S., societies will need to increase labor supply via immigration. Policies need to work on full integration of immigrant populations to reduce tensions, resentment, disenfranchised populations. Constructive means to reduce int’l migration would be increased capital flows and investment to reduce poverty in sending countries.
EEP153 spring 2005

Future of int’l migration:
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Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Environmental Impacts of Int’l Migration: On “host” countries: --------On “sending countries: --------EEP153 spring 2005

Internal/International Migration and the Environment

Environmental Impacts of Int’l Migration: On “host” countries:  Increased water demand/consumption;  Increased energy consumption – air pollution, GGE;  Urban sprawl/build-up – loss of green spaces; On the other hand….  Higher population (economies of scale) may lead to investment in mass transit, better urban planning;  $$ from taxes of immigrants provide revenue base for EPA, maintenance of parks and other services. On “sending countries:  Reduced deforestation, erosion;  Remittances support increased consumption and/or “green” investment back home;  Brain drain of professionals, scientists to work on complex environmental problems in countries of origin;  Impact on population/fertility back home can be “up” (given reduced pop. pressure/escape valve - Caribbean) or “down” (demonstration effect or “social” remittances”).
EEP153 spring 2005


				
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