Docstoc

Science Fair Project - PDF

Document Sample
Science Fair Project - PDF Powered By Docstoc
					Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 3




                                 I
                        A GUIDE TO
                       SCIENCE FAIR
                        PROJECTS
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 4
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 5




                                            Chapter 1

                        The Scientific
                           Method
                                                                     Once the topic is selected, you begin what

          A
                 science project is an investigation using
                 the scientific method to discover the            is called project research. This is research to
                  answer to a scientific problem. Before          help you understand the topic, express a prob-
          starting your project, you need to understand          lem, propose a hypothesis, and design one or
          the scientific method. This chapter uses                more project experiments—experiments
          examples to illustrate and explain the basic           designed to test the hypothesis. An example
          steps of the scientific method. Chapters 2              of project research would be to place a fresh
          through 4 give more details, and Chapter 5             loaf of white bread in a bread box and observe
          uses the scientific method in a sample project.         the bread over a period of time as an
          The scientific method is the “tool” that sci-           exploratory experiment. The result of this
          entists use to find the answers to questions. It        experiment and other research gives you the
          is the process of thinking through the possi-          needed information for the next step—identi-
          ble solutions to a problem and testing each            fying the problem.
          possibility for the best solution. The scientific          Do use many references from printed
          method involves the following steps: doing                 sources—books, journals, magazines,
          research, identifying the problem, stating a               and newspapers—as well as electronic
          hypothesis, conducting project experimenta-                sources—computer software and
          tion, and reaching a conclusion.                           on-line services.
                                                                    Do gather information from profes-
                          RESEARCH                                   sionals—instructors, librarians, and
                                                                     scientists, such as physicians and
              Research is the process of collecting infor-
                                                                     veterinarians.
          mation from your own experiences, knowl-
          edgeable sources, and data from exploratory               Do perform other exploratory experi-
          experiments. Your first research is used to                 ments, such as those in the 50 science
          select a project topic. This is called topic               project ideas in Part II.
          research. For example, you observe a black
          growth on bread slices and wonder how it                               PROBLEM
          got there. Because of this experience, you
          decide to learn more about mold growth. Your              The problem is the scientific question to
          topic will be about fungal reproduction.               be solved. It is best expressed as an “open-
          (Fungal refers to plantlike organisms called           ended” question, which is a question that is
          fungi, which cannot make their own food,               answered with a statement, not just a yes or a
          and reproduction is the making of a new                no. For example, “How does light affect the
          offspring.)                                            reproduction of bread mold on white bread?”
              CAUTION: If you are allergic to mold, this            Do limit your problem. Note that the
          is not a topic you would investigate. Choose a             previous question is about one life
          topic that is safe for you to do.                          process of molds—reproduction; one

                                                             5
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 6




                type of mold—bread mold; one type of                 Do write down your hypothesis before
                bread—white bread; and one factor that                beginning the project experimentation.
                affects its growth—light. To find the                 Don’t change your hypothesis even if
                answer to a question such as “How does                experimentation does not support it. If
                light affect molds?” would require that               time permits, repeat or redesign the
                you test different life processes and an              experiment to confirm your results.
                extensive variety of molds.
             Do choose a problem that can be solved
              experimentally. For example, the ques-               PROJECT EXPERIMENTATION
              tion “What is a mold?” can be answered                 Project experimentation is the process of
              by finding the definition of the word                 testing a hypothesis. The things that have an
              mold in the dictionary. But, “At room               effect on the experiment are called variables.
              temperature, what is the growth rate                There are three kinds of variables that you
              of bread mold on white bread?” is a                 need to identify in your experiments:
              question that can be answered by                    independent, dependent, and controlled.
              experimentation.                                    The independent variable is the variable
                                                                  you purposely manipulate (change). The
                                                                  dependent variable is the variable being
                         HYPOTHESIS                               observed that changes in response to the
              A hypothesis is an idea about the solution          independent variable. The variables that are
          to a problem, based on knowledge and                    not changed are called controlled variables.
          research. While the hypothesis is a single                 The problem in this chapter concerns the
          statement, it is the key to a successful project.       effect of light on the reproduction of bread
          All of your project research is done with the           mold. The independent variable for the experi-
          goal of expressing a problem, proposing an              ment is light and the dependent variable is
          answer to it—the hypothesis, and designing              bread mold reproduction. A control is a test
          project experimentation. Then all of your proj-         in which the independent variable is kept con-
          ect experimenting will be performed to test             stant in order to measure changes in the
          the hypothesis. The hypothesis should make              dependent variable. In a control, all variables
          a claim about how two factors relate. For               are identical to the experimental setup—your
          example, in the following sample hypothesis,            original setup—except for the independent
          the two relating factors are light and bread            variable. Factors that are identical in both the
          mold growth. Here is one example of a                   experimental setup and the control setup are
          hypothesis for the earlier problem question:            the controlled variables. For example, prepare
              “I believe that bread mold does not need            the experiment by placing three or four loaves
          light for reproduction on white bread. I base           of white bread in cardboard boxes the size of
          my hypothesis on these facts:                           a bread box, one loaf per box. Close the boxes
                                                                  so that they receive no light. If, at the end of a
          • Organisms with chlorophyll need light to
                                                                  set time period, the mold grows, you might
            survive. Molds do not have chlorophyll.
                                                                  decide that no light was needed for mold
          • In my exploratory experiment, bread mold              reproduction. But, before making this deci-
            grew on white bread kept in a dark bread              sion, you must determine experimentally if
            box.”                                                 the mold would grow with light. Thus, control
                                                                  groups must be set up of bread that receives
             Do state facts from past experiences or              light throughout the testing period. Do this
              observations on which you based your                by placing an equal number of loaves in
              hypothesis.                                         comparable-size boxes, but leave them open.


                                                              6
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 7




          The other variables for the experimental and          a statement of how the results relate to the
          control setup, such as the environmental con-         hypothesis. Reasons for experimental results
          ditions for the room where the boxes are              that are contrary to the hypothesis are
          placed—temperature and humidity—and the               included. If applicable, the conclusion can end
          brand of the breads used must be kept the             by giving ideas for further testing.
          same. These are controlled variables.
                                                                   If your results do not support your hypothesis:
              Note that when designing the procedure of
          your project experiment, include steps for               Don’t change your hypothesis.
          measuring the results. For example, to mea-              Don’t leave out experimental results that
          sure the amount of mold growth, you might                 do not support your hypothesis.
          draw 1⁄2 inch (1 cm) squares on a transparent
          sheet of plastic. This could be placed over the          Do give possible reasons for the difference
          bread and the number of squares with mold                 between your hypothesis and the experi-
          growth could be counted. Also, as it is best to           mental results.
          perform the experiment more than once, it is             Do give ways that you can experiment fur-
          also good to have more than one control. You              ther to confirm the results of your origi-
          might have one control for every experimen-               nal experiment.
          tal setup.
                                                                   If your results support your hypothesis:
             Do have only one independent variable
              during an experiment.                                 For example, you might say, “As stated in
                                                                my hypothesis, I believe that light is not nec-
             Do repeat the experiment more than once            essary for bread mold to reproduce. My
              to verify your results.                           experimentation supports the idea that bread
             Do have a control.                                 mold will reproduce without light. After 21
                                                                days, bread mold had grown both on testing
             Do have more than one control, with each           samples kept in the dark and also on the con-
              being identical.                                  trol samples in the light. It is possible that
             Do organize data. (See Chapter 5, “A               temperature is a factor and that the tempera-
              Sample Project,” for information on               ture was higher inside the closed boxes due
              organizing data from experiments.)                to lack of air circulation. For further testing, I
                                                                would select temperature as the independent
                                                                variable and test the effect of temperature
                 PROJECT CONCLUSION                             changes on the growth of bread mold.”
             The project conclusion is a summary of
          the results of the project experimentation and




                                                            7
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 8




                                                Chapter 2

                     Topic Research
                                                                     repeatedly jump from one topic to another.

          N
                 ow that you understand the scientific
                 method, you are ready to get started.               You may in fact decide to stick with your origi-
                                                                     nal idea even if it is not as exciting as you had
                                                                     expected. You might just uncover some very
                     KEEP A JOURNAL                                  interesting facts that you didn’t know.
                                                                        Remember that the objective of a science
              Purchase a bound notebook to serve as                  project is to learn more about science. Your
          your journal. This notebook should contain                 project doesn’t have to be highly complex to
          topic and project research. It should contain              be successful. Excellent projects can be devel-
          not only your original ideas but also ideas you            oped that answer very basic and fundamental
          get from printed sources or from people. It                questions about events or situations encoun-
          should also include descriptions of your                   tered on a daily basis. There are many easy
          exploratory and project experiments as well                ways of selecting a topic. The following are
          as diagrams, graphs, and written observations              just a few of them.
          of all your results.
              Every entry should be as neat as possible              LOOK CLOSELY AT THE WORLD
          and dated. A neat, orderly journal provides a
          complete and accurate record of your project                      AROUND YOU
          from start to finish, and it can be used to write              You can turn everyday experiences into
          your project report. It is also proof of the time          a project topic by using the “exploring”
          you spent searching out the answers to the                 question “I wonder . . . ?” For example, you
          scientific mystery you undertook to solve.                  often see cut flowers in a vase of water. These
          You will want to display the journal with your             flowers stay pretty for days. If you express
          completed project.                                         this as an exploring question—“I wonder, why
                                                                     do cut flowers last so long in a vase of
                                                                     water?”—you have a good question about
                   SELECTING A TOPIC                                 plants. But could this be a project topic? Think
              Obviously you want to get an A+ on your                about it! Is it only the water in the vase that
          project, win awards at the science fair, and               keeps the flowers fresh? Does it matter how
          learn many new things about science. Some                  the flower stems are cut? By continuing to ask
          or all of these goals are possible, but you will           questions, you zero in on the topic of water
          have to spend a lot of time working on your                movement through plants.
          project, so choose a topic that interests you.                Keep your eyes and ears open, and start
          It is best to pick a topic and stick with it, but if       asking yourself more exploring questions,
          you find after some work that your topic is                 such as “I wonder, why does my dad paint our
          not as interesting as you originally thought,              house so often?” “I wonder, do different
          stop and select another one. Since it takes                brands of paint last longer?” “I wonder, could I
          time to develop a good project, it is unwise to            test different kinds of paint on small pieces of


                                                                 8
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 9




          wood?” To know more about these things, you            What you can look for are facts that interest
          can research and design a whole science fair           you and that lead you to ask exploring ques-
          project about the topic of the durability of           tions. An article about Antarctic animals
          different kinds of paint. You will be pleasantly       might bring to mind these exploring
          surprised at the number of possible project            questions: “I wonder, how do penguins stay
          ideas that will come to mind when you                  warm?” “I wonder, do fat penguins stay
          begin to look around and use “exploring”               warmer than skinny penguins?” Wow! Body
          questions.                                             insulation, another great project topic.
              There are an amazing number of comments
          stated and questions asked by you and those            SELECT A TOPIC FROM A BOOK
          around you each day that could be used to               ON SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS
          develop science project topics. Be alert and
          listen for a statement such as “He’s a chip off          OR SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS
          the old block, a southpaw like his dad.” If you           Science fair project books, such as this
          are in the searching phase of your science             one, can provide you with many different
          fair project, this statement can become an             topics to choose from. Even though science
          exploring question, such as “I wonder, what            experiment books do not give you as much
          percentage of people are left-handed?” or “I           direction as science fair project books, many
          wonder, are there more left-handed boys                can provide you with exploratory “cookbook”
          than girls?” These questions could lead you            experiments that tell you what to do, what the
          to developing a project about the topic of             results should be, and why. But it will be up to
          genetics (inheriting characteristics from              you to provide all the exploring questions
          one’s parents).                                        and ideas for further experimentation. The
                                                                 50 project ideas described in this book can
            CHOOSE A TOPIC FROM YOUR                             further sharpen your skills at expressing
                  EXPERIENCE                                     exploring questions. A list of different project
                                                                 and experiment books can be found in
             Having a cold is not pleasant, but you              Appendix A.
          could use this “distasteful” experience as a
          means of selecting a project topic. For                   SOMETHING TO CONSIDER
          example, you may remember that when you
          had a cold, food did not taste as good. Ask               You are encouraged not to experiment
          yourself, “I wonder, was this because my nose          with vertebrate animals or bacteria. If you
          was stopped up and I couldn’t smell the food?”         do wish to include them in your project, ask
          A project about taste and smell could be very          your teacher about special permission forms
          successful. After research, you might decide           required by your local fair organization.
          on a problem question such as “How does                Supervision by a professional, such as a
          smell affect taste?” Propose your hypothesis           veterinarian or physician, is usually required.
          and start designing your project experiment.           The project must cause no harm or undue
          For more on developing a project, see                  stress to the subject.
          Chapter 5, “A Sample Project.”

               FIND A TOPIC IN SCIENCE
                     MAGAZINES
             Don’t expect topic ideas in science maga-
          zines to include detailed instructions on how
          to perform experiments and design displays.


                                                             9
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 10




                                             Chapter 3

                                  Categories
                                                                     2. zoology: The study of animals and

          E
                very fair has a list of categories, and you
                need to seek your teacher’s advice when                 animal life. Subtopics may include
                deciding which category you should                      the following:
          enter your project in. It is important that you                a. anatomy: The study of the struc-
          enter your project in the correct category.                       ture and use of animal body parts,
          Since science fair judges are required to judge                   including vision and hearing.
          the content of each project based on the
          category in which it is entered, you would be                  b. behaviorism: The study of actions
          seriously penalized if you were to enter your                     that alter the relationship between
          project in the wrong category. Listed here are                    an animal and its environment.
          common science fair categories with a brief                    c. physiology: The study of life
          description of each. Some topics can correctly                    processes of animals, such as molt-
          be placed in more than one category; for                          ing, metamorphosis, digestion,
          example, the structure of plants could be in                      reproduction, and circulation.
          botany or anatomy. Each of the 50 project
          ideas in Part II is labeled with the category              3. ecology: The study of the relationships
          in which the project could be entered. The                    of living things to other living things
          categories are                                                and to their environment.
          • astronomy: The study of the solar system,                4. microbiology: The study of micro-
            stars, and the universe.                                    scopic living things or parts of living
                                                                        things.
          • biology: The study of living things.
                                                                   • earth science: The study of the Earth.
             1. botany: The study of plants and
                plant life. Subtopics may include the                1. geology: The study of the Earth,
                following:                                              including the composition of its layers,
                                                                        its crust, and its history. Subtopics may
                 a. anatomy: The study of the struc-                    include the following:
                    ture of plants, such as cells and
                    seed structure.                                      a. fossils: Remnants or traces of
                                                                            prehistoric life-forms preserved in
                 b. behaviorism: The study of actions                       the Earth’s crust.
                    that alter the relationship between a
                    plant and its environment.                           b. mineralogy: The study of the com-
                                                                            position and formation of minerals.
                 c. physiology: The study of life
                    processes of plants, such as propa-                  c. rocks: Solids made up of one or
                    gation, germination, and transporta-                    more minerals.
                    tion of nutrients.



                                                              10
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 11




                  d. seismology: The study of earth-                 a. electricity: The form of energy
                     quakes.                                            associated with the presence and
                                                                        movement of electric charges.
                  e. volcanology: The study of
                     volcanoes.                                      b. energy: The capacity to do work.
             2. meteorology: The study of weather,                   c. gravity: The force of attraction
                climate, and the Earth’s atmosphere.                    between two bodies; the force that
                                                                        pulls objects toward Earth.
             3. oceanography: The study of the
                oceans and marine organisms.                         d. machines: Devices that make
                                                                        work easier.
             4. paleontology: The study of prehistoric
                life-forms.                                          e. magnetism: The force of attraction
                                                                        or repulsion between magnetic
          • engineering: The application of scientific
                                                                        poles, and the attraction that mag-
            knowledge for practical purposes.
                                                                        nets have for magnetic materials.
          • physical science: The study of matter and
                                                               • mathematics: The use of numbers and
            energy.
                                                                 symbols to study amounts and forms.
             1. chemistr y: The study of the materials
                                                                     geometr y: The branch of mathematics
                that substances are made of and how
                                                                     that deals with points, lines, planes,
                they change and combine.
                                                                     and their relationships to one another.
             2. physics: The study of forms of energy
                and the laws of motion. Subtopics
                include studies in the following areas:




                                                          11
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 12




                                              Chapter 4

                 Project Research
                                                                    about the speed of dinosaurs. “Who would

          O
                  nce you have completed the topic
                  research and selected a topic, you are            know about dinosaurs?” Start with your
                  ready to begin your project research.             science teacher. He or she may have a special
              This research is generally more thorough              interest in dinosaurs or know someone who
          than topic research. Project research is the              does. Is there a museum with dinosaur
          process of collecting information from knowl-             exhibits nearby? Owners of rock and mineral
          edgeable sources, such as books, magazines,               shops may have an interest in fossils and
          software, librarians, teachers, parents, scien-           could provide information. Contact the geol-
          tists, or other professionals. It is also data            ogy department of a local university.
          collected from exploratory experimentation.                   Before contacting the person(s) you want
          Read widely on the topic you selected so that             to interview, be prepared. You can do this by
          you understand it and know about the find-                 making a list of questions that you want to
          ings of others. Be sure to give credit where              ask. You can even discuss what you know
          credit is due and record all information and              about your topic with someone who knows
          data in your journal.                                     nothing about it. In so doing, you will be
              How successful you are with your project              forced to organize your thinking and may
          will depend largely on how well you under-                even discover additional questions to add to
          stand your topic. The more you read and                   your list. Once your list is complete, you are
          question people who know something about                  ready to make your call. Simple rules of cour-
          your topic, the broader your understanding                tesy, such as the following, will better ensure
          will be. As a result, it will be easier for you to        that the person called is willing to help.
          explain your project to other people, espe-               1. Identify yourself.
          cially a science fair judge. There are two basic
          kinds of research—primary and secondary.                  2. Identify the school you attend and your
                                                                       teacher.
                  PRIMARY RESEARCH                                  3. Briefly explain why you are calling. Include
                                                                       information about your project and explain
             Primar y research is information you col-                 how the person can help you.
          lect on your own. This includes information
          from exploratory experiments you perform,                 4. Request an interview time that is conve-
          surveys you take, interviews, and responses                  nient for the person. This could be a tele-
          to your letters.                                             phone or face-to-face interview. Be sure to
             Interview people who have special knowl-                  say that the interview will take about 20 to
          edge about your topic. These can include                     30 minutes.
          teachers, doctors, scientists, or others whose            5. Ask if you may tape-record the interview.
          careers require them to know something                       You can get more information if you are
          related to your topic. Let’s say your topic is               not trying to write down all the answers.



                                                               12
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 13




             It may be that the person is free when you            addition to interviewing. Check at the end of
             call, so be prepared to start the interview.          articles in periodicals for lists of names and
                                                                   addresses where more information can be
          6. Be on time, and be ready to start the
                                                                   obtained. Your librarian can assist you in
             interview immediately. Also, be courteous
                                                                   locating current periodicals related to your
             and end the interview on time.
                                                                   topic. If your project deals with a household
          7. Thank the person for the time given and               product, check the packaging for the address
             the information provided.                             of the manufacturer. Send your letter to the
          8. A written thank-you note should be sent               public relations department. Ask for all avail-
             after the interview, so be sure to record             able printed material about your topic. Send
             the person’s name and address.                        your letter as soon as possible to allow time
                                                                   for material to be sent. You can use a form
             You may write letters requesting informa-             letter similar to the one shown here to make
          tion instead of interviewing, or write letters in        it easier to send it to as many different people
                                                                   and organizations as you can find.


             Lacey Russell                                               SECONDARY RESEARCH
             231 Kids Lane                                             Secondar y research is information
             Woodlands, OK 74443                                   and/or data that someone else has collected.
                                                                   You find this type of information in written
             August 31, 2005                                       sources (books, magazines, and newspapers)
                                                                   and in electronic sources (CD-ROM encyclo-
             The Dial Corporation                                  pedias, software packages, or on-line services,
             15101 North Scottsdale Road                           such as the Internet). When you use a sec-
             Station 5028                                          ondary source, be sure to note where you got
             Scottsdale, AZ 85254                                  the information for future reference. If you are
                                                                   required to write a report, you will need the
             Dear Director:                                        following information for a bibliography or to
                                                                   give credit for any quotes or illustrations you
             I am a sixth-grade student currently                  use.
             working on a science project for the
             Davin Elementary Science Fair. My                        Book
             project is about conditions affecting bac-               Author’s name, title of book, place of
             terial growth. I would greatly appreciate                publication, publisher, copyright date,
             any information you could send me on                     and pages read or quoted.
             the “anti-bacterial” properties of your
                                                                      Magazine or periodical
             product. Please send the information as
             soon as possible.                                        Author’s name, title of article, title of
                                                                      magazine, volume and issue number and
             Thank you very much.                                     date of publication, and page numbers
                                                                      of article.
             Sincerely,                                               Newspaper
                                                                      Author’s name, title of article, name of
             Lacey Russell                                            newspaper, date of publication, and section
                                                                      and page numbers.



                                                              13
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 14




             Encyclopedia                                            USE YOUR RESEARCH
             Name of encyclopedia, volume number,                 Now you are ready to use the project
             title of article, place of publication,          research information and data collected to
             publisher, year of publication, and page         express the problem, propose a hypothesis,
             numbers of article.                              and design and perform one or more project
             CD-ROM encyclopedia or software package          experiments. The project research will also
                                                              be useful in writing the project report. The
             Name of program, version or release              following chapters, 5 through 8, guide you
             number, name of supplier, and place where        step-by-step through a sample project from
             supplier is located.                             start to finish. You may want to read these
             Documents from on-line services                  chapters more than once and refer back to
                                                              them as you progress through your project.
             Author of document (if known), title of
             document, name of organization that
             posted document, place where organiza-
             tion is located, date given on document,
             on-line address or mailing address where
             document is available.




                                                         14
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 15




                                              Chapter 5

                A Sample Project

          P
                ick a topic. Each of the 50 project ideas in
                Part II begins with a detailed exploratory
                experiment. Read some or all of these
                                                                         How High?
          easy experiments to discover the topic you like                                   PROBLEM
          best and want to know more about. Regardless                 When is the Sun at its highest altitude during the day?
          of the topic you choose for the science fair, what
          you discover from any of these experiments will               Figure 5.1 Sample Experiment Title
          make you more knowledgeable about science.                               and Problem
              How can you turn a project idea from this
          book into your own unique project?
              This chapter uses a project idea similar in                                   Materials
                                                                                  pencil
          format to those found in Part II. The detailed
                                                                                  5 tablespoons (75 ml) plaster of paris
          exploratory experiment will be referred to as                           2 tablespoons (30 ml) tap water
          the sample experiment and is used for several                           3-ounce (90-ml) paper cup
          purposes. Like all exploratory experiments,                             masking tape
          its main purpose is to provide research data                            36-inch (1-meter) piece of string
          on which to base a hypothesis. But in this                              yardstick (meterstick)
          chapter, it is also used as a model for a project                       protractor
          experiment. During the experimentation                                  helper
          phase of your project, you can use the follow-
          ing data-collecting techniques and other ideas            Figure 5.2 Sample Experiment Materials List
          to design, develop, and fine-tune your project.
                                                                    not be acceptable for your project. Because
               KEEPING YOUR PROJECT                                 you’ll know so much more after doing the
                     JOURNAL                                        sample experiment and other research, let’s
             Every step of the way, you will keep a                 wait before deciding on the title and problem
          journal in which to record the progress of                question.
          the project. After experimentation has been
          completed, the journal will be very useful to                               MATERIALS
          you when you begin to write your project                     As Figure 5.2 shows, all the materials for
          report. Chapter 6 explains how to write a                 the sample experiment, like those for all the
          project report.                                           experiments in this book, can be found
                                                                    around the house or purchased without much
                  TITLE AND PROBLEM                                 money at a local grocery or hardware store.
                       QUESTION                                     Collect the supplies before you start the
             The title and problem question for the sam-            experiment. You will have less frustration and
          ple experiment (see Figure 5.1) may or may                more fun if all the materials are ready before


                                                               15
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 16




          you start. Substituting materials is not sug-
          gested, but if something is not available,
          ask an adult’s advice before using different
          materials.
              Note that each of the project ideas in Part
          II contains more than one exploratory experi-
          ment. The “Materials” section at the begin-
          ning of each project contains only the
          materials for the first experiment. Be sure to
          read through the entire project prior to start-
          ing to determine all the materials you’ll need
          to complete each experiment. NOTE:
          Approximate metric equivalents have been                                                                              Figure 5.4 Procedure Setup
          given after all English measurements. Both
          English and metric units are given in this book,                                                        sured at specific times during the day. The
          but the metric system is often suggested for                                                            time of day is the independent, or manipu-
          science fair projects because of its ease in                                                            lated, variable. The measured altitude of the
          measuring small quantities.                                                                             Sun at this time is the dependent, or respond-
                                                                                                                  ing, variable. All other variables, such as the
                                       PROCEDURE                                                                  latitude and season, are the controlled, or con-
             The “Procedure” section for the sample                                                               stant, variables.
          experiment (see Figure 5.3) contains the
          steps needed to complete the experiment.                                                                                     RESULTS
          Figure 5.4 shows the procedure setup. As                                                                    Before you can state the results of an
          described in Chapter 1, a variable is anything                                                          experiment, you must first organize all the
          that has an effect on the experiment. In the                                                            data collected during experimentation.
          sample experiment, the Sun’s altitude is mea-                                                           Numbers, called “raw data,” have little mean-
                                                                                                                  ing unless you organize and label them. Data
                                                                                                                  from each experiment needs to be written
           Procedure                                                                                              down in an orderly way in your journal. Use a
           CAUTION: Do not look directly at the Sun. It can damage your eyes.                                     table (a diagram that uses words and num-
            1. Use the pencil point to mix the plaster of   5. At 8:00 A.M. standard time, set the meas-
               paris and water in the paper cup. Stand         uring stick on a flat surface outdoors in a         bers in columns and rows to represent data)
               the pencil, eraser end up, vertically in        sunny area with its pointer end toward
               the mixture and do not disturb until            the Sun.                                           to record data (see Figure 5.5). Use a graph,
               the mixture hardens. This may take
               30 minutes or more. NOTE: Do not
                                                            6. Set the cup in the middle of the stick.
                                                               Adjust the pointer end of the stick so that
                                                                                                                  such as a bar graph (a diagram that uses
               wash plaster down the drain. It can clog
                                                               the shadow cast by the pencil falls on the
               the drain.
                                                               stick. Move the cup back and forth along
            2. Tear away the paper cup above the hard-         the stick until the end of the pencil’s
               ened plaster and tape one end of the            shadow touches the measuring line.                                      SUN ALTITUDE
               string to the top of the pencil.
                                                            7. Hold the cup in place and extend the
            3. Starting at the 0 end of the measuring          string between the top of the pencil and
               stick, tape the protractor so that it           the measuring line. Ask a helper to read            Time                      Altitude (degrees, °)
               stands perpendicular to the surface of          the angle where the string crosses the
               the measuring stick with the 0 degree           protractor.                                          8:00 A.M.                14
               mark on the protractor even with the
                                                            8. Repeat steps 5 through 7 at these times
               surface of the stick. The end of the stick
               opposite the protractor will be called the
                                                               during the day: 10:00 A.M., 12:00 P.M.              10:00 A.M.                28
                                                               (noon), 2:00 P.M., and 4:00 P.M.
               pointer end.
                                                            NOTE: If the shadow is longer than the                 12:00 P.M.                42
            4. Place a piece of tape across the measur-
                                                            measuring stick, place two measuring sticks
               ing stick even with the center of the pro-
               tractor. Make a mark across the tape to
                                                            end to end.                                             2:00 P.M.                28
               mark the center of the protractor. This
               will be called the measuring line.                                                                   4:00 P.M.                14


              Figure 5.3 Sample Experiment Procedure                                                                    Figure 5.5 Example of a Table for
                                                                                                                               Sample Experiment



                                                                                                             16
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 17




                                                    SUN ALTITUDE                                                            SUN DIRECTION
                                     49
             Altitude (degrees, °)




                                     42                                                              Time                           Direction
                                     35
                                                                                                      6:00 A.M. (sunrise)           east (E)
                                     28
                                                                                                      8:00 A.M.                     southeast (SE)
                                     21
                                                                                                     10:00 A.M.                     southeast (SE)
                                     14
                                                                                                     12:00 P.M. (noon)              south (S)
                                      7
                                                                                                      2:00 P.M.                     southwest (SW)
                                          8:00 A.M. 10:00 A.M.12:00 P.M. 2:00 P.M. 4:00 P.M.          4:00 P.M.                     southwest (SW)
                                                               (Noon)
                                                                                                      6:00 P.M. (sunset)            west (W)
                                                               Time

                                 Figure 5.6 Example of a Bar Graph                                        Figure 5.8 Table of Sun Directions

                                                                                                    shown in Figure 5.8. Prepare a second table
                                                    SUN ALTITUDE
                                     49
                                                                                                    expressing the number of hours the Sun is in
                                                                                                    the eastern (E and SE) and western (W and
             Altitude (degrees, °)




                                     42
                                     35                                                             SW) parts of the sky, as shown in Figure 5.9.
                                     28                                                             Then, express the same data as percentages
                                     21                                                             in a pie chart, as shown in Figure 5.10. Note
                                     14                                                             that illustrations of rising and setting suns are
                                      7                                                             placed around the circle to add interest to the
                                                                                                    data displayed.
                                          8:00 A.M. 10:00 A.M.12:00 P.M. 2:00 P.M. 4:00 P.M.            A pictograph could be used to represent
                                                               (Noon)                               the results of an experiment measuring the
                                                               Time
                                                                                                    Sun’s altitude at noon over a three-month
                              Figure 5.7 Example of a Line Graph                                    period. A pictograph is a chart that contains
                                                                                                    symbols representing data, such as quantities
          bars to represent data) similar to the one                                                of an object. In the pictograph shown in
          shown in Figure 5.6 to analyze (separate and                                              Figure 5.11, each sun represents an altitude of
          examine) data. Figure 5.7 shows another way                                               4 degrees. Pictographs are easy to read and
          to represent the data. This figure is a line                                               can add a little fun to your data display.
          graph (a diagram that uses lines to express                                                   The data charted in Figure 5.5 was used to
          patterns of change).                                                                      write a statement of the changes in altitude of
              There are other useful ways to represent                                              the Sun as observed in the sample project, as
          data. A circle graph, or pie chart, is a chart                                            shown in Figure 5.12.
          (data or other information in the form of a                                                   Photographs are another way to display
          table, graph, or list) that shows information in                                          data. Have someone take a photograph of you
          percentages. The larger the section of the cir-                                           performing the experiment, as in Figure 5.4,
          cle, the greater the percentage represented.
          The whole circle represents 100 percent, or                                                                       SUN DIRECTION
          the total amount. For example, a pie chart can
                                                                                                     Direction              Hours               Percentage of Day
          be used to represent the results of an experi-
          ment determining the direction of the Sun at                                               eastern (E and SE)     6                   50

          different times during one day, from sunrise                                               western (W and SW) 6                       50
          to sunset. To make a pie chart, first record the
          directions at different times in a table, as                                                    Figure 5.9 Table of Sun Directions



                                                                                               17
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 18




                                                                                             WHY?
                                                                           Figure 5.13 shows an explanation of the
                                                                       results of the sample experiment. This infor-
                                                                       mation, along with the other research, will be
                                                                       used to develop a project problem, hypothe-
                                                                       sis, and experiment(s).


                                                                                              Why?
                                                                              Extending the line formed by the string
                                                                          points to the position of the Sun. The angle
                                                                          between this line and the measuring stick
                                                                          is equal to the angle of the Sun above the
             Figure 5.10 Pie Chart of Sun Directions                      horizon. Thus, the angle measured is equal to
                                                                          the Sun’s altitude (angular height above the
                                                                          horizon). At noon, standard time, the Sun is at
                                                                          or near its highest altitude during the day.
                                                                              The Sun appears to move across the sky.
                                                                          Actually, the Sun is not moving. Instead, the
                                                                          Earth is rotating on its axis, giving the illusion
                                                                          that the Sun is moving across the sky. Since
                                                                          the axis of the Earth is tilted in relationship
                                                                          to the Sun, the maximum height of the Sun
                                                                          in the sky during the day changes as the Earth
                                                                          revolves (moves in a curved path about an
                                                                          object) around the Sun.

                                                                       Figure 5.13 Sample Experiment Explanation

                                                                                    LET’S EXPLORE
                                                                           This is the point at which you begin to ask
                                                                       different exploring questions as the basis for
              Figure 5.11 Example of a Pictograph
                                                                       more research ideas, such as “I wonder,
                                                                       where on Earth does the Sun reach its high-
                                                                       est altitude?” or “I wonder, how does the lati-
                                                                       tude of a location affect the Sun’s altitude?
                                Results                                Wow! That last question is great.” You’ll find
                                                                       that the more you think about the sample
                 The altitude of the Sun increases before noon,        experiment, the more exploring questions
             is highest at noon, then decreases after noon.
                                                                       you’ll be able to think of and the better your
                                                                       questions will be. Figure 5.14 shows exploring
            Figure 5.12 Sample Experiment Results                      questions and how to find their answers by
                                                                       changing the sample experiment. The experi-
          or take photos of the procedure setup to use                 ments in this and the following sections could
          as part of the project display. Use the format               be performed and the data added to the
          of the procedure shown in Figure 5.3 as                      research information. Another use would be
          a guideline to design your own project                       as aids in designing your project experiment(s).
          experiment.                                                  Before any further experimentation, read



                                                                  18
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 19




          through “Let’s Explore,” “Show Time!”, and                    ments. (When you design your own experi-
          “Check It Out!”.                                              ments, make sure to get an adult’s approval if
                                                                        you use supplies or procedures other than
                                                                        those given in this book.) Again, these experi-
                          LET’S EXPLORE                                 ments can provide project research or ideas
              1.   Does the Sun’s maximum altitude change               for designing your project experiment(s).
                   from day to day? Repeat the experiment
                   measuring the Sun’s altitude at noon for 7
                   or more days.                                                       CHECK IT OUT!
              2.   How does the Sun’s maximum altitude
                                                                            At this point, you are ready for in-depth
                   compare at different latitudes on the same           research on the topic. The questions asked at
                   day? Ask friends at latitudes higher and             this point (see Figure 5.16) require some sec-
                   lower than yours to perform the original             ondary research. A good place to start your
                   experiment at noon on a specific day.                 research is the library. Earth science books
                   Compare and report the results.                      have sections on the Sun, its motion, its loca-
                                                                        tion, and the heat from its rays. Science exper-
          Figure 5.14 Sample Experiment “Let’s Explore”                 iment books are also a good source of
                                                                        information and provide experiments to use
                           SHOW TIME!                                   as well.
                                                                            You will discover from these sources that
             The “Show Time!” section in Figure 5.15                    as the Earth revolves around the Sun, the
          shows two ideas related to the sample experi-                 Sun’s maximum altitude during the day
          ment. It offers different experimental ideas                  increases and decreases. The higher the
          for further investigation of the topic, as well as            Sun’s altitude, the more direct the rays and
          more ideas for designing your own experi-                     generally the higher the temperature. Wow!

                                                           SHOW TIME!
            1a. As Earth revolves around the Sun, its axis                   clay to support the model. With a drawing
                always points in the same direction. But since               compass, draw a 1-inch (2.5-cm) circle in the
                Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5 degrees in relation-             center of a 12-by-12-inch (30--by-30-cm) piece
                ship to its orbit, the ends of the axis tilt                 of white poster board. Label the circle “Sun.”
                toward the Sun during part of the year and                   On the edges of the poster board, label these
                away from the Sun for part of the year. As a                 seasons in a counterclockwise order: “Spring,”
                result, the altitude of the Sun changes during               “Summer,” “Fall,” “Winter.” Stand the Earth
                the year. These changes produce seasons                      model on the edge of the poster board labeled
                (periods of the year characterized by specific                “Summer” with the top of the toothpick tilted
                weather). The four seasons on Earth are                      toward the Sun and the wall beyond Sun. Note
                spring, summer, fall and winter. Demonstrate                 that the top part of the model (the Northern
                the position of Earth in its orbit when the Sun              Hemisphere) tilts toward the Sun and the bot-
                is at its highest altitude in the Northern                   tom part (the Southern hemisphere) tilts away
                Hemisphere. This would be summer, the                        from the Sun.
                warmest season. Prepare an Earth model by
                using a rounded toothpick to draw a circle              1b. With the toothpick still tilted toward the wall,
                around the middle of a grape-size ball of                   move the model in a counterclockwise direc-
                modeling clay. Insert the toothpick through                 tion from one season to the next. Prepare a
                the clay ball so that the line you just drew                diagram indicating the areas of Earth where
                circles the clay as the Earth’s equator circles             the Sun is at its highest altitude during each
                the globe. Use another grape-size piece of                  season.

                                       Figure 5.15 Sample Experiment “Show Time!”



                                                                   19
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 20




          That’s why it’s so hot during the summer                        Both of the examples have the same goal
          when the Sun is so high in the sky. This is a               of discovering how the angle of the Sun’s rays
          real-life experience that you are using to                  affects air temperature, but the first example
          help you with your project. You will want to                is short and quickly read. Keep in mind that
          draw from your personal experiences, not                    your project will be judged at the science fair,
          only when looking for a topic as discussed in               and you want each judge to know immediately
          Chapter 2, but also during your project                     the single purpose for your project.
          research.                                                       With your problem stated, it’s time to
                                                                      develop the hypothesis. The hypothesis might
                          CHECK IT OUT!                               be “I believe that the size of Sun ray angles at
                                                                      noon cause seasonal temperatures, small
              1.   In the Northern Hemisphere, the Sun is at          angles causing warm temperatures and large
                   its highest altitude on or about June 21.
                   This time is called the summer solstice. At
                                                                      angles causing cold temperatures.” This
                   this time, the apparent motion of the Sun          hypothesis is based on these facts:
                   reaches its northernmost point, which is
                   the Tropic of Cancer (latitude 23.5 degrees        • In my research, I discovered that shadow
                   north of the equator). Find out more about           angles are the same as the angles of the
                   the apparent motion of the Sun. Where is             Sun’s rays, and the shadow angles change
                   its southernmost point and when does it              during the day as well as from season to
                   reach this point? What and when is the               season.
                   winter solstice? What and when are the
                   equinoxes?                                         • In my exploratory experiment, shadow
              2.                                   1
                   Earth’s equator receives about 2 ⁄2 times            angles were least at or near noon and
                   as much heat during the year as does the             greatest in early morning and late evening.
                   areas around its Poles. How does the angle
                   of the Sun’s rays affect the heating of            • I’ve observed that early morning and late
                   Earth’s surface?                                     evening are generally the coolest parts of a
                                                                        day and midday is warmest.
                   Figure 5.16 Sample Experiment
                            “Check It Out!”
                                                                         NOW YOU’RE ON YOUR OWN
             PROBLEM AND HYPOTHESIS                                       Test your hypothesis by designing a project
             After collecting and analyzing your project              experiment(s) to determine if the angle of the
          research, it’s time to zero in on the problem.              Sun’s rays during different seasons affects
          Let’s say you’ve decided to investigate the                 temperature. You might use the instrument in
          relationship between the angle of the Sun’s                 the exploratory experiment to measure the
          noon rays and air temperature. The question                 Sun’s ray angle. The ray angle would be equal
          doesn’t have to be complex and wordy to be                  to the angle of the pencil’s shadow, which is
          good. Make it as simple and to the point as                 the angle between the top of the pencil and
          possible. Look at these two examples:                       the stretched string. Since the least shadow
                                                                      angle is at or near noon, a comparison of
          1. How does the angle of the Sun’s rays at                  shadow angles and temperatures at noon dur-
             noon affect seasonal temperatures?                       ing different seasons can be made. Once you
          2. Does the difference in the angle of the                  have designed one or more experiments, col-
             Sun’s rays at noon affect the amount of                  lect data, construct tables and graphs, draw
             energy received by Earth’s surface? If so,               diagrams, and take photos to represent
             how does that difference affect tempera-                 results. The control can be when the Sun is at
             ture during different seasons?                           its lowest or highest angle.



                                                                 20
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 21




                UNEXPECTED RESULTS?                              experimental materials might have been
                                                                 moved during the experiment:
              What do you do if your results are not what
          you expected? First, if there is time, repeat             Do say: “There is a possibility that I did
          the experiment and make sure everything is                 not consider daylight savings time each
          done properly. If there isn’t time for this, or            time I took measurements. This problem
          if you get the same unexpected results again,              could be solved by always using the
          don’t panic. A scientist’s hypothesis often is             same watch or clock set to standard
          not supported by his or her experiments.                   time.”
          Report the truth in your conclusion.                      Don’t say: “My sister gave me the wrong
          Assuming your research supported your                      time. I need to find someone who is bet-
          hypothesis, state your hypothesis as before,               ter at telling time.”
          but truthfully say that while your research
          backed up your hypothesis, your experimen-                It may be that after evaluating your data,
          tal results did not. Say what you expected             you may decide that your original hypothesis
          and what actually happened. Report every-              was incorrect. If so, say this and give reasons
          thing—if anything supported the hypothesis,            for your change of mind.
          identify it. Continue by giving reasons why               Now it’s time to sum up the entire project
          you think the results did not support your             by writing a detailed report. Review the next
          original ideas. Make your explanation                  chapter for advice on how to put together a
          scientific. For example, if you think the               science-fair project report.




                                                            21
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 22




                                             Chapter 6

           The Project Report
                                                                   Your teacher can give you the local fair’s rules

          Y
                  our report is the written record of your
                  entire project from start to finish. When         for this. The title should be attention getting.
                  read by a person unfamiliar with your            It should capture the theme of the project but
          project, the report should be clear and                  should not be the same as the problem
          detailed enough for the reader to know exactly           question. A good title for the sample project
          what you did, why you did it, what the results           detailed in Chapter 5 is shown in Figure 6.1.
          were, whether or not the experimental evi-
          dence supported your hypothesis, and where                             Up and Down:
          you got your research information. This writ-             Seasonal Temperature versus Sun Ray Angle
          ten document is your spokesperson when you
          are not present to explain your project, but                       Figure 6.1 A Project Title
          more than that, it documents all your work.
              Much of the report will be copied from                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
          your journal. By recording everything in your
          journal as the project progresses, all you need              The second page of your report is the table
          to do in preparing the report is to organize             of contents. It should contain a list of every-
          and neatly copy the journal’s contents. Tables,          thing in the report that follows the contents
          graphs, and diagrams can be neatly and color-            page, as shown in Figure 6.2
          fully prepared. If possible, use a computer to
          prepare some or all of these data displays.
              Check with your teacher for the order and                                 Contents
          content of the report as regulated by the local                          1.   Abstract
          fair. Generally, a project report should be type-                        2.   Introduction
          written, double-spaced, and bound in a folder                            3.   Experiment(s)
          or notebook. It should contain a title page, a                           4.   Data
          table of contents, an abstract, an introduction,                         5.   Conclusion
          the experiment(s) and data, a conclusion, a                              6.   Sources
          list of sources, and acknowledgments. The                                7.   Acknowledgments
          rest of this chapter describes these parts of a
          project report and gives examples based on                      Figure 6.2 A Table of Contents
          the sample project in Chapter 5.
                                                                                   ABSTRACT
                         TITLE PAGE                                    The abstract is a brief overview of the
              The content of the title page varies. Some           project. It should not be more than 1 page and
          fairs require that only the title of the project         should include the project title, a statement of
          be centered on the page. Normally, your name             the purpose, a hypothesis, a brief description
          would not appear on this page during judging.            of the procedure, and the results. There is no


                                                              22
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 23




          one way to write an abstract, but it should be                      you have used. The introduction shown in
          brief, as shown in Figure 6.3. Often, a copy of                     Figure 6.4 does not use footnotes.
          the abstract must be submitted to the science
          fair officials on the day of judging, and it is a
          good idea to have copies available at your dis-                                            Introduction
          play. This gives judges something to refer to                            The air temperature generally changes quite a bit dur-
          when making final decisions. It might also be                           ing the day, but any change from one day to the next at
          used to prepare an introduction by a special                           the same time of day is, as a rule, relatively small. But
                                                                                 the temperature of some regions changes significantly
          award sponsor, so do a thorough job on this                            over the course of a year, resulting in different seasons.
          part of your report.                                                     While reading about my project topic, the effect of the
                                                                                 angle of the Sun’s rays at noon on seasonal tempera-
                                                                                 tures, I thought about my own experience of the Sun’s
                                                                                 high noon altitude and small shadow angles occurring at
                              Abstract
                                                                                 the same time as high summer temperatures. Further
                           Up and Down:                                          research provided the facts that as the angle of the
              Seasonal Temperature versus Sun Ray Angle                          Sun’s rays decreases, the more concentrated the rays,
                The purpose of this project was to find out whether               thus the hotter the area of Earth receiving them. I rea-
              the angle of the Sun’s rays at noon affects seasonal               soned that the angle of the Sun’s rays at noon must
              temperatures. The experiments involved measuring the               change during the year.
              air temperature and the angle of the Sun’s rays at noon              My curiosity about the relation of angle of the Sun’s
              during different seasons. This was done by recording               rays to temperature resulted in a project that has as its
              air temperature and measuring the angle of shadows                 purpose to discover how the angle of the Sun’s rays
              at noon on the first day of the month from October                  affects air temperature during the year and thus causes
              through April.                                                     seasons. Based on previous stated research and the fact
                The measurements confirmed my hypothesis that as                  that it is cooler in the morning when the angle of the
              the angle of the Sun’s rays decreases during the year,             Sun’s rays is least due to the Sun’s low altitude, my
              the outdoor temperature increases. These findings led               hypothesis was that as the angle of the Sun’s rays
              me to believe that seasonal temperatures are the result            increases during the year, the outdoor temperature
              of the difference in the angle of the Sun’s rays. As the           increases, causing seasons.
              ray angle decreases, sunlight is more concentrated on
              an area, resulting in a higher temperature.
                I discovered that during seasons with high tempera-                        Figure 6.4 Introduction
              tures, the angle of the Sun’s rays is lower than during
              seasons with low temperatures.




                        Figure 6.3 An Abstract                                                EXPERIMENTS
                                                                                  Each project experiment should be listed
                                                                              in the experiment section of the report.
                         INTRODUCTION                                         Experiments should include the problem of
              The introduction is a statement of your                         the experiment, followed first by a list of the
          purpose, along with background information                          materials used and the amount of each, then
          that led you to make this study. It should con-                     by the procedural steps in outline or para-
          tain a brief statement of your hypothesis                           graph form, as shown in Figure 6.5. Note that
          based on your research. In other words, it                          the experiment described in Figure 6.5 deter-
          should state what information or knowledge                          mines the average monthly angle of the Sun’s
          you had that led you to hypothesize the                             noon rays during 7 consecutive months. A
          answer to the project’s problem question.                           second experiment is needed to measure the
          Make references to information or experi-                           average temperature of each month. The
          ences that led you to choose the project’s                          experiments should be written so that anyone
          purpose. If your teacher requires footnotes,                        could follow them and expect to get the same
          then include one for each information source                        results.


                                                                         23
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 24




                                                                                                                          SUN RAY ANGLES AT NOON
                                   Experiment
                                                                                                                                        Average Monthly
              Purpose                                                         Month                                                     Angle (degrees, °)
              To determine the angle of the Sun’s rays at noon
                                                                              October                                                   40
              (standard time) during different seasons.
              Materials
                                                                              November                                                  31
              yardstick (meterstick)                                          December                                                  24
              cup with pencil and string prepared in the Sample               January                                                   31
               Experiment
                                                                              February                                                  40
              protractor
              Procedure                                                       March                                                     48
              1. At around 11:45 A.M., set the measuring stick on a           April                                                     56
                flat surface in a sunny area outdoors with its pointer
                end facing the horizon directly below the Sun.
                                                                                                                           Figure 6.6 A Table
              2. Set the cup in the middle of the stick. Move the
                pointer end of the stick so that the shadow cast by
                the pencil falls on the stick.
                                                                                                                          SUN RAY ANGLES AT NOON
              3. At 12:00 P.M. (noon), move the cup back and forth



                                                                               Average Monthly Angle (degrees, °)
                                                                                                                     60
                along the stick until the end of the shadow touches
                the measuring line. NOTE: If the shadow is longer
                than the measuring stick, place two measuring sticks                                                 50
                end to end.
              4. Hold the cup in place and extend the string from the
                                                                                                                     40
                top of the pencil to the measuring line. Ask a helper
                to use the protractor to measure the angle between
                the pencil and string.                                                                               30
              5. Repeat steps 1 through 3 one or more times each
                week during 6 or more consecutive months.                                                            20
              6. Average the angles measured for each month.                                                              Oct   Nov   Dec    Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr


                        Figure 6.5 An Experiment                                                                    Figure 6.7 Example of a Bar Graph


                                       DATA                                                                                 CONCLUSION
              Following each experiment, include all                             The conclusion summarizes, in about one
          measurements and observations that you took                        page or less, what you discovered based on
          during each experiment. Graphs, tables, and                        your experimental results, as shown in Figure
          charts created from your data should be                            6.8. The conclusion states the hypothesis and
          labeled and, if possible, colorful. Figure 6.6                     indicates whether the data supports it. The
          shows a table and Figure 6.7 a bar graph for                       conclusion can also include a brief description
          the experiment shown in Figure 6.5. If there                       of plans for exploring ideas for future experi-
          is a large amount of data, you may choose to                       ments.
          put most of it in an appendix, which can be
          placed in a separate binder or notebook. If                                                                           SOURCES
          you do separate the material, a summary of
          the data should be placed in the data section                          Sources are the places where you obtained
          of the report.                                                     information, including all of the written mate-
                                                                             rials as well as the people you have interviewed.
                                                                             For the written materials, write a bibliography.
                                                                             See “Secondary Research” in Chapter 4 for


                                                                        24
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 25




          information about bibliographies. People that                                 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
          you interviewed should be listed separately, in
          alphabetical order by last name. Provide title                          Even though technically your project is to
          and with permission give their address and                           be your work alone, it is permissible to have
          business phone number, as shown in Figure                            some help. The acknowledgments is not a list
          6.9. Do not list home addresses or phone                             of names, but a short paragraph stating the
          numbers.                                                             names of the people and how they helped you,
                                                                               as shown in Figure 6.10. Note that when list-
                                                                               ing family members or relatives, it is generally
                                   Conclusion                                  not necessary to include their names.
                 As stated in my hypothesis, I believe that the size
              of Sun ray angles at noon cause seasonal temperatures,
                                                                                                  Acknowledgments
              small angles causing warm temperatures and large
              angles causing cold temperatures. The experimental                    I would like to thank the members of my family who
              data supported my hypothesis, indicating a direct rela-             assisted me with this project; my mother, who proof-
              tion between the angle of the Sun’s rays and the air                read and typed my report, and my father and sister,
              temperature. This direct relation between the ray                   who assisted in the construction of the display board.
              angles and the temperatures was found to apply over                   A special note of thanks to Dr. Lauren Russell,
              different seasons. The smaller the ray angle, the                   professor of astronomy at Lacey University, and to
              warmer the season, and the greater the angle, the                   Davin Wade, her assistant, for their expert guidance.
              cooler the season. Experimental data also showed an
              inverse relation between the Sun’s noon altitude and
              the angle of the Sun’s rays; thus, as the altitude of the
              Sun increases, its ray angle decreases. The experiments
                                                                                      Figure 6.10 Acknowledgments
              confirmed that more direct Sun rays (those with the
              least angle) heat the earth more.
                Through my research as well as experience, I
              discovered that the length of each day is not exactly
              the same. Ideas for a future experiment would be to
              determine the effect of day length on the average
              daily temperature.



                  Figure 6.8 A Project Conclusion




                             Source Interviewed

                             Lynn, Jennifer
                             Astronomer
                             100 Rainy Drive
                             San Francisco, California 00001
                             (001) 222-0000



                  Figure 6.9 An Interview Source




                                                                          25
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 26




                                             Chapter 7

                              The Display
                                                                fluorescent colors, the bright colors will be

          Y
                  our science fair display represents all
                  the work that you have done. It should        what catches the eye instead of your work.
                  consist of a backboard, the project               The title and other headings should be neat
          report, and anything that represents your             and large enough to be read at a distance of
          project, such as models made, items studied,          about 3 feet (1 m). A short title is often eye-
          photographs, surveys, and the like. It must           catching. Self-sticking letters, of various sizes
          tell the story of the project in such a way that      and colors, for the title and headings can be
          it attracts and holds the interest of the viewer.     purchased at office supply stores and stuck to
          It has to be thorough, but not too crowded, so        the backboard. You can cut your own letters
          keep it simple.                                       out of construction paper or stencil the letters
              The allowable size and shape of the display       for all the titles directly onto the backboard.
          backboard can vary, so you will have to check         You can also use a word processor to print the
          the rules for your science fair. Most exhibits        title and other headings.
          are allowed to be 48 inches (122 cm) wide, 30             Some teachers have set rules about the
          inches (76 cm) deep, and 108 inches (274 cm)          position of the information on the backboard.
          high (including the table it stands on). These        The following headings are examples: Problem,
          are maximum measurements, so your display             Hypothesis, Experiment (materials and proce-
          may be smaller than this. A three-sided back-         dure), Data, Results, Conclusion, and Next
          board is usually the best way to display your
          work. Sturdy cardboard or other heavy
          material is easier to work with and is less
          likely to be damaged during transportation
          to the fair. Wooden panels can be cut and
          hinged together. Some office supply stores
          sell inexpensive premade backboards. If
          these are not available in your area, see
          Appendix C for science supply companies
          from which you can order inexpensive
          premade backboards.
              Purchased backboards generally come in
          two colors, black and white. You can use a
          different color by covering the backboard
          with self-stick colored shelving paper or
          cloth. For items placed on the back-
          board, select colors that stand out
          but don’t distract a viewer from the
          material being presented. For
          example, if everything is in                      Figure 7.1 Example of a Good Display


                                                            26
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 27




          Time. The project title should go at the top of            forth. This kit should contain anything that
          the center panel, and the remaining material               you think you might need to make last-
          needs to be placed neatly in some order.                   minute repairs to the display.
          Figure 7.1 shows one way of placing the mate-           6. Before standing your backboard on the
          rial. The heading “Next Time,” though not                  display table, cover the table with a colored
          always required, may be included if desired. It            cloth. Choose a color that matches the
          would follow the conclusion and contain a                  color scheme of the backboard. This will
          brief description of plans for future develop-             help to separate your project from other
          ment of the project. This information could be             projects displayed on either side.
          included in the conclusion rather than under a
          separate heading.
              You want a display that the judges will                       DO’S AND DON’TS
          remember positively. So before you glue
          everything down, lay the board on a flat sur-               Do use computer-generated graphs.
          face and arrange the materials a few different             Do display photos representing the
          ways. This will help you decide on the most                 procedure and the results.
          suitable and attractive presentation. Figure 7.1
          shows what a good display might look like.                 Do use contrasting colors.
                                                                     Do limit the number of colors used.
                      HELPFUL HINTS                                  Do display models when applicable. If
                                                                      possible, make the models match the
          1. Place all typed material on a colored back-              color scheme of the backboard.
             ing, such as construction paper. Leave a
             border of about 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch (0.63 to 1.25           Do attach charts neatly. If there are many,
             cm) around the edges of each piece of                    place them on top of each other so that
             typed material. Use a paper cutter so that               the top chart can be lifted to reveal the
             the edges will be straight.                              ones below.
          2. Make the project title stand out by using               Do balance the arrangement of materials
             larger letters for it and smaller letters for            on the backboard. This means to evenly
             the headings.                                            distribute the materials on the board so
                                                                      that they cover about the same amount
          3. To arrange the letters on the backboard,
                                                                      of space on each panel.
             first lay the letters out on the board with-
             out attaching them. Then, use a yardstick               Do use rubber cement or double-sided
             (meterstick) and pencil to draw a straight,              tape to attach papers. White school glue
             light guideline where the bottom of each                 causes the paper to wrinkle.
             letter should line up. This will help you
             keep the lettering straight. Before adher-              Don’t leave large empty spaces on the
             ing everything, ask the opinion of other                 backboard.
             students, teachers, or family members.                  Don’t leave the table in front of the
          4. If you need electricity for your project, be             backboard empty. Display your models
             sure the wiring meets all safety standards.              (if any), report, copies of your abstract,
                                                                      and your journal here.
          5. Bring an emergency kit with extra letters,
             glue, tape, construction paper the color of             Don’t hang electrical equipment on the
             the backboard, stapler, scissors, pencils,               backboard so that the electric cord runs
             pens, touch-up paint, markers, and so                    down the front of the backboard.



                                                             27
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 28




             Don’t make the title or headings hard to                            SAFETY
              read by using uneven lettering, words
              with letters of different colors, or                 Anything that is or could be hazardous to
              disorganized placement of materials.             other students or the public is prohibited and
                                                               cannot be displayed. The following is a list of
             Don’t hand-print the letters on the back-         things that are generally unacceptable for
              board.                                           display. Your teacher has access to a complete
                                                               list of safety rules from your local science fair
             Don’t attach folders that fall open on the
                                                               officials. Your project topic should be
              backboard.
                                                               approved by your teacher before beginning.
             Don’t make mistakes in spelling words or          This prevents you from working on an unsafe
              writing formulas.                                project and from wasting time on a project
                                                               that would be disqualified. Models or
             Figure 7.2 shows how not to set up your           photographs can be used instead of things
          display.                                             that are restricted from display.


                                                                     Unacceptable for Display
                                                                1. Live animals
                                                                2. Microbial cultures or fungi, living or
                                                                   dead
                                                                3. Animal or human parts, except for teeth,
                                                                   hair, nails, and dried animal bones
                                                                4. Liquids, including water
                                                                5. Chemicals and/or their empty contain-
                                                                   ers, including caustics, acids, and house-
                                                                   hold cleaners
                                                                6. Open or concealed flames
                                                                7. Batteries with open-top cells
                                                                8. Combustible materials
                                                                9. Aerosol cans of household solvents
            Figure 7.2 Example of a Bad Display                10. Controlled substances, poisons, or drugs
                                                               11. Any equipment or device that would be
                                                                   hazardous to the public
                                                               12. Sharp items, such as syringes, knives,
                                                                   and needles
                                                               13. Gases




                                                          28
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 29




                                             Chapter 8

                Presentation and
                   Evaluation
                                                                   personal pride you have in yourself, and that

          Y
                 our teacher may require that you give
                 an oral presentation of your project for          is the first step in introducing your product,
                 your class. Make it short but complete.           your science project.
          Presenting in front of your classmates may be
          the hardest part of the project. You want to do                JUDGING INFORMATION
          your best, so prepare and practice, practice,
                                                                      Most fairs have similar point systems for
          practice. If possible, tape your practice presen-
                                                                   judging a science fair project, but you may be
          tation on a tape recorder or have someone
                                                                   better prepared by understanding that judges
          videotape you. Review the tape and/or video
                                                                   generally start by thinking that each student’s
          and evaluate yourself. Review your notes and
                                                                   project is average. Then, he or she adds or sub-
          practice again.
                                                                   tracts points from that. A student should receive
              Practicing an oral presentation will also be
                                                                   more points for accomplishing the following:
          helpful for the science fair itself. The judges
          give points for how clearly you are able to dis-         1. Project Objectives
          cuss the project and explain its purpose, pro-              • Presenting original ideas
          cedure, results, and conclusion. The display
          should be organized so that it explains every-              • Stating the problem clearly
          thing, but your ability to discuss your project             • Defining the variables and using
          and answer the questions of the judges con-                   controls
          vinces them that you did the work and under-
          stand what you have done. Practice a speech                 • Relating background reading to the
          in front of friends, and invite them to ask                   problem
          questions. If you do not know the answer to a            2. Project Skills
          question, never guess or make up an answer
          or just say “I don’t know.” Instead, say that               • Being knowledgeable about equipment
          you did not discover that answer during your                  used
          research, and then offer other information                  • Performing the experiments with little
          that you found of interest about the project.                 or no assistance except as required for
          Be proud of the project, and approach the                     safety
          judges with enthusiasm about your work.
              You can decide on how best to dress for a               • Demonstrating the skills required to do
          class presentation, but for the local fair, it is             all the work necessary to obtain the data
          wise to make a special effort to look nice. You               reported
          are representing your work. In effect, you are           3. Data Collection
          acting as a salesperson for your project, and
          you want to present the very best image possi-              • Using a journal to collect data and
          ble. Your appearance shows how much                           research



                                                              29
Part I 10/18/99 1:26 PM Page 30




             • Repeating the experiment to verify the            DO’S AND DON’TS AT THE FAIR
               results
                                                                 Do bring activities, such as puzzles to work
             • Spending an appropriate amount of time              on or a book to read, to keep yourself
               to complete the project                             occupied at your booth. There may be a
             • Having measurable results                           lengthy wait before the first judge arrives,
                                                                   and even between judges.
          4. Data Interpretation
                                                                 Do become acquainted with your neighboring
             • Using tables, graphs, and illustrations in          presenters. Be friendly and courteous.
               interpreting data
                                                                 Do ask neighboring presenters about their
             • Using research to interpret data col-               projects, and tell them about yours if they
               lected                                              express interest. These conversations pass
             • Collecting enough data to make a con-               time and help relieve nervous tension that
               clusion                                             can build when you are waiting to be evalu-
                                                                   ated. You may also discover techniques for
             • Using only data collected to make a con-
                                                                   research that you can use for next year’s
               clusion
                                                                   project.
          5. Project Presentation (Written Materials/
             Interview/Display)                                  Do have fun.

             • Having a complete and comprehensive               Don’t laugh or talk loud. This may affect the
               report                                              person nearby who is being judged.
             • Answering questions accurately                    Don’t forget that you are an ambassador for
                                                                   your school. This means that your attitude
             • Using the display during oral                       and behavior influence how people at the
               presentation                                        fair think about you and the other students
             • Justifying conclusions on the basis of              at your school.
               experimental data
             • Summarizing what was learned
             • Presenting a display that shows creative
               ability and originality
             • Presenting an attractive and interesting
               display




                                                            30

				
Ben Longjas Ben Longjas
About