10488_33_f_3 by methyae

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 87

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Unit 8 (6 classes)

(Warming-up 10’)

Four Oceans and Seven Continents
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Oceania, Antarctica, Europe

Asia

North America

South America

Oceania

Europe

Antarctic

Unit 8 Antarctica

(Text I 75’)
Antarctica 10’

文森峰(Vinson Massif),海拔4897米 海拔:altitude 纬度:latitude 经度:longitude

penguin

Seal

walrus

An aerolite on Antarctic

A padded jacket

Text Analysis 60’

• Ian Cameron(1924-), pen name of Donald Gordon Payne, British novelist and writer of documentaries. His publication include • The Midnight Sea (1958) 《午夜之海》, • The Wind at Morning《清晨的风》 (1973) • Antarctica : The Last Continent《 南 极 洲 : 最 后 的 大 陆 》 ( 1974) • • documentalist: n. A specialist in documentation.

1. great isolation from other land 2. not inhabited by humans 3. hardly any plant or animal life 4. no human child even born there 5. very little rain 6. intense cold 7. howling wind [Very great; tremendous] 8. the most tempestuous seas around it [Of, relating to, or resembling a tempest:

Main ideas

Framework
• • • • • • Para 1 Para 2 Para 3 Para 4 Para 5 Para 6

Teaching with Language Points (paragraph by paragraph)

Key words:
• Radiate Appreciate Outweigh Hemmed in Habitation Obscure Shatter Haul up Pore Unveiling
• • • • • • • • • • Distinctive Spectacular Phenomenon Tenure Inclined Precipitation Granules Mercury Disrupt Cushion

Para I Seen from space, …, the most distinctive feature…: When our planet is seen from space, ... This is an-ed participle phrase- seen from space used as an adverbial of time. The –ed participle can be used as an adverbial to denote cause, condition or attending circumstances, and can be put at the beginning, at the end, or in the middle of a sentence.

Distinctive: Serving to identify; distinguishing:/ having a quality which makes a person or a thing easily recognizable and different from others of the same type.

Radiate: v. to send out rays or waves Ice sheet: n. A thick layer of ice covering an extensive area Average: v. to calculate the average of [ note page 134] Thickness: n. The quality or condition of being thick Every other person: here means the half population on the earth Every other day/ every two days / every second day [ note

page 134]

Spectacular: a. making a very fine display or show / grand, attracting attention [ note page 134]

Summary: Basic information: The ice sheet covers 5, 500, 000 square miles. It averages 7,000 feet in thickness. It contains over 90% of the world’s ice and snow, and if suddenly it melted the oceans would rise to such a height that every other person on earth would be drowned.

Para II transitive paragraph
Set eyes on : lay eyes on, see( usually used in conjunction with a negative or out-of-the-ordinary idea) eg: It was one of the most beautiful sight that I had ever set eyes on. Let alone: without consideration; not to mention; much less, even less, certainly not

[This is a conjunction used after a negative clause.]
Set foot (on/ in, ect): go, visit

Tenure: n. holding of office or land or other property, etc. 占有/ 保有权 Slight: small in degree … appreciate the sort of place…: be fully aware of or sensitive to … appreciate: understand fully

Summary:
Even today man’s tenure of it is unsure and his knowledge comparatively slight. To understand why, we need to appreciate the sort of place Antarctic is.

Paragraph III
• People used to regard the Arctic and the Antarctica as much alike: People used to think that the Arctic and the Antarctic are almost the same.
• • • • • the Arctic: the region lying north of the Arctic Circle [北极圈] the Antarctic: the Antarctic Ocean and Antarctica [南极圈] regard as---consider ( someone or something) something Eg: Do you regard marking up a book as a good reading habit?

Outweigh: v. be greater in weight, value or importance than sth Hemmed in: surrounded Landmass: n. large area of land the Antarctic in contrast is in splendid isolation--Quite different from the Arctic, the Antarctic is completely isolated, which is unique. Tempestuous: a. stormy, violently agitated Vast reaches of the most tempestuous sea: the broad expanse of water of the roughest sea in this world. [note 11, page 136] Eg: a reach of prairie 大草原地区

the upper ( middle, lower) reaches of the Yellow River 黄河的上(中、下游)

We are so inclined to think of both the Arctic and Antarctic as cold that we tend to forget how much colder the latter is. Be inclined to – be likely to, tend to. More examples: With a poor constitution[ condition of a person’s body with regard to health, strength, etc], he is inclined to get tired easily. Arctic Circle: The parallel of latitude approximately 66033’. It forms the boundary between the North Temperate and North Frigid zones. 北极圈 北纬66033’平行线,它形成北温带与北寒带的分界线

Habitation: n. the act of inhabiting

… the only plants are a handful of mosses and lichens…: a handful of- an amount which is as much as can be held in the hand; a small number/ amount of Eg: a handful of people/ trees
a mouthful of food a roomful of people a spoonful of soup a cupful of water a bucketful of mud a pocketful of sweets

moss Any of various green, usually small, nonvascular plants of the class Musci of the division Bryophyta. 苔藓任一种苔藓植物门苔藓纲绿色植物,通常较小且无导 管 lichen A fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes, that grows symbiotically with algae, resulting in a composite organism that characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks or tree trunks. 地衣一种真菌类植物,通常属于子囊菌纲,与藻共生形成 一种复合有机体,生长于岩石或树干上,多为硬壳状或枝叉 状

landlife: life on the continent

one-celled:

single-celled

wingless : having no wings or only rudimentary wings.

The Arctic VS The Antarctic
The similarities:
Both are the ends of the earth’s axis, one in the north and the other in the south. Both occupy a vast area of the earth and are covered with a thick layer of ice snow. Both are cold all the year round. At both for nearly half a year the sun never sets and for the other half of the year there is utter darkness.

The differences: 1. Geographical position: The Arctic is closely surrounded by the populated continents of Europe, America and Asia; while the Antarctic is isolated, separated from the nearest land by vast stretches of rough seas. 2.Climate: The Arctic region has a cold winter and a warm period of sunshine lasting up to two months. The temperature falls below freezing for the winter months, but it is above freezing for at least one month of the year. In Antarctica, however, winter is almost continuous and the ice sheet which covers the continent is 7000 feet thick. There is no month which is free from frost, and even the summer mean temperature is below freezing point. Winter temperature can be as low as –880c. Southerly winds of great speed are common. 3.Rainfall: In the Arctic region, there is a slight summer rainfall, which is replaced by snow in winter, amounting to an annual precipitation of 250-300 mm. ( 10-12 inches), but in the Antarctic, rain never falls.

4. Vegetation: In the Arctic, there are brightly-colored wild flowers in summer, and some bushes. In the Antarctic there is very little soil cover. There are no trees and few other plants. Lichens and mosses cover the rock faces. 5. Animals: In the Arctic, on the scanty growth of moss, reindeer 驯鹿 and musk 麝香鹿 flourish; hares, foxes and wolves also dwell on land, and polar bears, seals live on sea products; birds are seen in summer though rarely seen in winter; while in the Antarctic, whales, seals and penguins visit the seas and shore, and many sea birds nest there in summer. 6. Population: In the Arctic region, the native inhabitants are Eskimos whose numbers are increasing with modern development, but in Antarctica, there are no permanent inhabitants, though there are research stations.

Paragraph IV
• The Antarctica seldom provides any witness the descriptions (rainfall, warmth, a degree of stillness) of those who have been there: • U.S. Weather Bureau • John Bechervaise • Douglas Mawson

U.S. Weather Bureau
area

As regards precipitation the Southern Continent is desert… Precipitation: n. amount of rain, (snow, etc.) that falls in an As regards – regarding , concerning, about, as far as … is
concerned

Eg:

As regards his ability, we all feel he has great potential.

Phrases made of ― regard‖ In regard to: adv. 关于 With regard to: adv. 关于 Regarding: prep. 关于 As regards: adv. 关于, 至于

An annual fall no greater than the outback of Australia: as

little as

Outback: n. (esp. in Australia) remote inland area where few people live Accumulation: n. getting or gathering together an increasing number or quantity of sth. Here refers to the amount of rain that has collected. … there may well be places close to the Pole where snow has never fallen paraphrase:

there may very probably be places near the South Pole where there has never been snow

John Bechervaise:
Antarctica is by far the coldest place on earthSo Antarctica is the coldest place on earth, nowhere else is colder than Antarctica. By far- a large amount or degree. It is generally used with a comparative or superlative adjective. By far is used to emphasize that someone or something is much better, worse, greater or smaller, etc., than anyone or anything else. Eg: The new seaport will by far be the most advanced coal wharf in this area.

obscure: v. make sth. difficult to be been hood: n. covering for the head and neck, often fastened to a coat, etc. so that it can hang down at the back, or be detached, when not in use wax: n. any of various soft sticky or oily substances that melt easily, used. For making candles, etc.

bar: A relatively long, straight, rigid piece of solid material used as a fastener, support, barrier, or structural or mechanical member. shatter: v. tr. To cause to break or burst suddenly into pieces, as with a violent blow. disintegrate: v. cause sth. to break into small parts or pieces granule: n. small hard piece, small grain mercury: n. chemical element, a heavy silver- colored metal usu. found in liquid form, used in thermometers and barometers haul: v. pull or drag sth. with effort or force

Douglas Mawson
set foot in v. set foot on winter: v. spend the last and coldest season of the year nonstop: without ceasing mph: miles per hour gust: A strong, abrupt rush of wind.

Paragraph V
injurious: a. causing or likely to cause injury; harmful disrupt: v. cause disorder in sth. cushion: A pad or pillow with a soft filling, used for resting, reclining, or kneeling. trapped: caught … is trapped by : is held back so as not to escape, eg: Trees and grass can trap the soil in the mountain. Cf: Unit 7 …be trapped by a swarm of ants: caught by …

Whereas: while Still:quiet and calm

Small wonder that whereas in the eighteenth and

early nineteenth centuries man swiftly explored and occupied the rest of his planet, … Small wonder- no wonder, not surprisingly. Eg: Most young people like to follow the fashion. Small wonder that my teen-age niece Lydia is so fashionconscious. Southernmost: a. furthest south Inviolate: a. that has not been or cannot be violated or harmed

Paragraph VI
• • • • Drawback: n. disadvantage, problem Unveil: v. remove veil at least: not less than the Southern Ocean: popular name for the parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans extending south to the Antarctic.

The writer thinks that even today it is doubtful whether man will be able to occupy Antarctica because of :

its unfavorable natural conditions isolated geographical locations extreme cold weather practically no plant life
the lack of the basic essentials for life rainfall warmth a degree of stillness, i.e., sometimes without wind

That’s all for the analysis of Text I 5’

Questions: T/ F page 137
• • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F F F F F 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. T F F F F

Section Two 90’

Some Comments on the Text 15’
• This text is a well-written expository piece of writing about Antarctica---why it has not been conquered by man so far and how our “tenure" of it is questionable even today. • The writer’s intention is to inform and explain for a general audience, so the vocabulary is not very specialized. • There are some striking feature which are worthy of notice and imitation.

1. The writer uses the technique of stating the central theme at the beginning of the text to arouse the reader’s interest and presents a striking description of Antarctica---the subject under discussion. 2. He supports his views with a great deal of concrete data, statistics and facts to make his writing more convincing. 3. He throws new light upon two things by showing how they are alike and yet very different. 4. The writer directly quotes those who have been to the Antarctic to give more authority to his explanation of the reasons why the difference between the Arctic and the Antarctic outweigh their similarities. 5. The writer provides us with a striking conclusion. 6. He also uses parallel structures as an effective way of describing what life in the Antarctic is like. This gives a subtle poetic quality and rhythm to this part of his essay.

Role Play 15’
•

Guo Ming: You are a meteorologist. You have just come back from an

• • •

•

Antarctic expedition. Henry Smith, an English friend of yours, is glad to see you back and is very interested in the expedition. He asks you a lot of questions about the living and working conditions at the Antarctic base. Give him the following information: 1) the main building contains laboratories, offices, a medical clinic, a library, bedrooms, a modern kitchen, storerooms, a dining hall, a post office; 2) the dining hall also serves as a clubroom for showing of videotaped films, dances and other entertainment; communication between the buildings is guaranteed by modern telecommunication facilities. He finds your information very interesting. He wants to know everything you did there. You are too tired to tell him, but promise to tell him more later. Henry Smith: You are a friend of Guo Ming’s and are interested in the Antarctic expedition he’s just been on. Ask Guo Ming questions about the Antarctic base out of curiosity. Ask him also about the buildings, laboratories, offices, accommodation and food, postal services, entertainment, communication equipment, etc. Everything he tells you about interests you. Ask him also about his work which interests you equally.

Interaction Activities 15’
• 1. Voyage: If a team goes to the Antarctica by sea, they are sure to choose the Antarctic summer months of November to March, because the sea all round the Antarctica freezes during the winter months of April to October. In the winter months, it is impossible for ships to reach the coast. It takes about two months to get there from China. 2. The purposes of the expedition: to acquire more information about the continent; to gain a better understanding of the earth as a whole; to carry on studies in meteorology, physics, biology, oceanography, physiology, geology, etc. in local conditions; to investigate possible utilization of the continent for the benefit of humanity. 3. Population: Apart from those who man weather stations and work at the expedition bases, there are no permanent inhabitants.

•

• •

4. Weather conditions: In winter months the temperature can be as low as -80。 C. Everything is frozen. The explorers are very well wrapped up, but there is still the constant risk of frostbite when they go out. In summer, the temperature might rise freezing point but this seldom happens. Wind is the worst feature. 5. Accommodation and food supply The explorers usually like in their base stations. They sleep in sleeping bags and eat tinned food. 6. Members of the expedition teams All kinds of specialists might be included in an expedition team. ( Let the students consult dictionaries or encyclopaedias to find out why each of them has an interest in the Antarctic.)

Section Three 90’

Guided Writing 30’
• Basic Writing Techniques— Expansion of Nouns

Crystalline: Resembling crystal, as in transparency or distinctness of structure or outline. 晶体状的象晶体的,如在结构或轮廓的透明度象晶体的 Dewdrop: 露珠/露, 露水 Rose petal: 玫瑰花瓣 Velvety: Suggestive of the texture of velvet; soft and smooth: Unaffected: Not changed, modified, or affected Chubby: Rounded and plump Remote: aloof Silverware: articles made of silver Inaudible: not loud enough to be heard; not audible Counterbalance: act as a counterbalance Discordant: harsh Blizzard: severe snowstorm

Dresden: A city of east-central Germany on the Elbe River east-southeast of Leipzig. An industrial and cultural center, it was severely damaged in bombing raids during World War II. Its china industry was moved to Meissen in the early 18th century. Population, 522,532. 德累斯顿德国中东部城市,位于莱比锡东南偏东河畔。是工业与文化中心, 二战期间被空袭轰炸严重毁损。其瓷器工业于18世纪初迁至梅森。人口 522,532 Figurine: . A small molded or sculptured figure; a statuette. 小雕像小人像或小塑像;小雕像 Resplendent: brilliant with color or decoration; splendid Nursery: A place where plants are grown for sale, transplanting, or experimentation. 苗圃供出售、移植或实验种植植物的地方 Undivided: 未分裂的,完整的,统一的 Dready: Dismal; bleak; Boring; dull: Treacherous: Marked by unforeseen hazards; dangerous or deceptive: 变化莫测的以从未遭遇的危险为特征的;危险的或欺骗性的

Teacher
• • • • • • • • The new teacher, serious and attractive The young teacher, willing but also tense The veteran teacher with numerous students The history teacher, eloquent from long years of lecturing on the same subject The teacher receiving the award The teacher (that) we like best veteran :Having had long experience or practice 丰富经验的,老练的

sturdy:Substantially made or built; stout
坚固的,耐用的

dainty:Delicately beautiful or charming; exquisite:娇美的,迷人的;优美的

Lamp
Our new lamp, modern and elegant The beautiful lamp, multi-angled but sturdy The dainty lamp, slim but not unsteady The lamp with a cheerful shade The old lamp, faded from having been used for years • The lamp fallen from the bookshelf • The lamp that brings back such sweet memories • • • • •

The earth is made up of three major layers-a central core, probably metallic, some 4,000 miles across, a surrounding layer or compressed rock, and to top it all a very thin skin of softer rock, only about 20 to 40 miles thick---that’s about as thin as the skin of an apple, talking in relative terms.

Composition Writing 20’
• A. Analyzing TEXT II • After removing all the expansions of nouns in paragraph 5, the paragraph reads: • India is an area. In Baluchistan, one occurred in 1935, when the town was destroyed and people lost lives. Today, Quetta is the home. One has been to calculate ways, and nowadays houses are built according to designs. As a result, in an earthquake, the buildings stood up and lives were lost.

EXERCISES

Guided Writing10’

Sentence Combination At the bottom of the world lies a mighty continent, Antarctica, still wrapped in the Ice Age and until recent times, unknown to man. It is a great land mass crisscrossed by mountain ranges whose extend and elevation are still uncertain. Antarctica differs fundamentally from the Arctic regions. The Arctic is an ocean, covered with drifting packed ice and hemmed in by the land masses of Europe, Asia, and North America. The Antarctic is a continent almost as large as Europe and Australia combined, centred roughly on the South Pole and surrounded by the most unobstructed water areas of the world – the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The continental ice sheet is more than two miles high in its centre; thus, the air over the Antarctic is far more refrigerated [COOLED] than it is over the Arctic regions. More than a million people live within 2,000 miles of the North Pole in an area that includes most of Alaska, Siberia, and Scandinavia- a region rich in forest and mining industries. Apart from a number of research stations, within the same distance of the South Pole there is not a single tree, industry, or settlement.

A state of the United States in extreme northwest North America, separated from the other mainland states by British Columbia, Canada. It was admitted as the 49th state in 1959 and is the largest state of the Union. The territory was purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7,200,000 and was known as Seward's Folly (after Secretary of State William H. Seward, who negotiated the purchase) until gold was discovered in the late 1800's. Juneau is the capital and Anchorage the largest city. There are plans to move the capital to Willow, near Anchorage. Population, 551,947. 阿拉斯加州美国的一个州,位于北美洲最西北部,与其它的 大陆州被加拿大的不列颠哥伦比亚省隔开。1959年被纳为第 49个州,是联邦中面积最大的州。这块领地于1867年以 7,200,000美元的价格从俄国购得,直到19世纪晚期在此发现 黄金之前,一直被称为“西沃德笨蛋”(源自洽谈购买的国务 卿威廉·H·西沃德)。朱诺为其州府,安克雷奇是最大城市。 现计划迁州府到安克雷奇附近的威洛。人口551,947

Siberia A region of Asian U.S.S.R. stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. The extensive area was annexed by Russia in stages during the 16th and 17th centuries. Used as a place of exile for political prisoners since the early 17th century, it was settled by Russians after the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad (completed in 1905) and developed for its mineral resources after World War II. 西伯利亚苏联亚洲部分的一区域,从乌拉尔山脉一直延伸到太平 洋。这一广大地区于16世纪至17世纪期间逐渐并入俄罗斯。自 17世纪早期以来一直作为政治犯的流放地,横跨西伯利亚的铁路 建成后(完工于1905年)俄国人开始在此定居,第二次世界大 战后因其矿产资源而得以发展
Scandinavia 斯堪的纳维亚(半岛)(瑞典、挪威、丹麦、冰岛的泛称)

Crescent: The figure of the moon as it appears in its first or last quarter, with concave and convex edges terminating in points. 蛾眉月月亮在上弦时或下弦时的形状,其凹边和凹边均汇合成点 Something having concave and convex edges terminating in points. 新月形物凹边和凹边汇合成点的物体 crescent adj. Crescent-shaped. 新月状的 Waxing, as the moon; increasing. 渐圆的,渐强的月亮等渐圆的;逐渐增强的

Gilbert Islands: A group of islands of western Kiribati in the central Pacific Ocean. First visited by the British in 1765, the islands were made a protectorate in 1892 and later became part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony (1915-1976). Full independence as the principal islands of Kiribati was achieved in 1979. 吉尔伯特群岛太平洋中部一群岛,位于基里巴斯西部。1765年英国人第一 次到此,这些群岛,1892年成为保护领地,后来成为 吉尔伯特和埃利斯群 岛殖民地(1915-1976年)的一部分。1979年,作为基里巴斯的主群岛获 得完全独立. Octopus: Any of numerous carnivorous marine mollusks of the genus Octopus or related genera, found worldwide. The octopus has a rounded soft body, eight tentacles with each bearing two rows of suckers, a large distinct head, and a strong beaklike mouth. 章鱼像 章鱼这一类或相关种类的食肉海洋软体动物,在世界各地都有发现。 章鱼有圆形的柔软身体,八个触脚,每个触脚带有两排吸盘,巨大而分明 的头,强大的鸟形嘴 Also called: devilfish Something, such as a multinational corporation, that has many powerful, centrally controlled branches. 章鱼式的东西如跨国公司这样有许多强大的、由中心控制的分支的事物

Tentacle: An elongated, flexible, unsegmented extension, as one of those surrounding the mouth or oral cavity of the squid, used for feeling, grasping, or locomotion. 触手一种可伸长的、有弹性的、不分节的伸展部分,如环绕在鱿鱼嘴 部或口腔周围的触须,用以触感、扑捉或移动 Botany 【植物学】 One of the sensitive hairs on the leaves of insectivorous plants, such as the sundew. 触毛食虫植物,如茅膏菜的叶子上的感觉灵敏的发状物 A similar part or extension, especially with respect to the ability to grasp or stretch: 似触手的东西尤指在卷曲或伸展能力方面类似触手的部位或延伸处 Dwarf: An abnormally small person, often having limbs and features not properly proportioned or formed. 侏儒发育不正常身材矮小的人,常表现出四肢比例不协调 An atypically small animal or plant. 矮小生物不正常矮小的动物或植物 A small creature resembling a human being, often ugly, appearing in legends and fairy tales. 丑矮子一种多半丑陋似人形的生物,多出现在传说或童话中 A dwarf star. 矮星

Lure: lure n. Something that tempts or attracts with the promise of pleasure or reward. 诱惑物以允诺给予满足或奖励的方式诱惑或吸引人的东西 An attraction or appeal. 吸引力,魅力 A decoy used in catching animals, especially an artificial bait used in catching fish. 诱饵,囵子用来捕捉动物的诱饵,尤指用来捕捉鱼的人造诱饵 A bunch of feathers attached to a long cord, used in falconry to recall the hawk. 鸟媒系在长绳上的一束羽毛,在放鹰狩猎中用来召回猎鹰 lure v.tr. lured; lur.ing; lures; To attract by wiles or temptation; entice. 吸引以诡计或诱惑来吸引;诱惑 To recall (a falcon) with a lure. 用引诱物召回(猎鹰)

Crab: ten-legged shellfish Crayish: freshwater shellfish like a small lobster. Lagoon: A shallow body of water, especially one separated from a sea by sandbars or coral reefs. 环礁湖,泻湖一片浅水湖,尤指在海中由被河口的沙洲或珊瑚礁围成的 Coral: like coral in color; pink or red Anchor oneself: Sucker: One that sucks, especially an unweaned domestic animal. 吮吸者尤指吮吸人(兽)乳汁者,特指乳兽,即没有断奶的家畜 Bait: food or other lure placed on a hook or in a trap and used in the taking of fish, birds, or other animals. 饵置于钩上或陷阱里的食物或其它引诱物,用于捕捉鱼、鸟或其它动物 Something, such as a worm, used for this purpose. 诱饵某些用于此种目的的东西,如虫子

Dictation 15’
The Antarctic is a continent of great size- equal almost to Europe and Australia put together- yet it has no permanent inhabitants. Only those who man weather stations and the bases from which parties of explorers set out live there. Some go only for one year, many for two, but never longer, unless the ship which is to bring them out cannot reach their base. In that event they must make the best of it and settle down to another year’s work. • Of all this vast continent only about 1% is exposed rock; all the rest is covered with a mantle of snow and ice, which varies from a few feet to as much as two miles in depth. In all there are over five million square miles covered with ice, and this huge area has a tremendous cooling effect on the air which moves over it. It is true to say that the Antarctic controls the weather of the southern half of the world. •

Listening Comprehension 10’
• Content on page 64 Teacher’s Book • Listen to the recorder and retell the story

Homework 5’
• Recite Reading I • Write a passage about Antarctic no less than 400 words


								
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