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					Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Goggles
Finger-printing the Universe

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Physics Group, B I T S Pilani
Astro-Seminar@APOGEE’07

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Astronomy and Cosmology
What is Astronomy ? Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth’s atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Astronomy and Cosmology
What is Astronomy ? Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth’s atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects. What is Cosmology ? Cosmology is the scientific study of the large scale properties of the Universe as a whole. It endeavors to use the scientific method to understand the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the entire Universe.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Questions of Cosmology

Will the universe expand forever, or will it collapse? Is the universe dominated by exotic dark matter? What is the shape of the universe? How and when did the first galaxies form? Is the expansion of the universe accelerating rather than decelerating? And more...

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

What Holds Universe in its Place ?

Mighty Gravity ? Well almost ! Newton’s law of Gravitation only an approximation to a better theory Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity (GTR)

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

What Holds Universe in its Place ?

Mighty Gravity ? Well almost ! Newton’s law of Gravitation only an approximation to a better theory Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity (GTR) Matter tells space how to curve, and space tells matter how to move. John Wheeler

Gravitation is very special !

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Tut. test 1: Determine the fate of Universe (6marks, 10 min) !
The fate of the Universe is determined by Einstein’s equations Assume that Universe is a homogenous and isotropic fluid Matter and Energy would typically gravitate and lead to collapse –

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Tut. test 1: Determine the fate of Universe (6marks, 10 min) !
The fate of the Universe is determined by Einstein’s equations Assume that Universe is a homogenous and isotropic fluid Matter and Energy would typically gravitate and lead to collapse – Didn’t quite suit Einstein’s prejudice for a Static Universe
To compensate for gravitational attraction, Einstein added a ‘special extra term’ – Cosmological constant

As murphy’s law would have it Edwin Hubble’s observations established that Universe is NOT STATIC and infact expanding
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Hubble’s Observations during PS-II: The Universe is Expanding
In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that all the galaxies are moving away from us. The farther it is from us, the faster it is moving away from us. V = H0 D

Hubble’s law tells us that the Universe is expanding!
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Incredible Big-Bang is Inevitable !

If everything is moving away from everything else, in past things must be closer to each other As we go back in time the Universe must get denser and hotter until at the intial epoch when it was infinitely dense and infinitely hot ....whence it must have been thrown apart in a M-A-S-S-I-V-E E-X-P-L-0-S-I-O-N How do we know Big-Bang at all took place ? Did it leave any finger-prints ?

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Fast Forward to 1963: The Bell Lab Assignment
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were assigned the task of tracing the radio noise that was interfering with the development of communication satellites

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Fast Forward to 1963: The Bell Lab Assignment
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were assigned the task of tracing the radio noise that was interfering with the development of communication satellites They discovered that no matter where the antenna was pointed there was always non-zero noise strength

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Fast Forward to 1963: The Bell Lab Assignment
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were assigned the task of tracing the radio noise that was interfering with the development of communication satellites They discovered that no matter where the antenna was pointed there was always non-zero noise strength A typical MT-1 solution (?)– Reset the receivers to zero Penzias and Wilson didn’t have to worry about CG and hence persisted The ‘noise’ they were trying to eliminate was actually the cold afterglow of Big-Bang – the relic 3K cosmic miscrowave background radiation (3 × 109 − 3 × 1011 Hz) or 1 mm to 100 cm wavelength
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Discoveries happen to the prepared mind ! Penzias and Wilson Got the 1978 Nobel Prize

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Clouds of Confusion are only getting thicker ...
What do you actually mean by Big-Bang ? Where exactly (physical location) did it occur in space-time ? What is the Universe expanding into ? What was there before Big-Bang ? Where is all this expansion heading to ?
Will it go on for ever ? Whats the point and purpose ? Will it stop somewhere and hang in there or will it make a retreat to Big-Bang ?

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Clouds of Confusion are only getting thicker ...
What do you actually mean by Big-Bang ? Where exactly (physical location) did it occur in space-time ? What is the Universe expanding into ? What was there before Big-Bang ? Where is all this expansion heading to ?
Will it go on for ever ? Whats the point and purpose ? Will it stop somewhere and hang in there or will it make a retreat to Big-Bang ?

A million dollar question ! What is it that actually determines the fate of the Universe ?

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Its all About Geometry Honey !

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Its all About Geometry Honey ! Where You and Me Can be Parallel and Still Meet

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Big-Bang Model: What Does it Cost ?

Theoretical Pillars
General Relativity framework Cosmological Principle Homogeniety and Isotropy

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Big-Bang Model: What Does it Cost ?

Theoretical Pillars
General Relativity framework Cosmological Principle Homogeniety and Isotropy

Stuff that observations must fix (free parameters):
Gemoetry open, closed or flat The present expansion rate the Hubble Constant Overall course of expansion (past, present and future) fractional density of different types of matter and energy in the Universe

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Stuff of the Universe: All That we ‘see’, is all that is there?
Cosmologists classify types of matter by its “quation of state” – the relationship between its pressure and energy density. Radiation – nearless massless particles that move with speed of light photons and neutrinos. They have large positive pressure

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Stuff of the Universe: All That we ‘see’, is all that is there?
Cosmologists classify types of matter by its “quation of state” – the relationship between its pressure and energy density. Radiation – nearless massless particles that move with speed of light photons and neutrinos. They have large positive pressure Baryonic Matter – “ordinary matter” essentially no pressure electrons, protons, neutrons etc.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Stuff of the Universe: All That we ‘see’, is all that is there?
Cosmologists classify types of matter by its “quation of state” – the relationship between its pressure and energy density. Radiation – nearless massless particles that move with speed of light photons and neutrinos. They have large positive pressure Baryonic Matter – “ordinary matter” essentially no pressure electrons, protons, neutrons etc. Dark Matter – “exotic non-baryonic matter” interacts very weakly with ordinary matter. No significant pressure Not directly observed but indirectly inferred through gravitational effects

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Stuff of the Universe: All That we ‘see’, is all that is there?
Cosmologists classify types of matter by its “quation of state” – the relationship between its pressure and energy density. Radiation – nearless massless particles that move with speed of light photons and neutrinos. They have large positive pressure Baryonic Matter – “ordinary matter” essentially no pressure electrons, protons, neutrons etc. Dark Matter – “exotic non-baryonic matter” interacts very weakly with ordinary matter. No significant pressure Not directly observed but indirectly inferred through gravitational effects Dark Energy – Truly Bizzare form of matter or perhaps property of vacuum itself Characterized by large negative pressure
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Stuff of the Universe: All That we ‘see’, is all that is there?
Cosmologists classify types of matter by its “quation of state” – the relationship between its pressure and energy density.

The Cosmic Tug of War: “Kisme kitna hai dum”
Determine the relative and total energy densities in each of these forms of matter

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Cosmic Timeline

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Big-Bang Model: The Balance Sheet
Credit
Expansion of Universe Existence of CMB radiation Prediction of abundance of light elements

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Big-Bang Model: The Balance Sheet
Credit
Expansion of Universe Existence of CMB radiation Prediction of abundance of light elements

Debit
Horizon Problem – CMB is amazingly isotropic
How come two distant parts of Universe that have never ever been in any causal contact thermalize to common temp. ? Universe was born isotropic and homogeneous ? What is the cause of homogeniety ?

Structure formation problem – If Universe was born isotropic and homogeneous how did structures form ?

Big-Bang must be only half truth
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Flatness Problem: “ Ω Ek Kaise Hoga ?”
Let us define a quantity Ω=
ρuni. ρcrit. .

Big Crunch: Ω > 1 ⇒ Gravity wins, Universe eventually collapses – Closed Universe Big Chill: Ω < 1 ⇒ Gravity looses, Universe expands forever – Open Universe Its a Tie: Ω = 1 ⇒ Expansion is just about arrested without bringing about a Big Crunch – Flat Universe

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Flatness Problem: “ Ω Ek Kaise Hoga ?”
Why at all flatness is a problem ?
Both ρuni. and ρcrit. change with time and during earliest epoch these numbers changed very rapidly

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Flatness Problem: “ Ω Ek Kaise Hoga ?”
Why at all flatness is a problem ?
Both ρuni. and ρcrit. change with time and during earliest epoch these numbers changed very rapidly If ρuni. was even slightly greater than or lesser than the ρcrit. Ω would have zoomed to infinity or crashed to zero. The fact that we are still around, 15 billion years later, implies that Ω must have been extra-ordinarily close to 1.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Flatness Problem: “ Ω Ek Kaise Hoga ?”
Why at all flatness is a problem ?
Both ρuni. and ρcrit. change with time and during earliest epoch these numbers changed very rapidly If ρuni. was even slightly greater than or lesser than the ρcrit. Ω would have zoomed to infinity or crashed to zero. The fact that we are still around, 15 billion years later, implies that Ω must have been extra-ordinarily close to 1. It is like having an extremely sharpened pencil balancing on its point perfectly for millions of years

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

The Flatness Problem: “ Ω Ek Kaise Hoga ?”
Why at all flatness is a problem ?
Both ρuni. and ρcrit. change with time and during earliest epoch these numbers changed very rapidly If ρuni. was even slightly greater than or lesser than the ρcrit. Ω would have zoomed to infinity or crashed to zero. The fact that we are still around, 15 billion years later, implies that Ω must have been extra-ordinarily close to 1. It is like having an extremely sharpened pencil balancing on its point perfectly for millions of years How to cook Ω = 1 at Big-Bang epoch with extra-ordinary precision ? Big-Bang Model must answer this.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Inflation:

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Inflation: Its Not About Money Honey ! Its a Cosmic Symphony.
The Ultimate Free Lunch – What if a theortical model arranges a physical mechanism setting Ω = 1 no matter what curvature Universe was born with?

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Inflation: Its Not About Money Honey ! Its a Cosmic Symphony.
The Ultimate Free Lunch – What if a theortical model arranges a physical mechanism setting Ω = 1 no matter what curvature Universe was born with?
Alan Guth’s idea of Inflation is precisely such a mechanism Immediately after its birth Universe went through an extra-ordinary exponential expansion from 10−43 second to 10−43 , flattening out any curvature it may have born with.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Inflation: Its Not About Money Honey ! Its a Cosmic Symphony.
The Ultimate Free Lunch – What if a theortical model arranges a physical mechanism setting Ω = 1 no matter what curvature Universe was born with?
Alan Guth’s idea of Inflation is precisely such a mechanism Immediately after its birth Universe went through an extra-ordinary exponential expansion from 10−43 second to 10−43 , flattening out any curvature it may have born with. He didn’t just pull this idea out of a hat, however; there are sound theoretical reasons. Moreover it is in Consonance with the way elementary paticles interact at high energies.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Flattening the Universe Out !Here’s How it Works !

Here the radius of the sphere is multiplied by a factor of 3 in each frame leading to a flattening factor of 27.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Flattening the Universe Out !Here’s How it Works !

Here the radius of the sphere is multiplied by a factor of 3 in each frame leading to a flattening factor of 27.

The Universe was flattened

by a factor of factor of 1050
solving horizon and flatness problems.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Flattening the Universe Out !Here’s How it Works !

Here the radius of the sphere is multiplied by a factor of 3 in each frame leading to a flattening factor of 27.

The Universe was flattened

by a factor of factor of 1050
solving horizon and flatness problems. But What about the problem of Structure formation ? Can we see imprints of inhomogeneity in early Universe?
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Fluctuations in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
CMB is afterglow leftover radiation from Big-Bang Its temperature is extremely uniform all over the sky Tiny fluctuations in temp. can offer great insight into origin, evolution and content of Universe First look at CMB 30 years ago showed temp. to be extremely uniform In 1992 COBE – Cosmic Background Explorer detected fluctuations in temp.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Fluctuations in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
CMB is afterglow leftover radiation from Big-Bang Its temperature is extremely uniform all over the sky Tiny fluctuations in temp. can offer great insight into origin, evolution and content of Universe First look at CMB 30 years ago showed temp. to be extremely uniform In 1992 COBE – Cosmic Background Explorer detected fluctuations in temp. It was Man’s first peep into the Cosmic finger-prints. It was the much needed blue-print to solve cosmic mysteries
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by COBE

RGB false color image Blue: 0 Kelvin ; Red: 4 Kelvin The Microwave Universe is uniform within 4 degree Kelvin! Remember, the actual temperature of the cosmic microwave background is 2.725 Kelvin.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by COBE

Blue: 2.721 Kelvin ; Red: 2.729 Kelvin The ”yin-yang” pattern is the dipole anisotropy that results from the motion of the Sun relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by COBE
If we subtract the dipole anisotropy, we see the ’actual’ fluctuations in the CMB.

The hot regions, seen in red, are 0.0002 Kelvin hotter than the cold regions, seen in blue.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Smoot and Mather Win 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

Why WMAP? COBE detected temperature anisotropy in the CMB at large scales. A high resolution measurement of anisotropy is essential for determination of age, geometry and energy content of the Universe and eventually for the Standard Model of Cosmology.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by WMAP

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by WMAP

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

Microwave Maps of the sky seen by WMAP

WMAP detects much finer details in the CMB anisotropy than COBE.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

How does WMAP measure different parameters from the temperature anisotropies?

What is a Power Spectrum? The power spectrum is a plot of the amount of fluctuation against the angular (or linear) size. The temperature variation in the power spectrum plot can be expressed in terms of either angular size, θ or its Fourier Series counterpart, l. Remember, large values of l refer to smaller angles.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe

The shape, the peak positions, the peak heights and the relative heights of the peaks in this spectrum are directly related to the composition of early universe (matter content, baryon content, dark matter, dark energy) and to the age, geometry and current expansion rate of the universe.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe
A snapshot of the era in which the matter-radiation fluid got decoupled; CMB Anisotropies and observed large-scale structures in the universe are related to density oscillations in that primordial matter-radiation fluid.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe
A snapshot of the era in which the matter-radiation fluid got decoupled; CMB Anisotropies and observed large-scale structures in the universe are related to density oscillations in that primordial matter-radiation fluid. The height of the first is determined by the total matter content of the universe.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe
A snapshot of the era in which the matter-radiation fluid got decoupled; CMB Anisotropies and observed large-scale structures in the universe are related to density oscillations in that primordial matter-radiation fluid. The height of the first is determined by the total matter content of the universe. The height of the first peak relative to that of the second peak, gives Baryon (’ordinary’ matter) density.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe
A snapshot of the era in which the matter-radiation fluid got decoupled; CMB Anisotropies and observed large-scale structures in the universe are related to density oscillations in that primordial matter-radiation fluid. The height of the first is determined by the total matter content of the universe. The height of the first peak relative to that of the second peak, gives Baryon (’ordinary’ matter) density. The locations of peaks tells if the universe is ’closed’, ’open’ or ’flat’.

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Power-spectrum-a Snapshot of the ’baby’ Universe
A snapshot of the era in which the matter-radiation fluid got decoupled; CMB Anisotropies and observed large-scale structures in the universe are related to density oscillations in that primordial matter-radiation fluid. The height of the first is determined by the total matter content of the universe. The height of the first peak relative to that of the second peak, gives Baryon (’ordinary’ matter) density. The locations of peaks tells if the universe is ’closed’, ’open’ or ’flat’. The first peak at l=180 or θ=1 implies at the inflationary universe.
RISHIKESH VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Answers !

Will the universe expand forever, or will it collapse? We live in a flat Universe. It will just hang in there at some point

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Answers !

Is the universe dominated by exotic dark matter? Cold Dark matter and Dark Energy Overwhelmingly Dominate the Universe Dark Energy is a very bizzare form of matter with negative pressure Inflation is a very important ingredient of Big Bang theory

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

WMAP Answers !

Composition of Cosmic Pie

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg

Towards Big-Bang

Big-Bang Model

Problems with Big-Bang

CMB

That was the Story of the Genesis The Cosmogenesis ...

RISHIKESH

VAIDYA

Looking at the Big-Bang Afterglow Through Microwave Gogg


				
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