BOOK I by h73ksal0

VIEWS: 233 PAGES: 96

									Latin
for
Common
Entrance
   BOOK I
  fabulae Romanae

       —1—
               Table of Contents


1    Nouns of the first declension. The cases. Some first
     declension nouns. Some verbs.
2    Verbs of the first conjugation. Some first
     conjugation verbs. Some prepositions and their cases.
3    Verbs of the second conjugation. Some second
     conjugation verbs.
4    Masculine nouns of the second declension. Some
     second declension masculine nouns.
5    Neuter nouns of the second declension. Some second
     declension neuter nouns.
6    First and second declension adjectives. The present
     tense of SUM.
7    Revision. Numbers 1-10 including Roman numerals.
8    Second declension nouns in —r.
9    Verbs of the fourth conjugation. Some fourth
     conjugation verbs. Personal pronouns.
10   Verbs of the third conjugation. Some third
     conjugation verbs.
11   The imperfect and perfect tenses of regular verbs (all
     conjugations).
12   The imperfect tense of SUM.
13   The infinitive. Longer sentences with QUOD, UBI.
14   Asking questions. Giving orders: the imperative.
15   Revision. Numbers Fourth-Tenth.




                       —2—
CE LATIN

                                     1 – Nouns of the first declension


Latin nouns are arranged into 5 groups called declensions.
Each declension has 6 cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative
First declension nouns are mostly feminine.

Study the forms of puella (a girl):

                  Nominative puell-a            the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                  Vocative   puell-a            used when addressing someone
       singular




                  Accusative      puell-am      the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
                  Genitive        puell-ae      indicates possession: translate “of” or “ ‘s”
                  Dative          puell-ae      translates “to” or “for”
                  Ablative        puell-ā       translates “by”, “with”, or “from”

                  Nominative puell-ae           the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                  Vocative   puell-ae           used when addressing someone
                  Accusative      puell-as      the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
       plural




                  Genitive        puell-arum    indicates possession: translate “of” or “ s’ ”
                  Dative          puell-is      translates “to” or “for”
                  Ablative        puell-is      translates “by”, “with”, or “from”


      Examples:


      Nominative               puella insulam habet
                               The girl has an island

     Accusative                agricola pecuniam non habet
                               The farmer has no money

      Genitive                 filia ancillae aquam fert
                               The slave-girl’s daughter fetches the water

      Dative                   femina poetae pecuniam dat
                               The woman gives money to the poet

     Ablative                  nauta reginam hastā necat
                               The sailor kills the queen with a spear.




                                                        —3—
     agricola, agricolae (m)                      farmer
     ancilla, ancillae (f)                        slave-girl
     aqua, aquae (f)                              water
     femina, feminae (f)                          woman
     filia, filiae (f)                            daughter
     hasta, hastae (f)                            spear
     insula, insulae (f)                          island
     nauta, nautae (m)                            sailor
     pecunia, pecuniae (f)                        money
     poeta, poetae (m)                            poet
     puella, puellae (f)                          girl
     regina, reginae (f)                          queen


Notice:

Nouns are given in both the nominative and genitive cases.
Although most first declension nouns are feminine, some are masculine.




     habet            plural: habent              have
     fert             plural: ferunt              bring, fetch
     dat              plural: dant                give
     necat            plural: necant              kill




                                          —4—
CE Latin
                                         Exercises - 1

1. Translate into English. These sentences contain a nominative and an accusative:
       (a) femina pecuniam habet.                    (d) regina poetam necat.
       (b) ancillae aquam ferunt.                    (e) agricolae ancillas habent.
       (c) nauta hastas habet.                       (f) filia pecuniam habet.


2. Translate into English. These sentences contain a nominative, an accusative and a
   genitive:
       (a) filiae nautarum pecuniam habent.          (b) puella hastam reginae habet.


3. Translate into English. These sentences contain a nominative, an accusative and a dative:
       (a) poeta feminae pecuniam dat.               (b) nautae agricolis insulas dant.


4. Translate into English. This sentence contains a nominative, an accusative, a genitive and
   a dative:
       (a) ancillae nautarum pecuniam reginae insularum dant.


5. Translate into English. This sentence contains a nominative, an accusative, and an
   ablative:
       (a) filia agricolae puellam hasta necat.


6. For each of the following say what case of the noun is needed, and whether it is singular
   or plural. Then translate into Latin:
       (a) of money                                  (d) for the girls
       (b) with spears                               (e) of the island
       (c) to the sailors                            (f) with water


7. Translate into Latin. For each of these sentences you will need a nominative and an
   accusative:

       (a) the girl fetches the money.               (c) The queen has a poet.
       (b) The women fetch the spears.               (d) The sailors kill the slave girl


8. Translate into Latin. For each of these sentences you will need a variety of cases:

       (a) the farmer’s slave girl has a daughter.   (c) the women give money to the girls.
       (b) the island of the sailors has water.      (d) The sailor gives a spear to the queen.



                                            —5—
CE LATIN

                             2 – Verbs of the first conjugation

Latin verbs are arranged into 4 groups called conjugations.
The conjugation that a verb belongs to is determined by the last letter of the stem.

The endings added to the stem of a verb indicate a wide range of meanings including person
(I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they) and tense (present, past etc.).

Here is the present tense of amo (I love):
                        am-o                 I love
                        ama-s                You love (singular)
                        ama-t                He loves, she loves, it loves
                        ama-mus              We love
                        ama-tis              You love (plural)
                        ama-nt               They love

Notice:
The pronouns I, you, he, etc., are shown by the ending of the verb. Although there are
pronouns in Latin they are not used very often.
The stem of first conjugation verbs ends in —a. (This is not seen in the I form).
Examples:

      I           ancillas laudo
                  I praise the slave-girls

     You (s)     pecuniam portas
                 You are carrying the money

      He          agricola filiam nautae amat
                  The farmer loves the sailor’s daughter

      She         regina puellas vocat
                  The queen calls the girls

      It          hasta nautam vulnerat
                  The spear wounds the sailor

     We          agricolas laudamus
                 We praise the farmers

     You (pl)    insulam spectatis
                 You are looking at the island

     They        ancillae agricolarum in insulā laborant
                 The slave-girls of the farmers are working on the island

                                                —6—
     ambulo, ambulare, ambulavi, ambulatum          I walk
     amo, amare, amavi, amatum                      I like, I love
     festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatum      I hurry
     habito, habitare, habitavi, habitatum          I live
     laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratum          I work
     laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatum              I praise
     navigo, navigare, navigavi, navigatum          I sail
     neco, necare, necavi, necatum                  I kill
     porto, portare, portavi, portatum              I carry
     specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum          I watch, I look at
     voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum                  I call
     vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratum      I wound, I injure


Notice:

Verbs are given in four forms. This set is called the principal parts. The first you will
recognise, the others will be discussed later.




     via, viae (f)                                  street, road




     in + accusative into, onto e.g. in aquam ambulas            you walk into the water
     in + ablative   in, on      e.g. in insulā laboramus        we are working on the island
     ad + accusative to, towards e.g. nautae ad insulam navigant the sailors sail to the island




                                           —7—
CE Latin
                                                Exercises - 2


1. Translate into English:

       (a)   ambulo
       (b)   portatis
       (c)   laudas
       (d)   navigat
       (e)   necamus
       (f)   spectant

2. Translate into English:

       (a)   poetae ad insulam festinant
       (b)   ad insulam navigatis
       (c)   agricola nautam hastā necat
       (d)   filia reginae ancillas laudat
       (e)   femina laborat
       (f)   agricolae hastas portant


3. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   they sail
       (b)   we hurry
       (c)   you (s) walk
       (d)   I work
       (e)   you (pl) love
       (f)   he calls

4. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   the daughter of the queen
       (b)   the island of the farmers
       (c)   the slave girls of the poets
       (d)   the woman’s money
       (e)   to the island
       (f)   in the street


5. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   you (s) call the slave-girl into the street
       (b)   the sailors wound the women
       (c)   I live on an island
       (d)   you (pl) praise the poet’s daughter
       (e)   we carry the spears to the queen
       (f)   the sailors are looking at the water




                                                   —8—
CE LATIN

                          3 – Verbs of the second conjugation


Second conjugation verbs are different from first conjugation verbs in that they have –e at
the end of the stem:

Here is the present tense of habeo (I have):

                       habe-o              I have
                       habe-s              You have (singular)
                       habe-t              He has, she has, it has
                       habe-mus            We have
                       habe-tis            You have (plural)
                       habe-nt             They have

Reminder:

The pronouns I, you, he, etc., are shown by the ending of the verb. Although there are pro-
nouns in Latin they are not used very often.



Examples:

     I            ancillas moneo
                  I warn the slave-girls

     You (s)      pecuniam habes
                  You have the money

     He           agricola filiam nautae terret
                  The farmer terrifies the sailor’s daughter

     She          regina villas delet
                  The queen destroys the houses

     It           hasta nautam terret
                  The spear terrifies the sailor

     We           agricolas monemus
                  We advise the farmers

     You (pl)     hastas habetis
                  You have the spears

     They         ancillae agricolarum nautas timent
                  The slave-girls of the farmers are afraid of the sailors


                                               —9—
      deleo, delēre, delevi, deletum                          I destroy
      habeo, habēre, habui, habitum                           I have
      moneo, monēre, monui, monitum                           I advise, I warn
      moveo, movēre, movi, motum                              I move
      teneo, tenēre, tenui                                    I hold
      terreo, terrēre, terrui, territum                       I terrify, I make afraid
      timeo, timēre, timui                                    I am afraid (of), I fear

Remember:

Verbs are given in four forms. This set is called the principal parts. The first you will
recognise, the others will be discussed later.

Notice:

Most second conjugation verbs have the form –eo, –ēre, –ui, –itum. But some (e.g. deleo) are
slightly different.
The infinitive (second of the principal parts) has a long e (–ē).




      pro + ablative      in front of, on behalf of, for,    e.g. aquam pro reginā portamus
                          in exchange for                         we carry water for the queen

      cum + ablative      with        e.g. nautae cum reginā ad insulam navigant
                                           the sailors sail to the island with the queen



With an object is done by the ablative alone e.g. poetam hastā terres              you terrify the poet
                                                                                   with the spear.

With a person requires cum and the ablative e.g. cum nautis navigamus we are sailing with the
                                                                      sailors.




      non                   not



      villa, villae (f)     house

                                                 — 10 —
CE Latin
                                              Exercises - 3


1. Translate into English:

       (a)   monetis
       (b)   terrent
       (c)   timeo
       (d)   habes
       (e)   delemus
       (f)   movet




2. Translate into English:

       (a)   poetae pecuniam habent
       (b)   reginam terres
       (c)   agricolae villas in insulā delent
       (d)   filia reginae cum ancillis ambulat
       (e)   femina aquam portat
       (f)   puellas moneo




3. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   they move
       (b)   we have
       (c)   you (s) hold
       (d)   I destroy
       (e)   you (pl) fear
       (f)   she warns



4. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   I am afraid of the farmer
       (b)   You (pl) terrify the poet with the spear
       (c)   The women warn the sailors
       (d)   The slave-girl works with the queen’s daughter
       (e)   The sailors have the money
       (f)   We move the girls with the poets into the street.




                                                                 /continued




                                                  — 11 —
5. Translate into English:

   Cinna est poeta. Cinna Romae habitat. Romani Cinnam laudant. Cinnae
   pecuniam dant. Cinna ad forum cum amicis ambulat. ancillae in viā laborant.
   Cinna ancillas spectat. Cinna ancillam non habet. ‘salve,’ Cinna puellae inquit.
   puella est Melita. Cinna Melitam amat. Melita Cinnam amat. domina Melitae in
   viā stat. Melita dominam timet. domina ancillas non laudat. femina poetas non       5
   amat. domina ancillarum Cinnam non terret. Cinna dominae pecuniam pro
   ancillā offert. domina pecuniam recusat. domina aquam in hamā portat. “abi!”
   domina Cinnae clamat. domina aquam in caput Cinnae fundit. Cinna est tristis;
   Melita lacrimat. domina Melitam in villam movet.

   Vocabulary

     est                                is
     Romae                              at Rome
     Romani                             the Romans
     do, dare, dedi, datum              I give
     forum                              market-place, forum
     amicis                             friends (ablative plural)
     salve!                             hello!
     inquit                             (he/she) says
     domina, dominae (f)                mistress
     sto, stare, steti                  I stand
     offert                             (he/she) offers
     recuso, recusare, recusavi         I refuse
     hama, hamae (f)                    bucket
     abi!                               go away!
     clamo, clamare, clamavi            I shout
     caput                              head
     fundit                             (he/she) pours
     tristis                            sad
     lacrimo, lacrimare, lacrimavi      I cry, I am in tears



6. Translate into Latin:

   The farmer likes a slave-girl. The slave girl is Melita. Melita has a mistress. The girl’s
   mistress does not like farmers. The farmer gives money to the mistress. The mistress gives
   the girl to the farmer. The farmer sails to the island with the slave-girl.




                                          — 12 —
CE LATIN

                            4 –Masculine nouns of the second declension


Remember:

Latin nouns are arranged into 5 groups called declensions.
Each declension has 6 cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative
Second declension nouns are mostly masculine.

Study the forms of dominus (a master):

                 Nominative domin-us           the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                 Vocative   domin-e            used when addressing someone
      singular




                 Accusative     domin-um       the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
                 Genitive       domin-i        indicates possession: translate “of” or “ ‘s”
                 Dative         domin-o        translates “to” or “for”
                 Ablative       domin-o        translates “by”, “with”, or “from”

                 Nominative domin-i            the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                 Vocative   domin-i            used when addressing someone
                 Accusative     domin-os       the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
      plural




                 Genitive       domin-orum indicates possession: translate “of” or “ s’ ”
                 Dative         domin-is       translates “to” or “for”
                 Ablative       domin-is       translates “by”, “with”, or “from”




Examples:


     Nominative               dominus poetam laudat
                              The master praises the poet

     Accusative               agricola equum habet
                              The farmer has a horse

     Genitive                 nuntius domini pecuniam portat
                              The master’s messenger carries the money

     Dative                   femina servo equum dat
                              The woman gives a horse to the slave

     Ablative                 nauta servum gladio necat
                              The sailor kills the slave with a sword.

                                                   — 13 —
amicus, amici (m)                                friend
cibus, cibi (m)                                  food
deus, dei (m)                                    god
dominus, domini (m)                              master
equus, equi (m)                                  horse
filius, filii (m)                                son
gladius, gladii (m)                              sword
locus, loci (m)                                  place
murus, muri (m)                                  wall
nuntius, nuntii (m)                              messenger
Romani, Romanorum (m pl)                         the Romans
servus, servi (m)                                slave
socius, socii (m)                                ally
ventus, venti (m)                                wind




libero, liberare, liberavi, liberatum            I release, I set free




hodie                                            today
subito                                           suddenly
tamen                                            however
tandem                                           at last, finally
postea                                           afterwards
tum                                              then




ā (+ ablative)                                   away from, from
prope (+ accusative)                             near



et                                               and




                                        — 14 —
CE Latin
                                             Exercises - 4


1. Translate into English:

       (a)   vulneramus
       (b)   clamo
       (c)   tenetis
       (d)   vocas
       (e)   habitat
       (f)   laborant


2. Translate into English:

       (a)   equi prope villam stant
       (b)   gladios habetis
       (c)   socii muros villae delent
       (d)   servus dominum gladio necat.
       (e)   agricolae cibum in insula habent
       (f)   nuntios moneo


3. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   we give
       (b)   they praise
       (c)   you (s) move
       (d)   I set free
       (e)   you (pl) sail
       (f)   she destroys

4. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   Sailors fear the wind near the island
       (b)   You (pl) do not give food to the slaves
       (c)   The allies have ships and are hurrying to the place
       (d)   I am walking on the wall of the house
       (e)   We like the slave-girl and she praises the gods
       (f)   You (s) destroy the house of the god




                                                                   /continued




                                                — 15 —
5. Translate into English:

                                    The Farmer and the Eagle
agricola cum amico ambulat. duo amici cibum et aquam portant. agricolae non
festinant. hodie non laborant. dum ambulant, equos spectant. subito aquilam in
dumo vident. aquila clamat. prope aquilam est hasta. aquila vulnerata est. agricola
amico “aquila timet,” inquit. “aquilas tamen non necamus; aquilae nos non terrent.”
agricola aquilam tenet. aquilae cibum dat. aquilam ad villam portat. in villā filius      5
agricolae aquilam curat. tandem agricola aquilam in ventos liberat.

postea agricola cum amico et filio laborat. prope murum stant. subito aquila
petasum filii rapit et ad palum volitat. aquila in palo stat. aquila petasum in rostro
tenet. agricolae ad aquilam festinant. tum murus ruinam dat!


agricola aquilam laudat. “aquila socius agricolarum est,” filio inquit. “aquila nos      10
monet. aquila nos ā muro movet. aquila est nuntius deorum.”




duo                                       two
dum                                       while
aquila, aquilae (f)                       eagle
dumus, dumi (m)                           bush
video, vidēre                             I see
vulnerata                                 wounded
nos                                       us (accusative)
curo, curare, curavi, curatum             I care for, I look after
petasus, petasi (m)                       hat
rapit                                     he/she grabs
palus, pali (m)                           fence-post
volito, volitare, volitavi                I fly
in rostro                                 in its beak
ruinam do, ruinam dare, ruinam dedi       I fall down, I collapse in ruins




6. Translate into Latin:

The farmer’s son has a sword. The son shows (ostendit) the sword to his friend. The sword
terrifies the friend. “I am afraid of swords,” he exclaims. “Swords wound. Swords kill.” The son
walks into the house. The son gives the sword to the farmer. The farmer moves the sword out
of (ē + ablative) the house. He hides (celat) the sword. However the farmer’s daughter sees the
place and takes (capit) the sword. Alas! (eheu!) the farmer does not warn his daughter. The
daughter kills the horse with the sword.




                                             — 16 —
CE LATIN

                               5 –Neuter nouns of the second declension
Remember:
Latin nouns are arranged into 5 groups called declensions.
Each declension has 6 cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative
Second declension nouns are mostly masculine, but some are neuter. The declension of
neuter nouns is slightly different from that of masculine nouns.

Study the forms of templum (a temple):
                  Nominative templ-um           the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                  Vocative   templ-um           used when addressing someone
       singular




                  Accusative     templ-um       the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
                  Genitive       templ-i        indicates possession: translate “of” or “ ‘s”
                  Dative         templ-o        translates “to” or “for”
                  Ablative       templ-o        translates “by”, “with”, or “from”

                  Nominative templ-a            the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                  Vocative   templ-a            used when addressing someone
                  Accusative     templ-a        the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
       plural




                  Genitive       templ-orum indicates possession: translate “of” or “ s’ ”
                  Dative         templ-is       translates “to” or “for”
                  Ablative       templ-is       translates “by”, “with”, or “from”
Notice:
The nominative, vocative and accusative are the same in both the singular and the plural.
The nominative, vocative and accusative plural end in —a (short a); do not confuse these with
first declension nominative singular nouns (e.g. puella).

Examples:

     Nominative                aurum amicos habet
                               gold has friends

     Accusative                amici templum intrant
                               The friends enter the temple

     Genitive                  socii oppidi muros spectant
                               The allies watch the walls of the town.

     Dative                    nautae templo appropinquant.            (appropinquo takes the dative)
                               The sailors approach the temple.

     Ablative                  deus in templo habitat                 (remember in takes the ablative)
                               The god lives in the temple.

                                                    — 17 —
aurum, auri (n)                                 gold
auxilium, auxilii (n)                           help
bellum, belli (n)                               war
caelum, caeli (n)                               sky
donum, doni (n)                                 gift, present
oppidum, oppidi (n)                             town
periculum, periculum (n)                        danger
proelium, proelii (n)                           battle
scutum, scuti (n)                               shield
templum, templi (n)                             temple
verbum, verbi (n)                               word
vinum, vini (n)                                 wine




appropinquo, appropinquare, appropinquavi + dative       I approach
clamo, clamare, clamavi                                  I shout, I exclaim
intro, intrare, intravi                                  I enter
oppugno, oppugnare, oppugnavi, oppugnatum                I attack
pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatum                        I fight




igitur                                          therefore
                                                (usually the second word in a sentence)



ē, ex + ablative                                out of, from

ē is used when the next word starts with a consonant e.g. ē templo out of the temple
ex is used when the next word starts with a vowel    e.g. ex oppido out of the town




                                       — 18 —
CE LATIN
                                        Exercises — 5



   1. Translate into English:

      (a)   in bello cum sociis pugnamus.
      (b)   ancillae templo appropinquant.
      (c)   amici scuta non habent.
      (d)   donum filio habes.
      (e)   vinum e villā portatis.
      (f)   servi verba domini clamant.



   2. Translate into English:

      (a)   filia reginae aurum e templo portat.
      (b)   verba poetae dominum terrent.
      (c)   scuta ex oppido moves.
      (d)   filii agricolae equos liberant.
      (e)   vinum est donum deorum. vinum igitur in villā hodie habeo.
      (f)   venti nautas ad insulas sociorum movent.



   3. Translate into Latin:

      (a)   The gods live in the sky. We are afraid of the gods.
      (b)   There is a battle near the town. The Romans destroy the town and the walls.
      (c)   The allies of the Romans suddenly attack the place.
      (d)   The Romans carry gifts. Therefore they enter the temple.
      (e)   There is danger. However you (s) are holding a shield.
      (f)   At last we have food. Today there is help.




                                                                                  /continued




                                             — 19 —
 5. Translate into English:

 The citizens of the Celtic town Divona are confident that they can hold out against enemy attacks.
 However they underestimate the determination of Julius Caesar who diverts their river to deprive them
                                              of water.

 Cadurci in Galliā habitant. oppidum Cadurcorum est Divona. in oppido Divona est
 templum. Cadurci aurum in templo habent. Cadurci periculum belli timent.
 Divonae igitur muros dant.
       Caesar in Galliā bellum gerit. Romani oppida Gallorum oppugnant. Romani
 gladios, hastas, scuta habent. Romani Gallos necant. Romani Gallos terrent. Cadurci                              5
 Romanos timent. Cadurci templa intrant. deis dona dant. dei tamen Cadurcis
 auxilium non dant.
       Caesar tandem Divonae appropinquat. Cadurci agricolas et servos in oppidum
 movent. “Romani ad nos festinant, sed muros et cibum habemus,” clamant.
       Caesar prope Divonam stat. muros oppidi spectat. “hodie,” inquit “oppidum                                 10
 non oppugnamus.” Romani palas portant. Romani laborant et fossam cavant. tum
 fluvium Cadurcorum in fossam movent. Cadurci clamant “cibum habemus sed
 aqua non est.” Cadurci igitur oppidum Romanis dant.
       Romani Cadurcos non necant. pecuniam et aurum ē templis portant et in foro
 cumulant. cibum et vinum e tabernis rapiunt.                                                                    15
       Caesar tamen feminas cum filiis et filiabus maritis dat. servos et ancillas liberat.
“bellum cum feminis et servis non habeo,” Caesar inquit.
      tum Romani muros Divonae delent. postea cum Romanis bellum Cadurcis non
 est.


 Cadurci, Cadurcorum (m pl)      the Cadurci (a tribe of people)
 Divona, Divonae (f)             Divona (now Cahors in France)
 Caesar (m)                      Caesar (Julius Caesar who invaded Gaul in 59 B.C.)
 Gallia, Galliae (f)             Gaul (the Roman name for what is now mainly, but not only France)
 Galli, Gallorum (m pl)          the Gauls

Vocabulary

 gerit                           (he) is fighting
 nos (accusative)                us
 pala, palae (f)                 spade
 fossa, fossae (f)               ditch
 cavo, cavare, cavavi, cavatum   I excavate, I hollow out
 fluvius, fluvii (m)             river
 forum, fori (n)                 forum, market-place, town-square
 cumulo, cumulare, cumulavi      I pile up, I heap up
 taberna, tabernae (f)           shop, inn, bar
 rapiunt                         they seize
 filiabus                        irregular ablative plural of filia, filiae (f). This form is used to make it different
                                 from the ablative plural of filius, filii (m) so that the two can be used in the same
                                 sentence as here.
 maritus, mariti (m)             husband




                                                       — 20 —
6.       Translate into Latin:

There is1 a temple in the town. The temple has a wall. The temple is of the god Saturn. The
Romans keep2 gold in the temple. The allies of the Romans give gifts to the temple. There is1
much money in the temple.

One day sailors attack the temple. They destroy the wall of the temple. The temple is in danger.
The Romans are afraid. The masters call their3 slaves. They give swords and shields to the slaves.
Then the slaves hurry to the temple. There is1 a battle near the temple. The slaves fight with the
sailors. They kill twenty sailors. The sailors kill five slaves. They wound ten slaves. However the
sailors do not destroy the temple. At last the sailors sail to the island. The slaves save the
temple and its3 gifts. The Romans praise the slaves. Afterwards the masters set the slaves free.

     1
       use est
     2
       use part of teneo, tenere, tenui
     3
       leave out


     Saturn            Saturnus, Saturni (m)
     one day           quondam
     twenty            viginti (does not decline)
     five              quinque (does not decline)
     ten               decem (does not decline)
     save              servo, servare, servavi, servatum




                                                  — 21 —
CE LATIN

                          6 –Adjectives of the first and second declension

Adjectives are used to describe nouns:
                                   a good farmer   a pretty girl     wise men

In Latin an adjective must be in the same form as the noun it describes. That is, it must agree.
Latin adjectives agree with their nouns in
         gender          (masculine, feminine, neuter)
         number          (singular, plural)
         case            (nominative, accusative etc.)
The masculine of these adjectives declines like a second declension masculine noun
e.g. dominus
The feminine of these adjectives declines like a first declension feminine noun e.g. puella
The neuter of these adjectives declines like a second declension neuter noun e.g. templum

Study the forms of bonus (good):
                                   masculine         feminine       neuter
                        Nominative bonus             bona           bonum
                        Vocative   bone              bona           bonum
             singular




                        Accusative      bonum        bonam          bonum
                        Genitive        boni         bonae          boni
                        Dative          bono         bonae          bono
                        Ablative        bono         bonā           bono


                        Nominative boni             bonae           bona
                        Vocative   boni             bonae           bona
                        Accusative     bonos        bonas           bona
             plural




                        Genitive       bonorum      bonarum         bonorum
                        Dative         bonis        bonis           bonis
                        Ablative       bonis        bonis           bonis
Examples:

Nominative              nauta bonus multam pecuniam habet
                        The good sailor has much money

Accusative              nauta bonus multam pecuniam habet
                        The good sailor has much money

Genitive                socii Graecorum perterritorum auxilium dant
                        The allies of the terrified Greeks give help.

Dative                  poeta amico irato pecuniam dat
                        The poet gives money to his angry friend.
                                                   — 22 —
Ablative           deus in magno templo habitat
                   The god lives in a big temple.

Note the following:

    bona puella         a good girl (puella is first declension feminine)
    bonus servus        a good slave (servus is second declension masculine)

Here the adjectives and nouns are in the same declension and so have the same endings.

But if the noun is first declension masculine, the adjective must also be masculine to agree
and will have a second declension form:

    bonus nauta ad insulam navigat           the good sailor sails to the island
    servus fesso agricolae aquam dat         the slave gives water to the tired farmer


                                      SUM – The Verb to be.

Study the present tense of SUM – I am:

                        sum         I am
                        es          you (s) are
                        est         he is, she is, it is, is
                        sumus       we are
                        estis       you (pl) are
                        sunt        they are, are

Examples:

      pecuniam habeo. laetus sum                    I have money. I am happy.
      poeta es.                                     You are a poet.
      dominus mortuus est.                          The master is dead.
      regina est irata.                             The queen is angry.
      laeti sumus. cibum bonum habemus.             We are happy. We have good food.
      servi agricolae estis. in fundo laboratis     You are the slaves of the farmer. You work on the
                                                    farm.
      muri villae sunt alti.                        The walls of the house are high.
      Romani sunt in oppido.                        The Romans are in the town.

Take Care!

When translating from English into Latin, it is all too easy to try and use part of SUM when a
verb ending is needed. Study this sentence:
                                the slave-girls are working in the house
Do not try to use     (are) here. The word are in this sentence is to be taken as part of the
verb to work. Are working would be translated by laborant.

                                                — 23 —
altus, alta, altum                              high, deep
bonus, bona, bonum                              good
fessus, fessa, fessum                           tired
iratus, irata, iratum                           angry
laetus, laeta, laetum                           happy
magnus, magna, magnum                           big
malus, mala, malum                              bad
minimus, minima, minimum                        very little
mortuus, mortua, mortuum                        dead
multus, multa, multum                           much (sing), many (plur)
optimus, optima, optimum                        very good, excellent, best
perterritus, perterrita, perterritum            terrified
solus, sola, solum                              alone




dea, deae (f)                                   goddess
terra, terrae (f)                               earth, ground




diu                                             for a long time
hic                                             here
ubi?                                            where?




sine + ablative                                 without
de + ablative                                   about
per + accusative                                through, along




sed                                             but




                                       — 24 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 6


1. Translate into English:

       (a)   dominus iratus sum. malos servos terreo.
       (b)   muri oppidi alti sunt.
       (c)   boni nuntii estis.
       (d)   diu laboramus. fessi sumus.
       (e)   minimam pecuniam habes. in magno periculo es.
       (f)   socii sunt optimi. multos nautas necant.



2. Translate into English:

       (a)   ubi est aurum?
       (b)   hic sunt villae optimae.
       (c)   in oppidum sine gladio ambulas.
       (d)   filius equos bonos habet.
       (e)   dominus est iratus. e villa festinamus.
       (f)   gladios optimos et hastas magnas habemus. periculum non timemus.



3. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   without a word
       (b)   along the street
       (c)   about the money
       (d)   out of the houses
       (e)   into the town
       (f)   near the temples



4. Translate into Latin:

       (a)   We are alone and terrified.
       (b)   There is much gold in the large houses of the town.
       (c)   The sons are tired and angry.
       (d)   You (pl) have very good gifts.
       (e)   You (s) do not fear the dead slaves.
       (f)   I have a good son, but an excellent daughter.




                                            — 25 —
5. Translate into English:

                    A farmer gives his sons a lesson in the true meaning of wealth.
agricola duos filios habet. filii sunt boni sed ignavi. filii in fundō non laborant.
agricola filios amat. agricola filiis cibum optimum dat. filii vitam bonam habent.
filii laeti sunt.
     tandem agricola filios vocat. “moriturus sum” inquit. “sed multa pecunia est in
terrā.”                                                                                   5
     postridie agricola mortuus est.
     filii sunt perterriti. “mala fortuna est. soli sumus. minimam pecuniam habemus.
in magnō fundō habitamus, sed non sumus agricolae. in periculō sumus,” unus
filius clamat.
     “pecunia tamen est in terrā. sine dubiō pecunia est aurum.” inquit frater.          10
filii palas portant et ad agros festinant. fundus tamen est magnus. diu laborant.
multam terram movent. tandem fessi sunt.
     “aurum hic non est. pecuniam non video,” filius clamat.
     filii ad villam ambulant. irati sunt.
     filii amicum agricolae visitant. vitam deplorant. amicus filios de verbis           15
agricolae monet: multa pecunia est in terrā. sed ubi est pecunia?
     postea filii per fenestram villae spectant. ubique triticum altum vident! “ecce!”
clamant filii, “multum est triticum. triticum multam pecuniam valet!”
tum filii agricolam laudant. verba agricolae vera sunt: pecuniam sine labore non
habes.                                                                                   20



   duo                              two
   ignavus, ignava, ignavum         lazy
   fundus, fundi (m)                farm
   vita, vitae (f)                  life
   moriturus, moritura, moriturum   going to die
   inquit                           (he) says
   postridie                        next day
   fortuna, fortunae (f)            luck, fortune
   unus, una, unum                  one
   dubium, dubii (n)                doubt
   frater (nominative)              brother
   pala, palae (f)                  spade
   agros (accusative plural)        fields
   video                            I see
   deploro, deplorare, deploravi    I complain about
   fenestra, fenestrae (f)          window
   ubique                           everywhere
   triticum, tritici (n)            wheat
   valeo, valere, valui             I am worth
   verus, vera, verum               true
   labore (ablative)                hard work




                                              — 26 —
6. Translate into Latin:

There is a big temple in the town of1 Tarentum. In the temple there is an excellent statue of the
goddess Minerva. The hair of the goddess is2 made of gold.

Bad slaves enter the temple. Without the least noise they remove the hair of the statue. They
carry the gold out of the temple.

Afterwards the citizens of Tarentum are angry. “Where is the hair of the statue?” they shout.
They offer money in return for information.

A good slave lives with the bad slaves. He tells his master3 about the theft. The master calls the
slaves into the main room of the house. The slaves hurry to their master. The master searches
the house and finds the golden hair. The bad slaves are terrified. The master gives back the hair
to Minerva then puts the bad slaves to death4. Afterwards the citizens of Tarentum are happy.

      1
        Leave out. Put Tarentum in the same case as town.
      2
        Note that the Latin word for hair is plural.
      3
        his master: the dative is required.
      4
        puts to death: say kills.




      statue                    statua, statuae (f)
      Minerva                   Minerva, Minervae (f)
      hair                      capilli, capillorum (m pl)
      made of gold              aureus, aurea, aureum
      noise                     sonus, soni (m)
      they remove               tollunt
      citizen of Tarentum       Tarentinus, Tarentini (m)
      they offer                offerunt
      information               nuntius, nuntii (m)
      theft                     furtum, furti (n)
      tell                      narro, narrare, narravi, narratum
      main room                 atrium, atrii (n)
      search                    exploro, explorare, exploravi, exploratum
      (he) finds                invenit
      (he) gives back           reddit




                                            — 27 —
CE LATIN

                                             7 – Numbers


Here are the numbers from one to ten in Latin together with the Roman numerals:

                             I               unus                  1
                             II              duo                   2
                             III             tres                  3
                             IV              quattuor              4
                             V               quinque               5
                             VI              sex                   6
                             VII             septem                7
                             VIII            octo                  8
                             IX              novem                 9
                             X               decem                10


The numbers 1-3 are adjectives and decline, but as their declensions are rather unusual, these
will be covered fully in a later lesson. For now, note the following forms of unus (one) and duo
(two):

                                   masculine     feminine        neuter
             singular




                        Nominative unus          una             unum
                        Accusative unum          unam            unum


                                   masculine      feminine       neuter
              plural




                        Nominative duo            duae           duo
                        Accusative duos           duas           duo


Numbers from four upwards do not decline.



Latin also has numbers to show order:

                             primus, prima, primum              first
                             secundus, secunda, secundum     second
                             tertius, tertia, tertium          third


These are adjectives and decline like bonus (lesson 6).




                                               — 28 —
                                       Vocabulary 7


Noun

       arma, armorum (n pl)                        arms, equipment
                                                   (Note this word is used only in the plural)


       canto, cantare, cantavi, cantatum           I sing
       rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum               I ask, I ask for
       supero, superare, superavi, superatum       I overcome, I defeat




       olim                                        once, once upon a time



       tutus, tuta, tutum                          safe
       parvus, parva, parvum                       small




                                          — 29 —
CE Latin
                                             Exercises – 7


   1. Turn the Roman numerals and symbols in the following expressions into words, at the
      same time providing the answer then translate into English:

       Example:            I + III =
                           unus et tres sunt quattuor
                           one and three are four.

       (a)   II + IV =
       (b)   V+V=
       (c)   III + IV =
       (d)   I+I=
       (e)   VI + III =
       (f)   II + VIII =


   2. Translate each of the following, then change the singular to the plural and translate
      again:

       (a)   amicus puellae prope templum est.
       (b)   pictura proelii in muro est.
       (c)   poetam bonum laudo.
       (d)   equum optimum habes.



   3. Translate each of the following, then change the plural to the singular and translate
      again:

       (a)   templa magna in foro sunt.
       (b)   socii sunt perterriti.
       (c)   agricolae soli per vias ambulant.
       (d)   hastas optimas habetis




                                                                                  /continued




                                               — 30 —
4. Translate into English:

                                      An extract from a traveller’s diary.

hodie Sinuessae appropinquo. multus ventus est. Sinuessa est oppidum parvum,
sed muros altos habet. cibus et aqua bona sunt. amicum in oppido habeo. amicus
est Marcus. Marcus magnam villam cum multis servis et multis ancillis habet. filia
Marci est Drusilla. Drusilla est puella octo annorum. puella laeta est. Drusilla equos
amat. dona pro Marco et Drusilla porto. donum filiae est pictura equi. donum Marci       5
est gladius. solus per viam ambulo, sed non timeo: in hōc loco tutus sum.
    tandem villam Marci intro. fessus sum. servi sarcinas ad cubiculum portant. diu
cum Marco colloquium habeo. vinum bonum potamus. postea ancilla cantat. tum
ad cubiculum festino.
    mane villam Marci relinquo. Marcum et filiam laudo. Drusilla lacrimat.               10
lacrimae Drusillae me movent. via tamen vocat. dum ambulo, agricolas specto.
agricolae laborant. caelum est serenum. laetus sum.
    tum magnum oppidum visito, sed alia est fabula...




      Sinuessa, Sinuessae (f)                   Sinuessa
      Marcus, Marci (m)                         Marcus
      Drusilla, Drusillae (f)                   Drusilla



      annus, anni (m)                           year
      picture, picturae (f)                     picture
      hōc                                       this (ablative)
      sarcinae, sarcinarum (f pl)               bags, luggage
      cubiculum, cubiculi (n)                   bedroom
      colloquium, colloquii (n)                 conversation
      poto, potare, potavi, potatum             I drink
      mane                                      in the morning
      relinquo                                  I leave
      lacrimo, lacrimare, lacrimavi             I cry, I am in tears
      lacrima, lacrimae (f)                     tear
      me                                        me (accusative)
      dum                                       while
      serenus, serena, serenum                  calm, peaceful
      alius, alia                               other, another
      visito, visitare, visitavi                I visit
      fabula, fabulae (f)                       story




                                                  — 31 —
5. Translate into English:

                        If you are given responsibility, you must make good use of it.

dominus tres servos habet. servi in villa domini laborant. villa est magna. olim
dominus servos vocat.
       “ad Graeciam eo,” dominus servis inquit. “servi boni estis. ecce! pecuniam
vobis habeo.”
        dominus servo primo quinque denarios dat. servo secundo duos denarios                      5
dat. servo tertio unum denarium dat.
        servus primus hastas, scuta, gladios emit. tum ad oppidum vicinum festinat.
legatus Romanus in oppido manet. servus legato arma vendit. servus pecuniam ad
villam portat.
        servus secundus equum emit. equo cibum et aquam dat. equum curat. tum                      10
agricolae equum vendit. agricola servo quattuor denarios dat.
        servus tertius dominum timet. ad templum festinat. deo sacrificium facit.
deus tamen servum non monet. servus est perterritus. “dominum timeo,” servus
clamat. servus e villā festinat. tum terram cavat et pecuniam celat. “pecunia
domini tuta est,” servus inquit.                                                                   15
        post duos annos dominus ad villam revenit. tres servi ad eum festinant.
servus primus domino decem denarios ostendit. dominus laetus est. dominus
servum laudat. dominus servo pecuniam dat et servum liberat.
        servus secundus clamat “ecce, domine! quattuor denarios habeo.” dominus
est laetus et servum vilicum facit.                                                                20
        servus tertius “domine, dominus durus es. servos terres. pecuniam tamen
tutam habeo.” et domino unum denarium dat.
    dominus est iratus. “male serve, cur donum non curas?” dominus clamat.
denarium ā servo rapit et servo primo dat. servus tertius nunc solus in villā laborat.




eo                                I am going             post + accusative          after
inquit                            (he) says              annus, anni (m)            year
ecce!                             look!                  revenit                    (he) returns
vobis                             for you (dative        ostendit                   (he) shows
                                  plural)                vilicus, vilici (m)        steward
denarius, denarii (m)             denarius (a silver     durus, dura, durum         hard, harsh
                                  coin)                  rapit                      (he) seizes
dat                               (he) gives
emit                              (he) buys
vicinus, vicina, vicinum          neighbouring
legatus, legati (m)               commander,
                                  general
manet                             (he) stays, (he) is
                                  staying
vendit                            (he) sells
curo, curare, curavi              I look after, I take
                                  care of
sacrificium, sacrificii (n)       sacrifice
facit                             (he) makes
cavo, cavare, cavavi, cavatum     I hollow out, I dig
celo, celare, celavi, celatum     I hide
                                                     — 32 —
6.

The story of Cincinnatus who left his farm to save Rome in their war against the Aequi in 458BC and who
                                         became a national hero.


Translate into Latin:

The Aequi are attacking the Romans. There is a battle near the small town of1 Alba. The Romans
fight for a long time, but the Aequi are many. Minucius, the commander of the Romans, sends
a messenger to Rome2. The messenger enters the forum. The messenger shouts: “We ask for
help; we are in great danger.”

The Romans are terrified. Therefore they send for Cincinnatus. Cincinnatus is a farmer but an
excellent commander. Cincinnatus hurries to the town of1 Alba. Here he fights with the Aequi.
The Romans wound many Aequi. The Romans at last overcome the Aequi. The delighted3
Romans praise Cincinnatus. Cincinnatus however says “I am a farmer. Today I go back to the
farm.”

Afterwards the Romans put up a statue of Cincinnatus in the forum. The statue holds a spear
and a plough.


     1
       leave out ‘of’ and put Alba in the same case as town.
     2
       to Rome: accusative case, no ad. ad is not used if the next word is the name of a town.
     3
       say happy.



         Aequi                   Aequi, Aequorum (m. pl.)
         Alba                    Alba, Albae (f)
         Minucius                Minucius, Minucii (m)
         commander               legatus, legati (m)
         sends (he)              mittit
         forum                   forum, fori (n)
         send for (they)         arcessunt
         Cincinnatus             Cincinnatus, Cincinnati (m)
         says (he)               inquit (place after the first word spoken: “...” inquit “... ... ...”)
         I go back               redeo
         farm                    fundus, fundi (m)
         put up (they)           erigunt
         statue                  statua, statuae (f)
         plough                  aratrum, aratri (n)




                                                    — 33 —
CE LATIN

                    8 – Second Declension Nouns and Adjectives in —r

Although most second declension masculine nouns end —us in the nominative, there are some
that end in —r. Most end —er. Of these, some keep the e throughout their declension, others
lose it.

Study the following examples:

   (a) Nouns

                                 book            boy

           Nominative            liber           puer
           Vocative              liber           puer
           Accusative            librum          puerum
           Genitive              libri           pueri
           Dative                libro           puero
           Ablative              libro           puero

           Nominative            libri           pueri
           Vocative              libri           pueri
           Accusative            libros          pueros
           Genitive              librorum        puerorum
           Dative                libris          pueris
           Ablative              libris          pueris


It is very important when learning these nouns to learn the genitive singular at the same time,
as this will give you the form you need to work out the other cases when translating from
English into Latin.
                                                                 noster, nostra, nostrum : our
   (b) Adjectives
                                masculine        feminine            neuter

           Nominative            noster          nostra              nostrum
           Vocative              noster          nostra              nostrum
           Accusative            nostrum         nostram             nostrum
           Genitive              nostri          nostrae             nostri
           Dative                nostro          nostrae             nostro
           Ablative              nostro          nostrā              nostro

           Nominative            nostri          nostrae             nostra
           Vocative              nostri          nostrae             nostra
           Accusative            nostros         nostras             nostra
           Genitive              nostrorum       nostrarum           nostrorum
           Dative                nostris         nostris             nostris
           Ablative              nostris         nostris             nostris

                                             — 34 —
                                                 miser, misera, miserum : miserable, wretched


                             masculine           feminine            neuter

           Nominative          miser             misera              miserum
           Vocative            miser             misera              miserum
           Accusative          miserum           miseram             miserum
           Genitive            miseri            miserae             miseri
           Dative              misero            miserae             misero
           Ablative            misero            miserā              misero

           Nominative          miseri            miserae             misera
           Vocative            miseri            miserae             misera
           Accusative          miseros           miseras             misera
           Genitive            miserorum         miserarum           miserorum
           Dative              miseris           miseris             miseris
           Ablative            miseris           miseris             miseris



                                   Compounds of SUM

In Lesson 6 (page 23) we met the verb SUM - I am. Certain prepositions can be added on the
front of SUM that extend its meaning. Study these two examples:


           adsum         I am here               absum         I am absent
           ades          you (s) are here        abes          you are absent
           adest         he/she is here          abest         he/she is absent
           adsumus       we are here             absumus       we are absent
           adestis       you (pl) are here       abestis       you (pl) are absent
           adsunt        they are here           absunt        they are absent


If you compare these examples with SUM on page 23, you will se that there is no change to the
way in which SUM is conjugated.

You will meet other compounds of SUM later in the course.




                                             — 35 —
absum, abesse, afui                      I am absent, I am away, I am missing
adsum, adesse, adfui                     I am present, I am here
paro, parare, paravi, paratum            I prepare, I commit (a crime)



ager, agri (m)                           field
liber, libri                             book
magister, magistri (m)                   teacher
mora, morae (f)                          delay
nihil                                    nothing
puer, pueri (m)                          boy
vir, viri (m)                            man



meus, mea, meum                          my
miser, misera, miserum                   miserable, wretched
noster, nostra, nostrum                  our
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum               beautiful
sacer, sacra, sacrum                     sacred
suus, sua, suum                          his, her, its, their
tuus, tua, tuum                          your (singular)
vester, vestra, vestrum                  your (plural)



iterum                                   again, for a second time
mox                                      soon
nunc                                     now
quoque                                   also




                                — 36 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 8


   1. Translate into English:

      (a)   O Romani, vestri libri sacri in templo nostro sunt.
      (b)   ager meus prope parvum templum est.
      (c)   puerum tuum in meā villā habeo.
      (d)   proelium nunc adest. hic nihil tutum est.
      (e)   arma vestra paratis: bellum nunc in nostris agris est.
      (f)   regina tua pulchra est et filia quoque.



   2. Translate into English:

      (a)   multi pueri magistrum tuum timent. vir laetus non est.
      (b)   gladio tuo malum servum interficio.
      (c)   ubi sunt ancillae nostrae? – in villā meā ancillae vestrae donum domino parant.
      (d)   cur aurum meum abest? – pueri optimi aurum tuum e templo magno portant.
      (e)   servi fessi e villā nostrā in agros tuos iterum festinant.
      (f)   magister meus cum servis suis in parvā villā habitat.



   3. Translate into Latin:

      (a)   Our boys are here, but your (pl) slaves are missing.
      (b)   You (s) have five beautiful slave girls, but I have ten.
      (c)   I like my teacher. He prepares my books.
      (d)   We are miserable here. You (pl) have very little food in your house.
      (e)   The boy and his friends have your (s) horse again.
      (f)   The poet’s books are in his house.



   4. Translate into Latin:

      (a)   The temple is yours (s), but the town is mine.
      (b)   Many Romans are approaching our house. I am moving the slaves into the fields.
      (c)   The happy slave-girls are singing in the house.
      (d)   The master of the four slaves now has five.
      (e)   Men and women, now you are looking at your allies.




                                                                                   /continued


                                            — 37 —
 5. Translate into English:

    A bad doctor tries to cheat a woman, but she brings him to court and successfully pleads her case.

 femina olim aegra est. medicum igitur ad villam vocat. medicus ad villam festinat.
 femina sola habitat. medicus villam intrat et feminam spectat. feminae
 medicamentum dat. femina medico pecuniam dat. medicus cubiculum
 circumspectat. in cubiculo sunt tres parvae statuae deorum et quinque libros et
 amphoram vini. medicus vinum potat et unam statuam surripit. femina medicum                       5
 non videt. femina aegra est. tum medicus ad oppidum cum pecuniā feminae et cum
 statuā ambulat.
    postridie medicus ad villam feminae festinat. feminae medicamentum iterum
 dat. duas tamen statuas et quattuor libros surripit.
    postea femina convalescit. femina villam spectat.                                             10
    “ubi sunt statuae pulchrae et libri? statuas non video, libros non video.” femina
 clamat. femina amphoram vini spectat. “vinum quoque abest,” femina misera inquit.
    femina irata malum medicum ad basilicam vocat. medicum furti accusat.
    “furta non paro. bonus medicus sum,” medicus inquit. “verba feminae falsa sunt.”
    “malus medicus es. pecuniam meam habes, ingravesco tamen. libros meos,                        15
 statuas meas, vinum meum in villā meā non video. nunc caeca sum!”
    duovir medicum terret. “ubi sunt bona feminae?” rogat. medicus est perterritus.
“nihil habeo,” inquit.
    subito servus clamat, “dominus meus bona in villā nostrā habet.” servus
 dominum suum non amat.                                                                           20
    “redde pecuniam et bona, sine morā!” medico inquit duovir. femina laeta est.
     malus medicus postea oppidum relinquit. nunc non est medicus, sed vespillo!



     aeger, aegra, aegrum       sick, ill                 caecus, caeca, caecum       blind
     medicus, medici (m)        doctor                    duovir, duoviri (m)         magistrate, judge
     medicamentum, medicamenti (n)           drug,        bona, bonorum (n pl)        goods,
                                medicine                                              possessions
     dat                        (he)/(she) gives          redde!                      give back!
     cubiculum, cubiculi (n)    bedroom                   relinquit                   (he) leaves
     circumspecto, - are, - avi I look around             vespillo (nom)              undertaker
     statua, statuae (f)        statue
     amphora, amphorae (f)      jar
     poto, - are, - avi, - atum I drink
     surripit                   (he) steals
     videt                      (he)/(she) sees
     postridie                  on the next day
     convalescit                (he)/(she)
                                recovers, gets
                                better
     inquit                     (he)/(she) says
     basilica, basilicae (f)    law-court
     furtum, furti (n)          theft, stealing
     accuso, - are, -avi, -atum I accuse
     falsus, falsa, falsum      false, untrue
     ingravesco                 I am getting
                                worse

                                                — 38 —
 6.

      The story of Verginia tells of the arrogance and dishonesty of the ruling classes in the early period
              of Rome’s history and the refusal of the common people to accept such treatment.

Translate into Latin:

Verginius is a Roman soldier. He has a beautiful daughter. The daughter is Verginia. Verginia is
engaged to Icilius.

    At Rome the decemvirs are the masters. One of the decemvirs, Appius, is in love with
Verginia. He prepares an evil plan. He sends his friend to Verginia’s house. However Verginius
is out. The friend with his slaves overpowers Verginia. The slaves carry Verginia to the
law-court. Here Appius is in charge.

   Appius’ friend announces to the Romans, “Verginia is not Roman, she is my slave-girl.”
Verginia shouts “I am not your slave-girl, I am the daughter of Verginius.”

    Icilius is present. He hurries to Verginius. Soon Verginius enters the law-court. Appius says
“My friend’s words are true. I give the woman to my friend.”

      The friend says, “and in return for the good judgement I give my slave-girl to Appius.”

   “Your friend’s words are false,” shouts Verginius. “Verginia is not your slave-girl.”
Verginius has a sword. He kills his daughter with the sword.

      The Romans are afraid of Appius, but they attack the friend. They wound the friend. Appius
 is terrified. Appius hurries from1 Rome without delay.

      1
          leave out. Put Rome in the ablative case. (Prepositions are not used before the names of towns)


           Verginius                  Verginius, Verginii (m)
           soldier                    miles (nominative)
           Verginia                   Verginia, Verginiae (f)
           engaged to                 sponsus, sponsa, sponsum (+ genitive of the person)
           Icilius                    Icilius, Icilii (m)
           at Rome                    Romae
           decemvir                   decemvir, decemviri (m)
           Appius                     Appius, Appii (m)
           plan                       consilium, consilii (n)
           he sends                   mittit
           law-court                  basilica, basilicae (f)
           says (he)                  inquit (place after the first word spoken: “...” inquit “... ... ...”)
           I am in charge             praesum, praeesse, praefui
           announce                   nuntio, nuntiare, nuntavi, nuntiatum
           true                       verus, vera, verum
           I give                     do
           judgement                  iudicium, iudicii (n)
           false                      falsus, falsa, falsum
           leaves (he)                descedit


                                                       — 39 —
CE LATIN

                                     9 – Fourth Conjugation Verbs

Fourth conjugation verbs are different from first and second conjugation verbs in that they
have –i at the end of the stem:

Here is the present tense of audio (I hear):

            audi-o                  I hear
            audi-s                  you (s) hear
            audi-t                  he hears, she hears, it hears
            audi-mus                we hear
            audi-tis                you (pl) hear
            audi-unt                they hear



                                              Personal Pronouns

As we have seen, the personal pronouns I, You, He, She etc., are shown by the endings of the
verb. audio means I hear, audis, you hear etc. There is no need for nominative personal
pronouns. Nevertheless Latin does have nominative personal pronouns, and these are mainly
used when making a contrast: I do this, but you do that. You will see examples of this in the
reading passage that follows.

This table gives the cases of the personal pronouns I, You (s), We, You (pl). The pronouns used
for He, She, It, and They, will be discussed later.

Note that the genitive case, although given here, is fairly uncommon in Latin.

                                                          I         You (singular)
                                   Nominative ego                   tu
                                   Vocative                         tu
                        singular




                                   Accusative     me                te
                                   Genitive       mei               tui
                                   Dative         mihi              tibi
                                   Ablative       me                te

                                                         We          You (plural)
                                   Nominative nos                   vos
                                   Vocative                         vos
                                   Accusative     nos               vos
                        plural




                                   Genitive       nostrum           vestrum
                                   Dative         nobis             vobis
                                   Ablative       nobis             vobis

                                                    — 40 —
                               Vocabulary 9




audio, audire, audivi, auditum                I hear, I listen to
cupio, cupire, cupivi                         I want, I desire
dormio, dormire, dormivi, dormitum            I sleep
punio, punire, punivi, punitum                I punish




forum, fori (n)                               forum, town square
turba, turbae (f)                             crowd




maximus, maxima, maximum                      greatest, largest
novus, nova, novum                            new




bene                                          well
cur?                                          why?
ibi                                           there
itaque                                        and so
numquam                                       never
statim                                        at once, immediately




                                     — 41 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 9


   1. Translate into English:

      (a)   audiunt
      (b)   dormis
      (c)   punit
      (d)   auditis
      (e)   cupimus
      (f)   dormio


   2. Translate into English:

      (a)   turba maxima in viā nos terret.
      (b)   bene laboratis; vos non punio.
      (c)   servi boni numquam dormiunt.
      (d)   multam pecuniam cupio.
      (e)   poeta es; novos libros habes.
      (f)   ego te audio, sed tu me non audis.


   3. Translate into Latin:

      (a)   Why are you sleeping, slave-girls? The master is here.
      (b)   The teacher punishes the bad boys.
      (c)   I want my son. He is working in the fields.
      (d)   Our allies want a new temple in the town.
      (e)   The boys are preparing your (s) horse now.
      (f)   I walk down the street and the men and women look at me.


   4. Translate into Latin:

      (a)   Where is the best wine? My friends are here.
      (b)   At last the Romans are entering the town of the allies.
      (c)   I like your (s) new shield.
      (d)   You (pl) do not praise your slaves. However they are very good.
      (e)   The masters of the island are away, and so the sailors are attacking.
      (f)   Nothing moves us, we are never happy.




                                            — 42 —
 5. Translate into English:


                                                            I

  Sparsus complains that I have given up Rome to live in the country and tries to persuade me to return.

 epistulam ab amico Sparso teneo. Sparsus Romae habitat, ego in villā prope
 Nomentum. Roma magna est, Nomentum oppidum parvum. Sparsus me ita accusat:
       “cur Romam non amas? cur in oppido Nomento habitas? Nomentum longe
 abest. multos amicos Romae habes; hic vinum optimum in tabernis potamus;
 Romae sunt multae puellae pulchrae. poeta es: hic poetae bene laborant. ego et                              5
 amici te desideramus. vita sine te misera est. vir bonus ad amicos statim festinat.”




    epistula, epistulae (f)                letter
    Sparsus, Sparsi (m)                    Sparsus
    Romae                                  at Rome
    Nomentum, Nomenti (m)                  Nomentum (a town about 25 miles from Rome)
    ita                                    in this way
    accuso, accusare, accusavi             I accuse
    longe                                  far, a long way
    poto, potare, potavi                   I drink
    desidero, desiderare, desideravi       I miss, I long to have
    vita, vitae (f)                        life


                                                            II

        I reply that the city is far too noisy and that the country life is ideal for writing good poetry.

“in villa mea vita tranquilla est. negotia Romae amas tu, ego Nomenti silentium.
 Romae magistri pueros perterritos ad ludos vocant. nautae servos ad forum agitant.
 multi viri et multae feminae per vias ambulant et mihi obstant. servi et ancillae
 tabernas semper frequentant. turba virorum popinas complet: frustra vinum et                               10
 cibum rogo. argentarii “pecuniam,” clamant “pecuniam habemus,” et mensas suas
 pulsant. ibi caput Caesaris maximi momenti est. linguam Latinam numquam audio.
 pericula viarum me semper terrent.

 tranquillus, tranquilla, tranquillum     peaceful               compleo, complere, complevi   I fill
 negotium, negotii (n)               business, activity          frustra                       in vain, to no avail
 silentium, silentii (n)             silence                     argentarius, argentarii (m)   banker
 ludus, ludi (m)                     school                      mensa, mensae (f)             table
 agito, agitare, agitavi             I drive, I push             pulso, pulsare, pulsavi       I hit, I thump, I
                                     along                                                     bang
 obsto, obstare, obstiti + dative    I get in the way of         caput Caesaris                the emperor’s
 taberna, tabernae (f)               shop                                                      head (caput is
 frequento, frequentare, frequentavi (I) collect in large                                      nominative)
                                     numbers, I visit            momentum, momenti (n)         importance
                                     often                       lingua, linguae (f)           language
 popina, popinae (f)                 bar                         Latinus, Latina, Latinum      Latin
                                                     — 43 —
    in oppido Nomento tamen nullos sonos raucos audio. dormio quoad cupio.
gallus me excitat. per agros saepe ambulo. agricolae mihi cibum et vinum                    15
praebent. hic sum optimus poeta. villa parva est, sed locum amicis semper habet.
te moneo: cur ad me non festinas? hic vitam optimam habes!”

   sonus, soni (m)               sound
   raucus, rauca, raucum         harsh
   quoad                         as long as
   gallus, galli (m)             cockerel
   excito, excitare, excitavi    I wake up, I rouse
   praebeo, praebere, praebui    I provide




6. Translate into Latin (pronouns in italics should be translated by a Latin pronoun):

Marrucinus, I do not like you. You come to dinner in my house with our friends. My slaves
prepare good food and the best wine for us. Beautiful slave-girls sing. However, you do not
listen to the slave-girls. You do not listen to the words of our friends. You steal the napkins of
the friends. This pleases you? It does not please me. I give to you and you steal from me. You are
a thief, but I am a poet. I am preparing a new poem about you. Many men and women read my
poems. You, therefore, are in great danger: no one invites you to dinner, no one wants you, no
one praises you. And so give me back the napkins! I want my napkins. The napkins are a present
from1 my friend Fabullus. Fabullus is working in Spain and the napkins are very dear to me. I
have many friends, but Fabullus is my best friend. I am a good man and I love my friends and
the presents of my friends equally.

      1say   ‘of’

      Marrucinus                     Marrucinus, Marrucini (m)
      you come                       venis
      dinner                         cena, cenae (f)
      you steal                      surripis
      napkin                         linteum, lintei (n)
      this                           hoc (nom. neut. sing.)
      please                         delecto, delectare, delectavi
      thief                          fur (nom. masc. sing.)
      poem, poems                    versiculi, versiculorum (m. pl. Only used in plural)
      read (they)                    legunt
      no one                         nemo (nom. sing)
      invite                         invito, invitare, invitavi, invitatum
      give back!                     redde!
      Fabullus                       Fabullus, Fabulli (m)
      Spain                          Hispania, Hispaniae (f)
      very dear                      carissimus, carissima, carissimum
      equally                        pariter




                                               — 44 —
CE LATIN

                               10 – Third Conjugation Verbs

Third conjugation verbs are different from first, second and fourth conjugation verbs in that
they mostly have a consonant at the end of the stem. The principal parts of these verbs do not
form a regular pattern as they do in the other conjugations and this means that each verb has
to be learned separately.

Here is the present tense of mitto, mittere, misi, missum (I send):


                       mitt-o             I send
                       mitt-is            You send (singular)
                       mitt-it            He sends, she sends, it sends
                       mitt-imus          We send
                       mitt-itis          You send (plural)
                       mitt-unt           They send


Compare the forms of each of the four conjugations:



  —o, —are, —avi, —atum —eo, —ēre, —ui, —itum      —o, —ere, —i, —um      —io, —ire, —ivi, —itum

            porto                moneo                     mitto                  audio

           portas                mones                    mittis                  audis

           portat                monet                    mittit                  audit

         portamus              monemus                  mittimus                 audimus

           portatis             monetis                  mittitis                 auditis

           portant              monent                   mittunt                 audiunt




                                             — 45 —
                                  Vocabulary 10



bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitum                         I drink
consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum           I eat
curro, currere, cucurri, cursum                     I run
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum                          I say, I speak
discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum             I leave, I depart
duco, ducere, duxi, ductum                          I lead
lego, legere, legi, lectum                          I read
ludo, ludere, lusi, lusum                           I play
mitto, mittere, misi, missum                        I send
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum               I show
pono, ponere, posui, positum                        I place, I put
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum                 I write

Note that the infinitive (the second of the principal parts) does not have a long mark
the way that verbs of the second conjugation do (see page 10):

habeo, habēre     second conjugation       duco, ducere       third conjugation

Bear in mind that the long mark is there to show you how to pronounce the word, it is
not used in Latin reading passages or when you translate from English into Latin.



contra + accusative                           against



ira, irae (f)                                 anger
castra, castrorum (n)                         camp, fort (note this word is only used in the
                                              plural)



deinde                                        then, next, after that
ita                                           in this way, thus




                                     — 46 —
CE LATIN
                                         Exercises — 10

1. Translate into English:

   (a)   ego vinum bibo, tu cibum consumis.
   (b)   dominus librum legit.
   (c)   pueri et puellae in viā ludunt.
   (d)   servus domino equum ostendit.
   (e)   Romani hastas in templo ponunt.
   (f)   ancilla amicos tuos in villam ducit.


2. Translate into English:

   (a)   pueri, cur in templo luditis?
   (b)   magister in villā scribit.
   (c)   nautae ex insulā discedunt.
   (d)   nuntius hastam in terram ponit.
   (e)   filii Romanorum numquam de periculo dicunt.
   (f)   tres libros tibi mitto.


3. Put the correct endings on these verbs to match their translations:

   (a) you (pl) have          habe—
   (b) they hear              audi—
   (c) I like                 am—
   (d) you (s) sail           naviga—
   (e) he writes              scrib—
   (f) we play                lud—


4. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   we put
   (b)   they drink
   (c)   she writes
   (d)   you (pl) eat
   (e)   I show
   (f)   you (s) lead


5. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   my friend always writes excellent words about me.
   (b)   the queen shows us her small island.
   (c)   Your (s) son is playing with mine.
   (d)   I am speaking to you (pl), but you do not hear me.
   (e)   The poet leaves (out of) his house.
   (f)   The bad slave is speaking against his master.

                                            — 47 —
6. Translate into English:


                                    The Schoolmaster of Falerii

                                                 I

in oppido Faleriis magister filios virorum nobilissimorum docet. saepe pueros ex
oppido in agros ducit. pueri ibi ludunt. libros suos non legunt.
    olim Romani contra Veientanos in bello pugnant. Veii est oppidum prope
Falerios. Veientani et Falisci sunt amici. magister tamen proelium non timet et
cum pueris ex oppido descedit. primum pueri prope oppidum ludunt. deinde longe               5
ab oppido absunt. tandem magister pueros ad Romanos ducit.
    magister castra intrat et ad Camillum, praefectum Romanorum, cum pueris
perterritis festinat.
    “ecce!” magister clamat. “filios Faliscorum tibi trado. nunc oppidum sine
proelio habes.”                                                                              10



Falerii, Faleriorum (m pl)                      Falerii,the principal town of the Falisci.
Veientani, Veientorum (m pl)                    The people of Veii
Veii, Veiorum (m pl)                            Veii
Falisci, Faliscorum (m pl)                      The Falisci, an Etruscan tribe
Camillus, Camilli (m)                           Camillus



nobilissimus, nobilissima, nobilissimum         noblest
primum                                          firstly
praefectus, praefecti (m)                       commander
ecce!                                           look!
trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum               I hand over


                                                II

   Camillus tamen iratus est. “magister pessimus es, sed praefectus optimus sum.
nos Romani arma contra pueros numquam portamus. auxilium tuum spernimus.
ego te ad oppidum tuum hodie mitto. Falisci, credo, viros perfidos puniunt.”
   tum Romani magistrum ligant et pueris tradunt. pueris virgas dant. pueri
magistrum suum verberant. deinde malum magistrum ex oppido exigunt. postea
pueri ad oppidum Falerios currunt.                                                           15

pessimus, pessima, pessimum                     very bad, worst
sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretum               I reject, I scorn
credo, credere, credidi, creditum               I believe
perfidus, perfida, perfidum                     treacherous
ligo, ligare, ligavi, ligatum                   I tie up, I bind
virga, virgae (f)                               stick, cane
dant                                            (they) give
exigunt                                         (they) drive

                                                     — 48 —
                                        III


    Falisci ā muris oppidi agros spectant. subito pueros conspiciunt. portas oppidi
aperiunt. pueri oppidum intrant. Falisci laeti sunt. iram contra Romanos deponunt.
Romanos laudant. Camillum amicum optimum Faliscorum vocant.
    Camillus ad senatores de Faliscis scribit. senatores legatos Faliscorum Romam     20
invitant. legati ita dicunt:
    “o Romani, victoria vestra est. dei vobis victoriam dant. vobis nos tradimus.
vita sub imperio Romano optima est. hanc vitam cupimus.”
    itaque Romani Faliscos accipiunt. nunc duo populi sunt veri amici.


conspicio, conspicere, conspexi         I catch sight of
porta, portae (f)                       gate
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum        I open
depono, deponere, deposui, depositum    I put aside
senatores                               senators (nom & acc plur)
senatum                                 senate (acc)
legatus, legati (m)                     representative
invito, invitare, invitavi, invitatum   I invite
victoria, victoriae (f)                 victory
vita, vitae (f)                         life
sub + ablative                          under
imperium, imperii (n)                   power, rule
hanc                                    this (acc. fem. sing)
accipiunt                               accept (they)
populus, populi (m)                     people, nation




                                                                        /continued




                                              — 49 —
 7. Translate into Latin:

 Once a farmer has a donkey. The farmer puts a small statue of the god Mercury on the donkey’s
 back. The farmer leaves1 the farm and leads the donkey to town. The donkey walks down the
 road. Girls and boys give the donkey barley. The donkey eats the food. There are many men
 with women in the road. They look at the statue and shout, “look! The god is beautiful.” The
 donkey hears the words of the crowd. “They are praising me. They call me a god.” The donkey
 says.

The donkey is happy and proud. The donkey sings, but the sound is bad. The farmer is angry.
He beats the donkey with a stick. “Wretched donkey,” the farmer shouts. “The men and women
are not praising you. They do not care about us. Look!”

The farmer unloads the statue. He shows the statue to the donkey. He carries the statue to the
temple. Then he puts two large bags of money on the donkey. The donkey walks to the farm
slowly with the farmer. At last the farmer enters the house. The donkey is now alone in the
field. The donkey has a drink of2 water. The donkey is happy.

“The life of a god is very good,” the donkey says, “however the farmer is not here now and
 therefore I3 can play4. And so the life of a donkey is not bad.”


       1leaves:say leaves from and use e + ablative
       2has a drink of: say drinks

       3use the pronoun

       4can play: say I play




       donkey                        asellus, aselli (m)
       statue                        statua, statuae (f)
       Mercury                       Mercurius, Mercurii (m)
       back                          tergum, tergi (n)
       give (they)                   dant
       barley                        hordeum, hordei (n)
       look!                         ecce!
       proud                         superbus, superba, superbum
       sound                         sonus, soni (m)
       beat                          verbero, verberare, verberavi, verberatum
       stick                         virga, virgae (f)
       care about                    curo, curare, curavi, curatum
       unload                        expono, exponere, exposui, expositum
       bag                           saccus, sacci (m)
       farm                          fundus, fundi (m)
       slowly                        lente
       life                          vita, vitae (f)




                                              — 50 —
CE LATIN

                          11 – The Imperfect and Perfect Tenses

So far all the stories you have read and translated have been in the present tense, that is, the
action is taking place right now. In this lesson we shall look at how Latin uses different endings
to show that an action took place in the past.

English has many different ways of expressing the past tense:

                  The slave walked to the market.
                  The slave used to walk to the market.
                  The slave was walking to the market.
                  The slave has walked to the market.
                  The slave did walk to the market.

All these meanings can be conveyed in Latin by the use of either the imperfect or perfect tense.

(a) The Imperfect tense

      The imperfect tense denotes a series of acts, a continuation of acts, or a state in the past:

                  The slave used to walk to the market.
                  The slave was walking to the market.
                  The house had a large garden.
                  The master treated his slaves very well.


      The first three conjugations form their imperfect tenses on the present stem which may
      be found by taking —re from the end of the infinitive (the second of the principal parts):

      porto, portare, portavi, portatum              portabam I was carrying
      moneo, monere, monui, monitum                  monebam I was warning
      mitto, mittere, misi, missum                   mittebam I was sending

      The fourth conjugation inserts an e after the present stem:

      audio, audire, audivi, auditum                 audiebam I was hearing

      The full set of endings of the imperfect for each of the conjugations are as follows:

                      I                II                III                IV
                 I was loving etc. I was having etc. I was sending etc. I was hearing etc.

      I           amabam           habebam           mittebam            audiebam
      you (s)     amabas           habebas           mittebas            audiebas
      he/she      amabat           habebat           mittebat            audiebat
      we          amabamus         habebamus         mittebamus          audiebamus
      you (pl)    amabatis         habebatis         mittebatis          audiebatis
      they        amabant          habebant          mittebant           audiebant

                                             — 51 —
(b)   The Perfect tense

      The perfect tense denotes a single act in the past:

                  The slave walked to the market.
                  The slave has walked to the market.
                  My friend sold his house.

The perfect tense is formed by adding the perfect tense endings to the perfect stem. The perfect
stem is found by taking the final —i off the third of the principal parts. The third of the
principal parts is the I form of the perfect tense.

                  amo, amare, amavi, amatum              perfect stem is amav—
                  habeo, habere, habui, habitum          perfect stem is habu—
                  mitto, mittere, misi, missum           perfect stem is mis—
                  audio, audire, audivi, auditum         perfect stem is audiv—

      The full set of endings of the perfect for each of the conjugations are as follows:

                     I               II                III                 IV
                 I loved etc.      I had etc.        I sent etc.         I heard etc.

      I           amavi            habui             misi                audivi
      you (s)     amavisti         habuisti          misisti             audivisti
      he/she      amavit           habuit            misit               audivit
      we          amavimus         habuimus          misimus             audivimus
      you (pl)    amavistis        habuistis         misistis            audivistis
      they        amaverunt        habuerunt         miserunt            audiverunt


It is now very important to know the perfect stem of a verb as well as its present stem. For third
conjugation verbs like mitto this is the only way you can distinguish certain forms of the
present tense from the perfect tense:

      for example:      mittimus    we send              iacit   he throws
                        misimus     we sent              iecit   he threw


Some examples of the imperfect and perfect tenses:

      (a)   servi aquam portabant           the slaves were carrying water (imperfect)
      (b)   dominus servum laudavit         the master praised the slave (perfect)
      (c)   tibi pecuniam misi              I sent you some money (perfect)
      (d)   servus ancillam amabat          the slave was in love with the slave girl (imperfect)
      (e)   Romani multa oppida oppugnaverunt the Romans attacked many towns (perfect)
      (f)   Romani oppidum oppugnabant      the Romans were attacking the town (imperfect)
      (g)   multam pecuniam habebamus       we had a lot of money (imperfect)
      (h)   per viam ambulabam. amicum subito vidi. I was walking down the street. Suddenly I
                                            saw my friend. (imperfect, perfect)


                                                — 52 —
                               Vocabulary 11


iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum                          I throw
maneo, manēre, mansi, mansum                         I stay, I remain
rego, regere, rexi, rectum                           I rule
respondeo, respondēre, respondi, responsum           I reply
sto, stare, steti, statum                            I stand
video, vidēre, vidi, visum                           I see


Note that maneo, respondeo and video have a long mark over the e of the infinitive
which makes them second conjugation. However their perfect stem is formed as though
they were in the third conjugation.

Sto on the other hand belongs to the first conjugation, but its perfect stem shows a third
conjugation form.

These verbs show how important it is to learn the principal parts!




totus, tota, totum                                   all of, whole of, all
notus, nota, notum                                   famous




sic                                                  in this way, thus
etiam                                                even




                                   — 53 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 11

1. Translate into English:
       (a) dormiebas                                  (d) parabant
       (b) legebamus                                  (e) scribebam
       (c) ludebatis                                  (f) vocabat

2. Translate into English:
       (a) rogavistis                                 (d) delevit
       (b) pugnaverunt                                (e) monuistis
       (c) superavimus                                (f) audivi

3. Translate into English:
       (a) posui                                      (d) discessistis
       (b) iecit                                      (e) respondisti
       (c) manserunt                                  (f) stetimus

4. Translate into English:
       (a)   te saepe vocavi, sed non respondisti.
       (b)   regina pro templo stabat.
       (c)   arma vestra in loco optimo posui.
       (d)   libros novos cupiebamus; magister tamen nos non audivit.
       (e)   hastas ad servos iecimus; nunc mortui sunt.
       (f)   auxilium deorum rogavi; dei tamen non responderunt.

5. Present or Perfect? Identify the tense of each of the following verbs, translate them, then
   put into the other tense:
       (a) mansit                                     (d) bibunt
       (b) regimus                                    (e) duxit
       (c) discedit                                   (f) movit

6. Translate into Latin:
       (a) we were standing                           (d) they were afraid
       (b) you (s) threw                              (e) he replied
       (c) I sent                                     (f) you (pl) were reading

7. Translate into Latin:
       (a)   the slave was holding the pretty slave girl.
       (b)   the sailors sailed towards the small island.
       (c)   the boys were playing in the street.
       (d)   I was looking from the walls of the town, but I did not see the messenger.
       (e)   we used to live in a very large house, but then we lost our money.
       (f)   the winds destroyed the walls of the temple.

                                             — 54 —
 8. Translate into English:

                Livius the poet loses his life’s savings, but is saved from poverty by his talent
                                                and his reputation.
 Livius poeta carmina optima de viris nobilissimis scribebat. multi viri et multae
 feminae carmina legebant. poeta oppida magna et parva visitabat et turbam
 maximam semper ciebat. itaque multam pecuniam comparavit. tandem villam
 suam desiderabat. Livius tamen in insulā habitabat. ad insulam igitur cum aliis viris
 et feminis navigavit sed nautae scelesti poetam ducebant.                                               5
     poeta longe ab orā navigabat. subito nautae poetam et alios comprehenderunt.
 nautae gladios habebant. pecuniam poetae et virorum abstulerunt. tum Livium et
 alios in aquam iecerunt.
     poeta cum aliis ad oram natavit. tandem in terrā miseri stabant. “eheu!”
 clamabant “nihil habemus. cibum et tectum cupimus.” incolas loci auxilium                               10
 rogaverunt, sed nemo audivit. pueri et puellae pro poetā et aliis currebant et
 ridebant.
     subito magister poetam agnovit. “ecce! ille vir est Livius, poeta notus.”
 clamavit. ego carmina Livii saepe legi. multos libros poetae in villā meā habeo.”
     magister Livium ad villam suam duxit. ibi poetae tunicam novam dedit. servi                         15
 poetae cibum paraverunt. ancillae vinum optimum obtulerunt. Livius cum
 magistro duos menses mansit. tandem poeta laetus magistro gratias egit.
“pecuniam amisi,” inquit “sed carmina de te scripsi. tibi carmina pro hospitio offero.”
     tandem magister Livium ad insulam suam misit. prope portum poeta alios viros
 et feminasē nave vidit. per oram ambulabant et mendicabant. multi lacrimabant.                          20
 poetam fortunatum vocabant.
     “non facile pecuniam comparamus, sed facile amittimus,” respondit Livius,
“poeta tamen etiam sine pecuniā vir divitissimus est.”




 carmina (neut. nom. & acc. pl.)         poems             agnosco, agnoscere, agnovi, agnotum I recognise
 nobilissimus, nobilissima, nobilissimum most noble        ecce!                                  look!
 visito, visitare, visitavi, visitatum   I visit           ille                                   that
 cieo, ciere, civi, citum                I rouse, I        tunica, tunicae (f)                    tunic
                                         attract           offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum       I offer
 comparo, comparare, comparavi, comparatum I               menses                                 months
                                         obtain            gratias ago, agere, egi                I thank
 desidero, desiderare, desideravi, desideratum I miss      amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum       I lose
 alius, alia                             other, the        hospitium, hospitii (n)                hospitality
                                         other             offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum       I offer
 scelestus, scelesta, scelestum          wicked            portum (acc. sing)                     port, harbour
 longe                                   far, a long way   mendico, mendicare, mendicavi mendicatum I beg
 ora, orae (f)                           shore             lacrimo, lacrimare, lacrimavi, lacrimatum I cry, I am
 comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi,                                                         in tears
         comprehensus                    I seize           fortunatus, fortunata, fortunatum      fortunate
 aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatum       I take away       facile                                 easily
 nato, natare, natavi, natatum           I swim            respondeo, respondere, respondi, responsum I reply
 eheu!                                   alas! oh dear!    divitissimus, divitissima, divitissimum very rich
 tectum, tecti (n)                       shelter
 nemo                                    no one
 rideo, ridere, risi, risum              I laugh

                                                    — 55 —
9.
               A letter to a friend concerning some bad news that has just been received.

Translate into Latin:

I heard about your son from Marcus and hurried to the house. Marcus’ words are true: your son
fell from his horse. He is not dead, but injured. Two slave girls were looking after the boy. I sent
a slave to the doctor’s house at once. The slave brought the doctor to your house. The doctor
moved your son into the biggest bedroom. The bedroom has high walls and large windows.
Your son drank a little water but ate nothing. Then he slept. I gave money to the doctor. The
doctor has prepared some medicine and given it to the slave girls. The slaves and slave girls
have asked the gods for help also.
     Next I sent a slave to your daughter. The slave was carrying a letter from me. I wrote about
your son. Your daughter even now is hurrying to your house. Therefore there are eight men
and women looking after your son.
     Afterwards I left your house and walked to the town of Antium. I have an excellent friend
there. I advised my friend about your son. My friend and I ran to the temple and made a
sacrifice. We are hoping for good news.
     You have the whole story. You are without doubt hurrying to the house now. I am here if
you ask for me.



     true               verus, vera, verum
     fall               cado, cadere, cecidi, casum
     injured            vulneratus, vulnerata, vulneratum
     look after         curo, curare, curavi, curatum
     doctor             medicus, medici (m)
     bring              fero, ferre, tuli, latus
     bedroom            cubiculum, cubiculi (n)
     window             fenestra, fenestrae (f)
     nothing            nihil (nom. & acc.)
     medicine           medicamentum, medicamenti (n)
     letter             epistula, epistulae (f)
     Antium             Antium, Antii (n)
     sacrifice          sacrificium, sacrificii (n)
     hope for           exspecto, expectare, exspectavi, exspectatum
     news               nuntius, nuntii (m)
     story              rem (acc. f. sing.)
     doubt              dubium, dubii (n)
     if                 si




                                               — 56 —
CE LATIN

                             12– SUM - The Imperfect Tense


Study the forms of the imperfect tense of SUM:

                             eram                 I was
                             eras                 you (s) were
                             erat                 he was, she was, it was
                             eramus               we were
                             eratis               you (pl) were
                             erant                they were

This tense of SUM is very common in Latin. Remember that adjectives and nouns used with
SUM are put into the nominative case:

For example:

               servus eram, nunc dominus sum.        I was a slave; now I am the master
               fessus eras                           you were tired
               dominus erat iratus                   the master was angry
               femina misera erat                    the woman was miserable
               ubi erat pecunia?                     where was the money?
               magistri eramus                       we were teachers
               perterriti eratis                     you were terrified
               villae pulchrae erant                 the houses were beautiful

Note that SUM does have a perfect tense, but it is far less common than the imperfect tense and
will be dealt with later in the course..


The compounds of SUM that we met on page 35, form their imperfect tense in the same way:


               adsum         I am here               absum          I am absent

               aderam        I was here              aberam         I was absent
               aderas        you (s) were here       aberas         you (s) were absent
               aderat        he/she was here         aberat         he/she was absent
               aderamus      we were here            aberamus       we were absent
               aderatis      you (pl) were here      aberatis       you (pl) were absent
               aderant       they were here          aberant        they were absent




                                            — 57 —
                            Vocabulary 12




credo, credere, credidi, creditum   I believe (note that this word takes the dative of
                                    the person you believe in)
do, dare, dedi, datum               I give
erro, errare, erravi, erratum       I wander




vita, vitae (f)                     life




iam                                 now, already
saepe                               often



longus, longa, longum               long




                                — 58 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 12

1. Translate into English:

   (a)   eratis
   (b)   aberat
   (c)   aderas
   (d)   erat
   (e)   aberamus
   (f)   erant


2. Translate into English:

   (a)   ancilla nostra villam tibi paravit. tu tamen in oppido tuo mansisti.
   (b)   magister decem pueros habebat. septem erant magni, tres parvi.
   (c)   quattuor feminae in via stabant.
   (d)   serve optime, auxilium mihi dedisti. te nunc libero.
   (e)   filiae tuae laetae erant. in villā cantabant.
   (f)   nuntius multa verba de Romanis dixit. tum perterriti eramus.


3. Change the verbs in these sentences into the past tense and translate:

   (a) in maximo periculo sumus, sed socii adsunt.
   (b) sunt multae viae in oppido.
   (c) dominus sum. servos meos tamen saepe laudo.
   (d) amici mei estis. vinum optimum vobis do.


4. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   The gold was in the ground.
   (b)   Where were you (pl)? - we were talking with our friends.
   (c)   I hurried to your (s) house, but you were out.
   (d)   Once I was lonely, but now I have ten slave-girls.
   (e)   The allies put the long spears in the temple of the gods. Now the weapons are safe.
   (f)   The boys and girls were also there.


5. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   The master often used to wander through his fields.
   (b)   The good slaves worked well. Afterwards they were tired.
   (c)   The messenger stood in front of the temple. There was a very large crowd there.
   (d)   I often saw the queen in the town. She was never angry.
   (e)   My son used to read many books. Now he likes horses.
   (f)   The allies waited on their island for a long time. However we were afraid of a long
         delay.


                                             — 59 —
6. Translate into English:

Marcus Licinius Crassus was one of the richest and most powerful men in Rome during the first
century BC. This was a period of great political disturbance in which many prominent citizens
found themselves on the opposite side of those in power with often fatal results. Here are two
stories about Crassus’ early life during these troubled times.


                                                  I
     Crassus erat vir divitissimus. vir tamen divitissimus inimicos semper habet.
     olim Cinna et Marius domini Romae erant. viri pessimi erant et pecuniam
 aliorum cupiebant. multos viros bonos necabant. Crassus de vita desperabat et ad
 amicum suum Vibium festinavit. Crassus tres amicos et decem servos secum
 habebat.                                                                                 5
     “in magno periculo sum,” Crassus Vibio inquit. “te auxilium rogo.”
     “agros maximos hic habeo,” respondit Vibius. “in uno agro est spelunca.
 spelunca magna est et sicca. prope fluvium est. aquam ibi habes. spelunca tibi villa
 optima est.” tum Vibius Crassum ad speluncam duxit.
     itaque Crassus cum amicis et servis in speluncā habitabat. cotidie Vibius            10
 servum ad Crassum mittebat. servus Vibii cibum et vinum pro Crasso et amicis
 portabat. servus ad locum prope speluncam ambulabat. tum cibum et vinum in
 terram ponebat. postea ad villam domini cucurrit. servus Crassum ipsum
 numquam videbat.
     unus ex amicis Crassi ē speluncā quondam prospiciebat. subito duas feminas           15
 conspexit. amicus Crassum statim arcessivit et feminas ostendit. Crassus amicis et
 servis gladios perterritus tradidit.
     tandem feminae speluncae appropinquaverunt. “ancillae Vibii sumus,”
 clamaverunt. “dominus noster de vobis sollicitus est. dominus ‘fortasse’ inquit
‘Crassus et amici soli sunt.’ nos igitur ad vos misit.”                                   20
     postea ancillae quoque in speluncā habitabant. Crassus octo menses in
 speluncā mansit. tum Cinna et Marius mortui erant et Crassus Romam festinavit.



divitissimus, -a, -um                   very rich          fortasse             perhaps
inimicus, inimici (m)                   enemy              menses               months
alii, aliorum (m pl)                    others, other
                                        people
despero, -are, -avi, desperatum         I despair
secum                                   with him (i.e.
                                        himself)
inquit                                  he/she said
spelunca, -ae (f)                       cave
siccus, -a, -um                         dry
cotidie                                 every day
ipsum                                   himself (acc. m.
                                        sing)
quondam                                 one day
prospicio, prospicere, prospexi         I look out
arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitum I send for
trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum       I hand over
sollicitus, -a, -um                     worried
                                                      — 60 —
                                                      II

    Marius et Cinna mortui erant. nunc Sulla Romam regebat. Sulla amicos Cinnae
et Marii oppugnabat. Crassus Sullae auxilium in bello dedit. Crassus in uno proelio
contra Marianos prospere pugnavit. Sulla Crassum amicum et socium credebat.
    postea Sulla villas inimicorum mortuorum vendebat. Crassus villas cupiebat.
Sullae de villis dixit. tum villas minimi pretii emebat.                                25
    Romani villas densas aedificaverunt. saepe villae arserunt. Crassus servos suos
ad villas cum hamis aquae statim mittebat. Crassus dominis villarum minimam
pecuniam pro ruinis offerebat. tum servi flammas exstinxerunt. sic Crassus multas
villas pulchras comparavit.
    Crassus multos servos peritos emit. servi erant architecti et fabri. servi villas   30
refecerunt. mox Crassus magnam partem Romae tenebat. viri tamen Romani et
feminae ita dicebant: “si Crassus villam cupit, villam consulto incendit. ego villam
pulchram habeo; Crassum igitur timeo.”



Mariani, Marianorum (m. pl.)               followers of Marius
prospere                                   successfully
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum          I sell
pretium, pretii (n)                        price
emo, emere, emi, emptum                    I buy
densus, -a, -um                            close together
ardeo, ardere, arsi                        I catch fire
hama, -ae (f)                              bucket
ruina, -ae (f)                             ruin
offerebat                                  (he) was offering, he offered
flamma, -ae (f)                            flame
exstinguo, exstinguere, exstinxi, extinctum I put out, I extinguish
comparo, -are, -avi, -atum                 I obtain
peritus, -a, -um                           skilled
emo, emere, emi, emptum                    I buy
architectus, -i (m)                        architect
faber, fabri (m)                           craftsman
reficio, reficere, refeci, refectum        I repair
partem                                     part (acc. f. sing.)
si                                         if
consulto                                   on purpose, deliberately
incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus      I set on fire




                                                  — 61 —
7.
                 Careless supervision of one of the pack animals causes a battle
                              between the Romans and the Greeks.

Translate into Latin:

There was a small river near the camp of the Romans. The river was not deep. The Greeks were
in a field on the other bank. The Romans and also the Greeks obtained water from1 the river.
        The Romans had many pack animals. The pack animals carried food and weapons. Once
the Romans did not tie up one mule well. And so the mule wandered out of the camp and
walked towards the river. No one was watching. The mule drank some2 water. Then it walked
into the river. Three Romans were standing on the bank. They saw the mule. The Romans
hurried into the river. They wanted the mule. However two Greeks heard the commotion. They
attacked the Romans. The Romans released the mule and fought with the Greeks. They killed
one Greek. The other Greek ran to his friends. Suddenly a large crowd of Greeks was present on
the riverbank. They were holding spears and they were shouting. The Romans were terrified.
Two Romans sent the third to the camp. The messenger warned the commander about the
Greeks. At once the commander led the Romans to the river. Soon the Romans were fighting
with the Greeks in the water and on the land. The Romans wounded many Greeks. At last they
overpowered the Greeks. Afterwards the Romans saw the mule. The mule was eating the grass
on the riverbank!

       1from   = out of
       2some:   leave out


      river                     fluvius, fluvii (m)
      camp                      castra, castrorum (n pl)
      Greek                     Graecus, Graeci (m)
      other (of two)            alter, altera, alterum
      bank, riverbank           ripa, ripae (f)
      obtain                    comparo, comparare, comparavi, comparatum
      pack animal, mule         iumentum, iumenti (n)
      tie up                    deligo, deligare, deligavi, deligatum
      leave                     discedo, discedere, discessi
      no one                    nemo (nom. sing.)
      commotion                 tumultum (acc. sing.)
      commander                 praefectus, praefecti (m)
      saw (they)                viderunt
      grass                     herba, herbae (f)




                                            — 62 —
CE LATIN

                                        13– The Infinitive

The infinitive is the second of the principal parts that have been listed for verbs. It translates
as to —. For example: ambulare = to walk, currere = to run etc. Study the form of the infinitive
for each of the verbs we have been using as models:



   —o, —are, —avi, —atum —eo, —ēre, —ui, —itum        —o, —ere, —i, —um      —io, —ire, —ivi, —itum
            portare                monēre                   mittere                  audire
           (to carry)              (to warn)                (to send)               (to hear)

In each case the infinitive ends with the letters —re.

In this lesson you will see the infinitive used with the verb iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum (I order).

Examples:

    iubeo te ad villam currere                  I order you to run to the house
    dominus iussit servos cenam parare          the master ordered the slaves to prepare the dinner


Other uses of the infinitive will be covered in later lessons.



                              Longer sentences with QUOD, UBI

So far the Latin sentences that you have read have been composed of a single idea or two ideas
joined by a conjunction such as et or sed.

For example:

                   Romani hastas longas habebant.
                   The Romans had long spears.

                   regina ancillam laudavit et pecuniam servo dedit.
                   the queen praised the slave-girl and gave money to the slave.


However, sentences consisting of two or more ideas joined by conjunctions as in the second
example above are less common in Latin than sentences in which one idea is subordinate to
another. Study the following examples:




                                               — 63 —
                  servus dominum timebat. servus e villa festinavit.
                  The slave was afraid of his master. The slave hurried out of the house.

rather,           servus, quod dominum timebat, e villa festinavit.
                  The slave, because he was afraid of his master, hurried out of the house.

or,               Because the slave was afraid of his master, he hurried out of the house.
                  The slave hurried out of the house, because he was afraid of his master.


                  ancillae tabernam intraverunt. ancillae filium domini viderunt.
                  The slave girls entered the bar. They saw the master’s son.

rather,           ancillae, ubi tabernam intraverunt, filium domini viderunt.
                  The slave girls, when they entered the bar, saw the master’s son.

or,               When the slave-girls entered the bar, they saw the master’s son.
                  The slave-girls saw the master’s son when they entered the bar.



Notice that in each of these examples both ideas have the same subject: in the first example the
slave is afraid and hurries out of the house; in the second example the slave-girls enter the bar
and see the master’s son.

When the subject of the subordinate idea (the one introduced by quod or ubi) is the same as the
subject of the main idea, it is usual to put the subordinate idea after the nominative in the main
idea, so interrupting it. As you can see from the variety of translations given above, preserving
the Latin order does not always make for a good translation.


As you will see from the vocabulary list, ubi can also mean where:

                  postridie ad parvum oppidum veni, ubi duos amicos habebam.
                  Next day I came to a small town, where I had two friends.


You will be meeting other subordinating words like quod and ubi later in the course.




                                              — 64 —
                            Vocabulary 13



capio, capere, cepi, captum                  I take
cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitum      I find out, I get to know
convenio, convenire, conveni, conventum      I meet
custodio, custodire, custodivi, custoditum   I guard
emo, emere, emi, emptum                      I buy
facio, facere, feci, factum                  I make, I do
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum                 I order
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum          I find
narro, narrare, narravi, narratum            I tell
revenio, revenire, reveni, reventum          I return
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum            I sell
venio, venire, veni, ventum                  I come, I go



heri                                         yesterday
hodie                                        today
postridie                                    on the next day
quo modo                                     how?
ubi                                          when, where, where?



taberna, tabernae (f)                        shop, inn, bar




quod                                         because




                               — 65 —
CE LATIN
                                          Exercises — 13

1. Translate into English:

   (a)   te gladium vendere iussi.
   (b)   dominus servum equum custodire iubet.
   (c)   heri me ad villam revenire iussisti.
   (d)   quo modo fabulam optime narramus?
   (e)   dominus et domina nos in taberna invenerunt.
   (f)   ancillam tibi cenam parare iubetis.


2. Translate into English:

   (a)   servi, quod pecuniam non habebant, cibum in foro non emerunt.
   (b)   agricolae, ubi agrum intraverunt, equum mortuum invenerunt.
   (c)   ego te heri visitavi, sed quod aberas, ad villam meam reveni.
   (d)   incolae insularum, quod cibum non habebant, servos ad oppidum navigare iusserunt.
   (e)   cur ad tabernam venistis? numquam ego vos ad tabernam venire iussi.
   (f)   ubi magister e libro Graeco legebat, pueri dormiebant.


3. Join these two sentences together using quod or ubi as appropriate and translate:

   (a) ancilla libros poetarum in villam portavit. dominus libros cupiebat.
   (b) Romani captivos custodiebant. Romani bellum timebant.
   (c) feminae per agros errabant. in agris agricolae laborabant.
   (d) tu mihi multa dona das. ego te amo.


4. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   What did you (s) make in your shop yesterday?
   (b)   How did the messenger find the town?
   (c)   I found out about the money when the slave returned from the forum .
   (d)   We met our very good friends in the town where I sold my house.
   (e)   You (pl) ordered your son to read the books, but he left the books in the bar.
   (f)   Yesterday I put six denarii in a new place. Today they are not there.


5. Translate into Latin:

   (a) The teacher ordered the bad boys to listen when he was speaking.
   (b) Yesterday the sailors returned to the temple where they gave gifts to the goddess.
   (c) The Romans ordered the messengers of the queen to speak in the place where they
       were standing.
   (d) Today there is much food in the house because I ordered the slaves to buy food in the
       forum.
   (e) We are ordering you to meet us on the island where the poet lives.
   (f) The shop where I bought the shield was near the small temple.
                                           — 66 —
 6. Translate into English:

       Sassia, a wealthy woman of Rome, is robbed by one of her slaves who commits murder as well.


 Sassia erat femina divitissima. multos servos in villā habebat. unus servus erat
 Strato. Strato multum de re medicinā sciebat, sed servus pessimus erat. in villā erat
 cubiculum ubi Sassia pecuniam suam in armario tenebat. duo servi pecuniam
 custodiebant. olim nocte Strato cubiculum intravit. duo servi prope armarium
 dormiebant. Strato servos gladio necavit et tacite in piscinam posuit. tum ad                               5
 cubiculum revenit ubi armarium erat. Strato, quod clavem non habebat, armarium
 serrulā aperuit. postquam pecuniam cepit, e villa festinavit. alius servus tamen,
 parvus puer, furtum vidit.
       postridie Sassia de furto cognovit. irata erat. “ubi sunt duo servi?” rogavit.
“sine dubio servi furtum fecerunt, quod non adsunt. sed quo modo armarium                                    10
 aperuerunt?”
       postea, ubi Sassia per forum ambulabat, amicum convenit. amico de furto
 narravit.
       “heri,” inquit amicus, “ad tabernam veni, ubi serrulam vidi. fortasse fur
 serrulam habuit. fortasse eadem est serrula.”                                                               15
       Sassia ad tabernam festinavit ubi tabernarium de serrulā rogavit.
       “serrulam medico, servo tuo, vendidi,” tabernarius Sassiae respondit. Sassia,
 postquam hoc audivit, ad villam festinavit. ibi servos iussit villam excutere. mox
 tres servos in atrio venerunt et Sassiae serrulam ostenderunt.
       “ubi serrulam invenistis?” Sassia servos rogavit.                                                     20
       “serrulam in cellā invenimus, ubi Strato medicamenta facit,” responderunt
 servi. “multam pecuniam quoque invenimus. ecce!”
       Sassia, postquam pecuniam numeravit, “viginti denarii absunt,” inquit.
       tum quattuor servi cum parvo puero atrium intraverunt. “domina,” inquit
 servus primus, “ubi villam excutiebamus, puer ad nos venit et nobis rem totam                               25
 narravit, quod perterritus erat. ubi piscinam inspeximus, servos mortuos
 invenimus. Strato pecuniam tuam cepit et servos necavit.”
       “vos iubeo medicum quaerere,” clamavit Sassia.
 non multum post servi medicum invenerunt. in taberna amici se celebat. viginti
 denarios tamen Sassia numquam iterum vidit.                                                                 30


 divitissimus, divitissima, divitissimumvery rich         eadem (nom. fem. sing.)               the same
 re medicina (ablative)                 medicine          tabernarius, tabernarii (m)           shopkeeper
 scio, scire, scivi, scitum             I know            medicus, medici (m)                   doctor
 cubiculum, cubiculi (n)                bedroom           hoc (acc. neut. sing)                 this
 armarium, armarii (n)                  chest, box        excutio, excutere, excussi            I search thoroughly
 nocte                                  in the night      atrium, atrii (n)                     main room, atrium
 tacite                                 silently          cella, cellae (f)                     small room
 piscina, piscinae (f)                  fish-pond         medicamentum, medicamenti (n)         medicine
 clavem (acc. sing)                     key               numero, numerare, numeravi            I count
 aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum       I open            denarius, denarii (m)                 denarius (a silver
 alius, alia                            another                                                 coin)
 furtum, furti (n)                      theft             rem (acc. fem. sing)                  story
 dubium, dubii (n)                      doubt             inspicio, inspicere, inspexi          I inspect, I examine
 serrula, serrulae (f)                  small saw         quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum I go and look for
 fortasse                               perhaps           se                                    himself
 fur (nominative)                       thief             celo, celare, celavi, celatum         I hide
                                                       — 67 —
7.
The Roman general Gracchus has an idea for getting supplies of food into the town of Casilinum which is
                       being besieged by the Carthaginian general Hannibal.

Translate into Latin:

One day a messenger from the town of Casilinum came to the Roman camp where he met
Gracchus, the commander. The messenger told Gracchus about the situation in the town.
    “We do not have food,” he said. “The Carthaginians have devastated our fields. When we
send men from the town, the Carthaginians capture and kill them. Some of the townspeople do
not want life. They stand on the walls because the Carthaginians then see them and throw their
spears at1 them. Others jump from the walls to the ground. We ask you for help because we are
good friends of the Romans.”
    And so Gracchus left the camp and looked at the town. “The Carthaginians hold the fields
around the town.” He said. “There are many Carthaginians, but I have only a few men. However
I see a river. The river is a road for2 food.”
    When the messenger left, Gracchus ordered ten men to carry empty jars to the warehouses
and to fill the jars with food. Then they carried the jars to the river. When they put the jars in
the water, the jars began to float towards the town of Casilinum.
    The messenger returned to the town and reported Gracchus’ words. Therefore the
townspeople put men near the river where the river entered the town. Suddenly they saw
Gracchus’ jars. They caught the jars with hooks and pulled them to the land. In this way
Gracchus overcame the Carthaginians.
    However on the next day there was much3 rain. And so because the river was high, it
carried the jars to the place where the Carthaginians were. When the Carthaginians saw the
jars they learned about the trick of the Romans. Afterwards the jars did not come to the town.
Therefore the townspeople did not receive their food. At last, when Gracchus’ food ran out,
they opened their gates to the Carthaginians.

        1at: say against
        2use the genitive
        3use the accusative neuter singular of the adjective



      Casilinum                  Casilinum, Casilini (n)
      Gracchus                   Gracchus, Gracchi (m)
      Carthaginians              Poeni, Poenorum (m pl)


one day         quondam                                fill              impleo, implere, implevi, impletum
commander       legatus, legati (m)                    float             fluito, fluitare, fluitavi
situation       res (f), ablative plural: rebus        townspeople oppidani, oppidanorum (m pl)
devastate       vasto, vastare, vastavi, vastatum      hook              uncus, unci (m)
them            eos (acc. masc. plur.)                 pull              traho, trahere, traxi, tractum
some...others   alii...alii                            rain (verb = it is raining) pluit, pluere, pluit
jump            desilio, desilire, desilui             trick             dolus, doli (m)
only            modo                                   receive           accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum
river           fluvius, fluvii (m)                    run out           deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum
empty           vacuus, vacua, vacuum                  gate              porta, portae (f)
jar             dolium, dolii (n)                      open              aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum
warehouse       horreum, horrei (n)
                                                    — 68 —
CE LATIN

                                     14– Asking Questions


So far in these lessons you have seen questions introduced by some sort of question word:

   example: quis pecuniam cepit? - who took the money?
            ubi est taberna?     - where is the bar?

In these examples the sentence is a question rather than a statement because of the first
word: quis, ubi.

You now have met the following words that are used to indicate questions:

               cur?           why?
               quis?          who?
               quo modo?      how?
               ubi?           where?

Latin also has a way of indicating that any sentence is to be read as a question rather than a
statement. This involves putting -ne on the end of the first word:

   example: servus pecuniam cepit - the slave took the money (statement)
            servusne pecuniam cepit - did the slave take the money? (question)

               venis ad tabernam - you are coming to the bar (statement)
               venisne ad tabernam? - are you coming to the bar? (question)



                              Giving Orders : The Imperative


Latin has a verb ending that is used to give an order. It is called the imperative and has a
singular form when the order is given to one person and a plural form when the order is given
to more than one person.

In all conjugations the singular imperative is formed by taking -re off the infinitive:

   porta! carry!      tene! hold!        mitte! send!        audi! listen!

For the plural, conjugations I, II, IV (those with a vowel at the end of the stem) add -te to the
singular. Verbs in the third conjugation have the ending -ite. Study the following examples:

   portate! carry!    tenete hold!       mittite! send!      audite! listen!

Note that it is usual to put an exclamation mark (!) at the end of a sentence containing an
imperative verb.


                                            — 69 —
                           Vocabulary 14




constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutum       I decide
exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum        I wait for, I expect
procedo, procedere, processi, processum              I advance, I proceed
relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum              I leave
rideo, ridere, risi, risum                           I laugh, I smile
trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum                    I hand over, I pass on




neque...neque                        neither...nor




victoria, victoriae (f)              victory




quid?                                what?




alter, altera, alterum               the other (of two)
alter...alter                        the one...the other




                              — 70 —
CE LATIN
                                       Exercises — 14

1. Translate into English:

   (a)   cur ridetis, ancillae?
   (b)   quid faciebant pueri?
   (c)   quo modo Romani castra oppugnaverunt?
   (d)   habesne pecuniam?
   (e)   mene spectabatis?
   (f)   vosne magistrum audivistis?


2. Translate into English:

   (a) trade mihi libros!
   (b) dominum exspecto; servos iube villam parare!
   (c) ad me festina! sine te solus sum.
   (d) agricola duos servos habebat. alter in agris, alter in villā laborabat.
   (e) reginam numquam vidimus. estne pulchra?
   (f) socii auxilium a nobis exspectabant. maximum igitur incendium in loco fecerunt ubi
       murus altus erat. (incendium, incendii (n) = fire).


3. Translate into Latin:

   (a) Friends, drink the master’s wine, it is very good!
   (b) Did you leave my little daughter on the island?
   (c) Tell the sailors to give us help!
   (d) I put the money on the table of the house where I was staying. Did you (s) not see the
       money? (table = mensa, mensae (f))
   (e) Messengers, tell me my son’s words! Is he safe?
   (f) Look at yourself! Have you come from the field? (use you singular)


4. Translate into Latin:

   (a) Why did you not wait for me today? Did the slave speak to you? (use you singular)
   (b) When you were capturing the camp, why did you decide to take the gold, not the
       weapons? (use you plural)
   (c) I laughed when I heard the bad poet. Did you see our friends, however? They were in
       tears. (use you singular)
   (d) Eat your food! I have been a long time preparing the food for you. (use you plural)
   (e) Neither my son nor my daughter gave me a present when I came to the house.
   (f) Men, proceed to the town and wait for us there!




                                          — 71 —
5. Translate into English:

In the fourth century BC Rome fought a series of wars against the Gauls in Italy. This story relates how a
Gallic warrior challenged the Romans to produce a champion to face him in single combat.

                                             I

Romani castra prope fluvium habebant. Galli in alterā ripā erant. duo populi multa
parva proelia pugnabant, sed neque Romani neque Galli superaverunt.
    tandem Gallus maximā staturā e castris processit. nudus erat sed torquem
auream circum collem habebat. ubi quinquaginta passus ā Romanis aberat,
clamavit:                                                                                          5
    “timetisne, Romani? feminae, non viri estis. unum vestrum ad pugnam provoco,
si virum habetis.”
    Romani perterriti erant. nemo cum magno Gallo pugnare cupiebat. Gallus
ridebat.
    tandem Manlius ad Quinctium, praefectum Romanum, iratus festinavit. “ego                      10
contra Gallum pugnare constitui,” inquit. “me ad proelium mitte! ego iam saepe
Gallis audaciam Romanam ostendi. da mihi scutum et gladium!”
    Quinctius, ubi haec verba audivit, Manlium laudavit. “tu vero fortissimus es.
sine dubio auxilium deorum habes. nos tamen arma optima tibi paravimus.” tum
Quinctius duos servos iussit arma adferre.                                                        15
    Quinctius deinde Manlio scutum magnum et gladium longum dedit. mox
Manlius e castris solus discessit et ad Gallum ambulavit.




fluvius, fluvii (m)                          river
ripa, ripae (f)                              riverbank, bank
populus, populi (m)                          people, nation
statura, staturae (f)                        size, stature
nudus, nuda, nudum                           naked
torquem (acc. m. sing.)                      neck-ring, torc
aureus, aurea, aureum                        made of gold
collum, colli (n)                            neck
quinquaginta                                 fifty
passus                                       paces (acc. plur.)
provoco, provocare, provocavi, provocatum    I challenge
si                                           if
nemo                                         no one
praefectus, praefecti (m)                    commander
audacia, audaciae (f)                        bravery, daring
haec                                         these (acc. neut. plur)
vero                                         truly, indeed
fortissimus, fortissima, fortissimum         very brave
dubium, dubii (n)                            doubt
adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum             bring




                                                 — 72 —
                                                     II
    Galli fluvium transierunt. laeti erant. “magnam victoriam exspectamus; vir
noster optimus est. cedite, Romani, cedite,” clamabant.
    Galli et Romani locum pugnae reliquerunt. ibi Manlius et Gallus soli stabant.    20
Romani et Galli duos viros spectabant.
    Gallus primus oppugnavit. gladium sustulit, sed Manlius scutum suum statim
interposuit. gladius Galli scutum Manlii percussit. itaque Gallus Manlium non
vulneravit. Manlius tamen gladio suo Gallum perfodit. Gallus ad terram mortuus
decidit. tum Manlius torquem aureum collo Galli detraxit et in suum collum posuit.   25
    “mea est victoria, hoc meum praemium victoriae. cur nunc non ridetis, Galli?
nihilne dicitis? amisistisne linguas? ecce! virum vestrum necavi; habetisne
alterum?” clamavit.
    postea Quinctius Manlio dona pulchra dedit. amici Manlium ‘Torquatum’
vocabant. Manlius hoc nomen filiis tradidit.                                         30




transierunt                                          (they) crossed
cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum                          I give in, I yield
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum                    I raise
interpono, interponere, interposui, interpositum     I put in the way
percutio, percutere, percussi, percussum             I hit, I strike
perfodio, perfodere, perfodi, perfossum              I stab
decido, decidere, decidi, decisum                    I fall down
detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractum               I pull off
hoc                                                  this (neut. nom & acc sing)
praemium, praemii (n)                                reward, prize
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum                     I lose
lingua, linguae (f)                                  tongue
nomen                                                name (neut. nom & acc sing)




                                                   — 73 —
6.
52 B. C. Rome is disturbed by the violence of two political gangs, one led by Milo, the other by Clodius. On
  January 18th the two leaders met at Bovillae on the road from Rome to Lanuvium and in the fight that
followed Clodius was killed. Milo was then put on trial for murder by Clodius’ supporters. Here, he pleads
                                               his innocence.

Translate into Latin:

And so I decided to come to the town of Lanuvium where there was a sacrifice. However, when
Clodius heard about my plan, he set an ambush.

First I went to my house where I changed my clothes and shoes. There was a long delay because
my wife was a long time getting herself ready1. Finally we proceeded by carriage along the
Appian Way. We had many slaves and slave-girls as well. They were walking behind2 our
carriage.

Suddenly Clodius appeared in the road. Without doubt he was waiting there for me. He had
many tough slaves. His slaves were holding swords. He ordered the slaves to attack our
carriage. “What are you doing?” I shouted. “Are you mad?”

Then one of Clodius’ slaves killed one of my slaves. At once there was a battle in the road.

“Defend your mistress!” I shouted and I jumped down into the road. “Hand me a sword!” I
 ordered a slave.

Next I ran behind2 the carriage where the fighting3 was greatest. There I saw Clodius dead on
the ground. Hear my words, members of the jury. I did not kill Clodius. My wife and my slaves
saw the whole thing. Ask my slaves if you so wish!


        1was a long time getting herself ready: say was preparing herself for a long time
        2behind: say after
        3fighting: say battle




Lanuvium                        Lanuvium, Lanuvii (n)
Clodius                         Clodius, Clodii (m)
Appian Way                      Via Appia, Viae Appiae (f)



sacrifice        sacrificium, sacrificii (n)           appear      appareo, apparere, apparui, apparitum
plan          consilium, consilii (n)                  doubt       dubium, dubii (n)
I set         tendo, tendere, tendi, tentum            tough       robustus, robusta, robustum
ambush        insidiae, insidiarum (f pl)              mad         insanus, insana, insanum
clothes       vestimenta, vestimentorum (n pl)         defend      defendo, defendere, defendi, defensum
shoe          calceus, calcei (m)                      jump down desilio, desilire, desilui, desilitum
wife          uxor (nom. fem. sing.)                   members of the jury iudices (voc.)
herself       se                                       thing       rem (acc. fem. sing.)
carriage      raeda, raedae (f)                        if          si
                                                 — 74 —
CE LATIN

                                        15– Numbers

In lesson 7 (page 28) you met the numbers from 1 to 10 in Latin. Here are the numbers from
first to tenth:


                 primus, prima, primum                          first
                 secundus, secunda, secundum                    second
                 tertius, tertia, tertium                       third
                 quartus, quarta, quartum                       fourth
                 quintus, quinta, quintum                       fifth
                 sextus, sexta, sextum                          sixth
                 septimus, septima, septimum                    seventh
                 octavus, octava, octavum                       eighth
                 nonus, nona, nonum                             ninth
                 decimus, decima, decimum                       tenth


These are all adjectives and decline in the same way as bonus (page 22).




                                           — 75 —
                             Vocabulary 15




aedifico, aedificare, aedificavi, aedificatum    I build
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum                I sell




magnopere                              greatly
semper                                 always



patria, patriae (f)                    homeland, country
sagitta, sagittae (f)                  arrow
unda, undae (f)                        wave




clarus, clara, clarum                  distinguished
saevus, saeva, saevum                  cruel
validus, valida, validum               strong, well




trans + accusative                     across




                                — 76 —
                                             Exercises — 15

1. Translate into English:

   (a) hora prima est. voca servos ad me!
   (b) hora secunda est. cibum minimum consumo. postea togam novam induo.
   (c) hora tertia est. amici ad villam meam veniunt.
   (d) hora quarta est. amici me ad forum ducunt. ibi laboramus.
   (e) hora quinta est. ad villam revenio ubi paulisper dormio.
   (f) hora sexta est. ex oppido ambulo quod agros meos videre constitui.
   (g) hora septima est. ad tabernam festino ubi vinum cum amicis bibo.
   (h) hora octava est. ad villam revenio quod servi mihi cibum optimum paraverunt. vinum
       iterum bibo.
   (i) hora nona est. hodie in villā maneo quod ancilla cantat. servi mihi vinum dant.
   (j) hora decima est. nunc fessus sum quod multum vinum bibi! servi, portate me ad
       lectum!

         hora, horae (f)                  hour (the Romans divided the day into twelve hours)
         induo, induere, indui, indutum   I put on
         paulisper                        for a short time
         lectus, lecti (m)                bed

2. Translate into English:

   (a)   hic nunc habitamus. olim villam in Britanniā habebamus.
   (b)   diu ancillae laboraverunt. dominus igitur erat laetus et ancillis dona dedit.
   (c)   pueri, cur turba equorum in oppido est? ducite equos in agrum!
   (d)   filius tuus aderat, sed duae filiae aberant quod iram tuam timebant.
   (e)   si validus es, bene est. ego quoque validus sum.
   (f)   quo modo ab insulā discessistis? Romani nautas ceperunt.

3. Translate into Latin:

   (a)   Where have you put my arrows?
   (b)   Did you see the waves? They were very big.
   (c)   The Romans have many distinguished men.
   (d)   When you walk across my field, take my two horses also.
   (e)   Marcus’ son is strong but cruel.
   (f)   I built my new house in the town where you used to live.

4. Translate into Latin:

   (a) Praise the gods! At last the allies have given us help. (use you plural)
   (b) I entered the temple of the goddess because our slave-girls were singing there.
   (c) We sailed to five beautiful islands, but the sixth was the best.
   (d) There were six friends present in our house. When the seventh came, I ordered the
       slaves to prepare new wine.
   (e) Have you heard about the battle on the island? (use you singular) Ten farmers are dead.
   (f) The inhabitants of the small town fought well. Why, therefore, did they not overcome
       the bad sailors?

                                                 — 77 —
 5. Translate into English:

                    In the war in Spain Cornelius Scipio shows kindness to the prisoners.

                                                        I
 Cornelius praefectos iussit captivos Hispanorum vocare. ubi Hispani in forum
 venerunt, Cornelius captivos bonum animum habere iussit.

“nos Romani vos et vestram patriam in bello cepimus,” clamavit. “sed saevi non
 sumus. vos servos nostros non facimus. ego hodie vos libero. ā multis oppidis
 Hispaniae estis. nuntios ad oppida vestra iam misi. oppidani vestri etiam nunc huc                          5
 festinant. vos oppidanis vestris tradere in animo meo est.”

 captivi, ubi verba Cornelii audiverunt, laeti erant et Romanos laudaverunt. femina
 tamen e turbā captivorum cucurrit et pro Cornelio stetit.

“gratias maximas tibi ago quod captivos liberavisti,” inquit. “sed feminae adsunt.                          10
 multae sunt puellae pulchrae. non sine causā Romani puellas terrent. quid tu de
 periculo feminarum facere potes? nos liberare non satis est.”

 Cornelius, ubi verba feminae audivit, turbae feminarum benigne dixit.

“nos Romani non sumus barbari. bellum contra feminis numquam gerimus. sub
 imperio meo tutae estis.”                                                                                  15

 tum centum viros elegit et eos feminas custodire iussit.

 ubi haec faciebat, Cornelius feminam pulcherrimam vidit. puella septendecim
 annorum, misere lacrimabat.




 praefectus, praefecti (m)           officer                centum                               hundred
 captivus, captivi (m)               prisoner               eligo, eligere, elegi, electum       I choose
 animus, animi (m)                   mind, heart            eos                                  them (acc. masc.
 oppidani, oppidanorum (m. pl.)      townspeople                                                 plur.)
 etiam                               even                   custodio, custodire, custodivi, custoditum I guard
 huc                                 here (=to this         septendecim                          seventeen
                                     place)                 annus, anni (m)                      year
 laetus, laeta, laetum               happy                  misere                               bitterly, pitiably,
 gratias ago, agere, egi             I give thanks, I                                            sorrowfully
                                     thank                  lacrimo, lacrimare, lacrimavi, lacrimatum I cry, I am
 causa, causae (f)                   cause, reason                                               in tears
 potes                               you (s) are able
 satis                               enough
 benigne                             kindly
 barbarus, barbari (m)               barbarian
 gero, gerere, gessi, gestum (bellum) I wage (war), I
                                     fight (a war)
 imperium, imperii (n)               command,
                                     authority
                                                    — 78 —
                                                       II

 Cornelius virum Hispanum de feminā rogavit. “quis est?” inquit “et cur lacrimat?
 Romanosne timet? mene timet?”                                                         20

“minime!” respondit Hispanus. “sponsa Allucii est. Allucius est regulus Hispanus.
 puella Allucium magnopere amat et Allucius puellam. Allucius puellam mox in
 matrimonium ducere et reginam facere cupit. nunc alter pro alterā timet.”

 Cornelius Allucium statim arcessivit. ubi aderat, Cornelius regulo “desine timere,”
 inquit. “te quoque libero. cape puellam et ad oppidum tuum hodie redi!”               25

Allucius laetissimus erat. dextram Cornelii tenuit et deis gratias egit quod legatus
Romanus vir tam benignus erat. deinde multum aurum Cornelio ostendit. cognati
sponsae aurum portabant. aurum pretium puellae erat.

 Cornelius tamen, “dona tua mihi non cupio” inquit. “sed aurum ā me accipe. vobis
 donum dotale do.”                                                                     30

 tandem Allucius cum sponsā ad patriam festinavit ubi mille viros cum equis
 collegit. mox ad Cornelium revenit et auxilium suum in bello promisit.




 minime!                                     no!
 sponsa, sponsae (f)                         fiancée, engaged to
 regulus, reguli (m)                         prince
 matrimonium, matrimonii (n)                 marriage
 arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitum   I summon
 desino, desinere, desii + infinitive        I stop (doing something)
 redeo, redire, redii, reditum               I return
 laetissimus, laetissima, laetissimum        very happy
 dextra, dextrae (f)                         right hand
 legatus, legati (m)                         commander, general
 tam                                         so
 benignus, benigna, benignum                 kind
 cognatus, cognati (f)                       relative
 pretium, pretii (n)                         price, ransom
 accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum         I accept, I receive
 dotale (donum)                              wedding (present)
 mille                                       thousand
 colligo, colligere, collegi, collectum      I collect
 promitto, promittere, promisi, promissum    I promise




                                                    — 79 —
 6.
                     When building a house it is important to have a solid foundation.

Translate into Latin:

                                                     I

Two men once decided to build houses. For a long time they searched for a suitable place. At
last the first man came to a place where there was a large field. The field was beautiful and the
man saw many plants. A river flowed through the field. The man stood in the field and looked
at the view. He wanted the field greatly. A farmer owned1 the field, but when the first man
offered a lot of money, the farmer sold the field to the man. Then the man ordered his slaves
to build the house. “Hurry, bring wood and nails and tools. Make me a house here!” he shouted.

The second man, however, examined the ground. “The ground is soft,” he said. “It is a bad idea
to build here.” Then he asked the farmer, “Do you have another field where the ground is firm?”

“I have a field full of rocks,” replied the farmer. “I don’t sow plants there because nothing does
 well. Have the field. I want very little money for the field.”

The second man moved his slaves and tools into the field and ordered the slaves to build a
house there.

 Soon the two men had beautiful houses.


        1owned: use teneo, tenere, tenui




        search for                  quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum
        suitable                    idoneus, idonea, idoneum
        plant                       planta, plantae (f)
        view                        prospectus (accusative: prospectum) (m)
        offer                       offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum
        wood                        lignum, ligni (n)
        nail                        clavus, clavi (m)
        tool                        instrumentum, instrumenti (n)
        examine                     inspicio, inspicere, inspexi, inspectum
        soft                        mollis (nom. fem. sing.)
        idea                        consilium, consilii (n)
        firm                        firmus, firma, firmum
        full                        plenus, plena, plenum
        rock                        saxum, saxi (n)
        sow                         sero, serere, serui, sertum
        do well                     floreo, florere, florui, floritum




                                                — 80 —
                                                     II

“Your house is magnificent,” the second man said to his friend, “but I am afraid of the waters of
 the river. They are high already. I see danger here. Take care!”

“Who asked you about my affairs?” the other replied. “Look after your own house!” Then he
 entered the house and shut the door.

Afterwards the winds and the rains came. They were beating the two houses. Suddenly the first
man heard loud noises. The house was collapsing. The first man was terrified and hurried out
of the house with his slaves and slave-girls. He went to his friend’s house where he knocked on
the door.

“Friend, give us help,” he asked. “My house is destroyed. Now I have nothing. Do you have food
 and wine and shelter?”

“I was always warning you2 about the dangers of your place.” The other replied. “Come, my
 house is big enough for me and for you. My house resisted the winds because I built the house
 on rocks. But listen to my words: when you build a house again, search for the best place!”


        1loud: say big
        2use the singular for you throughout this paragraph.




        magnificent               magnificus, magnifica, magnificum
        take care                 caveo, cavere, cavi, cautum
        affairs                   rebus (abl. fem. plur.)
        look after                curo, curare, curavi, curatum
        enter                     intro, intrare, intravi, intratum
        shut                      claudo, claudere, clausi, clausum
        door                      ianua, ianuae (f)
        rain                      pluvia, pluviae (f)
        collapse                  ruinam do, dare, dedi
        destroyed                 deletus, deleta, deletum
        shelter                   tectum, tecti (n)
        enough                    satis
        resist                    resisto, resistere, restiti, restitum (+ dative of the person or thing you resist)




                                                — 81 —
                         Conjugation 1    Conjugation 2    Conjugation 3     Conjugation 4
                          stems in -a      stems in -e        stems in        stems in -i
                                                            consonants
Principal parts        porto, portare,   habeo, habēre,   mitto, mittere,   audio, audire,
                       portavi, portatum habui, habitum   misi, missum      audivi, auditum
Present            I   porto             habeo            mitto             audio
                 you   portas            habes            mittis            audis
I carry,        s/he   portat            habet            mittit            audit
I am carrying     we   portamus          habemus          mittimus          audimus
etc.
                 you   portatis          habetis          mittitis          auditis
                they   portant           habent           mittunt           audiunt
Imperfect          I   portabam          habebam          mittebam          audiebam
                 you   portabas          habebas          mittebas          audiebas
I was carrying s/he    portabat          habebat          mittebat          audiebat
etc.              we   portabamus        habebamus        mittebamus        audiebamus
                 you   portabatis        habebatis        mittebatis        audiebatis
               they    portabant         habebant         mittebant         audiebant
Perfect            I   portavi           habui            misi              audivi
                 you   portavisti        habuisti         misisti           audivisti
I carried       s/he   portavit          habuit           misit             audivit
etc.              we   portavimus        habuimus         misimus           audivimus
                 you   portavistis       habuistis        misistis          audivistis
               they    portaverunt       habuerunt        miserunt          audiverunt
Imperative sing        porta             habe             mitte             audi
carry! etc.     plur   portate           habete           mittite           audite
Infinitive        to   portare           habēre           mittere           audire




Principal parts        sum, esse, fui
Present           I    sum
                you    es
I am etc.      s/he    est
                 we    sumus
                you    estis
               they    sunt
Imperfect         I    eram
                you    eras
I was etc.     s/he    erat
                 we    eramus
                you    eratis
              they     erant
Infinitive       to    esse
                                           — 82 —
                                   First              Second             Second          Second             Second
                                Declension           Declension         Declension      Declension         Declension
                                      girl              master              book              boy            temple
           Nominative          puell-a            domin-us              liber          puer           templ-um
           Vocative            puell-a            domin-e               liber          puer           templ-um
singular




           Accusative          puell-am           domin-um              libr-um        puer-um        templ-um
           Genitive            puell-ae           domin-i               libr-i         puer-i         templ-i
           Dative              puell-ae           domin-o               libr-o         puer-o         templ-o
           Ablative            puell-ā            domin-o               libr-o         puer-o         templ-o

           Nominative          puell-ae           domin-i               libr-i         puer-i         templ-a
           Vocative            puell-ae           domin-i               libr-i         puer-i         templ-a
plural




           Accusative          puell-as           domin-os              libr-os        puer-os        templ-a
           Genitive            puell-arum         domin-orum            libr-orum      puer-orum      templ-orum
           Dative              puell-is           domin-is              libr-is        puer-is        templ-is
           Ablative            puell-is           domin-is              libr-is        puer-is        templ-is




                           Nominative the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                           Vocative   used when addressing someone
                singular




                           Accusative        the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
                           Genitive          indicates possession: translate “of” or “ ‘s”
                           Dative            translates “to” or “for”
                           Ablative          translates “by”, “with”, or “from”

                           Nominative the subject: used for the person or thing performing the verb
                           Vocative   used when addressing someone
                           Accusative        the object: used for the person or thing receiving the verb
                plural




                           Genitive          indicates possession: translate “of” or “ s’ ”
                           Dative            translates “to” or “for”
                           Ablative          translates “by”, “with”, or “from”




                                                             — 83 —
                                I   You (singular)
           Nominative ego           tu
           Vocative                 tu
singular   Accusative   me          te
           Genitive     mei         tui
           Dative       mihi        tibi
           Ablative     me          te

                               We    You (plural)
           Nominative nos           vos
           Vocative                 vos
           Accusative   nos         vos
plural




           Genitive     nostrum     vestrum
           Dative       nobis       vobis
           Ablative     nobis       vobis




                        — 84 —
                        masculine   feminine    neuter
           Nominative   bonus       bona        bonum
           Vocative     bone        bona        bonum
singular   Accusative   bonum       bonam       bonum
           Genitive     boni        bonae       boni
           Dative       bono        bonae       bono
           Ablative     bono        bonā        bono
           Nominative   boni        bonae       bona
           Vocative     boni        bonae       bona
plural




           Accusative   bonos       bonas       bona
           Genitive     bonorum     bonarum     bonorum
           Dative       bonis       bonis       bonis
           Ablative     bonis       bonis       bonis


                        masculine   feminine    neuter
           Nominative   noster      nostra      nostrum
           Vocative     noster      nostra      nostrum
singular




           Accusative   nostrum     nosram      nostrum
           Genitive     nostri      nostrae     nostri
           Dative       nostro      nostrae     nostro
           Ablative     nostro      nostrā      nostro
           Nominative   nostri      nostrae     nostra
           Vocative     nostri      nostrae     nostra
plural




           Accusative   nostros     nostras     nostra
           Genitive     nostrorum   nostrarum   nostrorum
           Dative       nostris     nostris     nostris
           Ablative     nostris     nostris     nostris


                        masculine   feminine    neuter
           Nominative   miser       misera      miserum
           Vocative     miser       misera      miserum
singular




           Accusative   miserum     miseram     miserum
           Genitive     miseri      miserae     miseri
           Dative       misero      miserae     misero
           Ablative     misero      bonā        misero
           Nominative   miseri      miserae     misera
           Vocative     miseri      miserae     misera
plural




           Accusative   miseros     miseras     misera
           Genitive     miserorum   miserarum   miserorum
           Dative       miseris     miseris     miseris
           Ablative     miseris     miseris     miseris
                               — 85 —
           cardinal numbers                  ordinal numbers                   Roman
           (one, two, three etc.)        (first, second, third, etc.)         Numerals
1    unus, una, unum                primus, prima, primum               I

2    duo, duae, duo                 secundus, secunda, secundum         II

3    tres, tres, tria               tertius, tertia, tertium            III

4    quattuor                       quartus, quarta, quartum            IV

5    quinque                        quintus, quinta, quintum            V

6    sex                            sextus, sexta, sextum               VI

7    septem                         septimus, septima, septimum         VII

8    octo                           octavus, octava, octavum            VIII

9    novem                          nonus, nona, nonum                  IX

10   decem                          decimus, decima, decimum            X




                                    — 86 —
                                         Latin - English Vocabulary

                           words in green are not on the list of words for Common Entrance

ā (+ ablative)                       away from, from           benigne                               kindly
abi!                                 go away!                  benignus, benigna, benignum           kind
absum, abesse, afui                  I am absent, I am         bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitum           I drink
                                     away, I am missing        bona, bonorum (n pl)                  goods, possessions
accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum I accept, I receive        bonus, bona, bonum                    good
accipiunt                            accept (they)             Cadurci, Cadurcorum (m pl)            the Cadurci (a tribe
accuso, accusare, accusavi           I accuse                                                        of people)
ad + accusative                      to, towards               caecus, caeca, caecum                 blind
adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum     I bring                   caelum, caeli (n)                     sky
adsum, adesse, adfui                 I am present, I am        Caesar (m)                            Caesar (Julius
                                     here                                                            Caesar who invaded
aedifico, aedificare, aedificavi, aedificatum I build                                                Gaul in 59 B.C.)
aeger, aegra, aegrum                 sick, ill                 Camillus, Camilli (m)                 Camillus
ager, agri (m)                       field                     canto, cantare, cantavi, cantatum I sing
agito, agitare, agitavi              I drive, I push           capio, capere, cepi, captum           I take
                                     along                     captivus, captivi (m)                 prisoner
agnosco, agnoscere, agnovi, agnotum I recognise                caput                                 head
agricola, agricolae (m)              farmer                    caput Caesaris                        the emperor’s
alii, aliorum (m pl)                 others, other                                                   head (caput is
                                     people                                                          nominative)
alius, alia                          other, the other,         carmina (neut. nom. & acc. pl.)       poems
                                     another                   castra, castrorum (n pl)              camp, military
alter, altera, alterum               the other (of two)                                              camp, fort (Note
alter...alter                        the one...the other                                             that this word is
altus, alta, altum                   high, deep                                                      used only in the
ambulo, ambulare, ambulavi, ambulatum I walk                                                         plural)
amicus, amici (m)                    friend                    causa, causae (f)                     cause, reason
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum I lose                        cavo, cavare, cavavi, cavatum         I hollow out, I dig
amo, amare, amavi, amatum            I like, I love            cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum           I give in, I yield
amphora, amphorae (f)                jar                       cella, cellae (f)                     small room
ancilla, ancillae (f)                slave-girl                celo, celare, celavi, celatum         I hide
animus, animi (m)                    mind, heart               centum                                hundred
annus, anni (m)                      year                      cibus, cibi (m)                       food
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum I open                        cieo, ciere, civi, citum              I rouse, I attract
appropinquo, appropinquare, appropinquavi + dative             circumspecto, - are, - avi            I look around
                                      I approach               clamo, clamare, clamavi               I shout, I exclaim
aqua, aquae (f)                      water                     clarus, clara, clarum                 distinguished
aquila, aquilae (f)                  eagle                     clavem                                key (acc. sing)
arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitum        I send for,   cognatus, cognati (f)                 relative
                                     I summon                  cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotum I find out,
architectus, -i (m)                  architect                                                       I get to know
ardeo, ardere, arsi                  I catch fire              colligo, colligere, collegi, collectum      I collect
argentarius, argentarii (m)          banker                    colloquium, colloquii (n)             conversation
arma, armorum (n pl)                 arms, equipment           collum, colli (n)                     neck
armarium, armarii (n)                chest, box                comparo, comparare, comparavi, comparatum I
atrium, atrii (n)                    main room, atrium                                               obtain
audacia, audaciae (f)                bravery, daring           compleo, complere, complevi, completum I fill
audio, audire, audivi, auditum       I hear, I listen to       comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi,
aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatum I take away                                                        comprehensum I
aureus, aurea, aureum                made of gold                                                    seize
aurum, auri (n)                      gold                      conspicio, conspicere, conspexi I catch sight of
auxilium, auxilii (n)                help                      constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutum I
barbarus, barbari (m)                barbarian                                                       decide
basilica, basilicae (f)              law-court                 consulto                              on purpose,
bellum, belli (n)                    war                                                             deliberately
bene                                 well                      consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum I eat

                                                         — 87 —
contra + accusative                  against                eo                                    I am going
convalescit                          (he)/(she)             eos                                   them (acc. masc.
                                     recovers, gets                                               plur.)
                                     better                 epistula, epistulae (f)               letter
convenio, convenire, conveni, conventum I meet              equus, equi (m)                       horse
cotidie                              every day              erro, errare, erravi, erratum         I wander
credo, credere, credidi, creditum + dative I believe        et                                    and
cubiculum, cubiculi (n)              bedroom                etiam                                 even
cum + ablative                       with                   excito, excitare, excitavi            I wake up, I rouse
cumulo, cumulare, cumulavi           I pile up, I heap up   excutio, excutere, excussi            I search
cupio, cupire, cupivi                I want, I desire                                             thoroughly
cur?                                 why?                   exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum I
curo, curare, curavi, curatum        I care for, I look                                           wait for, I expect
                                     after                  exstinguo, exstinguere, exstinxi, extinctum I put out,
custodio, custodire, custodivi, custoditum I guard                                                I extinguish
de + ablative                        about                  faber, fabri (m)                      craftsman
dea, deae (f)                        goddess                fabula, fabulae (f)                   story
decem                                10                     facile                                easily
decido, decidere, decidi, decisum I fall down               facio, facere, feci, factum           I make, I do
decimus, decima, decimum             tenth                  Falerii, Faleriorum (m pl)            Falerii,the principal
deleo, delēre, delevi, deletum       I destroy                                                    town of the Falisci.
denarius, denarii (m)                denarius (a silver     Falisci, Faliscorum (m pl)            The Falisci, an
                                     coin)                                                        Etruscan tribe
densus, -a, -um                      close together         falsus, falsa, falsum                 false, untrue
deploro, deplorare, deploravi        I complain about       femina, feminae (f)                   woman
depono, deponere, deposui, depositum I put aside            fenestra, fenestrae (f)               window
desidero, desiderare, desideravi, desideratum I             fessus, fessa, fessum                 tired
                                     miss, I long to        festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatum I hurry
                                     have                   filia, filiae (f)                     daughter
desino, desinere, desii + infinitive I stop (doing          filius, filii (m)                     son
                                     something)             flamma, -ae (f)                       flame
despero, -are, -avi, desperatum I despair                   fluvius, fluvii (m)                   river
detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractum I pull off           fortasse                              perhaps
deus, dei (m)                        god                    fortissimus, fortissima, fortissimum        very brave
dextra, dextrae (f)                  right hand             fortuna, fortunae (f)                 luck, fortune
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum           I say, I speak         fortunatus, fortunata, fortunatum fortunate
discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum I leave, I          forum, fori (n)                       forum, market-
                                     depart                                                       place, town-square
diu                                  for a long time        fossa, fossae (f)                     ditch
divitissimus, divitissima, divitissimum very rich           frater (nominative)                   brother
Divona, Divonae (f)                  Divona (now Cahors     frequento, frequentare, frequentavi         (I) collect in
                                     in France)                                                   large numbers, I
do, dare, dedi, datum                I give                                                       visit often
domina, dominae (f)                  mistress               frustra                               in vain, to no avail
dominus, domini (m)                  master                 fundit                                (he/she) pours
donum, doni (n)                      gift, present          fundus, fundi (m)                     farm
dormio, dormire, dormivi, dormitum I sleep                  fur (nominative)                      thief
dotale (donum)                       wedding (present)      furtum, furti (n)                     theft, stealing
Drusilla, Drusillae (f)              Drusilla               Galli, Gallorum (m pl)                the Gauls
dubium, dubii (n)                    doubt                  Gallia, Galliae (f)                   Gaul (the Roman
duco, ducere, duxi, ductum           I lead                                                       name for what is
dum                                  while                                                        now mainly, but not
dumus, dumi (m)                      bush                                                         only France)
duo                                  2                      gallus, galli (m)                     cockerel
duovir, duoviri (m)                  magistrate, judge      gero, gerere, gessi, gestum (bellum)        I wage (war), I
durus, dura, durum                   hard, harsh                                                  fight (a war)
ē, ex + ablative                     out of, from           gladius, gladii (m)                   sword
eadem (nom. fem. sing.)              the same               gratias ago, agere, egi               I give thanks, I
ecce!                                look!                                                        thank
eligo, eligere, elegi, electum       I choose               habeo, habēre, habui, habitum         I have
emo, emere, emi, emptum              I buy                  habito, habitare, habitavi, habitatum I live
                                                      — 88 —
haec                                 these (acc. neut.         legatus, legati (m)                  commander,
                                     plur)                                                          general,
hama, hamae (f)                      bucket                                                         representative
hanc                                 this (acc. fem. sing)     lego, legere, legi, lectum           I read
hasta, hastae (f)                    spear                     liber, libri                         book
heri                                 yesterday                 libero, liberare, liberavi, liberatumI release, I set free
hic                                  here                      ligo, ligare, ligavi, ligatum        I tie up, I bind
hoc                                  this (neut. nom &         lingua, linguae (f)                  tongue, language
                                     acc sing)                 locus, loci (m)                      place
hōc                                  this (ablative)           longe                                far, a long way
hodie                                today                     longus, longa, longum                long
hora, horae (f)                      hour (the Romans          ludo, ludere, lusi, lusum            I play
                                     divided the day into      ludus, ludi (m)                      school
                                     twelve hours)             magister, magistri (m)               teacher
hospitium, hospitii (n)              hospitality               magnopere                            greatly
huc                                  here (=to this place)     magnus, magna, magnum                big
iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum          I throw                   malus, mala, malum                   bad
iam                                  now, already              mane                                 in the morning
ibi                                  there                     maneo, manere, mansi, mansum I stay, I remain
igitur                               therefore                 Marcus, Marci (m)                    Marcus
ignavus, ignava, ignavum             lazy                      Mariani, Marianorum (m. pl.)         followers of
ille                                 that                                                           Marius
imperium, imperii (n)                power, rule,              maritus, mariti (m)                  husband
                                     command,                  matrimonium, matrimonii (n)          marriage
                                     authority                 maximus, maxima, maximum             greatest, largest
in + ablative                        in, on                    me                                   me (accusative)
in + accusative                      into, onto                medicamentum, medicamenti (n) drug, medicine
in rostro                            in its beak               medicus, medici (m)                  doctor
incendium, incendii (n)              fire                      mendico, mendicare, mendicavi, mendicatum I beg
incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus I set on fire            mensa, mensae (f)                    table
induo, induere, indui, indutum       I put on                  menses                               months
ingravesco                           I am getting worse        meus, mea, meum                      my
inimicus, inimici (m)                enemy                     mille                                thousand
inquit                               (he/she) says,            minime!                              no!
                                     (he/she) said             minimus, minima, minimum             very little
inspicio, inspicere, inspexi         I inspect, I              miser, misera, miserum               miserable,
                                     examine                                                        wretched
insula, insulae (f)                  island                    misere                               bitterly, pitiably,
interpono, interponere, interposui, interpositum           I                                        sorrowfully
                                     put in the way            mitto, mittere, misi, missum         I send
intro, intrare, intravi              I enter                   momentum, momenti (n)                importance
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum        I find              moneo, monēre, monui, monitum I advise, I warn
invito, invitare, invitavi, invitatum I invite                 mora, morae (f)                      delay
ipsum                                himself (acc. m.          moriturus, moritura, moriturum going to die
                                     sing)                     mortuus, mortua, mortuum             dead
ira, irae (f)                        anger                     moveo, movēre, movi, motum           I move
iratus, irata, iratum                angry                     mox                                  soon
ita                                  in this way               multus, multa, multum                much (sing), many
itaque                               and so                                                         (plur)
iterum                               again, for a second       murus, muri (m)                      wall
                                     time                      narro, narrare, narravi, narratum I tell
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum         I order                   nato, natare, natavi, natatum        I swim
laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratum I work                   nauta, nautae (m)                    sailor
lacrima, lacrimae (f)                tear                      navigo, navigare, navigavi, navigatum I sail
lacrimo, lacrimare, lacrimavi, lacrimatum I cry, I             neco, necare, necavi, necatum        I kill
                                     am in tears               negotium, negotii (n)                business, activity
laetissimus, laetissima, laetissimum       very happy          nemo                                 no one
laetus, laeta, laetum                happy                     neque...neque                        neither...nor
Latinus, Latina, Latinum             Latin                     nihil                                nothing
laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatum I praise                     nobilissimus, nobilissima, nobilissimum          noblest
lectus, lecti (m)                    bed                       nocte                                in the night
                                                         — 89 —
nomen                               name (neut. nom        postridie                            on the next day
                                    & acc sing)            potes                                you (s) are able
Nomentum, Nomenti (m)               Nomentum (a town       poto, potare, potavi, potatum        I drink
                                    about 25 miles from    praebeo, praebere, praebui           I provide
                                    Rome)                  praefectus, praefecti (m)            officer,
non                                 not                                                         commander
nonus, nona, nonum                  ninth                  praemium, praemii (n)                reward, prize
nos                                 us (accusative)        pretium, pretii (n)                  price, ransom
noster, nostra, nostrum             our                    primum                               firstly
notus, nota, notum                  famous                 primus, prima, primum                first
novem                               9                      pro + ablative                       in front of, on
novus, nova, novum                  new                                                         behalf of, for
nudus, nuda, nudum                  naked                  procedo, procedere, processi, processum I advance,
numero, numerare, numeravi          I count                                                     I proceed
numquam                             never                  proelium, proelii (n)                battle
nunc                                now                    promitto, promittere, promisi, promissum I promise
nuntius, nuntii (m)                 messenger              prope (+ accusative)                 near
obsto, obstare, obstiti + dative    I get in the way of    prospere                             successfully
octavus, octava, octavum            eighth                 prospicio, prospicere, prospexi I look out
octo                                8                      provoco, provocare, provocavi, provocatumI
offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum    I offer                                                     challenge
olim                                once, once upon a      puella, puellae (f)                  girl
                                    time                   puer, pueri (m)                      boy
oppidani, oppidanorum (m. pl.) townspeople                 pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatum I fight
oppidum, oppidi (n)                 town                   pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum           beautiful
oppugno, oppugnare, oppugnavi, oppugnatum I                pulso, pulsare, pulsavi              I hit, I thump, I
                                    attack                                                      bang
optimus, optima, optimum            very good,             punio, punire, punivi, punitum I punish
                                    excellent, best        quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum I go and look
ora, orae (f)                       shore                                                       for
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum I show               quartus, quarta, quartum             fourth
pala, palae (f)                     spade                  quattuor                             4
palus, pali (m)                     fence-post             quid?                                what?
paro, parare, paravi, paratum       I prepare, I           quinquaginta                         fifty
                                    commit (a crime)       quinque                              5
partem                              part (acc. f. sing.)   quintus, quinta, quintum             fifth
parvus, parva, parvum               small                  quo modo                             how?
passus                              paces (acc. plur.)     quoad                                as long as
patria, patriae (f)                 homeland, country      quod                                 because
paulisper                           for a short time       quondam                              one day
pecunia, pecuniae (f)               money                  quoque                               also
per + accusative                    through, along         rapit                                (he) seizes
percutio, percutere, percussi, percussum I hit, I          rapiunt                              they seize
                                    strike                 raucus, rauca, raucum                harsh
perfidus, perfida, perfidum         treacherous            re medicinā                          medicine (ablative)
perfodio, perfodere, perfodi, perfossumI stab              recuso, recusare, recusavi           I refuse
periculum, periculum (n)            danger                 redde!                               give back!
peritus, -a, -um                    skilled                redeo, redire, redii, reditum        I return
perterritus, perterrita, perterritum      terrified        reficio, reficere, refeci, refectum I repair
pessimus, pessima, pessimum         very bad, worst        regina, reginae (f)                  queen
petasus, petasi (m)                 hat                    rego, regere, rexi, rectum           I rule
pictura, picturae (f)               picture                regulus, reguli (m)                  prince
piscina, piscinae (f)               fish-pond              relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum I leave
poeta, poetae (m)                   poet                   rem                                  story (acc. fem.
pono, ponere, posui, positum        I place, I put                                              sing)
popina, popinae (f)                 bar                    respondeo, respondere, respondi, responsum I
populus, populi (m)                 people, nation                                              reply
porta, portae (f)                   gate                   revenio, revenire, reveni, reventum        I return
porto, portare, portavi, portatum I carry                  rideo, ridere, risi, risum           I laugh, I smile
portum (acc. sing)                  port, harbour          ripa, ripae (f)                      riverbank, bank
postea                              afterwards             rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum        I ask, I ask for
                                                     — 90 —
Romae                               at Rome             surripit                              (he) steals
Romani, Romanorum (m pl)            the Romans          suus, sua, suum                       his, her, its, their
ruina, -ae (f)                      ruin                taberna, tabernae (f)                 shop, inn, bar
ruinam do, ruinam dare, ruinam dedi I fall down, I      tabernarius, tabernarii (m)           shopkeeper
                                    collapse in ruins   tacite                                silently
sacer, sacra, sacrum                sacred              tam                                   so
sacrificium facit                   (he) makes a        tamen                                 however
                                    sacrifice           tandem                                at last, finally
saepe                               often               tectum, tecti (n)                     shelter
saevus, saeva, saevum               cruel               templum, templi (n)                   temple
sagitta, sagittae (f)               arrow               teneo, tenēre, tenui                  I hold
salve!                              hello!              terra, terrae (f)                     earth, ground
sarcinae, sarcinarum (f pl)         bags, luggage       terreo, terrēre, terrui, territum     I terrify, I make
satis                               enough                                                    afraid
scelestus, scelesta, scelestum      wicked              tertius, tertia, tertium              third
scio, scire, scivi, scitum          I know              timeo, timēre, timui                  I am afraid (of), I
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum I write                                                   fear
scutum, scuti (n)                   shield              tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum     I raise
se                                  himself             torquem (acc. m. sing.)               neck-ring, torc
secum                               with him (i.e.      totus, tota, totum                    all of, whole of, all
                                    himself)            trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum I hand over, I pass
secundus, secunda, secundum         second                                                    on
sed                                 but                 tranquillus, tranquilla, tranquillum        peaceful
semper                              always              trans + accusative                    across
senatores                           senators (nom &     transierunt                           (they) crossed
                                    acc plur)           tres                                  3
senatum                             senate (acc)        tristis                               sad
septem                              7                   triticum, tritici (n)                 wheat
septendecim                         seventeen           tum                                   then
septimus, septima, septimum         seventh             tunica, tunicae (f)                   tunic
serenus, serena, serenum            calm, peaceful      turba, turbae (f)                     crowd
serrula, serrulae (f)               small saw           tutus, tuta, tutum                    safe
servus, servi (m)                   slave               tuus, tua, tuum                       your (singular)
sex                                 6                   ubi                                   when, where
sextus, sexta, sextum               sixth               ubique                                everywhere
si                                  if                  unda, undae (f)                       wave
sic                                 in this way, thus   unus, una, unum                       1
siccus, -a, -um                     dry                 valeo, valere, valui                  I am worth
silentium, silentii (n)             silence             validus, valida, validum              strong
sine + ablative                     without             Veientani, Veientorum (m pl)          The people of Veii
Sinuessa, Sinuessae (f)             Sinuessa            Veii, Veiorum (m pl)                  Veii
socius, socii (m)                   ally                vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum I sell
sollicitus, -a, -um                 worried             venio, venire, veni, ventum           I come, I go
solus, sola, solum                  alone, lonely       ventus, venti (m)                     wind
sonus, soni (m)                     sound               verbum, verbi (n)                     word
Sparsus, Sparsi (m)                 Sparsus             vero                                  truly, indeed
specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum I watch, I look   verus, vera, verum                    true
                                    at                  vespillo (nom)                        undertaker
spelunca, -ae (f)                   cave                vester, vestra, vestrum               your (plural)
sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretum I reject, I scorn     via, viae (f)                         street, road
sponsa, sponsae (f)                 fiancée, engaged    vicinus, vicina, vicinum              neighbouring
                                    to                  victoria, victoriae (f)               victory
statim                              at once,            video, videre, vidi, visum            I see
                                    immediately         vilicus, vilici (m)                   steward
statua, statuae (f)                 statue              villa, villae (f)                     house
statura, staturae (f)               size, stature       vinum, vini (n)                       wine
sto, stare, stati, statum           I stand             vir, viri (m)                         man
sub + ablative                      under               virga, virgae (f)                     stick, cane
subito                              suddenly            visito, visitare, visitavi, visitatum I visit
supero, superare, superavi, superatum I overcome, I     vita, vitae (f)                       life
                                    defeat              vobis                                 for you (dat. pl.)
                                                  — 91 —
voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum    I call                vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratum I wound,
volito, volitare, volitavi       I fly                                                    I injure
vulnerata                        wounded




                                    English - Latin Vocabulary

                       words in green are not on the list of words for Common Entrance

about                de + ablative                     battle             proelium, proelii (n)
absent, I am absent  absum, abesse, afui               beat               verbero, verberare, verberavi,
across               trans + accusative                                   verberatum
advance              procedo, procedere, processi,     beautiful          pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
                     processum                         because            quod
advise               moneo, monēre, monui, monitum     bedroom            cubiculum, cubiculi (n)
Aequi                Aequi, Aequorum (m. pl.)          believe            credo, credere, credidi, creditum +
affairs              rebus (abl. fem. plur.)                              dat
afterwards           postea                            best               optimus, optima, optimum
again, for a second time iterum                        big                magnus, magna, magnum
against              contra + accusative               book               liber, libri
Alba                 Alba, Albae (f)                   boy                puer, pueri (m)
all, all of          totus, tota, totum                bring              fero, ferre, tuli, latus
ally                 socius, socii (m)                 build              aedifico, aedificare, aedificavi,
alone                solus, sola, solum                                   aedificatum
along                per + accusative                  but                sed
already              iam                               buy                emo, emere, emi, emptum
also                 quoque                            call               voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum
always               semper                            camp, military camp castra, castrorum (n pl)
am afraid (of), fear timeo, timēre, timui              care about         curo, curare, curavi, curatum
ambush               insidiae, insidiarum (f pl)       carriage           raeda, raedae (f)
and                  et                                carry              porto, portare, portavi, portatum
and so               itaque                            Carthaginians      Poeni, Poenorum (m pl)
anger                ira, irae (f)                     Casilinum          Casilinum, Casilini (n)
angry                iratus, irata, iratum             Cincinnatus        Cincinnatus, Cincinnati (m)
announce             nuntio, nuntiare, nuntavi,        Clodius            Clodius, Clodii (m)
                     nuntiatum                         clothes            vestimenta, vestimentorum (n pl)
Antium               Antium, Antii (n)                 collapse           ruinam do, dare, dedi
appear               appareo, apparere, apparui,       come               venio, venire, veni, ventum
                     apparitum                         commander          legatus, legati (m), praefectus,
Appian Way           Via Appia, Viae Appiae (f)                           praefecti (m)
Appius               Appius, Appii (m)                 commit (a crime) paro, parare, paravi, paratum
approach             appropinquo, appropinquare,       commotion          tumultum (acc. sing.)
                     appropinquavi + dative            country            patria, patriae (f)
arms, equipment arma, armorum (n pl)                   crowd              turba, turbae (f)
arrow                sagitta, sagittae (f)             cruel              saevus, saeva, saevum
ask, ask for         rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum     danger             periculum, periculum (n)
at last              tandem                            daughter           filia, filiae (f)
at once              statim                            dead               mortuus, mortua, mortuum
at Rome              Romae                             decemvir           decemvir, decemviri (m)
attack               oppugno, oppugnare, oppugnavi,    decide             constituo, constituere, constitui,
                     oppugnatum                                           constitutum
away from, from      ā (+ ablative)                    deep               altus, alta, altum
away, I am away      absum, abesse, afui               defeat             supero, superare, superavi,
back                 tergum, tergi (n)                                    superatum
bad                  malus, mala, malum                defend             defendo, defendere, defendi,
bag                  saccus, sacci (m)                                    defensum
bank, riverbank      ripa, ripae (f)                   delay              mora, morae (f)
barley               hordeum, hordei (n)               delighted          laetus, laeta, laetum
                                                 — 92 —
depart                 discedo, discedere, discessi,       four                 quattuor
                       discessum                           fourth               quartus, quarta, quartum
desire, I desire       cupio, cupire, cupivi               friend               amicus, amici (m)
destroy                deleo, delēre, delevi, deletum      from (a place)       ē, ex + ablative
destroyed              deletus, deleta, deletum            full                 plenus, plena, plenum
devastate              vasto, vastare, vastavi, vastatum   gate                 porta, portae (f)
dinner                 cena, cenae (f)                     get to know          cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi,
distinguished          clarus, clara, clarum                                    cognitum
do                     facio, facere, feci, factum         gift                 donum, doni (n)
do well                floreo, florere, florui, floritum   girl                 puella, puellae (f)
doctor                 medicus, medici (m)                 give                 do, dare, dedi, datum
donkey                 asellus, aselli (m)                 give back!           redde!
door                   ianua, ianuae (f)                   gives back (he)      reddit
doubt                  dubium, dubii (n)                   go                   venio, venire, veni, ventum
drink                  bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitum         go back (I)          redeo
earth                  terra, terrae (f)                   god                  deus, dei (m)
eat                    consumo, consumere, consumpsi,      goddess              dea, deae (f)
                       consumptum                          gold                 aurum, auri (n)
eight                  octo                                gold, made of gold aureus, aurea, aureum
eighth                 octavus, octava, octavum            good                 bonus, bona, bonum
empty                  vacuus, vacua, vacuum               Gracchus             Gracchus, Gracchi (m)
engaged to             sponsus, sponsa, sponsum (+         grass                herba, herbae (f)
                       genitive of the person)             greatest, very great maximus, maxima, maximum
enough                 satis                               greatly              magnopere
enter                  intro, intrare, intravi, intratum   Greek                Graecus, Graeci (m)
enter                  intro, intrare, intravi             ground               terra, terrae (f)
equally                pariter                             guard, I guard       custodio, custodire, custodivi,
equipment, arms arma, armorum (n pl)                                            custoditum
even                   etiam                               hair                 capilli, capillorum (m pl)
examine                inspicio, inspicere, inspexi,       hand over, pass on trado, tradere, tradidi, traditum
                       inspectum                           happy                laetus, laeta, laetum
excellent              optimus, optima, optimum            have                 habeo, habēre, habui, habitum
exclaim                clamo, clamare, clamavi             hear                 audio, audire, audivi, auditum
expect                 exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi,   help                 auxilium, auxilii (n)
                       exspectatum                         her (when referring to the subject of the sentence)
Fabullus               Fabullus, Fabulli (m)                                      suus, sua, suum
fall                   cado, cadere, cecidi, casum         here                 hic
false                  falsus, falsa, falsum               here, I am here      adsum, adesse, adfui
farm                   fundus, fundi (m)                   herself              se
farmer                 agricola, agricolae (m)             high                 altus, alta, altum
fear                   timeo, timēre, timui                his (when referring to the subject of the sentence)
field                  ager, agri (m)                                             suus, sua, suum
fifth                  quintus, quinta, quintum            hold                 teneo, tenēre, tenui
fight                  pugno, pugnare, pugnavi,            homeland             patria, patriae (f)
                       pugnatum                            hook                 uncus, unci (m)
fill                   impleo, implere, implevi,           hope for             exspecto, expectare, exspectavi,
                       impletum                                                 exspectatum
finally                tandem                              horse                equus, equi (m)
find                   invenio, invenire, inveni,          house                villa, villae (f)
                       inventum                            how?                 quo modo
find out               cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi,      however              tamen
                       cognitum                            hurry                festino, festinare, festinavi,
firm                   firmus, firma, firmum                                    festinatum
first                  primus, prima, primum               I set                tendo, tendere, tendi, tentum
five                   quinque                             Icilius              Icilius, Icilii (m)
float                  fluito, fluitare, fluitavi          idea                 consilium, consilii (n)
food                   cibus, cibi (m)                     if                   si
for a long time        diu                                 immediately          statim
for, on behalf of, in return for pro + ablative            in                   in + ablative
fort                   castra, castrorum (n pl)            in charge, I am in charge praesum, praeesse, praefui
forum                  forum, fori (n)                     in front of          pro + ablative
                                                     — 93 —
in this way, thus   sic                                     nail                  clavus, clavi (m)
information         nuntius, nuntii (m)                     napkin                linteum, lintei (n)
injure              vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi,          near                  prope (+ accusative)
                    vulneratum                              neither...nor         neque...neque
injured             vulneratus, vulnerata, vulneratum       never                 numquam
into                in + accusative                         new                   novus, nova, novum
invite              invito, invitare, invitavi, invitatum   news                  nuntius, nuntii (m)
island              insula, insulae (f)                     nine                  novem
its (when referring to the subject of the sentence)         ninth                 nonus, nona, nonum
                      suus, sua, suum                       no one                nemo (nom. sing)
jar                 dolium, dolii (n)                       noise                 sonus, soni (m)
judgement           iudicium, iudicii (n)                   not                   non
jump down           desilio, desilire, desilui, desilitum   nothing               nihil (nom. & acc.)
keep                teneo, tenēre, tenui                    now                   iam, nunc
kill                neco, necare, necavi, necatum           obtain                comparo, comparare, comparavi,
Lanuvium            Lanuvium, Lanuvii (n)                                         comparatum
largest, very large maximus, maxima, maximum                offer                 offero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum
laugh               rideo, ridere, risi, risum              offer (they)          offerunt
law-court           basilica, basilicae (f)                 often                 saepe
lead                duco, ducere, duxi, ductum              on                    in + ablative
leave               relinquo, relinquere, reliqui,          on behalf of          pro + ablative
                    relictum                                on the next day       postridie
leave, depart       discedo, discedere, discessi,           once, once upon a time olim
                    discessum                               one                   unus, una, unum
letter              epistula, epistulae (f)                 one day               quondam
life                vita, vitae (f)                         only                  modo
like                amo, amare, amavi, amatum               onto                  in + accusative
listen to           audio, audire, audivi, auditum          open                  aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum
live                habito, habitare, habitavi,             order                 iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum
                    habitatum                               other: the one...the other alter...alter
long                longus, longa, longum                   other: the other (of two) alter, altera, alterum
look after          curo, curare, curavi, curatum           our                   noster, nostra, nostrum
look at             specto, spectare, spectavi,             out of (a place)      ē, ex + ablative
                    spectatum                               overcome              supero, superare, superavi,
look!               ecce!                                                         superatum
love                amo, amare, amavi, amatum               own                   teneo, tenere, tenui
mad                 insanus, insana, insanum                pack animal, mule iumentum, iumenti (n)
magnificent         magnificus, magnifica,                  place                 locus, loci (m)
                    magnificum                              place, I place        pono, ponere, posui, positum
main room           atrium, atrii (n)                       plan                  consilium, consilii (n)
make                facio, facere, feci, factum             plant                 planta, plantae (f)
man                 vir, viri (m)                           play                  ludo, ludere, lusi, lusum
many (plur), much (sing) multus, multa, multum              please                delecto, delectare, delectavi
Marcus              Marcus, Marci (m)                       plough                aratrum, aratri (n)
Marrucinus          Marrucinus, Marrucini (m)               poem                  versiculi, versiculorum (m. pl.
master              dominus, domini (m)                                           Only used in plural)
medicine            medicamentum, medicamenti (n)           poet                  poeta, poetae (m)
meet                convenio, convenire, conveni,           praise                laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatum
                    conventum                               prepare               paro, parare, paravi, paratum
members of the juryiudices (voc.)                           present, gift         donum, doni (n)
Mercury             Mercurius, Mercurii (m)                 present, I am present adsum, adesse, adfui
messenger           nuntius, nuntii (m)                     proceed               procedo, procedere, processi,
Minerva             Minerva, Minervae (f)                                         processum
Minucius            Minucius, Minucii (m)                   proud                 superbus, superba, superbum
miserable           miser, misera, miserum                  pull                  traho, trahere, traxi, tractum
missing, I am missing absum, abesse, afui                   punish                punio, punire, punivi, punitum
money               pecunia, pecuniae (f)                   put                   pono, ponere, posui, positum
move                moveo, movēre, movi, motum              put to death          neco, necare, necavi, necatum
much (sing), many (plur) multus, multa, multum              put up (they)         erigunt
mule                iumentum, iumenti (n)                   queen                 regina, reginae (f)
my                  meus, mea, meum                         rain                  pluvia, pluviae (f)
                                                    — 94 —
rain (verb = it is raining) pluit, pluere, pluit                 small                parvus, parva, parvum
read                   lego, legere, legi, lectum                smile                rideo, ridere, risi, risum
receive                accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum       soft                 mollis (nom. fem. sing.)
release                libero, liberare, liberavi, liberatum     soldier              miles (nom. masc. sing.)
remain                 maneo, manere, mansi, mansum              some...others        alii...alii
remove (they)          tollunt                                   son                  filius, filii (m)
reply                  respondeo, respondere, respondi,          soon                 mox
                       responsum                                 sound                sonus, soni (m)
resist                 resisto, resistere, restiti, restitum     sow                  sero, serere, serui, sertum
                       (+ dative of the person or thing you      Spain                Hispania, Hispaniae (f)
                       resist)                                   speak                dico, dicere, dixi, dictum
return                 revenio, revenire, reveni,                spear                hasta, hastae (f)
                       reventum                                  stand                sto, stare, steti, statum
river                  fluvius, fluvii (m)                       statue               statua, statuae (f)
road                   via, viae (f)                             stay                 maneo, manere, mansi, mansum
rock                   saxum, saxi (n)                           steal (you)          surripis
Romans                 Romani, Romanorum (m pl)                  stick                virga, virgae (f)
rule                   rego, regere, rexi, rectum                story                rem (acc. f. sing.)
run out                deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum       street               via, viae (f)
sacred                 sacer, sacra, sacrum                      strong               validus, valida, validum
sacrifice              sacrificium, sacrificii (n)               suddenly             subito
safe                   tutus, tuta, tutum                        suitable             idoneus, idonea, idoneum
sail                   navigo, navigare, navigavi,               sword                gladius, gladii (m)
                       navigatum                                 table                mensa, mensae (f)
sailor                 nauta, nautae (m)                         take                 capio, capere, cepi, captum
Saturn                 Saturnus, Saturni (m)                     take care            caveo, cavere, cavi, cautum
save                   servo, servare, servavi, servatum         Tarentum, citizen of Tarentinus, Tarentini (m)
say                    dico, dicere, dixi, dictum (not used      teacher              magister, magistri (m)
                       with direct speech: use inquit instead)   tell                 narro, narrare, narravi, narratum
says (he)              inquit (place after the first word        temple               templum, templi (n)
                       spoken: “...” inquit “... ... ...”)       ten                  decem
search                 exploro, explorare, exploravi,            tenth                decimus, decima, decimum
                       exploratum                                terrified            perterritus, perterrita,
search for             quaero, quaerere, quaesivi,                                    perterritum
                       quaesitum                                 terrify, make afraid terreo, terrēre, terrui, territum
second                 secundus, secunda, secundum               theft                furtum, furti (n)
see                    video, videre, vidi, visum                their (when referring to the subject of the sentence)
sell                   vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditum                                suus, sua, suum
send                   mitto, mittere, misi, missum              them                 eos (acc. masc. plur.)
send for (they)        arcessunt                                 then                 tum
set free               libero, liberare, liberavi, liberatum     there is, there are est, sunt
seven                  septem                                    therefore            igitur
seventh                septimus, septima, septimum               thief                fur (nom. masc. sing.)
shelter                tectum, tecti (n)                         thing                rem (acc. fem. sing.)
shield                 scutum, scuti (n)                         third                tertius, tertia, tertium
shoe                   calceus, calcei (m)                       this                 hoc (nom. neut. sing.)
shop, inn, bar         taberna, tabernae (f)                     three                tres
shout                  clamo, clamare, clamavi                   through              per + accusative
show                   ostendo, ostendere, ostendi,              throw                iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum
                       ostentum                                  thus                 sic
shut                   claudo, claudere, clausi, clausum         tie up               deligo, deligare, deligavi,
sing                   canto, cantare, cantavi, cantatum                              deligatum
situation              res (f), ablative plural: rebus           tired                fessus, fessa, fessum
six                    sex                                       to, towards          ad + accusative
sixth                  sextus, sexta, sextum                     today                hodie
sky                    caelum, caeli (n)                         tool                 instrumentum, instrumenti (n)
slave                  servus, servi (m)                         tough                robustus, robusta, robustum
slave-girl             ancilla, ancillae (f)                     town                 oppidum, oppidi (n)
sleep                  dormio, dormire, dormivi,                 townspeople          oppidani, oppidanorum (m pl)
                       dormitum                                  trick                dolus, doli (m)
slowly                 lente                                     true                 verus, vera, verum
                                                         — 95 —
twenty         viginti                             well              bene
two            duo                                 well: do well     floreo, florere, florui, floritum
unload         expono, exponere, exposui,          what?             quid?
               expositum                           when, where       ubi
Verginia       Verginia, Verginiae (f)             where?            ubi?
Verginius      Verginius, Verginii (m)             whole of          totus, tota, totum
very dear      carissimus, carissima, carissimum   why?              cur?
very good      optimus, optima, optimum            wife              uxor (nom. fem. sing.)
very little    minimus, minima, minimum            wind              ventus, venti (m)
victory        victoria, victoriae (f)             window            fenestra, fenestrae (f)
view           prospectus (acc.: prospectum) (m)   wine              vinum, vini (n)
wait for       exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi,   with (a person)   cum + ablative
               exspectatum                         without           sine + ablative
walk           ambulo, ambulare, ambulavi,         woman             femina, feminae (f)
               ambulatum                           wood              lignum, ligni (n)
wall           murus, muri (m)                     word              verbum, verbi (n)
wander         erro, errare, erravi, erratum       work              laboro, laborare, laboravi,
want, I want   cupio, cupire, cupivi                                 laboratum
war            bellum, belli (n)                   wound             vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi,
warehouse      horreum, horrei (n)                                   vulneratum
warn           moneo, monēre, monui, monitum       wretched          miser, misera, miserum
watch          specto, spectare, spectavi,         write             scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum
               spectatum                           yesterday         heri
water          aqua, aquae (f)                     your (plural)     vester, vestra, vestrum
wave           unda, undae (f)                     your (singular)   tuus, tua, tuum




                                            — 96 —

								
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