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					College English Integrated Course 2

Unit One: Ways of Learning
Part I Part III Part II Part IV

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

NCE-B2

Part I:
Pre-Reading Tasks
A Song: Teach Your Children Task One: The Questions 1. 2. 3. 4

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Part II: Text A
Introduction to the Text p1. For month in the spring… p12. He is less likely … P13. In retrospect, it … p14. When our well-intentioned… P15. I came to realize… P16. The idea that learning…

P2. But one of the most…
p3. When leaving the hotel… p4. He also liked to try to place… p5. Now both Ellen and I were… p6. He or she would hold …

P17. calligraphers 9 and 10…
P18. In terms of attitudes… P19. One way of summarizing… P20. there is, on the other hand… P21. There is enormous creativity…

p7. I soon realized that this is …
p8. With a few exceptions… p9. What possible gain is… p10. Both of which … p11. But the critical point…

P22. but assuming that …

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

NCE-B2

Language Points
words & expressions cultural notes sentence explanations

Language Sense Enhancement
Poetry Quotations Humorous story Movie Web-links

Comprehension
Content questions Text Organization Points for Discussion

Language Focus
1.Vocabulary Dictation Completing Gaps Filling Multiple Choice Rewriting Confusable Words Emphasizer

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning 2. Structure Sentence Combining

NCE-B2

Sentence Completion

Comprehensive Exercises
Cloze Translation

Chinese Version of Text A

Part III:
Words & Phrases to Learn
Translation Comprehension Check Language Practice

Part IV:
Essay Writing Model paper

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

NCE-B2

Part I: Pre-reading Task

Listen to the recording two or three times.
Script for the Recording

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

Script for the Recording

NCE-B2

Crosby, Stills and Nash

You, who are on the road, Must have a code that you can live by.

And so, become yourself,
Because the past is just a goodbye. Teach your children well,

Their father‟s hell did slowly go by.

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And feed them on your dreams, The one they picks, the one you‟ll know by. Don‟t you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

And you, of tender years,

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Can‟t know the fears that your elders grew by, And so please help them with your youth, They seek the truth before they can die. Teach your parents well, Their children‟s hell will slowly go by.
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And feed them on your dreams, The one they picks, the one you‟ll know by.

Don‟t you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.
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The first part of the song is about how

parents can inspire their children through
sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, “a code that you can live by,” to guide you on the road of life.

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Only then will you be able to fully realize all that is within you and “become yourself.” Therefore, parents need to teach their children well.

And children — “you of tender years” —
also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street.
Hints for Q1

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Hints for Q2&Q3

Children should share their own dreams

with their parents so that young and old
can get to understand each other better. That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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“Don‟t you ever ask them why,

if they told you, you will cry.”
At such moments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each other‟s love.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Part I: Pre-reading Task
Think over the following questions:
1. Who should teach whom? Is

learning a one-way street?
2. Should we share our dreams for a better life with our parents or keep them to ourselves?
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Part I: Pre-reading Task
3. Can children ever understand their parents completely? 4. From the song can you guess what the theme of the unit, way

of learning, chiefly refers to?
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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Part II:Text A
Howard Gardner, a professor of
education at Harvard University, reflects on a visit to China and gives his thoughts on different approaches to learning in China and the West.
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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Learning, Chinese Style
Howard Garner

1

For a month in the spring of 1987,

my wife Ellen and I lived in the bustling eastern Chinese city of Nanjing with our 18-month-old son Benjamin while studying arts education in Chinese kindergartens

and elementary schools.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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But one of the most telling lessons Ellen and I got in the difference between Chinese and American ideas of education came not in the classroom but in the lobby of the Jinling

Hotel where we stayed in Nanjing.
2 The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block with the room number on it.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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When leaving the hotel, a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it. 3 Benjamin loved to carry the key around, shaking it vigorously.

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He also liked to try to place it into the slot. Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot.

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4

Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy

to allow Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed an interesting

phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member nearby
would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist.

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He or she would hold onto Benjamin‟s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it directly toward the slot, reposition it as necessary, and help him to insert it. The “teacher” would then smile somewhat

expectantly at Ellen or me, as if awaiting a thank
you—and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to be neglecting our parental duties.

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5

I soon realized that this incident was

directly relevant to our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into my discussions with Chinese educators.

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6

With a few exceptions my Chinese

colleagues displayed the same attitude as the
staff at the Jinling Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever enough to realize the desired action on his own,

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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what possible gain is achieved by having him struggle? He may well get frustrated and angry — certainly not a desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will be happy, he

will learn how to accomplish the task sooner, and
then he can proceed to more complex activities, like opening the door or asking for the key —

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both of which accomplishments can (and should) in due course be modeled for him as well.

7

We

listened

to

such

explanations

sympathetically and explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He was having a good time and was exploring, two activities that did matter to us.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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But the critical point was that, in the process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can solve a problem effectively by oneself. Such self-reliance is a principal value of child rearing in middle-class America. So long as the child is shown exactly how to do something —whether it be placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a misdeed —

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he is less likely to figure out himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more generally, he is less likely to view life — as Americans do as a series of situations in which one has to

learn to think for oneself, to solve problems on
one‟s own and even to discover new problems for which creative solutions are wanted.

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8

In retrospect, it became clear to me

that this incident was indeed key — and key in more than one sense. It pointed to important differences in the educational and artistic practices in our two countries.

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9

When our well-intentioned Chinese

observes came to Benjamin‟s rescue, they did
not simply push his hand down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done. Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and gentleness in precisely the desired direction.

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I came to realize that these Chinese were not just molding and shaping Benjamin‟s

performance in any old manner: In the best
Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao— “teaching by holding his hand” — so much so that he would happily come back for more.

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10 place

The idea that learning should take by continual careful shaping and

molding applies equally to the arts. Watching children at work in a classroom setting, we

were astonished by their facility. Children as
young as 5 or 6 were painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and confidence of an adult;

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calligraphers 9 and 10 years old were

producing works that could have been
displayed in a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young artists, we learned from their parents that they worked on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.

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In terms of attitudes to creativity there

seems to be a reversal of priorities: young
Westerners making their boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a point equally original.

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12

One way of summarizing the American

position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also

be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor.
Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired;

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there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can

be picked up later.
13 However, I do not want to overstate my case.

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There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the “standing on the shoulders of giants” phenomenon)

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14

But assuming that the contrast I have

developed is valid, and that the fostering of

skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals,
the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?

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style

n.1. manner of doing things 行为方式;风格 2. fashion 时髦

e.g. 1. Our children‟s different needs and learning style created many problems. 2. Mini skirt has gone out of style in China.

Translate:
我想买具有中国民族风格的工艺品。

I‟d like to buy some handicrafts with Chinese national style.
我们社会中的诚实要过时了吗?

Is honesty going out of style in our society?
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telling

a. having a striking or revealing effect 有力的; 有效的

e.g. How a man shaves may be a telling
clue to his age.

Translate:
系安全带的最有力的论据是它们所挽救的生命。

The most telling argument for wearing seat belts is the number of lives they save.

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vt. fasten or join (one thing attach to another) 系,贴, 连接 e.g. 1. Attached to this letter you will find a copy of the document you asked for. 2. Several hospitals are attached to this medical school.

Translate:
我的英语老师很重视听力理解。 My English teacher attached great importance to listening comprehension. 他们承诺无任何附加条件地援助我们。

consider important 重视

They promised to aid us with no conditions attached.

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tender

a. young; gentle and loving 年幼的;温柔的

e.g. She was married at a tender age when she did not know clearly what love really means.

Translate:
在他只有七岁时, 他就喜欢上了这项运动。

He had become attracted to the game at the tender age of seven. at a/the tender age: If you say that someone does something at a tender age, you mean that they do it when they are still young and inexperienced.
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not at all; not in any way not in the least
一点也不 (表达否定句中强烈的感情)

e.g. Ann didn‟t seem in the least concerned about her study. I am not in the least touched by the Marilyn Monroe kind of beauty.

Translate:

我对他们旅馆的服务一点也不满意。 I am not satisfied with their hotel service in the least. 不像他的同学们那样沉溺于网上聊天, 他对 此毫无兴趣。 Unlike his classmates who indulged themselves in online chatting, he does not like it in the least.
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find one‟s way

arrive at; reach a destination naturally 设法到达;进入

e.g. Drunk as he was, Peter still found his way home.

Translate:
没有我的陪伴, 我希望你能找到回家的路。 Without my company, I hope you can find your way home. 从购物中心的另一个出口出来后,玛丽找不到停 车场的路了。 Getting out of the shopping mall from another entrance, Mary couldn‟t find her way to the parking lot.
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比较
find its way 自然达到目的地
经得起时间考验的新词会被收进词典。

New words that have withstood the test of time can find their way into dictionaries.
江河流入大海。

Rivers find their way to the sea.

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phenomenon

(pl. phenomena) n. sth. that happens or exists and that can be seen or experienced 现象

e.g. Stress-related illness is a common phenomenon in big cities.

Translate:
打雷闪电都是自然现象。

Thunder and lightening are natural phenomena.
在资本主义国家里失业是常见的现象。

Unemployment is a common phenomenon in capitalist countries.
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initial

a. of or at the beginning, first(used only before n.) 开始的,最初的

e.g. If a car suddenly pulls out in front of you, your initial reaction may include fear and anger.

Translate:
了解到干这活要费多大劲后, 他们最初的热情 便消失了。 Their initial burst of enthusiasm died down when they realized how much work the job involved. 她克服了刚来时的羞涩, 整个晚上都很开心。 She overcame her initial shyness and really enjoyed the evening.
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assist

v. help (used in the pattern: assist sb. to do sth., assist sb. with sth.) 帮助

e.g.The engineer was assisting the workers with the project.

Translate:
这个大学生决定帮助这个男孩学习。

The college student decided to assist the boy with his study.
南希正在帮助她的丈夫准备他的演讲稿。

Nancy is assisting her husband to prepare his speech.
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insert

vt. put, fit, place (in, into, between) 插入, 塞进

e.g. To start the game, please insert a coin.

Translate:
请把你的信用卡插入槽口。

Please insert your credit card into the slot.
放入体温表前, 先闭上嘴等几分钟。

Wait for a couple of minutes with your mouth closed before inserting the thermometer.
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somewhat

ad. to some degree, a little 有点, 稍微

e.g. “Are you concerned about your exam results?” “Somewhat.”

Translate:
据报道从十一月以来这个村庄的情况有所改善。

It is reported that conditions in the village have improved somewhat since November.
他听了你的话受到了一些鼓励。

He was somewhat encouraged by your words.
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vt. (a fairly common word in formal writing while in await conversation we use wait for) 等待,等候 e.g. After I sent the letter asking for a job, I had nothing to do but await the answer.

Translate:
不知道有何麻烦事等着我们是件好事, 不然的话, 我们将什么都不做或哪里都去不了。
It‟s a good thing we don‟t know what troubles await us, or we‟d never do anything or go anywhere.

这儿有一大堆信等着你回复。 There is a pile of letters here awaiting your return.
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as if

仿佛(后面可以跟句子,也 可以跟分词短语或介词短语

e.g. She moved her legs slowly, as if in pain.

Translate:
朱利安被刚听到的消息震住了, 他放下电话, 仿佛见了鬼似的。 Shocked at what he had just been told, Julian put the phone down as if he had just seen a ghost. 孩子们在树林中奔跑, 像被风刮过一般。

Children were running on the heath, as if blown by wind.
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“thank you” 在“a thank you”中被名 词化了, 表示“谢谢的话语、眼神或

手势”等等。
e.g. She walked away without so much as a thank you.
她走时连句谢谢的话都没有。

a thank you note 一张致谢的便条

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parental一词来自于parent, 类似的构词有
maternal fraternal mother; paternal brother father

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on occasion

now and then 间或;有时

e.g. Steven spent almost all his time doing his research, but, on occasion, he would take his son to see a film.

Translate:
他有时会犯些小错误,但这不能说明他工作不努力。
He has, on occasion, made small mistakes, but this does not mean that he is not working hard. 人们知道他时常会发脾气。 He has been known to lose his temper on occasion.
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on the occasion of 在…之际
e.g. On the occasion of his daughter‟s wedding, he drank a lot of wine. 在他女儿的婚礼上, 他喝了很多酒。

give occasion to 引起
e.g. The clown‟s performance gave occasion to a burst of laughter. 小丑的表演引起了哄堂大笑。

rise to the occasion 得体地应对突如其来的情况
Jane was surprised when the principal handed her the prize, but she rose to the occasion with a speech of thanks.

当校长向简授奖时, 她感到十分意外, 但她作了表 示感谢的发言, 得体地应付了过去。
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neglect

vt. give too little attention or care to 忽视

e.g. The fact that she is not coming today makes her grandmother feel lonely and neglected.

Translate:
他太注重他的事业了,总是工作而忽视了他的妻子。 He gave too much attention to his career, working long hours and neglecting his wife. 结果他们的投资失败了,他们的经理也被控玩忽职守。 Their investment turned out to be a failure and the manager was accused of neglecting his duties.
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Cf.: ignore
ignore: pay no attention to sb./sth. on
purpose, or as if sth. has not happened.
我跟她说“早上好”, 但她理都不理我就走了。

I said “Good morning” to her, but she just ignored me and walked on.
二十几年来, 她的演艺才能都受到了电影界 的忽视。

For two decades her theatrical talents were ignored by the film industry.
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relevant

a. directly connected with the subject(followed by to, opposite irrelevant) 有关的, 切题的

e.g. When the manager arrived, the secretary had had all the relevant documents ready for the meeting.

Translate:
我们希望证人能为我们提供一些与案件有关的事实。 We hope the witness can supply us some facts relevant to the case. 只有为数不多的一些人认为关于克隆人的辩 论与他们的日常生活有关。 Only a few people feel the debate about the cloning of human beings is relevant to their daily lives.
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investigate

v. try to find information about 调查; 探究

e.g. We can assure you that your complaint will be fully and properly investigated.

Translate:
警察仍然在调查事故发生的原因。 Police are still investigating how the accident happened. 那两个官员正受到检察官的调查。 The two officers are being investigated by the director of public prosecutions.
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anecdote

n. a short amusing story about a particular person or event 趣闻;轶事

e.g. Tom was telling them an anecdote about their mother. Translate: 这男孩知道世界上伟人的很多趣闻轶事。 The boy knows a lot of anecdotes about great people in the world.

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exception

n. sb./sth. that a comment or statement does not apply to例外

e.g. We feel that all the teachers, with one or two exceptions, support the educational reform.

Translate:
很少有吉它手唱歌能跟弹吉它弹得一样好。 但是,约翰是个例外。 Few guitarists can sing as well as they can play; John, however, is an exception. 毫无例外,我们所有的年轻人都想离开学 校去开始工作。 Without exception all our youngsters wanted to leave school and start work.
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on one‟s own

1. without anyone‟s help 2. alone

e.g. 1. There are jobs your child can do on her own. 2. The child was left on her own for hours as her mom had to deal with the emergency.

Translate:

你不用帮我。我自己能行。

You needn‟t give me any help. I am able to manage on my own.
我不愿意自己去跳舞。我真的希望你能来和我一起去。

I‟d rather not go to dance on my own. I do wish you‟d come with me.
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may well

very likely to happen 很可能

e.g. It may well rain tonight.

Translate:
连续的暴雨也许会在几天之内把这个村庄 淹没了。 The continuous heavy rain may well flood

the village in a few days.

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desirable

a. worth having or doing 值得做的; 想望的;称心的

e.g. It is most desirable that he should

attend the conference.

Translate:
延长谈判不是人们所希望的。
Prolonging negotiation was not desirable. 我很想见你。 I desire to see you.

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accomplish

vt. manage to do (sth.) 完成

e.g. Unless you practice you‟ll accomplish nothing.

Translate:
考虑到他们的能力, 完成任务的可能性不大。

Considering their capacity, the possibility of accomplishing the task is not right.
如果我努力学习, 我想我能实现我通过四级 的目标。

If I work hard, I think I can accomplish my goal of passing CET4.
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Unit One: Ways of Learning

NCE-B2

in due course

at the proper time;eventually 在适当的时机;最终

e.g. Be patient. You will get your promotion in due course.

Translate:
发言人说这些安排会在适当的时候公布。

The spokesman said the arrangements would be published in due course.
你的要求将在适当时机予以处理。

Your request will be dealt with in due course.
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critical

a. very important; very serious or dangerous 至关重要的;危机的

e.g. Environmentalists say a critical factor in the city’s pollution is its population.

Translate:
这项任务你处理得有多好对你的事业至关重要。 How well you accomplish this task will be critical to the success of your career. 在昨天的车祸中,有十人死亡,还有五人生命垂危。 In yesterday‟s car accident, ten people were killed and five people are still in a critical condition.
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principal

1. a. (rather fml) main, chief 主要的, 首要的 2. n.教育机构的领导人;校长

e.g. 1.The couple‟s principal concern is to earn enough money to send their children to school. 2. Complaints from the students began arriving at the principal‟s office.

Translate:
多瑙河是欧洲的主要河流之一。

The Danube is one of the principal rivers of Europe.
该政策的主要目的是为这一地区带来和平。

The principal aim of the policy is to bring peace to the area.
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Cf.:principle
principle: n. 原理;原则 e.g. 1. Mr. Wang is a person of high principles.
王先生是一个很有原则的人。

2. He seems to have no principles at all when it comes to the question of making money.
一说到挣钱他好象就根本没有原则了。

3. She leads her life according to Christian principles. 她以基督教的教义为生活准则。
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rear

1. vt. look after until fully grown up 抚育;抚养 2. a./n 后部(的)

e.g. 1. I was reared in South China. 2. Manufactures have been obliged to fit rear seat belts in all new cars.

Translate:
有些妇女故意要独自一人抚养孩子。

Some women have made a deliberate choice to rear a child alone.
我的父母以一切受人尊敬的传统为准则将 我抚育成人。

My parents reared me in all the honored traditions.
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该句中的be是虚拟语气。 在以whether 或if 引 导的选择条件状语从句中,或是某些让步状语 从句如用so long as 引导的状语从句)中, 动 词可用原形,正式的语体经常用此种形式。

e.g. So long as the volume hold together, I am not much troubled as to its outer appearance.
只要书不散开, 外表怎么样我不太在意。

If you have decided to start your own business, you would have to take that risk, whether it be profitable or unprofitable.
自己做生意, 你得要承担此风险, 无论是赢利 还是不赢利。
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make up for

repay with something good, compensate for 补偿

e.g. Her husband bought her a present to make up for quarreling with her the day before.

Translate:
他们加速进行以弥补回失去的时间。

They hurried on to make up for the lost time.
我们如何补偿你所遭受的伤害呢?

How can we make up to you for what you have suffered?
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NCE-B2

in retrospect

looking back on a past event or situation 回顾;追溯

e.g. The young man knew in retrospect that he should have married his first love Emily.

Translate:
回想起来,我真希望我选的专业是英国文学。 In retrospect, I wish that I had chosen British literature as my major. 回想起来, 留下来在这个城市工作是我做出的 最重大的决定。 It was, in retrospect, the biggest decision I had ever made to stay and work in this city.
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come to one‟s rescue

rescue or help someone 援救或帮助某人

e.g. The firemen came to the old man’s rescue and pulled him in time out of the house which was going to collapse.

Translate:
正当我们急需资金时, 一个富有的赞助人慷慨的 捐助解救了我们。

Just as we were in great need of fund, a wealthy sponsor came to our rescue with a generous donation.
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extreme

1. a. very great 极度的,极端的 2. n. the furthest possible limit, an extreme degree 极端,过分

e.g. 1.The girls were afraid of snakes and walked along the mountain trail with extreme caution. 2. I know I always say that you eat too much, but there is no need to go to the other extreme.

Translate:

非洲仍然有不少人生活在极度贫困中。

There are still quite a few people in Africa who live in extreme poverty.
这部电影不算好, 但有些评论说它是近十年最 差的电影也太过分了。 The film is not very good, but some critics have gone to extremes, saying it is the worst of the decade.
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n. 1. (fml) ability to do sth. easily and well 熟练, 灵巧 facility 2. (pl) equipment, aids, etc. which make it easy to do things 设施 e.g. He has an amazing facility for mental arithmetic(心算).

Translate:
那个男孩能轻松地把机械玩具拆开, 然后组装完整。 The could take apart the machine toy and put them together with great facility. 轻松的,熟练地
校园里的各种设施使学生的生活更加方便了。 Students‟ life is made easier with all these facilities available on campus.
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performance

n. 1. 表现, 行为; 2. 演出, 表演

e.g. The athlete was awarded a sport car for his good performance in the game.

Translate:
在几轮很差的表现之后, 足球队恢复了状态。

After several bad performances, the soccer team found their form again.
他在新版哈姆雷特中的表演获得了好评。

His performance in the new production of Hamlet received much praise.
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to such an extent that so much so that 到这样的程度以至于 e.g. Einstein believed in simplicity, so much so that he used only a safety razor and water to shave.

Translate:
有些父母如此溺爱孩子,以至于从来不叫他们学习。 Some parents spoil their children, so much so that they never ask them to do any studying. 他相信自由,以至于他宁愿死也不愿意失去自 由的活着。 He himself believed in freedom, so much so that he would rather die than live without it.
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continual

a. happening again and again, repeated 不断的,一再重复的

e.g. The construction of the airport continued despite continual complaints from local residents.

Translate:
不断的狗叫声扰得四邻不安。

The dog‟s continual barking disturbed the whole neighborhood.
尽管他一直很痛, 他仍然拒绝用药。

Despite continual pain, he refused all drugs.
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vi. 1. (used in the pattern apply to sb./sth.) 适用 apply 2. (used in the pattern: apply for sth., apply to do sth.) 申请 e.g. 1. The advice given by the professor only applies to some of the college students. 2. How many jobs had you applied for before you were offered this one?

Translate:
表格上这部分的这些问题只适用于已婚男士。

The questions on this part of the form only apply to married men.
由于我们经常去俱乐部所以我们决定申请加入。

We went to the club so often that we decided that we might as well apply to join.
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work on/at

try hard to achieve or improve (sth.) 努力完成(改进)

e.g. Sophia needs to work at/on her typing speed.

Translate:
科学家们还在继续发明新的到达外层空 间的方法。
The scientists are still working on inventing

new methods of reaching outer space.
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1. sth. that one must do before anything else 优先考虑的事 priority 2. sth. that holds a high place among competing claims 重点 e.g. 1. Being a qualified teacher is her first priority. 2.The school will give priority to English and computer studies.

Translate:
挣足够的钱来养家是他最重要的事。

Earning enough money to maintain his family is a high priority.
政府已经优先考虑解决交通拥挤的问题。

The highest priority of government has been given to the problem of heavy traffic.
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v. (cause to) develop gradually (followed by into/from) evolve 使逐步发展 e.g. 1. The story evolves into a violent tragedy. 2. Man has evolved from the ape.

Translate:
随着基因工程知识的逐步发展, 人们的观念也 改变了。 As knowledge of genetic engineering evolves, beliefs change. 流行音乐是从民歌发展演变来的。 Popular music evolved from folk songs.
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summarize

vt. make a short account of the main points (of sth.) 总结

e.g. Basically, the article can be summarized in three sentences.

Translate:
工人们的要求可以概括为缩短工时,增加报酬。
The workers‟ demands can be summarized as follows: shorter hours and more pay. 表3.1概括了以上所提到的信息。 Table 3.1 summarized the information given above.
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contrast

v./n. compare (two people or things) so that differences are made clear (used in the pattern: contrast A and/with B 对比

e.g. Alice contrasted the situation then with the present.

Translate:
学生们被要求对海明威和马克.吐温进行比较。 Students were asked to contrast Ernest Hemingway with Mark Twain. 我还是个孩子时我整天读书, 而我女儿则相反, 她整天看电视。 I was always reading when I was a kid, but my daughter, in contrast, just watches TV all day.
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on the one hand…on the other hand to introduce two contrasting circumstances 一方面 … 另一方面

e.g. On the one hand her temper was likely to cause trouble, but on the other hand we needed her expertise. On the one hand, we have good reason to feel pleased with our progress. On the other hand, we mustn‟t get complacent.
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promote

vt. 1. help to grow or develop 促进;推进 2. 提拔;晋升

e.g. Regular exercise will help promote physical and mental health.

Translate:
你不必牺牲对环境的保护来推动经济增长。 You don‟t have to sacrifice environmental protection to promote economic growth.
我被提拔当了编辑然后又当上了总编。 I was promoted to editor and then editorial director.
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emerge

vi. come out (followed by from) 出现

e.g. The magician emerged from behind the curtain.

Translate:
月亮从云层后面出来了。
The moon emerged from behind the moon. 眼镜蛇从桌子下出来了, 朝那碗牛奶爬去。

The cobra emerged from under the table and made for the bowl of milk.
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pick up

1. gain, learn(无意之中) 学会 2. (用车去)接

e.g. I picked up quite a lot of computer knowledge
while working with the computer company.

Translate:
你在哪儿学会的英语? Where did you pick up your English?
我在学校门口接了她去和我母亲吃午饭。

I picked her up at the school gate to take her to lunch with my mother.
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overstate

v. exaggerate; talk about something in a way that makes it seem more important or serious than it really is 夸大; 把…说得过好

e.g. He overstated the dangers there so that we would give up the ideas to go with him.

Translate:
作家们无疑是夸大了他们的情形, 想要吸引 公众的注意。

The author no doubt overstated their case with a view to catching the public‟s attention.
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all too

(regrettably very) 太

e.g. As a doctor, she is all too aware of the importance of developing psychological well-being of the children.

Translate:
结婚对他俩来说是一种转瞬即逝的快乐。 没过 多久, 他们的婚姻就破裂了。

Getting married was a happiness that was all too short-lived for them; before long they broke up.

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assuming (that)

用于句首, 表示假设某事 的可能性, 以考虑它的结果

e.g. Assuming that we all work at the same rate, we should be finished by January.

Translate:
假设这幅画真是凡高的, 你认为它值多少? Assuming that this painting really is a Van Gogh, how much do you think it is worth? 假设谈判有所进展, 那么他们是否做得太少 而且太晚了呢? Assuming the talks make progress, won‟t they do too little, too late?
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valid

a. based on truth or sound reasoning 有根据的, 有效的

e.g. It is valid to consider memory the oldest mental skill.

Translate:
他们提出了很多不要建造摩天大楼的有根据 的理由。

They put forward many valid reasons for not building the skyscraper.
科学理论必须要有有根据的依据的支持。

Scientific theories must be backed up with valid evidence.
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a. worth doing, worth the worthwhile trouble taken 值得的 e.g. A trip to a museum to know the development of human beings is always worthwhile for students.

Translate:
“Titanic”是一部很值得再看一遍的电影。

“Titanic” is a worthwhile movie that is compelling enough to watch again.
教书被认为是一份值得做的工作。

Teaching is considered a worthwhile job.
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Cf.: worth worthy
worth: 有价值的; 值得做的

作形容词时只能作表语, 后面常接动词+ing的形式。
e.g. 1. The best sellers are worth reading. 2. This painting of Qi Baishi is worth 100,000 RMB.

worthy: a. 应得某事或某物的 可作表语, 后接of 或to do sth.; 也可作定语。
e.g. 1. Their efforts are worthy of your support, 2. She admitted that she was not worthy to accept the honor the school had offered her.
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a. better than average of the superior same type (反义:inferior) 优良的;较好的 e.g. Long-term stock market investments have produced superior returns compared with cash deposits.

Translate:

托马斯.杰斐逊发明了比当时现有的犁都好的 一种犁。 Thomas Jefferson invented a plow superior to any other in existence. 新机器比旧的好在于它耗油少。 The new machine is superior to the old ones in that it consumes less fuel.
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To position the key

carefully to fit into the
narrow key slot.

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He is likely to get frustrated and angry. (You use “may well” when you are saying what you think is likely to happen, e.g. It may well rain tonight.
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In formal English , the subjunctive mood is used occasionally in whetherclause.
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Education in the West: There is no

common agreement in the West
concerning the best method of education. A variety of views can be

found among parents, teachers and
students. Indeed, it might be argued that it is this very existence of contending points of view that is characteristic of Western education.
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This can be seen as far back as in the work of the ancient Greek philosopher everything, Socrates, even their who most encouraged his students to question fundamental beliefs. Yet even then there was no general agreement that this was the best way to teach.
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Much of the current debate

over education surrounds the
extent to which learning should be teacher-based or students-

based. Which of the two should
decide what should be learned, how it should be learned, and

when it should be learned?
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Comparing Western and Asian methods

of learning it is generally true that
Western methods are more studentcentered, expecting students to discover

things

for themselves

rather than

relying on their teacher to tell them. The extent to which learning is teachercentered or student-centered also depends on differences between subjects.
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In recent years, for example, there has been a trend in the teaching of mathematics in school classrooms in England away from having pupils work on their own or in small groups back towards a more traditional approach, in which the teacher guides the entire class step-by-step through a lesson. This followed research that suggested that, as far as math was concerned, a more teachercentered method was more effective.
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Middle-class America: In America, the middle class refers to the class of people between the very wealthy class and the class of unskilled laborers and unemployed people. It includes business people, professional people, office workers, and many skilled workers.
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Standing on the shoulders of giants: a well-

known phrase, frequently employed by inventors to express modesty about their achievements. The suggestions that while they have been able to see further than

those who came before them, it is not because they themselves are intellectual
giants. Rather it is because they have been

able to build upon the accumulated
discoveries of their great predecessors.
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The enjoyment of reading poetry often leads to the enjoyment of the beauty of the language itself. For greater enjoyment, you will do well

to begin by reading poetry aloud and try to
get the feel of the language as a pattern of sound. Here is a poem for you to enjoy.

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laugh

smile loudly
Tanya Dinn

What a mess said Miss Mawgan One cold and rainy day Translate So I said we‟d work together As we can‟t go out to play So I tidied up the books shelf While Jack sorted out the pens Charmain‟s drawer was very messy But not as bad as Ben‟s
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laugh

smile loudly

Shaun tidied up the cardboard Sophie sorted out the paper TranslateMr. Goodhall put our pictures up Using his big stapler

And when we all had finished And the class looked very clean We all were given merits For working as a team
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What one knows is, in youth, of little moment; they know enough who know how to learn.
Henry Adams

Be curious always! For knowledge will not acquire you; you must acquire it.
Sudie Back

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The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper. Eden Phillpotts The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds or the purpose of satisfying it afterwards. Anatole France

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Read the humorous
story for fun. You might need to look up new words in a dictionary.

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While visiting my brother and sister-in-law, I was surprised to find Lee, my young nephew, helping them bake cupcakes. After they were done, my sister-in-law allowed him to put the icing on. When he had finished, he brought them to the table for our approval. “The cupcakes look beautiful, Lee,” my brother said. “How did you get them iced so evenly?” My nephew replied, “I licked them!”

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The Movie

NCE-B2

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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I Content Questions
Pair work: One of you asks the first six questions and the other answers. Starting from question 7, change roles. When you have finished, the teacher may want to put some of the questions to you to check your progress.

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1. What were the author and his wife doing in Nanjing in the spring of 1987

2. What was their son Benjamin fond of
doing during their stay in the Jinling Hotel 3. How would Chinese staff members of the hotel respond to Benjamin‟s attempt to place the key into the slot

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4. Why did the author decide to work the key-slot anecdote into his discussions with Chinese educators 5. What did his Chinese colleagues think

of the key-slot incident
6. What did the author emphasize in presenting his views about the incident

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7. What does the author mean by saying this incident was key in more than one sense

8. In what way does the author associate the
key-slot incident with “teaching by holding his hand” 9. What examples does the author give to illustrate childhood education in the arts in

China
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10. How do Americans and Chinese differ in their attitudes to creativity 11. What makes them take different positions on the question of creativity

12. What suggestion does the author make
about seeking a better approach to fostering skills and creativity

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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II

Points for Discussion

Group work: break into small groups and discuss the following questions. Later the teacher may want to ask some of you to report the answers of your group to the class.

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1. How do you think an American hotel attendant would respond to a very young Chinese child

attempting to place a key into a slot? Would he or
she behave differently from the Chinese attendant? 2. What is the point the author wants to make in his essay? Does the key-slot narrative clearly establish his point? How successful is it as an introduction to his essay?

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3. Do you agree that both Chinese and Americans take an extreme view of creativity? What do you think would be a more rational approach to fostering creativity and basic

skills?

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1. Like most essays, the text is made up of a beginning, a middle, and an end. The following questions are meant to help you get a clear understanding of the organization of the text.

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1) What does the text begin with? ____________________________________ The text begins with an anecdote/incident. 2) In the middle (the body) of the text the author gives his thoughts on an incident he found interesting. What are his thoughts mainly about ? ___________________________________________ His thoughts are mainly about different approaches

to learning in China and the West. ______________________________
3) What kind of end (conclusion) winds up the text? The end winds up the text with a suggestion in the ___________________________________________ form of a question. ________________
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2. The text is, in a way, developed by analysis using comparison and contrast. Simply put, a comparison brings out the similarities between two or more things of the same kind, while a contrast the differences between them. In a comparison and contrast essay, you spend more time either comparing or contrasting, depending on your purpose. In the case of this text, the emphasis is on contrast. Now write down differences in approaches to learning between the Chinese and Americans:

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Points for Comparison/ Contrast

Chinese
show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand

Americans
teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems put more emphasis on fostering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later
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1) ways to learn to accomplish a task

give greater priority 2) attitudes to developing skills to creativity at an early age, believing creativity and skills can be promoted over time

Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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You need to study carefully all the key words and phrases in the

box. We have a number of exercises
to help you learn how to use them.

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Unit 1: Ways of Learning

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Dictation
You are going to hear some words or phrases.

Each will be read three times. Write down the
them according to the dictation. 1 2 3 4 5

6

7

8

9

10

Check Up
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Dictation
11 12 13 14 15

16

17

18

19

20

Check Up
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Dictation
21 22 23 24 25

26

27

28

29

30

Check Up
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Dictation
31 32 33 34 35

36

37

38

39

40

Check Up
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1 2 3

worthwhile

principal
performance

4
5

enormous
phenomenon

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6 7 8

continual

calligrapher
critical

9
10

exception
investigate

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11

neglect

12
13

promote
relevant

14
15

attach
summarize

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16

accomplish

17
18

superior
extreme

19
20

assist
priority

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21 22 23

apply

await
somewhat

24
25

emerge
evolve

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26 27 28

contrast

valid
initial

29
30

insert
exaggerate

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31 32 33

pick up

find one‟s way
in due course

34
35

make up for
on one‟s own

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36

work on

37
38

not in the least
in retrospect

39
40

occasion
on the other hand

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I. 1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases chosen from

the box. Change the form where
necessary.

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1. To use the machine, first ______ the correct coins, insert then select the drink you want and press the button. 2. Professor Smith translated not only from the

on occasion French but also, ____________ from the Polish.
3. Food chemists will ___________ the health food(保 investigate

健食品) on sale to see if it really does give the benefits
claimed.

In retrospect 4. _____________, it was the wrong time to open a
new data processing(数据处理) center in this city.
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5. My ______ reaction to the news was relief, but as initial I thought more about it I began to feel angry. 6. A full understanding of mathematics is sufficient to explain a wide variety of natural ____________. phenomena 7. Make sure the label is firmly _________ to the attached parcel(包裹) before you mail it. 8. My boyfriend bought me dinner to make up for ____________

being late the day before.

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9. The committee____________ a decision from is awaiting the head office before it takes any action. 10. We don‟t usually accept late applications, but

exception since you were so sick I‟ll make an __________.
11. The little girl did ____ seem to be ___________ not in the least

frightened of being left by herself in the house.
12. The WTO (=World Trade Organization世界贸 易组织) is intended to _________trade among its promote

member states.
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13. When I got to his house I found Jim

working on ____________ an article about the current situation
in Afghanistan. 14. All we were told before leaving the office was that the committee would consider applications

______________. in due course
15. When the moon _________ from behind the emerged clouds I make out a figure moving in the distance.

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I. 2. Multiple Choice
There are 8 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence.

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1. Some teachers devote too much time to helping their slower students and ________ the brighter ones. A A) neglect C) perfect B) astonish D) innovate

2. The Canadian guy has _______ some local dialect A

after he stayed with a Chinese friend for three months.
A) picked up C) applied to B) worked on D) found his way to

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3. The deadline was getting closer and we were under _________ pressure to reach our targets. B A) bold C) continual B) continuous D) vigorous

4. By the time of his death, the company had grown

into an _________ multi-national cooperation. C
A) elementary C) enormous B) extreme D) exceptional

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5. He had to train twice as hard as others to __________ his lack of natural ability. B A) work on B) make up for

C) figure out

D) throw light on

6. Jimmy has longed or being admitted to Harvard

University, ___________he even dreamed of its D
beautiful campus the other night. A) on occasion C) over time B) in due course D) so much so that

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7. Make sure you ________ the wheel correctly C before you tighten up the nuts. A) deposit C) insert B) attach D) shape

8. I‟m certainly not _________ a secret passion for C the man, if that‟s what you‟re thinking. A. evolving C) harboring B) displaying D) exaggerating

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I. 3. Rewrite each sentence with the word or phrase in brackets,

keeping the same meaning. The first
part has been written for you.

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1. The standard of living in the north of the country is strikingly different from that in the south. a striking contrast between There is________________________

the standard of living in the north _______________________________
of the country and the south. __________________________

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2. It is said that synthetic fiber is not as good as natural fiber.
is said to be superior Natural fiber ___________________

to synthetic fiber _______________.

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3. The city‟s growth in importance as a financial center has been slow. as a financial The city‟s importance ____________

center has evolved slowly _______________________.

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4. There is no connection between his nationality and whether he is a good lawyer. is not relevant to His nationality _________________
whether he is a good lawyer ________________________.

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5. Some English magazines have printed the poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet.
The poems by a little-known sixteenth ______________________ -century Italian poet have found their ________________________________ _____________________________. way into some English magazines

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I. 4. Complete the following, using the words or phrases in brackets. Make additions or changes where necessary. Model: American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge _____________; on the other hand, skills picked up can be __________ later. (pick up, emerge)

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1. Chinese isn‟t a subject that can be picked up ____________

can‟t accomplish in a month. You ________________ your goal of
mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I‟m _____________ exaggerating

the difficulties, but the fact is I‟m telling the
truth. (accomplish, pick up, exaggerate)

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2. The principal is __________ disappointed somewhat with the performance of the children. From _______________ what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. she has just ______________ announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both ____________ Chinese and overseas teachers. (apply, somewhat, neglect, performance)

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3. The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent

two extremes _____________ of opinion. Too many teacherdirected activities cannot be expected to effectively ______ children in learning assist because of the rigid structure.

On the other hand _________________, too many child-directed
activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of control.

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There are valid reasons to believe a teacher_________

a superior guided approach would be __________ way to
guide children‟s development. This approach
combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction. ( assist, extreme, superior, on the other hand, valid)

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II. Confusable Words
The following list of words that may cause confusion in use should be carefully studied.

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1. Continual: The word describes separate actions which are repeated over a period of time. Continuous: The word indicated that an action carries on without stopping or interruption. 2. Principal: The word can be used as both an adjective and a noun. The principal thing or person in a group is the most important one. Principle: The word is only used as a noun. A principle is a basic rule that explains or controls how something works or a guiding rule for behavior.

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Now put a proper word into each gap in the following sentences: 1. continual continuous

1) I‟ve had continual problems with this _________ computer ever since I borrowed it from a friend. 2) Gas central heating provides instant warmth

and a ___________ supply of hot water. continuous
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1. continual

continuous

continual 3) Your __________ interruptions are
making it very difficult for me to concentrate. 4) The traffic was awful, a continuous line of __________ vehicles extending as far as the eye could see.

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2. principal

principle

1) The _________ aim of the policy is to principal bring peace to the area. 2) His _________ interest in life was to principal become the most outstanding genetic engineer(遗传工程专家) in Europe.

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2. principal

principle

3) A bicycle or a motorcycle is built on the same principle though the force that moves ________, them is different. 4) He never allowed himself to be bullied

(恐吓) into doing anything that went against his principles _________.
5) Complaints from the students began principal arriving at the ________ „s office.
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III. Usage
Subject or object emphasizers: oneself, by oneself, on one’s own You can use reflexive pronouns to emphasize subjects or objects. e.g. The child himself figured out how to accomplish the task. I don‟t like a heavy meal at lunchtime myself.

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You can also emphasize that someone did something without any help by using reflexive pronouns, a reflexive pronoun after “by”, or the phrase “on one‟s own.” e.g. One can solve a problem effectively oneself/by oneself/on one‟s own. Fill in each gap in the following sentences with an appropriate word or phrase from the above list. In some cases, more than one choice is possible.

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1. Doctors themselves are the first to admit __________ that the treatment has side effects. 2. I saw the minister of education ______________ in the VIP lounge(贵宾厅) himself/herself

at the airport.
3. Look, Dad, she drew this beautiful bird __________________________. herself/by herself/on herself

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4. We‟ve checked the wiring and the aerial (天线) so the problem may have to do with the television itself _____. 5. We‟ve often made that mistake _________. ourselves

6. Did you fix the computer

yourself/by yourself/on your own _______________________________?

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1. Join each pair of the following sentences after the model, using “so much so that”: Model: In the best Chinese tradition, they were „teaching by holding his hand”. He would happily come back for more. In the best Chinese tradition, they were „teaching by holding his hand” — so much so that he would happily come back for more.

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1. Simon‟s ill.
He can‟t get out of bed. Simon‟s ill — so much so that he can‟t get out _______________________________________ of bed. ______ 2. She herself believed in freedom.

she would rather die than live without it.
_______________________________________ She herself believed in freedom, so much so

that she would rather die than live without it. _______________________________________

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3. Piles of work have kept us busy.
We can‟t manage to take a holiday this year. Piles of work have kept us busy — so much so ________________________________________ that we can‟t manage to take a holiday this year. ________________________________________ 4. Many contestants (参加比赛者) later failed

drug tests.
The race had to be rerun. ________________________________________ Many contestants later failed drug tests, so much so that the race had to be rerun. __________________________________
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2. Complete the following sentences after the model, using the conjunction “assuming (that)” and the given words: Assuming that the contrast I have Model: _________________________________ developed is valid, __________________the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education? (contrast, I, develop, valid)

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Assuming (that) this painting really is 1. _____________________________________ a Picasso _________, how much do you think it‟s worth?
(painting, really, a Picasso).

Assuming (that) the proposal is accepted 2. ______________________________________,
where are we going to get the money? (proposal,
accept)

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3. All we have to do is to explain the problem to her, assuming, of course, that she‟s prepared _____________________________________ ________. ( of course, she, prepared, listen) to listen

Even assuming (that) the smokers do see 4. _______________________________________
___________________, I doubt they‟ll take any the health warnings
notice. (even, smokers, do see, health warnings)

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I. Cloze (A)
Complete the following passage with words chosen from the words and Phrases to Drill box. Change the form where necessary.

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Is there a ________ (1) between learning contrast styles in China and the West? While we should

exaggerating be careful to avoid _____________(2) the
differences, they do appear to exist. In China,

priority for example, greater ________(3) is given to
developing skills at an early age. The Americans, __ the other hand on ___ _____ _____ (4), place more emphasis promoting on ___________(5) creativity in young children,

pick up leaving them to _____ ___(6) skills later.

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American parents tend to avoid rushing in

assist to ______(7) their children as they try to

accomplish ___________(8) a task, thinking it better that
children should learn to solve problems by themselves. Such an approach can,on occasion __ _______

(9), be mistaken for neglecting _________(10) one‟s
parental duties by those more used to “teaching by holding the hand.”

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Both approaches have their disadvantages

as well as advantages, and it may well be

superior ___________ (11) to search for a ________ worthwhile
(12) method that would combine the best of both worlds.

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I. Cloze (B) Fill in the gaps with any words you think fit:

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Why are children so different in their

to responses ___(1) the same situation? Some
research suggests that styles of parenting may

_______________(2) children‟s competence in affect/influence
dealing with their world. According to some researchers, there are three parenting styles and

one style of parenting enhances children‟s competence more than the _______ (3). Typical others
behavior patterns of children raised according to

each/them __________ (4) are as follows.

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Authoritarian(专制的) parents value control

without and expect their children to obey ________(5)
questioning. In authoritarian homes, children are so strictly controlled __________(6) that often they
cannot make independent choices about ______(7) their own behavior. Permissive (放任的) parents

value ______ (8) self-expression and self-regulation. They _____ (9) are warm, non-controlling, and
undemanding.

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In permissive homes, children receive so little _____ (10) guidance that they may become uncertain and anxious about whether they are doing the

right _____(11) thing. Authoritative(权威性的) parents
respect children‟s independent decisions,

but interests, and opinions, ____ (12) also stress
social values. They are loving, demanding, firm ___(13) maintaining standards and willing to in impose(施加) mild punishment.

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In authoritative homes, children know

what _____ (14) is expected of them and can
decide whether it is worth ______(15) risking parental displeasure to pursue(追求) a goal. These children know the

satisfaction of meeting responsibilities and (16) achieving success. ____

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II. Translation
Translate the following passage

into English, using the words
and phrases given below.

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summarize accomplish relevant enormous critical worthwhile priority on the one hand…on the other hand

我认为总结一下学习英语的经验是值得一
试的。这里, 我想谈谈三个相关的问题。

I consider it worthwhile trying to _______________________________________

summarize our experience in learning _______________________________________
English. Here I would like to make _______________________________________
______________________ three relevant points.

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summarize accomplish relevant enormous critical worthwhile priority on the one hand…on the other hand

首先, 大量阅读应被视作学习过程中的重点,

因为我们是通过阅读获取最大量语言输入的。
其次, 尽可能多背熟一些好文章也十分重要。

First, wide reading should be taken as a ________________________________________ priority in the learning process, because it ________________________________________ is through reading that we get the most ________________________________________ language input. Next, learning by heart as ________________________________________ ________________________________________ many well-written essays as possible is also _______________ very important.
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summarize accomplish relevant enormous critical worthwhile priority on the one hand…on the other hand

一方面, 死记硬背确实无甚裨益,但另一方面, 在真正理解基础上的熟记肯定对我们有好处。 _________________________________________ On the one hand, rote learning/learning by

rote is indeed of little help, but on the other _________________________________________ hand, memorization/ learning by heart with _________________________________________ a good understanding will certainly be of _________________________________________ benefit/do good to us. ____________________
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summarize accomplish relevant enormous critical worthwhile priority on the one hand…on the other hand

大脑中储存了大量很好的文章, 我们在 用英语表达自己思想的时候, 就会觉得 容易多了。 ___________________________________ With an enormous store of excellent essays in our heads, we will find it ___________________________________ much easier to express ourselves in ___________________________________ English. ________

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summarize accomplish relevant enormous critical worthwhile priority on the one hand…on the other hand

最后, 我们应把所学到的东西用到实践中去,

这是至关重要的。 通过多读、多写、多听、
多说, 我们就能完成提高英语水平的任务。

Finally, it is critical that we should put _______________________________________ what we have learned into practice. By _______________________________________ doing more reading, writing, listening and _______________________________________ speaking, we will be able to accomplish the _______________________________________ task of perfecting our English. ____________________________

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NCE-B2

The following are useful words and phrases from Text B. Learn

to make proper use of them.

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account n.

arrangement made with a bank to pay in or take out money; description 帐,帐户;描述 in addition, moreover 此外,而且 have in mind as a purpose or plan 打算

furthermore

intend vt.

access n.

享用 (或接近、进入)的机会

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plus

prep.

with the addition of 加,加上

devise vt.

think out; invent 想出;发现

resource n.

(usu. pl) 财力; 资源
follow the development of; keep in touch with 跟上…的发展; 与…保持联系

keep track of

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deposit n./v.

a sum of money paid into a bank account; put(money) into a bank account 存款; 储蓄

pace n.

speed or rate of development, movement, etc. 速度 happening or done every year or once a year 每年的;一年一次的 express strong disagreement or disapproval about (sth.) 抗议

annual a.

protest vi.

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fund n.

(usu. pl) sum of money saved or for a particular purpose 基金 when demand 一经要求, 承索

on demand
from one‟s point of view

依照某人的观点

fall apart

break, fall to pieces 破裂; 破碎

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end up (doing sth.)

find oneself in a situation that is not intended or expected 以…而告终

undoubtedly ad.

certainly 无疑, 必定 take and use as one‟s own 采纳, 采取 a particular way of thinking about sth. 视角, 观点

adopt vt.

perspective n.

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Part III

NCE-B2

Choose the best answer

for each of the following:

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1. The real reason many parents want their children to save is to __________________. a. help them pay their way through college b. demonstrate the value of compound interest

c. stop the spending
d. enable the to pay for their own things

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2. At the the time this was written, banks were paying interest at _______________. a. 7.5% b. 5%

c. 3%
d. 2.5%

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3. Owen suggests others might find his bank attractive because it _______________. a. provides statements on demand b. gives monthly allowances

c. allows withdrawals at any time
d. offers a good interest rate

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4. We can infer from the essay ______________. a. that Owen has one daughter b. that Owen has two daughters c. that Owen has no daughters d. none of the above

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5. Owen felt that his son‟s purchase __________. a. was a waste of money b. meant he did not like guns c. was money well spent d. was too easily broken

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6. The way to make children careful with their money is to _______________________. a. explain its value to them b. put them in charge of it c. give them less of it d. to keep them away from souvenir stores

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Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the essay:

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1. Appalled by what their children spend on candy and video games (or, rather, appalled by the degree to which their children‟s overspending seems to mimic their own), parents devise ways to lock up their children‟ s resources.

孩子们在糖果、电子游戏上的花费之大令家 —————————————————— 长们十分震惊(或者更确切地说, 孩子们 —————————————————— 的超支行为似乎是在竭力仿效父母, 这令 —————————————————— 家长们十分震惊),于是家长们便设法把孩 —————————————————— 子们的钱存起来不让用。 ————————————
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2.Compounded, that works out to an annual rate of more than 70 per cent.

以复利计算, 年利息达到70%以上。 ________________________________
3. I give them unlimited access to their funds, no questions asked, and I provide printed statements on demand. ___________________________________ 他们使用自己的资金我不加任何限制, ___________________________________ 不作任何询问, 我还根据要求随时提供 __________ 打印的帐单。

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4. The only way to teach kids to adopt a long-term perspective is to give them a short-term incentive for doing so. 教育孩子们看问题要有长远目光的唯一 ___________________________________ 途径是让孩子们近期内便能尝到某种甜 ___________________________________ 头, 从而激励他们去那样做。 _________________________

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Fill in the gaps with words or phrases listed in the Words and

Phrases to learn box. Change
the form where necessary.

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1. The new tax is meant to force companies to adopt _____ energy-saving measures. 2. “Will you pay cash or shall I charge it to your ________?” asked the salesman. account plus 3. The rent will be $350 a month, _____ gas and

electricity.
4. After working her way around the world, ended up Helen _________ teaching English as a foreign

language in Africa

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5. The house is too small for a family of seven, furthermore and ___________, it‟s too far from the city. 6. There‟s a special _____ you can apply to, that fund pays for blind students to go to university. annual 7. Companies publish ______ reports to inform

the public about the previous year‟s activities.
keeping tack of 8. I‟ve never been very good at ______________ what I spend my money on.

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9. Changes in the electronics industry(电子工业) seem to me to be happening at too fast a pace ____. 10. Diana _______ to go back to work after she has intends had her baby. 11. It is reported that the new hospital will provide on demand treatment __________ for drug addicts(吸毒者). 12. The general manager had some staff members ______ a method for quicker communications devise

between offices.

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13. I believe Eugene Linden‟s writings about animal intelligence will give you a new perspective __________ on the subject.

14. The highlight of the evening was undoubtedly __________ the speech by the guest of honor.
15. I didn‟t realize the sculpture(雕塑) had bad cracks(裂缝) in it and when I picked it up it _________ in my hands. fell apart 16. Teachers from all over the country met in London to _______ against the government‟s protest education reform.
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17. The system (设备)has been designed to give the access user quick and easy ______ to required information. 18. The local government doesn‟t have the financial ________ to hire the number of teachers needed. resources deposit 19. To play safe, I ______ money in banks rather than invest (投资) in companies without a good financial record. 20. You will be able to avoid being one-sided if you from your point of view stop looking at things only ____________________.

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I Group Discussion Discuss the following in small groups:

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1. What was the most useful learning experience you gained at high school? 2. Do you think some of the learning methods you used at high school are no longer applicable now? 3. Are you employing new learning methods

helpful to the study of college courses? If so, what are they?
4. In what way are approaches to learning at

high school different from those at college?

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II Essay Writing
Drawing on what you‟ve just discussed in your group, write an essay entitled How I Learn at College. Your essay should cover the following points: 1. How you learned at high school? 2. How you learn at college? 3. Why you learn the way you do?

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Using comparison and contrast in essay writing
Topics can be developed with examples, as in Text A, Unit 6, Book 1, or by analysis using cause and effect, as in Text A, Unit 8, Book 1. Likewise, topics can be developed by analysis using comparison and contrast, as in the case with Text A of this unit. When planning a comparison and contrast essay, you should bear in mind the following points:

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What to Choose for Comparison
You will find it advisable to choose the most significant points for comparison that would support the central idea in your essay. For instance, if you were comparing Smith and Parker in order to show that one is better as a professor, you would

choose teaching style as the point of comparison and
contrast. Other points, such as life style and age would be irrelevant.

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How to Organize Your Essay
You can organize comparison and contrast
through two major ways. One way is to examine one subject thoroughly and then start the other. The other way is to examine two subjects at the same time, discussing them point by point.

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How to Organize Your Essay
The first pattern seems easier to manage. The second pattern, on the other hand , makes it easier for readers to see the similarities and differences between the subjects. While both patterns may be effective for short essays, it seems better to use the second for longer essays so as to make it easier for readers to follow.

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I went to school in a small town near Chengdu and now I am studying law at Fudan University in Shanghai. Passing

from one to the other you have to get used
to many new things, not the least being the different way of learning.

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At school I found my timetable full throughout the day. Lesson came close on the

heels of another with little time to call one’s own.
At university, only a few hours of each day are taken up with classes or lectures. In the time made available you are expected to learn on your own. When and where is up to you.

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At the same time what you are meant to learn shifts from memorizing masses of facts to

developing an ability to understand theories and
present arguments. There are, of course, still facts to be learned. One should not exaggerate

the

differences.

Nevertheless,

learning

at

university certainly teaches me greater selfreliance and to think for myself.

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Chinese Version of Text A

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哈佛大学教育学教授
霍华德. 加德纳回忆

其中国之行, 阐述他
对中西方不同的学习 方式的看法。
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霍华德. 加德纳
1987年春, 我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月 大的儿子本杰明在繁华的中国东部城市南 京住了一个月, 同时考察中国幼儿园和小 学的艺术教育情况。

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然而, 我和埃伦获得的有关中美教育观念

差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂, 而是
来自我们在南京期间居住的金陵饭店的大 堂。 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号 的大塑料板上。

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酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙, 可以交给

服务员, 也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱。
由于口子狭小, 你得留神将钥匙放准位置 才塞得进去。 本杰明爱拿着钥匙走来走去, 边走边 用力摇晃着。

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他还喜欢试着把钥匙往槽里塞。 由于他还

年幼, 不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成,
因此总塞不进去。 本杰明一点也不在意。 他从钥匙响声中得到的乐趣大概跟他偶尔 把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的乐趣一样 多。

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我和埃伦都满不在乎, 任由本杰明拿 着钥匙在钥匙的槽口里捣鼓。 他的探索行 为似乎并无任何害处。 但我很快就观察到 一个有趣的现象。 饭店的任何一个中国工

作人员若在近旁, 都会走过来看着本杰明,
见他尝试失败, 便都会试图帮忙。

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他们会轻轻握紧本杰明的手, 直接将它引

向钥匙的槽口, 进行必要的重新定位,
并帮他把钥匙插入槽口。 然后那位“老师” 会有所期待地对着我和埃伦微笑, 似乎等 着我们说声谢谢——偶尔也会微微皱眉, 似乎觉得我俩没有尽到当父母的责任。

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我很快就意识到, 这件小事与我们在 中国要做的工作直接相关: 考察儿童早期 教育(尤其是艺术教育)的方式, 揭示中 国人对创造性活动的态度。 因此, 不久 我就与中国教育工作者讨论起了钥匙槽口 一事。

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我的中国同行, 除了少数几个人外,
对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。 既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是

处理槽口一事的最终目的, 既然孩子还很
年幼, 还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的 动作, 让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢?

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他很可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当 然不是所期待的结果。 为什么不教他怎么 做呢?他会高兴, 他还能早些 学会做这

件事, 进而去学做更复杂的事, 如开门,
或索要钥匙——

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这两件事到时候同样可以(也应该)示范给他看。

我们颇为同情地听着这一番道理, 解释道,
首先, 我们并不在意本杰明能不能把钥匙塞进

钥匙的槽口。 他玩得开心, 而且在探索,
这两点才是我们真正看重的。

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但关键在于, 在这个过程中, 我们试图 让本杰明懂得, 一个人是能够很好地自行 解决问题的。这种自力更生的精神是美国 中产阶级最重要的一条育儿观。如果我们

向孩子演示该如何做某事——把钥匙塞进
槽口也好, 画只鸡或是弥补某种错误行为 也好——

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那他就不大可能自行想方设法去完成这件 事。 从更广泛的意义上说, 他就不太可 能——如美国人那样——将人生视为一系 列的情境, 在这些情境中, 一个人必须

学会独立思考, 学会独立解决问题, 进
而学会发现需要创造性地加以解决的新问 题。

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回想起来, 当时我就清楚地意识到, 这件事正是体现了问题的关键之所在—— 而且不仅仅是一种意义上的关键之所在。 这件事表明了我们两国在教育和艺术实践 上的重要差异。

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那些善意的中国旁观者前来帮助本杰

明时, 他们不是简单地像我可能会做的
那样笨拙地或是犹犹豫豫地把他的手往

下推。 相反, 他们极其熟练地、温和
地把他引向所要到达的确切方向。

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我逐渐认识到, 这些中国人不是简单地

以一种陈旧的方式塑造、引导本杰明的
行为:他们是在恪守中国传统,把着手 教, 教得本杰明自己会愉快的要求再来 一次。

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学习通过不间断的精心塑造与引导而得以

实现, 这一观念同样使用于艺术。 我们
观看了孩子们在教室里学习艺术的情景, 他们的娴熟技艺令我们惊讶。 年仅5、6岁 的孩子就能带着成人的那种技巧与自信画 花、画鱼和动物;

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9岁、10岁的小书法家写出的作品满可 以在博物馆展示。有一次去两位小艺术 家的家里参观, 我们从孩子的父母处

得知, 他们每天练习数小时以完善他
们的技艺。

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从对创造力的态度来说, 优先次序 似乎是颠倒了: 西方的年轻人先是大胆 创新, 然后逐渐深谙传统; 而中国的

年轻人则几乎离不开传统, 但是, 随
着时间的推移, 他们同样可能发展到具 有创新的境界。

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美国人的立场可以概括起来这么说,

我们比中国人更重视创新和自立。我们两
种文化的差异也可以从我们各自所怀的忧 虑中显示出来。 中国老师担心, 如果年 轻人不及早掌握技艺, 就有可能一辈子掌 握不了;

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另一方面, 他们并不同样地急于促进创

造力的发展。 美国教育工作者则担心,
除非从一开始就发展创造力, 不然创造

力就有可能永不再现; 而另一方面,
技艺可于日后获得。

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但我并不想夸大其词。 无论在过去还是

在当今, 中国在科学、 技术和艺术革新方
面都展示了巨大的创造力。 而西方的创新 突破则有被夸大的危险。 如果仔细审视任 何一项创新, 其对以往成就的依赖则都显 而易见(“站在巨人肩膀之上”的现象)。

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然而, 假定我这里所说的反差是成立的,

而培养技艺与创造力两者都是值得追求的
目标, 那么重要的问题就在于: 我们能 否从中美两个极端中寻求一种更好的教育 方式, 它或许能在创造力与基本技能这两 极之间获得某种较好的平衡?

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Web-links

NCE-B2

http://www.harvard.edu/

http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/cps/site/nanjing/index.html

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