Emergency Management and Information Society How to improve the by howardtheduck

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									Emergency Management and Information Society How to improve the synergy ?
Jean Luc WYBO École des Mines de Paris France
Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Harriet LONKA GAIA Group Finland

What is an Emergency?
 An

abnormal situation whose evolution is uncertain  May turn into a crisis if not properly managed  Natural/Technical, social, organizational factors
Natural factors
(climatology, combustion, hydrology, etc.)

Organizational factors Disaster development (flood, fire, etc.)
(Prevention and Disaster management)

Socioeconomical factors
(Population and values at risk)
Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Disaster management: a Complex task
 Several  Many

systems

– Climate, technology, networks, means

stakeholders
organizations

– Authorities, rescue services, victims, volunteers, media
 Several

– Local communities, private sector, state agencies – Rescue services, police, NGO’s
 Aggravating

factors

– Availability of information, communication problems
A

key factor: resilience of organizations

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

ICT and Emergency Management
 ICT

have a great potential to improve efficiency

– In supporting the sharing of critical information – In providing reliable communications

are designed for well documented situations  EM practitioners face complex situations
– They use codified procedures and tacit knowledge
 ICT

 ICT

designers need a good knowledge of EM tasks

– How do people deal with risk issues in everyday life? – What are the needs and capabilities during operations? – Where are the real difficulties related to ICT?
Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Emergency managers: what expertise?
 Initial

training, case studies, field exercises  Continuing education, exercises, specialized courses  Experience
– Gained during disaster management operations
Lessons learnt

Particles of experience

Analysis

Collective Learning
Debriefing, narration

Disaster management

Individual Learning

Individual Analysis

Mental image

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

The particle of experience
 The

smallest meaningful part of experience

– Mental images of practitioners: « episodic memory » – Corresponds to a key instant of the disaster development – Contains most of the complexity in 4 phases
Context and event: natural, organizational and human aspects  Analysis: what may happen, what to do, which solutions ?  Actions: strategy, planning, decisions, commands  Effects: success or failure


– A potential for generalization
Almost never two identical disasters  Quite often similar contexts/events

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Collecting and sharing experience
 Data

collection of practitioners

– During disaster and after (logfile, sensors, etc.)
 Interviews

– Different responsibilities, roles, levels of hierarchy – Individual, anonymous, validated – Search for tacit knowledge: « what else could be done ? »
 Collective

validation of the « objective truth »

– Merge individual experiences in a common story – Involve all stakeholders in the discussion
 Learn

lessons from positive & negative actions

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Before the crisis Cleaning of river banks Pre-alert Perception of an alarming situation Alert is confirmed Preparation of an evacuation and public information Routine activity Preventive evacuation of threatened population Establishment of a crisis command center Management of population sheltering Procedure for heavy rains Procedure for river surveillance

Prevention

Embankment collapses
Evacuation of people endangered by the flooding

Management of media and visits of Officials

Rescue

Particles of experience
Management of a flood
(France, November 99)

Post-crisis management (compensations, cleaning)

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

A particle of experience
« Preventive evacuation of threatened population »








Context – 0.30AM,. The Agly river begins to overflow banks (alert level reached at 23.30PM) – Roads and streets are still open Analysis – A part of the town is directly threatened by a potential flood of the river, especially a housing area (2000) – Shelters are open and information means are available (town siren and a loudspeaker vehicle) – If the siren is used, all the town (8000) will be stressed uselessly and a general panic may occur Actions – The Mayor delegates the information of public to the cultural service. The notice is given in the housing with a loudspeaker vehicle in association with fire and rescue people who knock every door. Message: « there is a risk of flood in your district. Be careful. You can evacuate and be sheltered ». Message elaborated to reassure people and avoid panic and indifference. Systematic evacuation of disabled. – Later on, the mayor decides to organize a new information round with a more urgent message. Effects – It took 2 hours to inform population. Two rounds were needed. Telephone system was saturated by calls. – 700 families, about 2000 people are threatened. About 1500 accept to be sheltered and evacuate with their cars. Duration : about 3 hours. Difficulties with persons in « medical beds », with pets (birds, dogs, etc.). – If evacuation was decided 2 or 3 hours later, there would probably have been casualties (drowning of people in vehicules taken by the flow) after the collapsing of the embankment.

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002

Conclusions
 ICT

have a great potential to improve resilience

– Sharing of information and efficient communications – Simulations, monitoring, resources tracking

of EM complexity is a key factor  EM Experience is an important source of knowledge  Collecting and formalizing individual experience
– – – – Give access to the tacit knowledge of practitioners Improve sharing of experiences between people Provide key knowledge to design efficient ICT solutions Contribute to increase the resilience of organizations

 Understanding

Workshop « Emergency Telecommunications » - ETSI - 26 & 27 February 2002


								
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