GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke Lab 1a - Introduction to ArcGIS (part I) In this lab we will cover Opening ArcGIS (ArcMap and ArcCatalog) Setting up ArcMap Importing shape files (points, lines and polygons) Displaying shape files based on attributes (points, lines and polygons) Using and displaying multiple data frames Creating maps and presenting GIS data To Open ArcMap, either double-click on the Arcmap icon programs arcGIS ArcMap The program takes a little while to open so be patient. or go to Start all
Once ArcMap is booted-up and running we can customize the view window to show the desired tools and applications. We are going to load all the tool menus we will be using for this course (but we won’t use them all today). To add menus to the available toolbars move the mouse to the blank space at the end of the main menu toolbar (right of the help button). Right click. A drop down menu appears with all the available toolbars. Make sure all the following toolbars have a check mark by them – main menu, 3D analyst, Draw, Editor, Spatial Analyst, Standard, and tools. I also like to open the Arctoolbox window by clicking the You can move all the toolbars and menus around in order to design a workspace that suits you. The more you use arc the more preferences you will have. Also feel free to check out the other menus available to you. Arc has many, many, many tools. We will only be scratching the surface in this course.
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke This is how I set up my ArcMap view
Unfortunately, we also need to make sure the extensions (of the arc license) are turned on so we can use the tools – yes it’s redundant, but necessary. Go to tools extensions and make sure the boxes next to 3D analyst, geostatistical analyst, spatial analyst, and survey analyst are all checked – then click close. The next step is to tell Arc what directory to get data from and where to save data to. This is your Working Directory. To set the working directory – go to 3D Analyst Options. The first line under the general tab is a space to enter the working directory. Make sure your working directory is set to c:\workspace (or your jump drive) This is where you want to put all your data for this class – Organization is key (and a huge pain) when working with any GIS. Alternatively, you can set your jump drive as your working directory. This will save you the trouble of copying all your data at the end of each class, but everything will run slower during class. Ok. I think we are finally ready to actually do something!
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke Importing data layers into ArcMap - a “layer” is any individual vector or raster dataset that is available for display in ArcMap. A GIS builds maps by stacking layers on top of each other. To add a data layer to your map click the add data button (+)
In the add data window that pops up navigate to the location where you saved the Lab 1 data folder (c:\workspace\lab_1) and add the file countries.shp You should see a map of the world. Yes, you did it!! Use the zoom-in key from the tools toolbar (it looks like a magnifying glass) to zoom in on any area of the map. When you want to return to the full extent view use the Full-extent key (it looks like the entire earth and should be near the zoom tool). Take a few minutes to use some of the tools in the tools toolbar to navigate around the map. – It’s ok to push buttons, you won’t break it! Now let’s find out more about this world. To look at the properties of the layer you can either right-click on the layer name and select properties or simply double click on the layer name. A new window appears with 9 tabs. Take a minute and check out what is behind each tab. Go to the source tab. This is the area that gives you projection and other useful info about the data layer (you will use this a lot!) 1) What type of data is this layer (feature or raster, grid or shape) ___________________ 2) What geometry does the layer have __________________________ 3) What is the geographic projection __________________________________ (Example: this is a raster grid file projected in UTM zone11) Ok let’s add some more data Next add the world.shp file. This is the world with no land. 4) What do the grid lines represent in this layer _______________________________ Because Arc builds maps by stacking data, you just buried your countries.shp under the world.shp. To move the countries.shp file back to the top “grab” the layer name with your mouse and drag it to the top of the table of contents (top of the pile). It should now be
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke visible. Data is layered in the displayed map in the same order that it appears in the table of contents. Now let’s make this look better. To change the color of the countries click on the colored box beneath the layer name. Choose a good color from either the boxes on the left or from the fill-color drop-down menu. We are also going to get rid of the county boarder lines. Under the outline color drop-down menu choose no color. Now change the colors of the world layer to make it look good. This lab is all about Africa!!! So let’s make a nice location figure for Africa. Add the Africa.shp file to the data frame. Remove the country boundaries and make the layer a bright color so it stands out against the rest of the world. Ta-da you have a location figure!! Now let’s focus in on Africa First we want to know what data is available to us. The best way to manage/organize and find data is by using ArcCatalog. To open ArcCatalog – go through the start menu (just like opening ArcMap) or from the ArcMap toolbar menu click the ArcCatalog button – It is supposed to look like a filing cabinet.
ArcCatalog is the portion of ArcGIS designed for file management, organization, and finding files and data. You should always manage files through ArcCatalog – if you try to manage files through windows explorer, you’re asking for trouble! (We will be discussing this a lot more later) ArcCatalog is composed of the menu bar on the top of the window, the catalog tree on the left side of the screen, and the data view window on the right side. The data view has three tabs: content, preview, and metadata (data about you’re data). In the catalog tree navigate to where you put the Lab 1 data. C:\workspace\Lab_1 Once Lab_1 is highlighted in the catalog, the contents (list of available data) is visible in the data view from the contents tab. Click on the different data layers to see what happens. Now do the same in the preview tab. 5) What does the animals.shp file look like _____________________________ Whenever you are working in ArcMap, open ArcCatalog. It is very useful for finding and organizing data, and it lets you plan ahead. It should be no surprise to you now that you will be making maps of Africa based on the countries, cities, rivers, and animals.
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke
Now that we know what data is there – toggle back to ArcMap We don’t want to mess with our pretty location figure, so let’s make a New Data Frame. Go to the main menu insert data frame You can name this new data frame by clicking twice (slowly) on the “New data frame”. Name it “Countries”. Now click on the old data frame and name it “world”. You should now see a blank map, and the countries data frame is in bold. To switch between data frames right click on the name of the data frame activate. The new frame will become active and the layers in that data frame will be displayed. Go back and forth between world and countries. Ok let’s add some data to countries. Make sure countries is the active data frame. Now add Africa.shp 6) From the properties window describe the data type and projection
Now find the identify tool from the tools toolbox (it looks like an “i”). Click on several different countries to see what happens. This is a very useful tool. There is clearly a lot of data associated with these polygons. To see all the attributes associated with a feature open the attributes table. Right-click on the layer of interest open attribute table. Take a minute to look over the types of data associated with each country polygon. 7) What is the % of the population under 14 years old in Sierra Leone ________________________________________ You can either look it up on the table or use the identify tool (if you know where Sierra Leone is). In the attribute table, click on the grey box to the left of the Sierra Leone data. The entire line should be highlighted in blue. Minimize the attribute table. Now look at your map. Click the highlighted polygon of Sierra Leone (now highlighted in blue) with the identify tool. 8) What was the population in Sierra Leone in 2000 __________________________ Now let’s make this map look better! In the attribute table options (at the bottom of the window) clear selection and close the attribute table. This clears the selected attribute (it is no longer highlighted in blue)
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke
Choosing Symbology Open the Africa.shp properties window (double click on the name of the layer) In ArcGIS Symbology describes the symbols/colors/patterns of displaying data Go to properties symbology (tab) The current view is for featuresingle symbol (one color for the entire layer) Instead select catagories unique values In the “value” field select Name Now click the “add all values” box (uncheck the “all other values”) and select a pretty color scheme from the color ramp – click OK. Each country should now have its own unique color. Play around with the options and color combinations until you find something you like (try at least two different combos) Next let’s add labels Open properties Labels (tab) Check the box to “label features in this layer”. Make sure the label feature = Name Set the font to 10 and make it Bold. Click ok Play with this until it looks how you like it. (Hint: checkout the placement properties) African Cities Now let’s open another Data frame (insert data frame) name this one “cities” Add africa.shp and cities.shp 9) What are the data type, geometry and projection of cities.shp _____________________ Also, check out the attribute table to see what is in there. This map will highlight the populations of major cities in Africa. Make sure to label cities names. Use the symbology tab for both data layers to make them look good. For the cities data – look at symbology quantities graded colors, graded symbols, or proportional symbols. It is now up to you to make a good looking map that conveys the data about African cities and their populations. Good luck!
GS176 Geological Applications of GIS Spring 2009 Brian Clarke African Animals and Rivers Make a new Data frame This final data frame will highlight rivers and animals (name it rivers and animals) Add Africa.shp, rivers.shp, animals.shp 10) What is the data type and projections for rivers and animals (also look at the attributes)__________________________________________________________ It is up to you to make this data frame look good. Display both layers by category unique value Display the river data based on type (intermittent and perennial) And the animal data by type of animal (Big Hint: after selecting catagories unique value. Double click on one of the points in the legend to open the symbol selection window. Click on more symbols conservation. Then under categories select animals – this is the sole reason I chose to do this lab!) Now lets make a Map Once all of your data frames look exactly how you want, go to view layout A layout (map view) of all you data frames will be stacked on top of each other. You can move them around by selecting and dragging each data frame view. But first, right click on an empty spot in the layout view page and print set up. From here you can change the size of the image, change the page from portrait to landscape etc. Start moving your images around to create a presentable “poster” displaying all of your Africa GIS data. You can align, group, or change the order (what’s on top) of images by selecting the image and right clicking. Many of the features are similar to illustrator (this program even crashes under pressure). All maps must include: Title, name, scale bar(s), legends, north arrows, figure captions for each figure (minimal – just let me know what things are or are supposed to be), and a very brief written statement about the map (ie what the map shows. Hint: insert a text box beneath the title and your name just like an abstract for a poster). Arc has made it easy to add all of these things – go to insert in the main menu and select the item you want to add. Hint: always look at the properties or options buttons to help you have more control over where items are placed (don’t let the machine control you!!!) Hand In: one color copy of your map showing all data frames and typed answers to the written questions on a separate sheet of paper stapled to your map.