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					NON INDIGENOUS INVASIVE SPECIES

Beauty is a Potential Beast!

What’s invasive?
Invasive=plant that decreases diversity ; homogenizing plant community, cause local extinctions which are cumulative over a long period especially in small or highly sensitive community.

Statistics from Hell
Invasive exotic species=non-native species that invade and alter natural and managed areas Cover 100 million acres, increase 8-20% annually=2x Delaware lose 4,600 acres of public rec areas per day to invasives 42% of declines of threatened and endangered species partly due to effects of invasives why aren’t native plants ever considered invasive? ---natural succession

Native vs. Non-native
Are native invasives, but don’t tolerate competiton as well, eg poison ivy doesn’t do so well in shade compared to other natives that have edge Natural selection keeps in them in check---don’t tolerate competition, and have natural pred., path, and competitors that intro’d plants do not in New England, 3% of documented plants are non-native AND invasive, but still have potential to seriously damage plant communities

Where Do They Come From?
Does happen occasionally, e.g., spartina to CA and black locust, poison ivy, hay-scented fern, greenbrier Asian plants may be esp. bad here because of similar climate but not natural enemies 50% of problem species brought in to beautify gardens useful invasives planted by DOT and other agencies part of the problem problem longstanding, 1735, bloody non-natives such as lilacs and double narcissus; many of modern invasives estab s ornamentals in early part of 20th century loosestride, jap honeysuckle flagged as invasives in 1938

Top Twenty Invasive Plants in NYS
Black locust Black swallow-wort Buckthorn Common reed Curly pondweed Ornamental olives European water milfoil Garlic mustard Shrub honeysuckles Japanese barberry Japanese honeysuckle Japanese knotweed Japanese stiltgrass Multiflora rose Norway maple Oriental bittersweet Porcelain berry Purple loostrife Spotted knapweed Water chestnut

More Invasive Plants on LI
Lesser celandine Golden bamboo Silver fleece vine Miscanthus Kudzu (yes, on LI) Mugwort Tree of heaven Wisteria Five leaf akebia

Impact of Invasive Plants on Insects and Birds
Birds can’t eat all insects, insects can’t eat all plants Eg, insects consume 239 sq cm of black oak vs. 12 sq. cm of Norway maple A shortage of insect protein can affect second generation of birds, and repro native bird pops are in decline: is it just habitat loss or is it an impact of invasive plants on food chain Junk food for insects=multiflora rose, oriental bittersweet, Japanese honeysuckle, autumn olive, garlic mustard, Norway maple

Invasive traits
ABUNDANT fruits, seeds: honeysuckle, autumn olive, multiflora rose, purple loosestrife, oriental bittersweet; birds disperse, especially buckthorn which produces fruits from summer through late fall; garlic mustard doesn’t produce that many seeds but seedling survival rate is incredible EFFECTIVE, VARIED dispersal methods: BIRDS #1, wind #2, e.g., Norway maple (wind from passing cars), mechanical means (exploding seed pods), or multiple methods (loosestrife), bits of root that float down stream such as Japanese knotweed, human vectors either through soil or water gardening

Invasive traits
INTENTIONAL INTRODUCTION OR ESTAB: Japanese barberry, multiflora rose, purple loosestrife, oriental bittersweet, water chestnut EASY, RAPID ESTAB: garlic mustard (white tailed deer?), ground disturbance (phragmites), wind throw (Japanese barberry, garlic mustard); high % germination, wide range of biological tolerances RAPID GROWTH: annuals and biennials produce huge # seeds every 1-2 years, so always new supply; invasive perennials reach maturity very rapidly to produce seeds and invasive vines rapid growth reaches into canopy to compete for light (or. Bitterwseet, Jap. Honeysuckle, milea-minute, kudzu); even privet because of its fruits

Invasive traits
AGGRESSIVE COMPETITION: no predators, parasites or pathogens that kept them in check in native country, add in rapid growth and establishment, have unstoppable force once established---much of it may stem too from competition for sunlight of 235 woody plants known to invade natural areas in US, 85% intro’d for landscape purposes, 14% for Ag: rough estimate Eval, selec, promo new plants: new species observed for 57 years in nursery before going to arboretum, then observed for 10 more years

Impact of Invasive Plants on Landscaping
Invasive plants are usually not native to the US, but in the US encounter better growth conditions and none of the natural predators and pathogens that keep them in control in their native countries 300-400 species considered pests nationwide, 30 present in NYS half invasive species brought here for horticultural purposes

Impact
Invasives cost 123 billion/yr, mostly ag damage LI has largest number of rare plants and animals in NYS due to its southerly location and maritime climate Except for HI, NYS also has more foreign plant species than any other state invasive plants infest 100 million acres of land in US, 4,600 acres more each day

Impact
42% of US species federally listed as threatened or endangered have invasive species a contributor towards their endangered status deer selectively browse native plants vs. nonnatives thus giving invasive plants an even greater edge one species was established every 55 weeks from 1851-1960, one new species every 14 weeks from 1961-1995

Susceptibility to Invasion
Environs with fluctuations in resources Period immediately after disturbance or abrupt increase or decreases in resources by resident vegetation long intervals between increase in resource supplies (eg, drought)

Buckthorn

Glossy Buckthorn
Insidious, inconspicuous, no showy flowers or bright fruits, form dense thickets, shade out other understory plants especially blackberry, viburnum, winterberry, dogwood and spicebush which are critical for bird food; birds eat buckthorn fruit instead which is really not good for them, specially migrating birds glossy buckthorn can get up to 23’ high, fruit red to black, floats so is transported that way cut back, resprouts with stronger root system, used to be promoted for hedge rows; burn, may promote resprouting from roots beneath surface can invade pristine areas as well so doesn’t need disturbed territory

Leaves and veins obviously curve to tips

Glossy Buckthorn
oval leaves without teeth, small dense tree sim to old apple tree, broken twigs have acrid smell, leaves last well into the fall CAN STILL BUY THEM FROM NURSERIES! Likes wetter, more acidic, less shaded heath-oak, oine, spruce forests, seeds can wait in deeper shade for up to 50 years prior to sprout when gap opens up look for in old fields, hedgerows, powerline cuttings, mower lines at edges of trails or at edges of woods, or where understory disturbed by activity such as logging buckthorn can red. # of species, change physical structure of habitat, disrupt food web, delay succession no mow or cut: KILL!

Phreakin’ Phragmites

Phragmites
Very visible invasive species, 8-10 feet tall, believed to be a native, but an agressive strain may have been introduced from Europe around the turn of the century, and this has led to the invasive qualities which we see today soil record indicate its presence in CT 3000 years ago, some existing stands may be 1000 years old has valuable role in a small niche in tidal and non-tidal wetlands providing water filtration, food and cover for wildlife increased development and ag around wetlands may have created disturbed areas which phragmites exploit high seed producer, dispersed by wind, water, wildlife

Phragmites
Forms dense stands, sends up hew shoots from roots or above ground runners which travel great distances from parents (30 feet in a year) largest stand is in Hackensack=7000 acres =herbacious, perennial grass, prefers brackish water, very broad pH range try cutting back repeatedly before it goes to flower, just before end of July when most of the food reserves are in the aerial portion of the plant; do for several years glyphosate if used must be applied after the tasseling stage when plant supplying nutrients to rhizome black plastic mulch may help some

Phragmites
Tiffany creek preserve: four years of mulch mowing have seen a difference---reduced stand vigor Where they couldn’t mulch mow, they tied stalks together in bundles of 25, swipe stumps altogether; this method is good for preserving interplantings Move by perennial rhizomes, can attain stem density of up to 200 stems/sq. meter seeds are disseminated by wind and birds but seeds unable to germinate in water over 5 cm deep

Multiflora Rosa

Rosa multiflora
From Japan and Korea in 1860’s as a rootstock, 1930’s began to plant as wildlife food and cover plant, classified as noxious weed in NJ, spread by birds extremely bad in pastures, takes over open space and wet lands---flower of sleeping beauty fame? Mow reg. To inhibit seedlings in grassy areas, dig out roots, cut treat stump w/glyphosate used to be used as rootstock, think that north expansion is reason for over wintering mocking birds, robins, cedar wax wings=beneficiaries, but other species displaced Used as a crash and glare barrier in road medians Seed can stay alive for 20 years and germination is enhanced by passing through bird gut

Multiflora rose
Infests 45 million acres in eastern US 1960’s free cuttings to landowners highly competitive for soil nutrients Control is through mowing 3-6 times/season, for 2-4 years or herbicide to cut stumps late in the growing season PGR’s used to prevent fruit set Biocontrols via virus and seed infesting wasp iffy due to susceptibility of desirable roses

Japanese Barberry: garden gem or potential pest?

Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii)
Tolerates moderately dense shade (4% daylight) and still produces fruit can spread by roots generated from stem areas (adventitious roots) shrubs rarely die so any barberry patch is capable of long term persistence best time to treat is early spring sing one of earliest plants to break bud Populations do not rapidly expand in oak dominated forest or on north facing slopes

Doesn’t look mean, does it?

Golden Bamboo

Golden bamboo
DON’T BUY IT, DON’T TRY IT: once there you’ll never get rid of it, spreads like crazy, tall, shades out everything else likes rich moist soil, hardy grove making plant, roots hardy to -20 F. so don’t mulch them and maybe they’ll die spread by rhizomes 20-30 ft away: hi neighbor, mowing shoots with lawnmower WILL NOT keep them from spreading if already have, dig trench and put in metal, concrete fiberglass or heavy plastic curb 18-24” deep

KUDZU!

Kudzu!
Climbing, woody, semi-perennial vine, dies back in winter in this area, thee leaflets, long hanging clusters of purple flowers, flowers in late summer, produces brown, hairy, flattened seed pods w/3-10 hard seeds smothers, girdles, devours landscape, deep roots prefers forest edges, abandoned fields, disturbed areas with lots of sun, likes mild wet conditions intro in 1876, widely planted for soil conservation 1935mid 50ties, CCC need to destroy root system, root crowns regen, cut vines and bag up, close mow area for two seasons, cut repeatedly over season to use up stored CHO, late season apply glyphosate to cut stems

Japanese Stilt Grass

Japanese Stilt Grass (eulalia)
Annual grass which forms dense mats, often found growing with garlic mustard stems may be 40 inches long and root at the nodes likes moist soils shaded from full sun, so see in marshes, ditches, low woods, borders, damp fields, lawns roadsides will not tolerate standing water used as packing for porcelain from China

Japanese Stilt Grass (eulalia)
Spreads rapidly following disturbance or flooding can still produce seed with only 5% sunlight remove by hand or mechanical means late in growing season before seed production for several consecutive years mowing and burning early in season won’t control

Porcelain Berry

Porcelainberry
In the grape family, see berries when you would expect to see grapes, THERE ARE NATIVE SPECIES Birds eat, disperse, seeds carried down river Can grow as much as 15 feet in one season Flowers produced on single season’s growth, hand prune in fall or spring to prevent fruit the following season If pulling when in fruit, bag or burn fruit, do not compost Triclopyr herbicide most effective from summer to fall, can do basal bark applications, mix with = volume of oil when temps around 60F for several days

Porcelain berry
Beautiful leaves and berries (spread by birds) climbs up to 25 ft, grows in sun or shade TOUTED BY WOMEN’S MAGAZINES
Delicate looking vine, shiny berries white, yellow, purple, blue, intro from Asia in 1870’s as ornamental for estate gardens, spread by birds, easily mistaken for grape STILL SOLD AT GARDEN CENTERS Suggested alternatives include trumpet creeper, Virginia creeper, or jackman clematis

Porcelain Berry
likes open, sunny habitats subjected to repeated disturbance like highway shoulders, rr tracks, river banks, shorelines, fields, forest edges, gaps in woodlands reduces diversity, increases possibility of wind damage to trees, high germination rate and also by root segments mowing CANNOT dig out root system, can contain but not eradicate by repeated cutting and mowing best to shade out by trees, foliar glyphosate in early autumn most effective

Porcelain berry

Lesser celandine

Lesser celandine
Most of life spent underground, so timing is critical, see heart shaped leaves mid-Jan, die back by early June, get many yellow flowers in March andApril looks VERY SIMILAR to marsh marigold which is rare; make sure correctly identify impact primarily on natiave psring flowring plants, compete for light, likes moist forested areas IS STILL COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE spreads by tubers and seeds manage by digging, but try not to disturb area and get all tubers, must mark areas before die back or won’t find tubers

Lesser celandine
greatest neg impact w/herbicide and least to native wild flowers when herbicide prog begins as soon as plants emerge, continue until threat of impact on natives occurs fatty acid/soap product (Scythe) to burn cuticle gets foliage but not tuber, glyphosate is better, but watch out for desirables and temp has to be above 40 F w/ no rain anticipated for next 12 hours finish herbicide appl by early April, switch to mechan. Removal chose alternate plants like wild ginger, dutchman’s breeches, toothwort, bloodroot, twinleaf

Purple Loosetrife

Purple Loosetrife
BIG BAD MAMA: beautiful but quickly replaces native species like cattails, grasses, sedges, rare plants, becomes monoculture, not a good food or habitat source, clogs drainage and IS STILL COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE don’t kid yourselves: the “sterile” varieties aren’t, L. virgatum is same stuff, likes disturbed areas probably accidental intro to begin with in ballast of ships hand pull, cut (burn cut stems), burn, change water levels, kill plants but not weed seed banks, 30-50 stems from one root biological control with leaf eating beetle, weevils which mine roots and eat flowers, reduce infestations by 90% in 3 years, spot treat, monitor

Loosestrife
Can produce 120,000 seeds per flower head three million seeds per plant seeds have 80% survival rate after 2 years of dormancy very bad in wetland areas: chokes out everything, we are surrounded by wetlands easy to recognize: opposite lance shaped leaves, purple flower spike square stems like mint

Loosestrife

One mature plant can send out 30-50 shoots look alikes are swamp loosestrife, fireweed, blue vervain, and winged loosestrife: these are not invasive but you may be able to use hand pull when less than 2 years, or in sand, broken roots will regenerate new plants watch out for herbicides around water best time to control loosestrife is in late June, July, August when in flower when flowers begin to drop petals the plant is beginning to produce seed, so easy to spread if control at this time

Loosestrife

Put all plant pieces in plastic bags since vegetation rots quickly in plastic and take bags to landfill, making sure that bags are NOT broken open for composting or incierate clothes and equipment can transport seed loosestrife may be present in some wildflower seed mixes: CHECK PACKAGES! “STERILE” varieties can cross pollinate with wild loosestrife and become viable seed producers once again

Loosestrife Alternatives
Blazing star delphinium (full sun) false spirea (astilbe): needs moisture, part shade foxglove (full sun) lupine (full sun, acid) lobelia(cardinal flower, wet soil) obedient plant (false dragonhead , native plant) salvia (full sun) siberian iris (moist, acid soil) spike speedwell (full sun)

MUGWORT!

Artemesia
Mother of Herbs: repels demons, venoms, felon herb, crysanthemum weed name from muggia wort= midge plant because repels insects, takes over disturbed areas repels flies and moths, perennial, can be brought in in poorly composted material, top soil, nursery stock reproduces by bits of root, pull out, get sorcerer’s apprentice effect try mulching area to reduce, relatively tolerant of most herbicides chrysanthemum or mugwort? Wooly underside of leaf = mug wort rag weed or mugwort? Ragweed blades more deeply dissected

Japanese (Vine) Honeysuckle

Japanese honeysuckle
Widely planted because endures almost any conditions reaches 15-30 feet resprouts readily after being cut back Tartarian, morrow, hybrid, european fly, amur=invasive shrubby honeysuckles

Honeysuckles
Russia/Asia/Japan; very robust; intro as ornamental, colorful berries, attractive to birds, widely promoted by US Soil conservation service, find everywhere very adaptable, Japanese=vine, nothing grows in their shade, no ferns, grasses, wildflowers so no microhabitats, suppress forest succession less than 3 years, hand pull, larger, cut down to base, paint with 20% glyphosate in spring and in late summer/early fall, foliar spray only in fall when leave translocate to root repeated clipping in shady site, but NOT in sunny sites or else get worse problem we DO have NATIVE honeysuckles, so make sure you know difference

Bush or shrub Honeysuckle

Suggested replacements for bush honeysuckles include
Spice bush Ink berry Gray dogwood Northern bayberry Red chokecherry (aronia) Viburnum, so long as it is resistant to viburnum leaf beetle

Bittersweet: Nature’s Boston Strangler

Oriental Bittersweet
Native to Japan, China and korea; intro to US mid 1800’s, invades open fields, forests, wetlands, meadows, edges of salt marshes, roadsides, strangles and chokes out all other vegetation, can scale 60 feet how do you tell the difference between American and Oriental bittersweet?: American has flowers and fruits only on the ends of each branch; Oriental has flowers and fruits between the leaf and the stem and thus make it prime decorating material: DISCARDED WREATHS AND SWAGS SPROUT ON THE TRASH HEAP! Possibly beginning to cross breed when cut, vines resprout quickly, mow or use triclopyr as foliar or stump paint

Oriental bittersweet
Originally planted as an erosion control grows up to 30’ NURSERIES STILL CARRY invades open woods, thickets, roadsides

Russian and Autumn Olives

Autumn or Russian Olive
Intro for erosion control and windbreak early 1900, Autumn is frequent in east difficult to control, need to do prior fruiting, paint stump with herbicide, look for signs of resprouting autumn has juicy red fruits, Russian has hard fruits, gray green leaves, silver gray lanceolate leaves fixes nitrogen so good for poor soil crowd out nesting places and insect habitats do not burn or make problem worse

Spotted Knapweed

Spotted knapweed
Biennial or short lived perennial allelopathic to other plants Likes droughty areas, does not tolerate shade or flooding, likes high pH Irrigate to allow grass or other plants to compete Not a huge problem here---yet; huge problem in the west

Norway Maple

Norway Maple
Intro Philly 1762, crimson variety maroon all summer long Rapid growth, easily transplanted, in a variety of soil, light and moisture conditions, tolerates environmental stresses like drought and pollution and tolerates pest damage beginning to out compete sugar maples: look very similar! How to tell the difference: Norway maple has dark furrowed bark, larger, broader leaves, yellow autumn coloring, has milky sap when leaves and stems torn form dense, shady canopies which inhibit wildflowers and seedlings of other make sure you pull out entire root system, or else resprouts cut mature trees as close to base as possible

Norway maple
Only invasive plant that does not re-sprout when cut at soil line

Garlic Mustard

Garlic Mustard
Garlic mustard first reported on Long Island in 1868, intro. by settlers as part of their herb gardens; occurs today in 30 states, primarily invader of disturbed forest communities, common in dappled shade of edges of roadside, also tolerates deep shade, and increasingly adapted to full sun; see new invasions in flood plane forests, so primary mechanism of dispersal are flood waters, wild life, human activity =cool season biennial, white cross shaped flowers, produces 800-6000 seeds, dense colonies=20K seedlings, outcompete other plants for moisture, light, nutrients, especially bad for bloodroot, wild ginger, toothwort, and hepatica which flower and set seed at the same time as GM

Garlic mustard
Contains toxins lethal to native butterflies

Garlic Mustard
ID: dark green first year rosettes, stomp them and they smell like garlic, second year alternate heart shaped toothed stem leaves, still smell like garlic easiest to remove by hand, just before bloom, remove infestations up to 98%; if use fire must be hot enough to burn through leaf litter, entire area should be scorched, repeat every 3-5 years or actually making site better for garlic mustard use herbicides at basal rosette stage, any time as long as temperatures not below 50F, glyphosate in fall plant remains green throughout year, dies after flowering grows in combo w/ yellow jewel weed control for max of 5 years to get rid of seed bank

Japanese Knotweed

Japanese Knotweed
Even found in Alaska! Blooms in fall, = herbaceous perennial, into in late 1800’s as ornamental, was used as an erosion control along streams and rivers, tolerates high salinity, deep shade, heat, asphalt? Spreads by rhizomes, 65 ft from a single plant, parts in soil can regenerate into a new colony, form their own mulch with stalks in the fall, bug threat to river shores need at least three cuts a season to combat rhizomes; don’t dig it up or you’ll break up pieces and end up with lots more, don’t know if burning works herbicide works when hand applied to ENTIRE plant during growing season likes full sunlight and disturbed soil

Tree of Heaven

Tree of heaven
Does major damage to roads, sewers, sidewalks, buildings with root system Also called stinking sumac because of rancid popcorn or peanut butter smell True sumac is distinguished by fuzzy, reddish brown branches, erect fuzzy fruits and leaflets with toothed margins Tree of heaven has smooth gray bark and light chestnut brown twigs Produces huge number of seeds, 350K, so target removal efforts to large female trees who produce reddish brown papery seed pods in Sept. and Oct.

Tree of heaven
Suckers from cut stumps and root fragments Do initial cut in early summer in order to impact tree when root reserves lowest Use herbicides as a treatment to basal bark, cut stump keeping in mind that you need to control roots if you want to prevent grow back Can also try foliar sprays when trees in full leaf, so that spray absorbed and carried to root system (can also use triclopyr); apply to leaves and green stems Use window June 15-September 1

Tree of heaven
Basal bark application requires no cutting, do it late winter/early spring or in summer (June 1September 14) Make sure stem is not wet although water after application doesn’t make any difference Use for trees less than 6” in diameterm, apply herbicides in 12” wide band around entire tree with no skips If tree is a little larger than 6” diameter, increase band width to 24” Girdling or frilling (girdling plus herbicide) not rec. due to potential for suckering

Tree of you know where
Hack and squirt method: make down ward angled cuts so that 1-2” of uncut living tissue between them, squirt in herbicide, most productive on stems of over 2” Cutting tree down, must take out stump or treat cut stump, treat within 5-15 minutes of cut or plant seals itself off! Fungal disease naturally killing them=Verticillium and fusarium: problem up in Sands point where they don’t want their trees of heaven to die! Replacements= staghorn and smooth sumac, box elder, fringetree, ash, black walnut

Borderline Plants Invasive or Just Really Aggressive?

Potentially Invasive
Non-Indingenous naturalized biological potential for wide spread and establishment biological potential for existing in high numbers away from intensively managed artificial habitats

Potentially Invasive
Edible berries? Vine? Grass? Self-sower? Fast and easy?

Chocolate Vine

Five leaf akebia (chocolate vine)
Climbs to 40 feet, VERY aggressive does well in sun or shade, any soil pretty flowers, seed pods, foliage that persists to winter Kills off ground level vegetation, smothers canopy of tall trees, shades out natives Drought and shade tolerant Been here since 1845, spread by seeds and mostly humans Cut, dig, pull, glyphosate Replace with dutchman’s pipe, or trumpet creeper

Silver Lace Vine

Silver Lace Vine (fleece vine)
Flowers late summer can grow to 25 feet see all over LI spreads by rhizomes, needs full sun Not fussy about soil: catalogue description warns don’t let it intermingle with other plants, it will take over Prune to ground in winter or early spring---and paint the stump with herbicide

Miscanthus: Misunderstood or Miserable Traitor?

Miscanthus
Seeds are starting to colonize road sides naturally invasive in Southeast PA, so real potential for problem in NYS use Miscanthus purpurascens since no signs of invasion

Wisteria

Wisteria

Breaks down trellises, trees, drainpipes, houses reaches up to 50 feet tolerates any soil, grows in sun or shade Distinguish from American wisteria by flowering time: bad guy flowers April-May, good guys flower June-August Japanese twine clockwise, Chinese twine counter clockwise Love full sun but will hang out in partial shade, prefers loamy, deep, well drained soils Brought in as ornamentals in 1830’s Live 50 years, seeds can be spread by water

Wisteria

To control cut as close to root collar as possible, begin cutting early in the growing season, cut sprouts every few weeks until autumn, remove vines when possible Don’t compost plant parts!!!!!Discard in garbage Treat stump w/round up Good replacements are dutchman’s pipe, or trumpet creeper

What’s a Landscaper to Do??????

What can we do?
What to Do? Survey found that many felt that invasives were attractive, helpful in controlling erosion and good food source for animals Garden Clubs: alternatives to invasives, Brooklyn Bot. Garden guide to invasive plants prevention and early detection: stop them before they get started; that’s where you come in most difficult problem is how to recognize biological control may backfire, especially if the specialist becomes less so and feeds on closely related genera that are rare

What can we do?
Mechanical control best when invasion is small, or if some other way is risky for environs; e.g., hand pull prior seed set good idea is exhange: pull up plants considered invasive, bring them in, get a perennial in exchange group attacks on buckthorn and honeysuckle cut shrub, swipe stump with herbicide; widespread herbicide treat dificult because wipes out other plants as well (may be good for primarily phragmites communities

Control
Hand pulling least expensive but must be done early mow repeatedly to exhaust root reserves remove before sets seed watch out for vegetative repro or else end up with sorcerer’s apprentice effect for MOST invasive species the time to treat is fall

Control
Herbicide: autumn olive, buckthorn, honeysuckle, knotweed, oriental bittersweet, phragmites (watch water!!!), tree of heaven hand pull: loosestrife, buckthorn, garlic mustard, norway maple, russian olive, spotted knapweed

Tips for success
Target small pops vs. large start upstream/uphill then move down to reduce re-invasion protect sensitive desirable plants from trampling (work in winter when ground frozen) avoid accidental spread on shoes, equip, debris or compost

Stump Etiquette
Cut plant as close to ground as possible, minimizing the distance herbicide has to travel from stump to roots use a clean, flat horizontal cut for maximum performance and limited run off use 1 ml of undiluted herbicide/cm of circumference of plant applied to cambium plants like porcelain berry root in several locations, make sure you paint them all

Stump Etiquette
Spring not the best time for this since sap flow is likely to wash the herbicide out again wait until at least after Memorial day fall is actually best time, even after plant has dropped its leaves as long as you know which things you are trying to kill! don’t treat during a prolonged drought wait a month after treatment until you re-plant

Avoiding disaster
Plant hybrids: only 1% of woody invasives in this country are hybrids use plants that are native to other parts of this country rather than to Asia don’t plant anything that has been invasive in other parts of the world revisit invaded sites once a month after remediation to make sure they haven’t grown back and then twice a year for recheck


				
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