Introduction to World Regional Geography - PDF by itlpw9937

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									   G E O G 4 0 – Wo rld R e g io n a l G e o g ra ph y
    In s tru c to r: Do u g F e t te rs




Introduction to World Regional Geography


A – Realms and Regions
B – Physical Setting
C – Cultures and Population
D – States
E – Development
A Realms and Regions
    ■ Geography
      • From the Greek “Geo” (the world) and “Graphos” (to write about
        or to describe).
      • Studies the location and distribution of features on the Earth’s
        surface.
      • Features:
          • Human activities.
          • Natural environment.
          • The relationship between the two.
      • Answers where and why.
A Realms and Regions
    ■ Classification Systems
       • Many sciences establish a taxonomy (classification) of the
         elements investigated.
       • Biologists, chemists, geologists, historians, astrophysicists,
         epidemiologists, etc.
       • Geography does the same:
           • Tries to find a commonality to a certain area.
           • Often a matter of scale.
           • The smaller the scale the less likely the commonality.
Realms and Regions

■ Realm
  • The largest geographic units into which the inhabited world can
    be divided.
      • Based on both physical (natural) and human (cultural) characteristics.
      • The smallest scale of commonality.
  • The result of the interaction between human societies and
    natural environments:
      • A functional interaction.
  • Represent the most comprehensive and encompassing definition
    of the great clusters of humankind.
  • Geographic realms change over time:
      • Russia (disintegration of the former Soviet Union).
      • European integration.
Realms of the World
Realms and Regions

■ Transition zones
   • Where geographic realms meet.
   • An area of spatial change where peripheries of two adjacent
     realms or regions join.
   • Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the
     characteristics that distinguish neighboring realms.
Transition Zones
Realms and Regions

■ Regions
   • Areas of the earth’s surface marked by certain properties.
   • Based on an established criteria:
       • Human (cultural) properties
       • Physical (natural) characteristics
   • All regions have:
       • Area
       • Boundaries
       • Location
■ Formal region
   • Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more
     phenomena.
   • Also called a uniform region or homogeneous region.
A Regional Framework of the United States
Realms and Regions

■ Functional region
   • A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal
     structure.
   • A spatial system focused on a central core.
   • A region formed by a set of places and their functional
     integration.
   • Also called a “nodal” region.
Los Angeles Nodal Region
B Physical Setting
    ■ Physical Geography
       •   The study of physical processes in space.
       •   Continental drift / Tectonic plates / Subduction.
       •   Pacific Ring of fire.
       •   Weathering:
            • Decay and breakup of rocks on the earth's surface by natural chemical
              and mechanical processes.
       • Erosion:
            • The wearing away of land or soil by the action of wind, water, or ice.
Tectonic Plates
World Seismic and Volcanic Activity
C Cultures and Population
    ■ Culture
       • Shared patterns of learned behavior.
       • Components:
           • Beliefs.
           • Institutions.
           • Technology.
    ■ Cultural geography
       • Spatial aspects of human cultures.
       • Major components focus on:
           •   Cultural Landscapes.
           •   Culture Hearths.
           •   Cultural Diffusion.
           •   Cultural Environments.
           •   Cultural Regions.
Cultures and Population

■ Cultural landscape
   • The composite of human imprints on the earth’s surface.
   • Take many shapes:
       • Agricultural tenure.
       • Organization of cities.
       • Architecture.
■ Cultural hearths
   • The source areas from which radiated ideas, innovations, and
     ideologies that changed the world beyond.
■ Cultural diffusion
   • Process during which a culture / religion spread to new areas.
Core Cultural Hearths of Humanity
Diffusion of Major Religions in Pacific Asia


                                     Hin du is m (4 ,0 0 0 B .C .)
                                     B u ddh is m (5 6 3 B .C .)
                                        S h in to
                                       T ra ditio n a l C h in e s e
                                      Is la m (5 7 1 A .D.)
                                     C h ris t ia n ity (1 5 1 0 A .D.)
                                       C h ris tia n pre s e n c e
Cultures and Population

■ Population distribution
   • Linked with agricultural potential.
   • 4 major clusters:
       •   1) East Asia
       •   2) South Asia
       •   3) Europe
       •   4) Eastern North America
World Population
D States
   ■ Political geography
      • The study of the interaction of geographical area and political
        processes.
      • The spatial analysis of political phenomena (e.g. voting) and
        processes.
   ■ State
      •   A politically organized territory.
      •   Administered by a sovereign government.
      •   Recognized by the international community.
      •   A state must also contain:
           • A permanent resident population.
           • An organized economy.
           • A functioning internal circulation system.
States

■ Nation
   • All the citizens of a state (legal definition).
   • Group of people with a strong linguistic, ethnic, religious and
     cultural commonality.
■ Nation-state
   • A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of
     cultural homogeneity and unity.
   • Japan, most of Europe.
E   Development

    ■ Economic geography
       • The study of economic activities in space.
       • Particularly concerned about production and consumption.
    ■ Economic conditions
       • Significant variations in income.
       • Developed and developing countries.
       • From low to high-Income.
    ■ Globalization
       •   A complex and highly dynamic process.
       •   New industrial regions.
       •   New markets.
       •   Global products.
       •   Three main poles of the global economy.
    Poles of the Global Economy




                                  We s te rn E u ro pe
            N o rth A m e ric a
                                                         E a s t A s ia


Economies
  Underdeveloped
  Developing
  Newly Industrializing
  Advanced
  Oil Export / Rent

								
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