Lesson One: Thinking as a Hobby
by William Golding Part I. Warm-up activity I. Picture Description Please describe the following pictures in detail and depict their symbolic meaning in your own words. Compare your answer with that of the author, and try to find their symbolic mean ing in the boy’s (the author) eyes. II. Quotations on Thinking —Edward de Bono 爱德华·德·波诺 (father of creative thinking) “Most people can’t think, most of the remainder won’t think, and the small fraction who do think mostly can’t do it very well.” —Robert Heinlein 罗伯特·海因莱因 （father of modern American sci-fi ） “I think, therefore I am.” —René Déscartes 笛卡儿
“Intelligence is something we are born with. Thinking is a skill that must be learned.”
“Thinking is what a great many people think they are doing when they are merely rearranging their prejudices.” —William James (American psychologist) “I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.” —Socrates
“We think too small. Like the frog at the bottom of the well. He thinks the sky is only as big as the top of the well. If he surfaced, he would have an entirely different view.” —Mao Zedong “Nurture your mind with great thoughts.” —Benjamin Disraeli 本杰明·迪斯雷利 (British Premier in the 19th century) —Ralph Waldo Emerson
“What is the hardest task in the world? To think..” III. What Is Your Story?
Have you got an anecdote or true story like the author’s about your school life? Please interview your partner about his/her story and be ready to report to the class. Part II. Background information I. Author Sir William Gerald Golding (September 19, 1911—June 19, 1993) was an English novelist,
poet and 1983 Nobel Laureate in Literature: The Nobel Foundation cited: "his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today". William Golding’s main works * Poems (1934) * Lord of the Flies (1954) * The Inheritors (1955) * Pincher Martin (1956) * Free Fall (1959) * The Spire (1964) * Darkness Visible (1979) * The Trilogy Rites of Passage (1980, Booker Prize) * Close Quarters (1987) * Fire Down Below (1989), republished under the general title To The Ends of the Earth II. Rodin’s Thinker Resting on the horizontal panel above the doors, The Thinker became the focal point of The Gates of Hell and subsequently perhaps the most well-known sculpture of all time. The athletic-looking figure, inspired by the sculpture of Michelangelo, depicts a man in sober meditation, yet whose muscles strain with effort—possibly to evoke a powerful in ternal struggle. Rodin initially referred to the figure as Dante but eventually what we know as The Thinker evolved into a more symbolic representation of creativity, intellect, and above all—thought. III. Goddess Venus Venus of Milo Venus de Milo (about 150—100 BC) is considered by many art historians to be the ideal o f Hellenistic beauty. It was carved out of marble and stands approximately 205 cm (6 ft 10 i n) high. As Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty, Venus is associated with cultivated fields and gard ens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek Goddess of Love, Aphrodite. 8 major planets in the solar system： Venus; Jupiter; Mercury; Mars; Saturn; Uranus; Neptune Part III. Vocabulary study 1. acquaintance n. a. (CN) a person whom one knows b. (UN) knowledge or information about something or someone n. acquaintanceship v. acquaint: to come to know personally; to make familiar; to inform ； Pluto
Examples: * Mrs. Bosomley has become merely a nodding acquaintance. * Few of my acquaintances like Sheila. 认识的人 点头之交
* The guide has some acquaintance with Italian. 懂一点意大利语 * He has a wide acquaintanceship among all sorts of people. 交往甚广 Examples: * Let me acquaint you with my family. * You must acquaint yourself with your new duties. * Please acquaint us with your plans. Expressions: be (become, get) acquainted with: * I am already acquainted with the facts. make sb.’s acquaintance (make the acquaintance of sb.): * So pleased to have made your acquaintance. 2. anguish v. (vi.) to feel or suffer anguish n. agonizing physical or mental pain; torment a. anguished Synonyms: suffering, agony, distress, grief, heartache, heartbreak, misery, pain, sorrow, to rment, torture Examples: * anguished cries * She was in anguish over her boyfriend’s breaking up with her. 3. bulge v. to curve outward; to swell up; to stick out n. a. a protruding part; an outward curve or swelling b. a sudden, usually temporary increase in number or quantity Synonyms: protrude, project, stick out e.g. His pocket was bulging with sweets. The baby boom created a bulge in school enrollment. 生育高峰造成学校入学人数的暴涨 protrude v. to push or thrust outward; to stick out from a place or a surface e.g. protruding eyes/teeth The policeman saw a gun protruding from the man’s pocket. Nails protruded from the board and had to be removed for safety.
Compare Bulge suggests a swelling out in an excessive or abnormal fashion; it may be used when the impression to be given is that there is an imperfection, a defect, or a cause of strain that explains the swelling e.g. the wall bulged in the center Above her boots „ the calves bulged suddenly out. permits a thing to extend outside or beyond the flat line of a surface Protrude implies a thrusting forth esp. in an unexpected place; it applies esp. to sth. that does not seem to belong or that sticks out obviously -- Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms Please finish Exercise P21 5. 4) Culture Notes: Lost Generation: Lost Generation, group of expatriate American writers residing primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. The group never formed a cohesive literary movement, but it consisted of many influential American writers like Ernest Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald. The group was given its name by the American writer Gertrude Stein to refer to expatriate A mericans bitter about their World War I (1914-1918) experiences and is illusioned with Ameri can society. Hemingway later used the phrase as an epigraph for his novel The Sun Also Rises (1926). Hemingway: A Farewell to Arms (1929) The Old Man and the Sea (1952) Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby (1925) For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” Tender is the Night (1934) (1938) -- Bennett Stick out does not imply abnormality as a rule but construction, formation, or position that
Beat Generation: Beat Generation, group of American writers of the 1950s whose writing expressed profound dissatisfaction with contemporary American society and endorsed an altern ative set of values. The term sometimes is used to refer to those who embraced the ideas of these writers. The Beat Generation's best-known figures were writers Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac. Ginsberg: Howl (1956) 4. confer a. to give sb. an award, a university degree or a particular honor or right confer sth. on sb. b. (vi.) to discuss sth. with sb. esp. in order to exchange opinions or get advice 协商 confer with sb. on/about sth. Synonym: award Kerouac: On the Road (1957)
Examples: The government conferred a medal on the hero. Diplomas were conferred on members of graduating class. conferred an honorary degree on her Examples: * Martin Ruther King Jr. was awarded the peace Nobel Prize of 1964 for advocating nonviolenc e policy in the movement for civil rights. * He was awarded his damages in the shipwreck by the court. 法院判定他获得船只失事的损害赔偿金。 5. contemplate v. a. to look at attentively and thoughtfully b. to consider carefully and at length; c. to have in mind as an intention or possibility Synonyms: consider, ponder, meditate, deliberate, brood over Examples: * She stood contemplating her figure in the mirror. * The young surgeon contemplated the difficult operation of kidney transplant. * She is contemplating a trip to Europe, but she hasn’t planned it yet. 6. contempt contemptible: deserving of contempt; despicable 卑劣的，可鄙的 contemptuous: manifesting or feeling contempt; scornful Examples: * It was contemptible of him to speak like that about a respectable teacher! * It was a contemptible trick to tell lies and play on an old friend! * He was contemptuous of Britain’s army. * Seeing I failed to understand, he gave me a contemptuous look. 7. heady a. Try to translate the following phrases: heady liqueur the heady news of triumph a heady outburst of anger a heady current heady tactics too heady to reason with 醉人的烈酒 振奋人心的获胜消息 猛一声怒喝 一股湍流 机敏的战术 太专横而无法与之理论 intoxicating exciting thrilling swift and violent showing intelligence and good judgment domineering; overbearing 鄙视的；看不起；鄙视的 授予她荣誉学位
8. impediment n. a. a fact or event which makes action difficult or impossible b. an organic defect preventing clear articulation Examples: * The main impediment to development is the country’s huge foreign debt. * He has an impediment in speech. 他讲话口吃。 V. impede Synonyms: hinder, hamper, obstruct, block, dam, bar
9. integrate v. a. to make into a whole by bringing all parts together; to unify b. to join with something else; unite disintegrate: to become reduced to components, fragments, or particles Examples: * Many suggestions are needed to integrate the plan. * The teachers are trying to integrate all the children into society. * The extracted case was so old it just disintegrated when a worker picked it up. Word Formation a. integrated 10. muscular a. a. of, relating to, or consisting of muscle b. having well-developed muscles c. having or suggesting great power; forceful or vigorous Examples: a muscular build 一副强壮的体格 肌肉的收缩 有力的拥护团体 muscular contraction 综合的, 完整的
muscular advocacy groups Compare: masculine
男性的, 男子气概的, [语法] 阳性的--> fenimine
11. stampede v. to (to cause to) flee in panic or to act on mass impulse n. a. a sudden frenzied or headlong rush or flight b. a mass impulsive action
Examples: * Rumors of a shortage stampeded people into buying up food. * a herd of stampeding cattle * a stampede of support for the candidate Word Building 1. Prefix—hind- (hindquarters):located at or forming the back or rear Examples: hindquarters hindlimb (hind legs) hindsight hindmost n. 后腿，臀部 n. (动物或昆虫的)后肢，下肢 n. 枪的表尺，后瞄准器；后见之明，事后聪明 a. 最后面的， 最后部的 纷纷支持那个候选人
e.g. I now know with hindsight that I did him a terrible wrong. 我事后才明白我完全冤枉了他。 2. Suffix—-ette (statuette): a. small; diminutive 表示小的，小型的 b. female 表示女性的 c. an imitation or inferior kind of cloth 表示仿造品或衣料质地较差的 Examples: a. kitchenette luncheonette b. usherette c. leatherette 小厨房 小餐馆 女引座员 人造革 novelette launderette 中或短篇 自动洗衣店
3. Suffix—-fer (confer)：from Latin: ferre = to carry 携带 Examples: afferent defer proffer efferent infer 传入的 推迟，延期，听从，服从 提供 传出的，输出管 推断
offer, differ, refer, suffer, transfer, prefer 4. Derivative—oratory --> orate orate v. to speak in a formal, pompous manner oration n. a formal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion; a speech delivered in a high-flown or pompous manner orator n. one who delivers an oration; an eloquent and skilled public speaker
oratory n. the art of public speaking; eloquence or skill in making speeches to the public; public speaking marked by the use of overblown rhetoric
Part Three Text Analysis 1. What does ―hobby‖ mean? 2. Why does author use this word in the title? hobby: an activity you do for pleasure when you are not working If thinking is just a hobby, then its purpose is just to have fun, do you think we t hink only because we want to have fun? Hint: The last sentence of this essay is ―I dropped my hobby and turned professional‖. What does it mean? Please discuss with your partner about the title. Theme: Thinking is not just for professional thinkers like philosophers. It is something all e ducated people should enjoy doing , and it is considered one of the most precious qu alities in young scholars for the healthy mental development. However, most people do not have this ability or could not think well: according to the author, nine tenths of the people are grade-three thinkers, still less are grade-two thinkers , not to mention grade -one thinkers, they are ―few and far between‖. What kind of thinker do you think you are? Why? Structure: Part 1 (Para. 1—24 ) about: How the subject of thinking was first brought up to t he author and his understanding of the nature of ―grade-three thinking‖ Part 2 (Pa 25—29) about: The author‘s analysis of the nature of ―grade-two thinking‖ Part 3 (Para. 30—35) about : The author‘s understanding of the ―grade-one thinking‖ nd his desire for it. a
Venus Leopard Rodin’s Thinker naked with nothing crouching; naked naked, muscular, who sat, but a bath towel; no arms; looking down; his chin on in an unfortunate position his fist and elbow on his knee frozen in panic, worrying ready to spring down utterly miserable; contemplate about the towel at he top drawer from the hindquarters of the the cupboard leopard in endless gloom busy being beautiful busy being natural not miserable, an image of pure thought Question: What do the three statuettes symbolize? What effect do the boy’s descrip tions have?
A: They represented the whole of life. The leopard stood for all animal needs or desires; Venus stood for love and the Thinker stood for thinking as a uniquely human feature. Text Analysis A humorous and sarcastic effect has been achieved by the author’s description of the statuettes, which established a background to support his later analysis of th ree grades of thinking and some human natures. Question: How did the author describe the following figures to demonstrate his analyses of different grades of thinking? Headmaster: nothing human in his eyes, no possibility of communication (not underst and his students) Me, the boy: delinquent, not integrated, misunderstanding the symbolic meaning of th e statuettes, couldn‘t think Mr. Houghton: ruined by alcohol, preaching high-moral life but showing hypocritical and prejudiced nature A pious lady: who hated German with the proposition of loving enemies Ruth: foolish argument, illogical and fled at last British Prime Minister: talking about the great benefit conferring on India by jailing Nehru and Gandhi American politicians: talking about peace and refusing to join the League of Nations Me, the author: not easily stampede, detect contradiction; turned into a professional thin ker? The summary of the characteristics of the three grades of thinking characteristics examples Grade-three Ignorance, hypocrisy, prejudice, Mr. Houghton, nine tens of people self-satisfied, contradictions Grade-two Detecting contradictions; do not Ruth, the author, (maybe) stampede easily; lag behind, a some acquaintances withdrawal, destroy but not create Grade-one To find out what is truth, based few and far between, on a logical moral system only in books Further Questions on Appreciation: 1. What does the author mean when he say ―…I dropped my hobby and turned professional‖? 2. Why is the author much more conclusive and informative about grade-three and g rade-two thinking than about grade-one? What do you think grade-one thinking is?Ha ve you got any indication from the essay? 3. Give examples of Golding‘s wit. Does his sense of humor and the use of some writing devices help him achieve his purpose in this essay? Give some examples. II. Detailed study of the Text Paragraph 1-2: I came to the conclusion that thee were three grades of thinking…
to come to a conclusion means to reach/ arrive at/ draw a conclusion grade: an accepted level or standard e.g. This grade of wool can be sold at a fairly low price. 这种等级的羊毛可以以相当低的价格卖出. grammar school: In Britain, it refers to a school for children over 11 who are academically bright. T oday, there are few grammar schools. Most secondary schools are called ―comprehensiv e‖ and take in all children over 11 whatever their abilities. In the US, a grammar schoo l used to mean an elementary school, but it is now considered old-fashioned. study: a room intended or equipped for studying or writing e.g. The dictionary is in my study. 那本词典在我的书房里。 nothing but: nothing except; only e.g. The doctor told her that it was nothing but a cold. He cared for nothing but his name and position. He was nothing but a coward. lest: (fml. and old-fashioned) conj. for fear that 唯恐，以免 (see Note 2 on P6) Note: The subjunctive mood is used in the clause lest introduces. e.g. Be careful lest you fall from that tree. I was afraid lest he might come too late. …and since she had no arms, she was in an unfortunate position to pull the towel up again. be in … position to do sth: to be able to do sth because…… or have ability, power or money to do it e.g. I am not in a position to lend you money. Next to her, crouched the statuette of a leopard, ready to spring down at the top drawer of a filing cabinet. crouch: a. to stoop, especially with the knees bent b. to press the entire body close to the ground with the limbs bent e.g. They crouched over the grate with a flashlight, searching for the lost gem. a cat crouching near its prey spring: to jump over Beyond the leopard was a naked, muscular gentleman. ―-ed‖ as suffix
e.g. a naked man, a learned professor, that blessed morning, a wicked boy, the wretched life, our beloved country, ragged pants, my aged parents, rugged individualist, dogged e fforts Paragraph 4: I was not integrated, I was, if anything, disintegrated. integrated: forming a part of a harmonious group disintegrated: the direct opposite of ―integrated‖, and therefore means some kind of troub le maker. This is not the way the word is normally used. another explanation: the word ―disintegrated‖, which looks like the opposite of ―integrate d‖, refers to nuclear fission. It means ―destroyed‖ in everyday use. The boy who has be en sent to the head‗s office is destroyed inside, is the victim of a nuclear attack. ‘I wo uld sink my head etc. 我简直是散慢不羁 if anything: on the contrary 如果一定要；恰恰相反 e.g. I never had to clean up after him. If anything, he did most of the cleaning. I‘m not ashamed of her. If anything, I‘m proud. Paragraph 9: The muscular gentleman contemplated the hindquarters of the leopard in endless gloom. contemplate: to think for a long time in order to understand better in a gloomy manner The author expressed the boy‘s viewing of the image of Thinker in a humorous way to show that the thinking doesn‘t make any sense to him. His spectacles caught the light so that you could see nothing human behind them. There was no possibility of communication. caught the light: to have the light shine on it brightly and suddenly The teacher‘s glasses caught the light and therefore the boy could not see the teacher‘s eyes. He could not have any eye contact. The implied meaning of this sentence is that they could not communicate, not because of this but because of the teacher‘s lack of un derstanding of the boy. Paragraph 13: On one occasion he headmaster leaped to his feet, reached up and put Rodin’s mas terpiece on the desk before me. leaped to his feet: to jump up reach up: to move a hand or arm upward in order to touch, hold, or pick up sth. Also: to reach sth. down; to reach out (for); to reach into Three parallel verb phrases are used to describe the sequence of his actions. to one’s feet 站起来 to leap to one‘s feet
to to to to to
rise to one‘s feet struggle to one‘s feet stagger to one‘s feet help sb. to one‘s feet pull sb. to his feet
站起身来 挣扎着站起来 蹒跚而立 扶某人站起来 把某人拉起来
on… occasion Please translate the following sentences: He talked about his work on every occasion. She was invited to the Master‘s room on several occasions. On occasion, we feel like celebrating and have a party. On one occasion, he landed in a deserted car park.
总是，不管什么时候 有几次 有时，遇必要时 曾经，有一次
Paragraph 15: Nature had endowed the rest of the human race with a sixth sense and left me out. a sixth sense: a keen intuitive (直觉的) power. Here the author means the ability to thi nk. endow sb. with: to provide sb. with a natural quality or talent left me out: not including me; except me Paraphrase: Everybody, except me, are born with the ability to think. e.g. She is one of those lucky women who are endowed with both a sharp brain and gr eat beauty. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they ar e endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. --The Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson Paragraph 17: Sometimes, exalted by his own oratory, he would leap from his desk and hustle us outside into a hideous wind. exalted: filled with a great feeling of joy oratory: art of public speaking hustle: to make sb. move quickly by pushing them in a rough aggressive way Paraphrase: Sometimes he got carried away and would jump from his desk and hurry us outside into a cold and unpleasant wind. Paragraph 19: You could hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the unnatura l impediments. His body would reel with shock and his face go white at the unacc ustomed visitation. He would stagger back to his desk and collapse there, useless fo r the rest of the morning.
trapped in his chest and struggling with all the unnatural impediments: the fresh air had to struggle with difficulty to find its way to his chest because he was unaccustomed to this. reel with shock: he would stagger or be thrown off balance. reel: to move in a very unsteady way useless for the rest of the morning: unable to do anything for the rest of the morning Note the humorous effect achieved through the use of the exaggeration and formal style Paragraph 20: Mr. Houghton was given to high-minded monologues about the good life, sexless an d full of duty. be given to: to be habitually inclined to do (sth.) e.g. He is much given to blowing his own trumpet. She was given to hasty decision. high-minded monologues: a highly moral speech Obviously in Mr. Houghton‘s clean life, there is no place for alcoholic drink, sex, and other worldly pleasures. This is, of course, ironical. Yet in the middle of these monologues, if a girl passed the window, his neck would turn of itself and he would watch her out of sight. In this instance, he seemed to me ruled not by thought but by an invisible and irresistible spring in his neck. turn of itself: to turn by itself; to turn on its own an invisible and irresistible spring in his neck : metaphor, here refers to his sexual imp ulse The author is ridiculing the contradiction between his high moral tone and the working of his genes which compels him to turn his head toward young girls. Paragraph 21: think well of: to have a good opinion of sb.; to think favorably of sb.; to like sb. Try to make some sentences with the phrases: not think much of 看轻 think better of sb. 对某人印象好；看重某人 think better of sth. 改变······念头；打消主意 think highly of 看重；器重 think well of 重视；喜欢 think little of 看轻；看不起 think poorly of 不放在眼里；轻视 think nothing of 轻视；认为无所谓；认为没什么了不起 Paragraph 23: Through him I discovered that thought is often full of unconscious prejudice, ignor ance and hypocrisy. It will lecture on disinterested purity while its neck is being re morselessly twisted toward a skirt.
Q: What does ―it‖ stand for? A: Mr. Houghton. metonymy 转喻: a common figure of speech in which an idea is evoked or named by means of a term designating some associated notion. e.g. The world is watching closely what the White House will do next. (the American g overnment) Technically, it is about as proficient as most businessmen’s golf, as honest as most politicians’ intentions, or as coherent as most books that get written. coherent: orderly, logical, and consistent relation of parts This ironical sentence shows that the author not only considers those people incompetent, dishonest and incoherent, but also despises most businessmen, distrust most politicians a nd dislikes most publications. Paragraph 24: I no longer dismiss lightly a mental process. I no longer consider the way grade-three thinkers think unimportant because they accoun t for nine-tenths of the people and therefore have great power. Now I know that ignora nce, prejudice and hypocrisy are very powerful enemies. A crowd of grade-thinkers, all shouting the same thing, all warming their hand at the fire of their own prejudices… Man enjoys agreement as cows will graze all the same way on the side of a hill. warming their hand at the fire of their own prejudices: all feeling very content and hap py because they share the same prejudices Man enjoys agreement as cows will graze all the same way on the side of a hill: (simil e) enjoy the peaceful, safe and harmonious environment The author thinks that it is probably human nature to enjoy agreement because it seems to bring peace, security, comfort and harmony. Paragraph 25: Grade-two thinkers do not stampede easily, though often they fall into the other fa ult and lag behind. Grade-two thinking is a withdrawal, with eyes and ears open. I t destroys without having the power to create. stampede: to get easily frightened and run with the crowd fall into the other fault: to go to the other extreme, that is to act too slowly and lag be hind withdrawal: detachment 冷漠, as from social or emotional involvement; refusing to be pa rt of the crowd
It set me watching the crowds cheering His Majesty the King and asking myself w hat all the fuss was about, without giving me anything positive to put in the place of that heady patriotism. But there were compensations. fuss: too much attention or excitement to unimportant things to put in the place of: to replace compensations: pay, reward It made me watch people shouting in joy and support of the King and wonder what thi s senseless excitement was all about although I did not have anything good to replace t his exciting or intoxicating patriotism. But I did get something out of it. Paragraph 26: She claimed that the Bible was literally inspired. I countered by saying that the Ca tholics believed in the literal inspiration of Saint Jerome’s Vulgate and the two boo ks were different. Argument flagged. literally inspired: a true historical record Saint Jerome‘s Vulgate: the Latin translation of the Bible, used in a revised form as the Roman Catholic authorized version flag: to decline in interest; to become dull e.g. his flagging interest in the subject 他对这问题的兴趣减退 ―Both Methodists and Catholics believed that their Books are a true record of the God‘s divine plan.‖ The author used this example to defy Ruth‘s illogical opinion, therefore t he argument became dull because Ruth didn‘t know how to respond to it. Paragraph 27: That was too easy, said I restively since there were more Roman Catholics than M ethodists anyway; … restively: restlessly, difficult to control one‘s emotion Here, the author pointed out Ruth‘s logical error. The number of people who hold a vie w is no proof of its validity. I slid my arm around her waist and murmured that if we were counting heads, th e Buddhists were the boys for my money. She fled. The combination of me arm an d those countless Buddhists was too much for her. if we were counting heads: if we were talking about the number of people who believe in this ，the Buddhists were the boys for my money: I would bet on the Buddhists; I am sure, they are greater in number too much for her: more than she could accept or bear Note the author‘s description of the contrasting combination of his intimate action and st rong defiant expressions, which eventually made Ruth withdraw and give up as a gradetwo thinker. for (one‘s) money: according to one‘s opinion, choice, or preference e.g. For my money, it‘s not worth the trouble.
Try to translate these sentences with money phrases: for love or money 无论如何，不管以任何代价 in the money 非常有钱，有利可图 money to burn 大量的钱 get one‘s money‘s worth 花钱值得 put money on 为······打赌 I wouldn‘t give him my dog for love or money. After years of struggle and dependence, air transportation is in the money. Dick‘s uncle died and left him money to burn. It is a bit expensive, but you get your money‘s worth. to put money on outcome of a race Paragraph 28: I was given the third degree to find out what had happened. I lost Ruth and gained an undeserved reputation as a potential libertine. was given the third degree: to be severely questioned or interrogated libertine: one who acts without moral restraint; a dissolute person 放荡不羁的人；没有道德约束的人 The author lost his girlfriend and won a bad name even as a grade-two thinker, satisfyi ng himself by finding out deficiencies but not seeking for the truth. Note the effect of the author‘s self-mockery. Paragraph 29: To find out the deficiencies of our elders satisfies the young ego but does not make for personal security. It took the swimmer some distance from the shore and left him there, out of his depth. satisfies the young ego: to make one fell proud of one‘s ability and cleverness out of his depth: to be in the water that is too deep for you to stand in and breathe The author uses this metaphor to express the idea that grade-two thinking has its limitat ions. It does not have anything positive to offer. out of one‘s depth 水深过头；超越自己的能力；理解不了的 Examples: Jack was not a good swimmer, add nearly drowned when he drifted out beyond his de pth. I am out of my depth when it comes to natural science. in depth 广泛地；彻底地 a study in depth of the poems explore a subject in depth
an in-depth study Paragraph 30: in the flesh: in the person, present e.g. I have corresponded with him for some years, but I have never met him in the fles h. He is nicer in the flesh than in his photograph. flesh and blood 血肉之躯 make one‘s flesh creep 使人毛骨悚然 thorn in the flesh 肉中刺 e.g. Those sorrows are more than flesh and blood can bear. The author doesn‘t give his characters any flesh and blood. His story made my flesh creep. The guerrilla band was a thorn in the flesh of the invaders.
Paragraph 31-32: I came up in the end with what must always remain the justification for grade-one thinking. I devised a coherent system for living. It was a moral system, which was wholly logical. According to the author, grade-one thinking must be based on a coherent and logical sy stem for living, in other words, a moral system, without which you cannot prove yours elf to be a grade-one thinker. Judging by the context, this system probably refers to on e‘s world outlook and basic political beliefs and moral principles. It was Ruth all over again. I had some very good friends who stood by me, and st ill do. But my acquaintances vanished, taking the girls with them. all over again: repeatedly What had happened to Ruth and me now happened again. My grade-two thinking frighte ned away many of my acquaintances. Phrases and Expressions at a time 在······时候 at all times 在任何时候，经常 at one time 一度，曾经 at the time 那时候 at times 有时候 at the same time 尽管如此，同时 at the best of times 在最有利的时候 do away with Please translate the following sentences: They have done away with corporal punishment in our school. The city has decided to do away with overhead wires.
They agreed that privileges must be done away with. 取消特权 The robbers did away with their victims. 干掉受害者 It is about time all this obsolete machinery was done away with. 处理掉旧机器 stand by a. to remain uninvolved; to refrain from acting b. to remain loyal to; to aid or support c. to keep or maintain d. to be ready or available to act Examples: You can‘t stand by and allow such a thing. He stood by me through all my troubles. You should always stand by your promises. The police are standing by to control the crowd if it is necessary. Paragraph 33: Had the game gone too far? In those prewar days, I stood to lose a great deal, for the sake of a hobby. game: his grade-two thinking which he takes as a hobby go too far: to go beyond what is reasonable and acceptable stand to lose to be likely to lose In those prewar days when many people were fully worked up to a political frenzy, it was very dangerous to voice different opinions. You might lose friends or your job. Paragraph 34-35: Now you are expecting me to describe how I saw the folly of my ways and came back to the warm nest… Now you think I will tell you how I gradually saw my stupidity in being a grade-two t hinker and therefore decided to give it up and return to the majority of grade-three thin kers. But you would be wrong. I dropped my hobby and turned professional. But you guessed wrong. I did not drop my hobby of thinking (here, we can say he mi ght give up the hobby of grade-two thinking). Instead I went further and became a prof essional thinker. Grammar: parallelism Parallelism: the method of expressing ideas of equal importance in the same or similar grammatical form. Parallel constructions: listing, contrast, choice, comparison all shouting the same thing, all warming their hands at the fire of their prejudices —two absolute constructions (listing)
not by thought; by an invisible and irresistible spring in his neck. —two prepositio nal phrases (contrast) To be or not to be, that is a question. —two infinitive phrases (choice) Crawling down a mountain is sometimes harder than climbing up. —two participle phrases. (comparison) For further information, you can either consult an encyclopedia or surf the Internet. —two verb phrases (choice) In the past ten years people, especially old people, have been concerned more abou t their health than about their income. —two noun prepositional phrases (c omparison) The unemployed man wanted a job rather than welfare. —two nouns (contrast) Many things cannot be learned in the classroom, such as planning one‘s time, work ing on one‘s own and managing one‘s affairs. —three participle phrases (listi ng)
Grammar: The Use of Complement Next to her, crouched the statuette of a leopard, ready to spring down—adjective p hrase as subject complement You could hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the unnatural impediments. —past and present participles as object complement It took the swimmer some distance from the shore and left him there, out of his d epth. —prepositional phrase as object complement More examples: Subject complements: Tired and sleepy, I went to bed. Lincoln was born a poor farmer‘s boy and died President of the United States. People are just born what color they are. As a true friend he stood by me to the end. Object complements John wears his hair very long. Can I have this parcel weighed here? I called this robbing Peter to pay Paul. As the main eating implement, the Chinese use chopsticks every day. Writing Devices : Metonymy （转喻） In metonymy, an idea is evoked or named by means of term designating some associate d notion. ―It‖ stands for ―thought‖ in grammar, but actually refers to Mr. Houghton, and it is vulgar to refer to a girl as a skirt. It will lecture on disinterested purity while its neck is being remorselessly twisted t oward a skirt. (Para. 23) The burglar was in Sally‘s mind all day long. (burglar=some idea of the burglar) Democracy favors the vote rather than the bullet. (Vote=election, bullet=military sol utions)
―Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.‖ (Mao Zedong refers it to the military revolution) Bill Gates is the king of operating systems worldwide. (Bill Gates = Microsoft) The pen is mightier than the sword. (pen = writer; sword = fighter)
Writing Devices: Synecdoche （提喻） Synecdoche can be included in metonymy, and it refers to the substitution of the p art for the whole or of the whole for the part. If we were counting heads, the Buddhists were the boys for my money. (Para. 27) (head = person) There are two mouths to feed in my family. (mouth = person) God bless the hands that prepared this food. (hand = person) Writing Devices: Irony （反语） Irony is the expression of one‘s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. Technically, it is about as proficient as most businessmen‘s golf, as honest as most politicians‘ intentions, or as coherent as most books that get written. (Para. 23) Mr. Houghton was given to high-minded monologues about the good life, sexless a nd full of duty. (Para. 20) Writing Devices: Hyperbole （夸张） It is the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration to achieve emphasis. You could hear the wind, trapped in his chest and struggling with all the unnatural impediments. His body would reel with shock and his face go white at the unaccu stomed visitation. He would stagger back to his desk and collapse there, useless for the rest of the morning. (Para. 19) Writing Devices: Simile （明喻） It makes a comparison between two unlike elements having at least one quality or chara cteristic in common. To make the comparison, words like ―as‖, ―as... as‖, ―as if‖ and ―l ike‖ are used to transfer the quality we associate with one to the other. They all came tumbling down like so many rotten apples off a tree. (Para. 31) Man enjoys agreement as cows will graze all the same way on the side of a hill. (Para. 24) Writing Devices: Metaphor （暗喻） It is like a simile, also makes a comparison between two unlike elements, but unlike a simile, this comparison is implied rather than stated. He seems to me ruled not by thought but by an invisible and irresistible spring in his neck. (Para. 20) It took the swimmer some distance from the shore and left him there, out of his d epth. (Para. 29)
Assignment P17 1. Translate P18 3. Translate P19 4. Put the most appropriate in the blanks P21 5. Put the appropriate word or its derivative in the blanks P26 4. Translate these sentences using parallel constructions P27 6. Complete each of following sentences with the most likely answer That‘s all for today! Thank you very much?
Lesson Three Why Historians Disagree?
by Allen F. Davis & Harold D. Woodman
Part One Questions 1. What would you expect by looking at the title? 2. How would you like to develop this article? 3. What do you think the students of history study? 4. Why do people study history? Would you like to be a historian? Why or why not? 5. Who is the most controversial figure in the Chinese history? Why? Exemplify your r easoning. Part Two The present text is based on the introduction to a book entitled Conflict and Consensus in Modern American History edited by Allen F. Davis and Harold D. Woodman, profess ors at Temple University and Purdue University respectively, who also wrote the introdu ction. Authors Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), America‘s 28th president(1913-1921), was a professor of law, the president of Princeton University, and the governor of New Jersey before he was elected to the White House. When Woodrow Wilson took office, he faced economic crisis, democratic decay, and a world at war. Meeting those challenges with progressive ideas and high-minded ideals, he reinvented the presidency, crafting a vibrant legacy that has defined the powers and responsibilities of every president to this day. Zimmerman Note The Zimmerman Note was a communiquéé(官方通告) authored by German Foreign S ecretary Arthur Zimmerman and intercepted by American Intelligence. The note had been designed to entice (诱使)Mexico into declaring war against the United States should th e U.S. declare war on Germany. As a reward, Mexico would then receive Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas after the war. Full text of The Zimmerman Telegram: ―On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Me xico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest co nfidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United
States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communic ate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to me diate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthle ss submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Sent January 19, 1917) Part Three Word Study Word list: 1. assumption n. something that you think is true although you have no definite proof e.g. When historians and anthropologists first began to investigate the issue of pre-patriar chal cultures they made two assumptions. While the criticisms vary, the underlying assumption is that overall economic growt h has been speeding up. Word Formation a. assumable v. assume 2. contemplate v. a. to have in view as a purpose, intention b. to look at (with the eyes, or in the mind) synonyms: consider, think about/of, toy with the idea of e.g. Have you ever contemplated committing suicide? Secondly, we shall need to contemplate the various options available for disposing of the company‘s properties. She stood contemplating her figure in the mirror. He contemplated her with a faint smile. Word Formation a. contemplative n. contemplation 3. contend v. a. to struggle, to be in rivalry b. to argue, to assert e.g. I know the charms of my rival are too powerful for me to contend with.
Three armed groups are contending for power. Some astronomers contend that the universe may be younger than previously thought. 4. a. b. c. crude not finished properly; badly worked out (of materials) in a natural state, not refined or manufactured not having grace, taste or refinement ? crude ore (矿石)? a crude shelter ? crude ideas? crude oil/sugar ? crude remarks
e.g. crude schemes ? crude manners
5. eliminate v. a. to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted b. to defeat a team or person in a competition, so that they no longer take part in it c. to kill someone in order to prevent them from causing trouble synonyms: get rid of, abolish, scrap, do away with, eradicate, root out e.g. The credit card eliminates the need for cash or cheques. Our team was eliminated in the first round. The dictator eliminated anyone who might be a threat to him. 6. elusive adj. a. (of a person) difficult to find or see b. (of result) difficult to achieve c. (of idea or quality) difficult to describe or understand e.g. She managed to get an interview with that elusive man. She enjoys a firm reputation in this country but wider international success has been elusive. For me, the poem has an elusive quality. Word formation ad. elusively n. elusiveness v. elude 7. emerge v. a. to appear or come out from somewhere b. (of facts, ideas) to appear; to become known c. to come out of a difficult experience e.g. The moon emerged from behind the clouds. New evidence has emerged to contradict earlier claims.
Local government has recently emerged as a major issue. She emerged from the divorce a stronger person. Word Formation n. emergence a. emergent 8. immerse v. a. to put sth. under the surface of a liquid b. to involve oneself deeply (in sth.) e.g. He immersed the knife in boiling water. Immerse the cloth in the dye for 20 minutes. I walked into the study and found Mr. Johnson immersed in his writing, as usual. When Alfred inherited his father‘s estate, he immersed himself in pleasure. synonyms: be engrossed in, be wrapped up in, be absorbed in, preoccupied 9. presumably adv. used to say that you think something is probably true e.g. Presumably there‘s a good reason for her absence, as she doesn‘t usually stay away from work. Few women, presumably, would want to return to the assumptions on which the ol d system was based. Word Formation a. presumable n. presumption v. presume 10. quest n. a long search for something that is difficult to find e.g. At their roots, both quests originated out of human inquisitiveness. World leaders are now united in their quest for peace. Foreign powers had long penetrated the area in quest of wealth or influence, or to counter the lusts of their adversaries. 11. resolve v. a. to solve or settle a problem or difficulty b. to make a definite decision to do sth. e.g. Congressmen called for a third meeting to resolve the conflict. I resolved to keep quiet about what I had heard, since it would only cause trouble.
She resolved that if he couldn‘t find the necessary courage, she would. Word Formation n. resolve, resolution 12. restricted a. small or limited in size, area, or amount b. limited or controlled, especially by laws or rules e.g. It‘s difficult trying to work in such a restricted space. The sale of alcohol is restricted to people under the age of 18. There is restricted access to this information (=only certain people can have it). Word Formation v. restrict n. restriction a. restrictive 13. self-evident a. clearly true and needing no more proof e.g. The facts in this case are self-evident and cannot be denied. Even the principle of democracy, which seems self-evident in the West is challenge d elsewhere. It is self-evident that childhood experiences influence our adult behavior. synonyms: unmistakable, obvious, speak for itself, you can‘t miss it 14. subtlety n. a. the quality that sth. has when it has been done in a clever or skilful way, with ca reful attention to small details b. a thought, an idea, or a detail that is important but difficult to notice or understan d e.g. She argued her case with considerable subtlety. Some of the subtleties of the language are lost in translation. To appreciate all of this beauty relies upon your noticing its subtleties. Word Formation a. subtle ad. subtly 15. validity n. state or condition of being valid
e.g. I would question the validity of that statement. Lawyers are questioning the validity of the city‘s new telecom contract. You don‘t know enough about the subject to question the validity of my statement s. Word Formation a. valid a.n. invalid v. validate Word Building 1. prefix--pro-: supporting or approving of sth. pro-British 亲英（派） pro-America 亲美（派） pro-Chinese 亲华（派） pro-abortion 赞成/支持堕胎 pro-western 支持西方的 pro-independence 赞成独 立 pro-revolutionary 支持革命的人 2. suffix---proof: protecting against foolproof 不会有差错或误解的 waterproof 防水的 bulletproof 防弹的 burglarproof 防盗的 soundproof 隔音的 childproof container 防孩子摔坏的容器 tamperproof（机械装置等）可防止乱摆弄的 flameproof 防火的 idiot-proof 简单易懂的，容易操作的，可靠的 3. Suffix—-able/-ible a. a. (n.+able) showing the qualities of b. (v.+able) that can be, fit to be e.g. fashionable (= showing the qualities of fashion) eatable (= that can be eaten, fit t o be eaten) regretregrettable respectrespectable responseresponsible sense sensible conduct conductible enjoyenjoyable read readable imagine imaginable think thinkable resistresistible corrupt corruptible Part Three I. Text Analysis Style This is a piece of expository writing. The purpose of expository writing is to explain or to give the reader information to hel p him understand the world around him. Stylistic Feature 1. long sentences
2. formal words 3. impersonal structures Theme In this essay the two authors discuss the definition of history, the role of the historians and the reasons why historians disagree. Structure Part I (Paras. 1—3) How the students of history major study history and what confuse them Historians may view the same historical event from different perspectives The authors summarize the reasons why historians disagree and the disagreement is everl asting. Part II (Paras. 4—10) Part III (Paras. 11—13) 1. What are the three definitions of history? in the broadest sense the whole of the human past
in a restricted sense in a common sense
the recorded part of human life
what historians write about the past
2. What is the role of the historians? Historians do not just collect facts. They give meaning to the facts. ? 3. Why do historians disagree? Because historians have different interests and a different understanding of human motiva tion and human behavior which in turn is due to their different background in age, sex, race, class, education, religion, politics, etc., they tend not only to be interested in diffe rent facts but also interpret the same facts differently. 4. What is the misunderstanding the authors are trying to clarify in Para.1? History is just the facts of names, dates and statistics of the past. The study of history is the study of these ―facts‖ about the past. ? 5. What is the confusion of the students put forward in Paras.2-3? Historians who are wrong may have their ―facts‖ correct. Contending historians more or less agree on the same facts, but come to different concl usions. It seems that historical truth becomes a matter of personal preference. It‘s hard to decide which of the two opposed points of view about an event is correct. 6. What is the main idea of Paras. 7—8? How are the two paragraphs developed? Paras. 7—8 is about the factors for American entry into WWI.
The two paragraphs are developed by way of exemplification. 7. What is the main idea of Paras. 9—10? What are the interpretations of the thre e schools? Paras. 9—10 is about how the three schools interpret these factors. First group: These are the only important ones and they are equally important; Second group: The list is incomplete—leaving out Wilson‘s pro-British attitude; Third group: These are not of equal importance—bankers‘ influence is the most import ant. ? 8. What are the two reasons listed in Para. 11 to explain why historians disagree? Conclusion: Subject—the same: American entry into WWI facts—different reason—different points of view 9. What can be concluded in Paras. 9—10? a. They begin from different premises. b. They are merely considering different levels of causes and effect. ? 10. How do the authors view the controversy among historians? The controversy not only lies between historians, but also happens to the same historian with the discovery of new information and progress of the society. It is impossible to remove the controversy and it is the very existence of the controversy that lends excite ment to the study of history. Further Discussion Of the three possible definitions of history the authors have listed in the text, whic h do you think is the most accurate? Why? Do historians ever agree in their interpretation of a historical event? Can you think of a few examples on which the historians sharply disagree? How come they disag ree since they are dealing with facts? When two historians disagree, does it always mean that one historian is right and t he other is wrong? Why not? Is it safe to say that historians can differ, but they can never be wrong? Will the disagreement among historians eventually come to an end one day? Why and why not? Do you accept the view that this disagreement is what lends exciteme nt to the study of history? Do you think that history is a science? If your answer is yes, would you say that it is a science just like physics and mathematics? Not only historians but also we disagree with each other? How does it happen?
II. Detailed study of the Text Paragraph 1: Most students are usually introduced to the study of history by way of a fat textbook and become
quickly immersed in a vast sea of names, dates, events and statistics. by way of: a. through, by route of, via b. as a means of; as a type of; serving as fat: thick or large be/become immersed in: to be deeply involved or absorbed a vast sea of: a great number of e.g. You can get this information by way of the Internet. He sent her some flowers by way of an apology. They decided to give a party by way of welcome to the distinguished guests. Tell the meaning of fat in the following collocations: a fat person a fat book a fat salary a fat cigar a fat check
a fat chance
fat chance (of sth/doing sth): used for saying that you don‘t believe sth is likely to happen 不大可能发生 e.g. ---―They might let us in without tickets.‖ --- ―Fat chance of that!‖ chew the fat: (infml) to have a long friendly talk with sb （长时间）闲聊，闲扯
Compare: fat (impolite, overweight/heavy), plump (women/children), chubby (babies), stout, obese Paragraph 2: Their common-sense reaction to this state of affairs is to conclude that one historian is right while the other is wrong. common-sense reaction：response based on common sense this state of affairs：this kind of situation while：whereas or and, implying a contrast Paraphrase: When a person is faced with this kind of situation, the normal, practical response will be that one historian is right whereas the other is wrong. Phrases and Expressions from a… perspective: looking at sth. from a certain angle =from a … point of view, angle, approach, stance e.g. from a feminist/Christian/global perspective The novel is written from a child‘s perspective. We have to look at everything from an international perspective. Compare: historical, historic; economical, economic; classical, classic Paragraph 3: This position is hardly satisfying.
position: situation or state; status This is not a happy solution or happy situation. Students expect to be given clear-cut answers, either yes or no. But now they have to shop around for the proper answer. The answer becomes a person al choice. This makes them feel very uncomfortable. Phrases and Expressions cannot help but do: used to say that someone is unable to change their behavior or feelings, or to prevent themselves from doing something similar one: can‘t help doing cannot but do
Paragraph 5: Therefore the historian can only approximate history at best. No one can ever claim to have conclu ded the quest. approximate: v. to come close to at best: taking the most hopeful view quest: search; pursuit Paraphrase: Therefore the best the historian can do is to get as near as possible to the historical tru th. But no one can ever boast that he/she has completed this search. It goes on for ever. Phrases at (the) e.g. The His and Expressions best: taking the most hopeful view 最乐观的看法；充其量 city was at (the) best an ordinary sort of place. answers were at best evasive, at worst very misleading.
Paragraph 6: piece together: to use all the information you have about a situation in order to discover the truth a bout it e.g. Police are trying to piece together his movements before the murder. Her early life has been pieced together from several different sources. Paragraph 7: Sometimes this appears to be easy, requiring very little sophistication and subtlety. sophistication: complexities subtlety: fine distinctions Paraphrase: Sometimes this appears to be easy, demanding no special training or profound knowledg e or the ability to understand very complex issues and fine distinctions. Phrases and Expressions be relevant to: be related to, be connected with e.g. Kids have to understand how school is relevant to their lives.
These issues are directly relevant to the needs of slow learners. The choice as to which fact to use is based on a theory—admittedly, in this case a rather crude th eory, but a theory nonetheless. as to: with regard to; concerning admittedly: we all admit crude: unrefined nonetheless: (fml) nevertheless; however Paraphrase: The choice concerning which fact to use is based on a theory. I am willing to concede that the theory used here is unrefined, yet it is still a theory. It would go something like this: National leaders contemplating war are more likely to be influence d by belligerent acts against countries than by their unhappiness with their haberdashers. contemplating war: pondering over the problem of war; considering going to war with anther countr y belligerent acts: war acts, acts of war unhappiness with their haberdashers: unhappiness with their hat makers or hat shops; unhappiness about personal trivial things Paragraph 8: Phrases and Expressions in the event of: in case sth should happen e.g. It offers vital financial cover in the event of you being permanently disabled in an accident. The countries involved have pledged to offer mutual assistance in the event of a spill. Ways of saying ―if‖: should, had, in case, in case of, in the event of read of: (=read about) to find out information from books, newspapers etc e.g. I was shocked when I read of his death. minister: an authorized diplomatic representative of a government, usually ranking next below an am bassador 公使 Foreign Secretary---Germany 外交大臣 Foreign Minister---UK 外交部长 Secretary of State---USA 国务卿 大使馆 领事馆 大使 公使 领事 商务参赞 embassy consulate ambassador minister consul commercial counselor
military attaché cultural attaché
Paragraph 9: What then are historians to make of these facts? make of: to regard as the nature or meaning of sth e.g. We don‘t know what to make of his behavior. What do you make of their recent move? What do you think they hope to achieve? Phrases and Expressions take… into account/take account of sth: take… into consideration stem from: to derive from; to develop from; to originate in concern oneself with: to become involved in sth. because you are interested in it or because it worr ies you e.g. These figures do not take into account the changes in the rate of inflation. His headaches stemmed from vision problems. He loved his wife, and concerned himself with her needs and desires. For several weeks I did not concern myself with any thought of the future. pro- favorable, supportive con- unfavorable, counter pro-and-con: 辩论，支持和反对 Paragraph 10: Similarly a third group of historians might maintain that the various items on the list should not be given equal weight. similarly: for the same reason maintain: to continue to have the view be given equal weight: to consider equally important Paraphrase: Similarly a third group of historians might argue that the various points put on the list should not considered equally important. The theory here would be that economic matters are the key to human motivation, and that a small number of wealthy bankers have a disproportionate ability to influence government. Paraphrase: The theory here would be that the answer to human purpose in doing sth. lies in econo mic factor and that the influence of the bankers on the government is much greater than their numb er. Paragraph 11: In the examples given, historians disagree because they begin from different premises. premises: a proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn; ass umption
Paraphrase: In the examples we have given above, we can see that historians disagree because they begin from different assumptions. shore battery – here ―battery‖ means? a basic tactical artillery unit, corresponding to the company in the infantry 炮兵连 Neither statement can be faulted on the grounds that it is inaccurate. be faulted: to be criticized; to be considered wrong grounds: reasons or justifications e.g. You have no grounds for complaint. He retired from the job on health grounds. Paraphrase: You cannot find fault with either statement and say it is not accurate. (Neither statement can be criticized on the grounds that it is inaccurate.) Paragraph 13: If the state of our knowledge were such that it provided us with a model of unquestioned validity that completely explained human behavior, we can. such that: a variation of the pattern ―so… that‖ e.g. The force of the explosion was such that windows were blown out. a model of unquestioned validity: a model that is always effective; a foolproof model Paraphrase: We can if our knowledge could give us a perfect model that completely explained hum an behavior. Unfortunately no such model has ever existed. But since we do not have such a complete and foolproof explanation, disagreements are destined to remain. foolproof: always effective; completely dependable; infallible are destined to: to be bound to do sth.; to be predetermined or preordained to do sth. e.g. We were destined never to meet again. Paraphrase: But since we do not have such a complete and infallible explanation, disagreement are bound to exist. When students realize that… ―truth‖ is but an elusive yet intriguing goal in a never-ending quest... but: only an elusive yet intriguing goal: a goal that is extremely attractive yet forever out of reach a never-ending quest: an everlasting or interminable search Paraphrase: When students realize that… ―truth‖ is only a goal that is beyond reach yet extremely attractive and should be sought in a permanent search.
III. Writing Device 1. What is exposition?
2. Who would most likely use the expository writing style? 3. In which scope and field do they use it? 4. What is the most important quality of exposition? 5. What methods are adopted for paragraph development in the expository writing? Study the text carefully and find the answer to each question. 1. What is exposition? Exposition means expounding or explaining piece of writing. An expository paper explains or explores sth., such as the process of making a machine, the causes of a natural or social phenomenon, the planning of a project, or the solutio n of a problem. That is, use an expository writing when we explain how the object is made, how it is used, and how it may change. It mainly deals with processes and relati onships. 4. What is the most important quality of exposition? How to achieve it? Clarity. 1) Limit his subject or the scope of discussion, for it‘s impossible to explain many thin gs clearly in a short essay. 2) Prepare enough material (details of examples) to help his explanation; the reader ofte n finds abstract discussions hard to follow if they are not illustrated by concrete exampl es. 3) Present his facts and views in proper order, in the order of time or of logical sequen ce depending on the nature of the subjects. 4) Make his exposition, if possible, interesting or moving 5. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) What methods are adopted for paragraph development in the expository writing? illustration division and classification comparison and contrast analogy cause and effect definition
Grammar—Transitional Expressions Function: Transitional words and phrases show the relationship of one sentence or clause to anoth er and tie together ideas before the reader has a chance to forget them, thus to achieve coherence in writing. e.g. Therefore they often become confused upon discovering that historians often disagre e sharply even when they are dealing with the same event. (Para. 1) 1. Words That Signal Addition Here is a list of commonly used transitional expressions.
and next besides furthermore
moreover also last in addition
again one… another finally
2. Words That Signal Time at first, second, former…latter etc afterward before after immediately meanwhile later then until
soon at length finally in the meantim e next
3. Words That Signal Comparison/Contrast however instead but on the one ha yet nd still in contrast although nevertheless on the other han d nonetheless on the contrary
4. Words That Signal Example for example to illustrate for instance the following exam ple 5. Words That Signal Conclusions or Summaries in summary consequently in conclusion to conclude therefore in other words thus as a result
6. Words That Signal Concession although it is true although you could say that that granted of course naturally
Now pick out the transitional words or phrases in the following sentences and point out how they each make sentence transition clear. (to add, to contrast, to exemplify, to inte nsify, to show result, to repeat, to summarize or to conclude, etc.) 1. And presumably, historians who are wrong will have their ―facts‖ wrong. This is sel dom the case, however. (Para. 2) (And: to add; however: to contrast) 2. Rather, they select only those records they deem most significant. (Para. 6) (Rather: to introduce a fact that is different from what has been mentioned) 3. At the same time, they would most likely not use evidence that President Woodrow Wilson was dissatisfied with a new hat he bought during the first months of 1917. (Pa ra. 7) (At the same time: to indicate time) 4. In other words, we have to go beyond the proximate cause and probe further and further. (Para. 11) (In other words: to explain) 5. In the end, you might argue that the ultimate cause of your being late was the fact that you were born, but obviously this goes too far back to be meaningful. (Para. 11) (In the end: to conclude; but: to contrast) Lesson Quiz Quiz 2 1. The safari hunter was nearly _____ to death by a herd of elephants. A. stampeded B. trampled C. trod D. stamped 2. She felt that she was too ______ with problems to be able to study properly. A. burdened B. tired C. grieved D. disturbed 3 The roof ______ under the weight of the snow. A. fell B. submerged C. collapsed D. descended 4. Juvenile _______ is becoming a very difficult problem for society to overcome. A. negligence B. crime C. delinquency D. offence 5. The current spirit of _____ among the various departments of the university have led to a number of interdisciplinary publications which might not otherwise have been writt en. A. competition B. patriotism C. cooperation D. futility 6. Ben derived a lot of ______ from his boss‘s apology. A. comfort B. ease C. gratification D. satisfaction 7. His criticism injured Jenny‘s ______. So she is feeling sad now. A. divinity B. indignity C. ego D. mind 8. Hundreds of people ______ on the playground for watching the Dragon Lantern Sho w. A. contrived B. conformed C. conferred D. converged 9. Beware of the cream on the floor. An elderly lady ______ and fell down there just now. A. spilled B. slipped C. slid D. split
10. She had been educated in England, which accounted for her ______ in the English language. A. efficiencyB. proficiency C. effectiveness D. effectuality 11. A sweet smile is a figurative expression, but sweet coffee is a ______ one. A. literal B. literary C. literate D. illiterate 12. I missed the last bus. I could do nothing but ______ in the village for the night. A. staying B. stayed C. to stay D. stay 13. International football matches do not always make ______ better understanding betw een countries. A. up B. for C. into D. out 14. Cambridge can look very attractive ______ of year. A. at the same time B. at one time C. at this time D. at times 15. There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, ______ a sudden l oud noise. A. being there B. should there be C. there D. there having been 16. ______ for the timely investment form the general public, our company would not b e so thriving as it is. A. Had it not been B. Were it not C. Be it not D. Should it not be 17. According to one belief, if truth is to be known it will make itself apparent, so one ______ wait instead of searching for it. A. would rather B. had to C. cannot but D. had best 18. The school board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers ____ __ for. A. be demonstrating B. demonstrate C. had been demonstrating D. have demonst rated 19. We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style ______ in a personal one. A. rather than B. other than C. better than D. less than 20. The business of each day, ______ selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoot hly. A. it being B. be it C. was it D. it was （answer：DACCC DCDBB ADBCD ADCAB 12 题也可选 C，但不常用） Quiz 3 1. I had an _________ desire to run away. (resist) 2. I believe he has never ___________ explained how he came to be in such a condition. (satisfy) 3. The senator was known for his ______. (orate) 4. An electronic sound system represents the _________ of thousands of components. (in tegrate) （answer：irresistible satisfactorily oratory integration） Lesson Three Quiz Quiz 1
1. In my opinion, you can widen the ____ of these improvements through your active p articipation. A. dimension B. magnitude C. volume D. scope 2. The tourist is forbidden to enter a country if he does not have a(n) _____ passport. A. operative B. effective C. valid D. efficient 3. Gone with the Wind deals with questions America‘s Civil war and the experiences of two couples of lovers. A. concerned B. concerned with C. concerning with D. concerning 4. She was very interested in the work of certain charities, and made a regular to them. A. subscription B. contribution C. allowance D. tribute 5. Anthropology is a science _____ anthropologist use a rigorous set of methods and te chniques to document observations that can be checked by others. A. in that B. that in C. that D. in 6. People under the age of 18 are not to join the club. A. capable B. legitimate C. available D. eligible 7. Essentially, a theory is an abstract symbolic representation of reality. A. what it is conceived B. that is conceived C. that is being conceived D. what is conceived to be 8. Although some students graduate from high school, they are virtually illiterate _________ writing a business letter. A. in the event of B. in the light of C. in case of D. in terms of 9. Sometimes the tension produced by fears is so great that we cannot suppress it. At s uch times we need to the tension by laughing or crying. A. discard B. disperse C. disguise D. discharge 10. We are all agreed that the plan is practical and feasible, but he thinks . A. not B. the reverse C. contrarily D. otherwise 11. Go and ask his wife. She must be the know. A. in B. for C. at D. under 12. She knew that she was against very strong opposition. A. at B. up C. with D. on 13. Until the 1800s, communication had been _____ by distance and time. A. curbed B. inhibited C. limited D. restricted 14. This car is cheaper to buy _____ the other one is more economical to run. A. although B. since C. than D. whereas 15. The score is 3 to 2 in their favor. This is not _____ result as we expected. A. a bad B. as a bad C. bad a D. as bad a 16. Hardly a day goes by _____ I write to my family. A. when B. since C. but D. before 17. The old man strolled to the beach, _____. A. his dog following him B. his dog followed him C. his dog was followed D. following by his dog 18. I don‘t believe your dad is over fifty. He looks _____ forty. A. no older than B. not older than C. no older as D. none older as
19. The Prime Minister walked onto the platform and seated herself in a chair, _____ t o answer questions. A. had prepared B. being prepared C. prepared D. preparing 20. There can be no economy _____ there is no efficiency. A. unless B. where C. provided that D. because （answer：DCDBA DDDDD ABDDD CAACB）
Quiz 2 1. All great ideas are ___________ (controversy), or have been at one time. 2. The government has to take some __________ (restrict) measures. 3. Right now another world war is almost _____________ (conceive). 4. She has a very original and ____________ (imagine) mind. 5. The students are not very ____________ (respond) in class. 6. The victory was not _________ (conclude). 7. These things have nothing to do with each other. They are totally __________ (r elate). 8. She wants to do some ____________ (investigate) reporting for the class. 9. She no longer holds any official position. But she is still one of the most ________ (influence) people in that country. 10. It is wrong to fight a __________ (position) warfare. （answer：controversial, restrictive, inconceivable, imaginative, responsive, conclusive, unr elated/irrelevant/irrelative, investigative, influential, positional）
Lesson Four A Drink in the Passage by Allen Paton
I. Questions 1. What do you know about South Africa? 2. What do you know about the situation in South Africa at the time the story was wri tten? 3. Have you ever heard of the ―apartheid‖? What do you know about it? 4. What dramatic changes have taken place in this country since the time this story was written? 5. Has racism been a serious problem in human history? Is the problem resolved? 6. How much do you know about Nelson Mandela? II. The story is set against the background of Apartheid South Africa. ? Apartheid: an official policy of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites
Race laws touched every aspect of social life,including a prohibition of marriage bet ween nonwhites and whites. In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that al l South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (Afri can), or colored (of mixed descent). Non-compliance with the race laws was dealt wi th harshly. Chinese settlers, mainly laborers, were classified as coloreds, while Japane se, mainly businesspeople, were classified as white. Toward the end of the 1980s, amind increasing racial tension and criticism from the outside world, Nationalist president Klerk started a serious reform. He removed the ban on the African National Congress, the principal anti-apartheid organization, and r eleased Nelson Mandela, the ANC deputy president, after 27 years of imprisonment.
III. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918- ) South African antiapartheid activist, President of South Africa (term 1994-1999) Known for ? Leading the antiapartheid movement, first through militancy and later through diplom acy, and symbolizing the struggle of black South Africans during his long period of imprisonment ? Negotiating the end of apartheid and leading South Africa's peaceful transition to de mocratic rule ? Winning the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with F.W. de Klerk Milestones of Mandela ? 1940 Was expelled from the University of Fort Hare for involvement in student acti vism ? 1944 Helped to establish the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League ? 1951 Became president of the ANC ? 1952 Opened first black-owned law practice in South Africa with his partner Oliver Tambo in Johannesburg ? 1961 Organized Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), the military wing of th e ANC, spurred by the 1960 massacre of blacks demonstrating in Sharpeville ? 1964-1990 Was imprisoned under charges of sabotage, treason, and violent conspirac y ? February 11, 1990 Was released from prison by President F.W. de Klerk ? April 27, 1994 Was elected president of South Africa in the country's first multiraci al elections ? 1996 Led the adoption of a new constitution guaranteeing free speech, free political activity, and the right to restitution for land seized under apartheid regime Quote "During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I ha
ve cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live togethe r in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and t o achieve. But, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. ― "If you so much as lay a hand on me, I will take you to the highest court in the l and, and when I finish with you, you will be as poor as a church mouse.― "Any man or institution that tries to rob me of my dignity will lose." "Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts." Part Two Background Information I. Author Alan Paton (1903-1988) ―I do not like to mention it. But there is a voice I cannot silence.‖ —Paton Paton, craggy old liberal, hater of and hated by apartheid, loved and unloved by the A NC, famous for Cry, the Beloved Country. Alan Paton was born in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. He started his career by teachin g at a school in Ixopo. The dramatic career change to director of a reformatory for bla ck youths at Diepkloof, near Johannesburg, had a profound effect on his thinking. The p ublication of Cry, the Beloved Country (1948) made him one of South Africa‘s best kno wn writers, and by the time he died, it had sold over 15 million copies. Following his non-racial ideals, he helped to found the South African Liberal Party and became its pre sident. II. His Works Cry, the Beloved Country Perhaps the most famous novel to come out of South Africa, Paton‘s 1948 work brough t to the notice of the world the dilemmas of ordinary South Africans living under an o ppressive system, one which threatened to destroy their very humanity. Informed by Pato n‘s Christian and liberal beliefs, the novel tells of a rural Zulu parson‘s heart-breaking s earch for his son, who has been drawn into the criminal underworld of the city. Cry, th e Beloved Country has sold millions of copies around the world. III. Part Three Language Study abreast: side by side keep abreast of sth.: to make sure that you know all the most recent facts about a su bject e.g. It‘s almost impossible to keep abreast of all the latest developments.
Africaans-->Afrikaner=Boer (Africaans-speaking South African of Dutch ancestry) avert: to prevent; to avoid; to turn away (P109) n. aversion exercise: P116.2 cognac: 科尼亚克白兰地；干邑 Compare complimentary: praising; admiring; flattering complementary: forming or serving as a complement; completing exercise: P116.5 confidentially: in a very private or secret way adj. confidential e.g. a confidential secretary exercise: P116.6 expel: to force air, water, etc. out of your body; to make sb. leave school/organization/c ountry e.g. Two girls were expelled from school for taking drugs. Olympic athletics expelled for drug-taking Give the American BrE flat lift autumn trousers term film cinema sweet counterpart of each word. AmE BrE apartment toilet elevator pavement fall clever pants cheque semester railway movie underground movie theater lovely candy cock
AmE bathroom/restroom sidewalk smart check railroad subway cute rooster
herald: messenger (old time); one that gives a sign or indication of something to come; a harbinger e.g. The primrose（报春花） is a herald of spring. jubilee e.g. diamond jubilee golden jubilee silver jubilee
60th anniversary 50th anniversary 25th anniversary
wedding: diamond wedding (60 years) golden wedding (50 years)
ruby wedding silver wedding
(40 years) (25 years)
Word formation suffix—wide: extending or effective throughout a specified area or region e.g. nationwide, worldwide, communitywide oversight: the fact of making a mistake because you forget to do sth. or you do not n otice sth.; (fml.) the state of being in charge of e.g. I didn‘t mean to leave her name off the list; it was an oversight. You can never entirely eliminate human error and oversight. The committee has oversight of finance and general policy. personage: a person of distinction Compare personality: a famous person, esp. in entertainment or sport; a person whose strong cha racter makes them noticeable e.g. sports personality personalities from the world of music She is a real personality of our department! exercise: P116.4 polish: n. a substance to make a surface smooth and shiny; a high quality of performan ce with great skill e.g. furniture polish, shoe polish She played the cello with the polish of a much older musician. She thought that her husband‘s family lacked polish. polish: v. to make sth. smooth and shiny by rubbing it with a piece of fabric; to make changes to sth. in order to improve it e.g. He polished his glasses with a handkerchief. Four years of prep school should polish those children. polished: adj. shiny as a result of polishing; elegant, refined e.g. polished manners, polished performance quarter: an unspecified group of people e.g. Support for the plan came from an unexpected quarter. 支持这一计划的是一个/组没想到的人。 The news was greeted with dismay in some quarters. 有一部分人对这条消息感到沮丧。 Other Meanings：a quarter to 9, the historic quarter of the city...
renounce: v. to state officially that you are no longer going to keep a title, position, et c. e.g. to renounce a claim/title/privilege/right to renounce your citizenship renounce could also mean to state publicly that you no longer have a particular belief or connection with sb. or that you will no longer behave in a particular way e.g. to renounce ideals/principles/beliefs to renounce terrorism/war a joint declaration renouncing the use of violence He had renounced his former friends. segregate n. segregation segregation and discrimination
Part Four Text Appreciation I. Text Analysis Plot: a well-educated black finds himself cordially invited to split a bottle with a white man in the passage of the latter‘s apartment building Setting: social setting: Apartheid South Africa in 1960, in the city Olando story setting: in the passage Protagonists: ―I‖—the black sculptor Edward Simelane; ―he‖ —a white man named Van Rensburg Theme: The story tells us how racial prejudice can prevent us reaching, touching and connecting with each o ther. This invisible wall exists between the white and the black and hampers their free communicatio n and full understanding. It is not just a wall imposed by apartheid laws, but a wall deeply rooted i n their hearts. Structure : Part 1 (Paras. 1-6 ) about: Against what background and from whom the story comes Part 2 (Paras. 7-76) about: How the story goes II. Detailed study of the Text Paragraph 1: In the year 1960 the Union Africa celebrated its Golden Jubilee, and there was a nationwide sensa tion when the one-thousand-pound prize for the finest piece of sculpture was won by a black man, Edward Simelane. Golden Jubilee: 50th anniversary nationwide: throughout the nation sensation: extreme surprise, excitement or interest
Paraphrase: In the year 1960, the Union of South Africa celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and ther e was a great excitement throughout the country when people heard that the prize for the finest piec e of sculpture was won by a black man. sensation: very great surprise, excitement or interest among a lot of people; the person or the thing that causes this surprise e.g. Shengda became a sensation overnight. ―The anticipation produced in me a sensation somewhat between bliss and fear‖ --James Joh nson sensation: n. a feeling that you get from one of your five senses, especially the sense of touch e.g. a tingling/burning/pleasant sensation I had a sensation of falling, as if in a dream. She seemed to have lost all sensation in her arms. I had a sensation that she had been watching me for a long time. His work, African Mother and Child, not only excited the admiration, but touched the conscience or heart or whatever it was that responded, of white South Africa. that responded: here means responded in that way or similarly responded Paraphrase: His sculpture, African Mother and Child, not only won the admiration of the white peo ple for its artistic merit, but also deeply touched or moved their hearts and conscience because the work made them see the injustice of racial discrimination and the black people‘s yearning for a bette r life for their children. Paragraph 2: It was by an oversight that his work was accepted… oversight: a mistake that you make by not noticing sth. or by forgetting to do sth. Paraphrase: It was because of a careless mistake that his work was accepted, because as a black pe rson, he was not supposed to participate in the competition… The committee of the sculpture section received a private reprimand for having been so careless as to omit the words ―for whites only‖ from the conditions… a private reprimand: a non-public criticism, a criticism that is not made public reprimand: a sharp, angry and official rebuke/criticism omit: to leave out Paraphrase: The committee of the sculpture section received a personal rebuke, blaming that they w ere too careless and left out the words ―whites only‖ from the participating conditions/requirements. Paragraph 3: … but in certain powerful quarters, there was an outcry against any departure from the ―traditiona l policies‖ of the country…
quarter: a usually unspecified group of people outcry: a strong protest or objection departure from: a divergence from a rule or traditional practice Paraphrase: … but some politically influential groups strongly protest against this decision as it was not in conformity with the traditional apartheid policies of the country… Paragraph 4: ―I wasn‘t feeling up to it,‖ Simelane said mischievously to me. ―My parents, and my wife‘s parent s, and out priest, decided that I wasn‘t feeling up to it. And finally I decided so too.‖ feeling up to: to have the strength or energy to do sth. or deal with sth. e.g. I just didn‘t feel up to going. You don‘t need to go back to school if you don‘t feel up to it. mischievously: playfully, teasingly Can they decide how they would feel for the coming award day? Comment: Obviously Simelane and his families and friends don‘t think he should go to the ceremon y, and thus they decide to use the excuse of sickness. What do you think is the real reason they wo uld make such a decision? Paragraph 5: In Orlando you develop a throat of iron, and you just put back your head and put it down, in ca se the police should arrive. a throat of iron : it‘s a metaphor here, meaning a strong throat put back: throw back put it down: drink it down in one gulp
Paraphrase: In Orlando you (the blacks) gradually develop a throat as strong as iron, and you just t hrow back your head and drink the brandy up in one gulp in order to avoid police detection. Phrases and Expressions be at each other’s throats: to be fighting or arguing with each other clear one’s throat: to cough so that you can speak clearly have a frog in one’s throat: to lose your voice or be unable to speak clearly for a short time put on a brave face/put a brave face on sth.: to pretend that you feel confident and happy when you don‘t put a foot wrong: to make a mistake put a new/different complexion on sth.: to change the way that a situation appears put all your eggs in one basket: to rely on one particular course of action for success rather than giving yourself several different possibilities
Paragraph 7: They gave a window to it, with a white velvet backdrop, if there is anything called white velvet, an d some complimentary words. white velvet: it‘s hard to associate ―white velvet‖ with ―softness‖ ―smoothness‖ in an apartheid count ry; there is sth. symbolic of it here complimentary words: words expressing praise/admiration Paraphrase: They gave a whole window to the sculpture with a white curtain at the back and some words in praise of the work. The curtain (backdrop) was made of white velvet, if there is such a t hing as white velvet. Paragraph 8: …; but I would only squint at it out of the corner of my eye. see sth. out of the corner of your eye: see accidentally an eye for an eye be all eyes: to be watching carefully bat your eyes not bat an eye: to show no surprise or embarrassment feast one’s eyes sb’s eyes are bigger than their stomach: greedy have eyes in the back of your head: aware of everything in the eyes of the law/world: according to the law/world make eyes at sb./give sb. the eye not see eye to eye with sb on sth.: disagree with sb. with your eyes open: fully aware of the situation with your eyes shut/closed: do sth. easily the apple of sb.’s eye Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Paragraph 9: …, so I thought I‘d go and see the window, and indulge certain pleasurable human feelings. indulge: to engage in; to take part in, here means to enjoy indulge in sth./indulge oneself with: to allow oneself to have or to do sth. that he likes e.g. I indulged myself with a long hot bath. indulge sth: to satisfy desire, interest, etc. e.g. The inheritance enabled him to indulge his passion for art. indulge sb.: to be too generous in allowing sb. to have or to do whatever they like e.g. She did not believe in indulging the children with presents. Her father had always indulged her every whim.
… so I thought I‘d go and see the window, and indulge certain pleasurable human feelings. I must have got a little lost in the contemplation of my own genius… get lost: be engrossed/absorbed in contemplation: quiet, serious thinking about sth. Paraphrase: So I thought I‘d go and see the window, and enjoy secretly some pleasant feelings—fe elings of pride for example for one‘s genius. I must have become too absorbed in my thinking about my own genius… Paragraph 10: And you know, one doesn‘t get called ―mate‖ every day. you know: (spoken) you are aware, you see, used to show what you are referring to is known or u nderstood by the person you are speaking to. The phrase can be placed at the start, the middle, or t he end of the sentence. e.g. He has been through a lot, you know. Comment: In South Africa, a black man does not hear a white man call him ―mate‖. They are usua lly treated very rudely. But this white man was very friendly. Therefore he just couldn‘t bring himsel f to say no to his invitation. Paragraph 12-14: You know it‘s by one of your own boys, don‘t you? Paraphrase: Do you know that it is a work produced by a black man coming out of your group? She‘s loving that child, but she‘s somehow watching too. Here the present continuous tense is used to denote what the mother is doing—she is showing her l ove for the child and she is watching out for it, i.e. on guard against danger. This is how the youn g white man understood the mother‘s expression. Paragraph 16: Well honestly I didn‘t feel like a drink at that time of night, with a white stranger and all, and a t rain still to catch to Orlando. feel like: to want sth. or want to do sth.; have an inclination for e.g. I feel like being alone now. and all: in addition; including every thing or everybody mentioned e.g. She jumped into the river, clothes and all. and all: (spoken) as well; too e.g. ―Yeah, me and all.‖
Paraphrase: Well, to tell the truth, I didn‘t like the idea of having a drink at that time of night. It was getting late, and I had to catch a train to Orlando before I got into trouble with the police. Bes ides I would be drinking with a white stranger and would have to face all the possible consequences.
Paragraph 21: I couldn‘t have told him my name. Why did Simelane say he couldn‘t have told van Rensburg his name? Comment: It might be that Simelane had been acting as if he were admiring somebody else‘s work of art and therefore it would be embarrassing to reveal his true identity. He did not want the other person to know that he was indulging in admiring his own genius, esp. after hearing the compliment s of this stranger. On the other hand, it might also show that Simelane was a very humble person, or we could say that‘s a common characteristic of black people because of the segregation and discri mination. Paragraph 22: By this time he had started off, … start off: to begin to move; to begin a journey e.g. It‘s a long trip, we‘ll have to start off early and start back for home in the afternoon. We didn‘t exactly walk abreast, but he didn‘t exactly walk in front of me. walk abreast: to walk side by side
Q: Is there any symbolic meaning of the sentence? Would it be a problem for them to walk a breast? A: A black was not the equal of white so they would never walk side by side as equals. Paragraph 25-27: ―I wanted a bookshop, like that one there, I always wanted that, ever since I can remember. But I had bad luck. My parents died before I could finish school.‖ Q: Did wan Rensburg’s background have anything to do with his appreciation of the sculpture? I said unwillingly, ―Yes.‖ Then I thought to myself, how stupid, for leaving the question open. leave the question open: to answer the question in such a way as to lead to further questions Comment: Simelane thought it was stupid of him to leave the question open. If he had said ―no‖, t hat would have ended the subject. Now that he had said ―yes‖, this stranger would naturally want to know how far he had gone.
Paragraph 34: I was glad to see that the entrance lobby was deserted. I wasn’t at my ease. The lift was at groun d lever, marked Whites only. was deserted: with no one present wasn’t at my ease: not feeling natural and comfortable e.g. College students used to live at ease. C.f. ill at ease Paraphrase: I was glad to see that there was no one in the wide entrance passage. I was still a bit nervous since it was a place where I was not supposed to be. The lift stayed at the ground floor, with a sign on it, saying that only whites are allowed to come in. Paragraph 37 & 38:
On the other side were the doors, impersonal doors. impersonal doors: the doors looked unfriendly, one reason might be they looked all the same as this is a cheap apartment building impersonal: showing no emotions or feelings ―Sorry there‘s no brandy,‖ he said. ―Only wine. Here‘s happiness.‖ Comment: We can see that van Ransburg was a very sincere person and he wanted to treat his guest—‖I‖ — with the best thing he had. He has no bias or prejudice towards black people. Here’s happiness: Let‘s drink to your happiness. Van Rensburg was proposing a toast. Paragraph 39: I wasn‘t only feeling what you may be thinking, I was thinking that one of the imperso nal doors might open at any moment, and someone might see me in ―white‖ building, a nd see me and van Rensburg breaking the liquor laws of the country. Paraphrase: You might be thinking that it was an insult to have me drink in the passa ge instead of inviting me into their apartment, to sit down and drink properly. Yes, I w as feeling that way. But there was sth. else. I was also afraid that one of the cold, unfr iendly doors might open at any moment and someone might see me in this ―whites onl y‖ building, drinking with a white man and breaking the laws on drinking. Anger could have saved me from the whole embarrassing situation, but you know I ca n‘t easily be angry. Even if I could have been, I might have found it hard to be angry with this particular man. Paraphrase: I could have simply left there angrily and thus freed myself from the awk ward situation. But you know, I‘m not the kind of person who can easily get angry. Ev en if I could, I might have found it hard to be angry with this particular man. He see med so nice to me.
Paragraph 43: …but not for all the money in the world could I have said to her dankie, my nooi o r that disgusting dankie, misses, …, so I took the risk of it and used the word mevrou, for the politeness of which some Afrikaners would knock a black man down, and I sa id, in high Afrikaans, … not for all the money in the world: under no circumstances knock sb. down: to hit sb. and make them fall down high Afrikaans: Afrikaans spoken by educated white Afrikaners Comment: Apparently, both ―dankie, my nooi‖ and ―dankie, misses‖ were considered pr oper in this context for blacks. But as an educated person, Simelane would not talk like that. He had his dignity. Finally he took his chance and used an expression so polite i n Afrikaans that he could have been knocked down for forgetting his place as this kind of polite language was supposed to be reserved only for the white people. Paragraph 44: … and van Rensburg, in a strained voice that suddenly came out of nowhere, said, ―O ur land is beautiful. But it breaks my heart.‖ out of nowhere: happening or appearing suddenly and without warning our land: our country breaks my heart: make one extremely sad Paraphrase: Van Rensburg suddenly appeared and, in a worried voice, said, ―Our land is beautiful. But it breaks my heart.‖ Paragraph 51: And I thought the whole thing was mad, and getting beyond me, with me a black stra nger being shown a testimonial for the son of the house, … getting beyond me: to become too difficult for me to understand testimonial: sth. given in appreciation of a person's service or achievement; a tribute Q: Why did he say the whole thing was mad and getting beyond him? A: Van Rensburg was the son of the house, and the woman was praising him in front of a black man, and a stranger too. This obviously was very abnormal, and Simelane w as bewildered. Paragraph 51 & 52: …, as though they wanted for God’s sake to touch me somewhere and didn‘t know ho w… for God’s sake: usually it is used for giving force to an urgent request, but here it has another sense: since God had made us equal when he was producing human being, in
front of God, there is not any difference, not to mention apartheid, between the white a nd the black. Therefore, van Rensburg, as well as his family, wanted to follow God‘s i nstruction and establish certain relationship with Simelane. However, the only problem is they didn‘t know how to do it. He says only God could make sth. so beautiful, therefore God must be in the man who made it,… Comment: Edward SIimelane, a black man, is being compared and even expressed as G od when apartheid degraded black people into a sense that they were less than human, l et alone, God. Paragraph 59: ―I‘ll take you to the station,‖ he said. ―Don‘t you worry about that.‖ This is a negative imperative sentence. An advice or a warning can be made more force ful by putting ―you‖ in front of the verb. e.g. Don‘t you dare talk to me like that, Clare. I‘ve had enough. (warning) Don‘t you be upset, Jim. Better luck next time. (advice) The word ―station‖ and ―train‖ appeared several times in the text, do you think it has any symbolic meaning? Paragraph 63: All of us were full of goodwill, but I was waiting for the opening of one of those imp ersonal doors. Perhaps they were too, I don‘t know. Perhaps when you want so badly t o touch someone, you don‘t care. Paraphrase: All of us were full of warm and friendly feelings toward each other, but I was hoping that one of those doors would open and someone would come out and see me. Perhaps van Rensburg and the others were hoping the same thing, I am not quite sure. Perhaps when you want to reach out so eagerly, you don‘t care what might happe n. Paragraph 67: We drove up Eloff Street, and he said, ―Did you know what I meant?‖ I wanted to ans wer him, but I couldn‘t, because I didn‘t know what that something was. He couldn‘t b e talking about being frightened of Orlando at night, because what more could one mea n than just that? Paraphrase: We drove up Eloff Street, and he asked, ―Did you know what I meant?‖ He wanted to make sure that I understood him. Being a black, I knew very well that h e couldn‘t be talking about it being dangerous in Orlando at night. He was saying that
it was dangerous to break the Apartheid laws by showing up in Orlando at night. What else could he mean other than that? Paragraph 69: ―You know,‖ he said, ―about our land being beautiful?‖ The unfinished words are (van Rensburg was repeating his words previously mentioned): ―Our land is beautiful. But it breaks my heart.‖ van Rensburg wanted Simelane to kno w that he felt sorry about their country‘s Apartheid laws.Notice that throughout the conv ersation, van Rensburg was expressing his concern about the sad situation the country w as in, and he thought that the black man probably would not understand. The truth of c ourse was just the opposite. Paragraph 70: Yes, I knew what he meant, and I knew that for God‘s sake he wanted to touch me t oo and he couldn‘t; for his eyes had been blinded by years in the dark. And I thought it was a pity he was blind, for if men never touch each other, they‘ll hurt each other o ne day. touch me: it probably doesn‘t mean ―physically touch‖ but ―get close to in spirit‖ Paraphrase: Yes, I knew what he meant, and I knew, too, that he really wanted to get close to my heart. But he couldn‘t, for he had been influenced by racism for so long that he was now unable to see the truth and behave accordingly. And I thought it was a sad thing, because if you don‘t understand each other and don‘t care for each other, s ome day you will hurt each other. Racial prejudices are bound to lead to terrible sufferi ngs for both sides. And it was a pity he was blind, and couldn‘t touch me, for black men don‘t touch whi te men any more; only by accident, when they make something like Mother and Child. Paraphrase: And it was a pity he could not see the truth and couldn‘t open up comple tely to me and embrace me as his brother, for black people could only touch them by accident as in this case. They would not have had the chance to be moved by the scul pture Mother and Child if it had not been for the oversight. Comment: Though by an oversight, Simelane seemed to have bridged the gap a little, n ot with words, but simply with his sculpture, which portrayed the beautiful bond betwee n a mother and her child naturally existing in all people, white or black. Paragraph 72: … and my inarticulateness distressed me,… inarticulateness: being unable to express oneself clearly; being at a loss for words The fact that I could not clearly express what I was thinking made me upset.
―Thank you for the sociable evening.‖ sociable evening: an evening characterized by pleasant, informal conversation and compa nionship Paragraph 75: … but I was thinking he was like a man trying to run a race in iron shoes, and not u nderstanding why he cannot move. But I was thinking that he was much like a man trying to run but couldn‘t because he was still not completely free from racist prejudices which were dragging his feet like i ron shoes. And the sad thing was that he still did not know what was preventing their land, which otherwise was so beautiful, from becoming a country that would not break his heart. The wall was in his own heart. present participle, modifying ―a man‖ Paragraph 76: Why do you think his wife would weep? The original text has one more paragraph: ...... We didn't speak for a long time. Then I said, "Even the angels would weep." "Don't weep," he said, "write it." "Write it," he said eagerly. "Perhaps that way I could make amends." Then after a time he said to me, "Do you think we'll ever touch each other? Your people and mine? Or is it too late?" But I didn't give him any answer. For though I may hope, and though I may fear, I don't really know. Writing Devices Point of view Now observe the following sentences carefully. What is the focus of narration? Then one night I was working late at the Herald, and when I came out there was h ardly anyone in the streets, so I thought I‘d go and see the window, and indulge certai n pleasurable human feelings. I must have got a little lost in the contemplation of my o wn genius, because suddenly there was a young white man standing next to me. (Para. 9) (the first person point of view) What is point of view?
Point of view signifies the way a story gets told—the mode (or modes) established by an author by means of which the reader is presented with the characters, dialogue, actions, setting, and events which constitute the narrative in a work of fiction. This narrative mode limits the matter of the narrative to what the first-person narrat or knows, experiences, infers, or can find out by talking to other characters. We disting uish between the narrative ―I‖ who is only a fortuitous witness and auditor of the matte rs he relates (Marlow in Heart of Darkness); or who is a participant, but only a minor or peripheral one, in the story (Nick in F. Scott Fitzgerald‘s The Great Gatsby); or who is himself or herself the central character in the story (Charlotte Bronte‘s Jane Eyre). Flashback Now study the following paragraph. What is the function of it? He said to me. ―This is the second cognac I‘ve had in my life. Would you like to hear the story of how I had my first?‖ (para6) This paragraph serves to introduce a flashback.. Flashbacks are interpolated narratives or scenes (often justified, or naturalized, as a memory, a reverie, or a confession by one of the characters) which represent events that happened before the time at which the work opened. Arthur Miller‘s Death of a Sales man (1949) and Ingmar Bergman‘s film Wild Strawberries make persistent and skillful u se of this device. Figurative language Now study the following sentences and tell us what figurative speech is used in each a nd how it contributes to the expressive effect of the language. 1. It‘s also the first time I‘ve drunk a brandy so slowly. In Orlando you develop a thro at of iron. (Para.5) 2. He sat slumped in his seat, like a man with a burden of incomprehensible, insoluble grief. (Para. 75) 3. What he was thinking, God knows, but I was thinking he was like a man trying to run a race in iron shoes, and not understanding why he cannot move. (Para. 75) 1. metaphor 2. simile& alliteration 3. simile
Lesson Six Groundless Beliefs A. E. Mander
About the text The present text is taken from Logic for the Millions by A．E．Mander, published by The Philosophical Library，New York，1947． Part One Warm-up One thing we all do every day is express our views，state our beliefs or discuss our ideas．We say to one another：I think，I believe，I‘m convinced，I‘m sure，It goes w ithout saying，It‘s crystal clear，It‘s as simple as ABC，No doubt．．．，etc，every da y and often many times a day．We may not be professional thinkers. But we all do thi nking as a habit．We may not have reached the level of grade-one thinking．But we ca nnot avoid thinking，rightly or wrongly. However, Do we really know what we are doing though? Do we really know what it means when we say we are thinking? Do we really think for ourselves? Are our beliefs and ideas really well-grounded? Are we sure that all the beliefs we hold with intense conviction and accept without question are really true? What constitutes adequate grounds for beliefs? Do you know? Belief Do not accept anything on mere hearsay It is your inner judgment that you must obey Do not accept anything by mere tradition Think for your self and learn, even from your opposition Do not accept anything on account of mere rumors In this life, do not be a blind and mindless consumer Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures You have been given a mind, come to your own conclusions and conjectures Do not accept anything by mere suppositions Find the truth, the right, the definition Do not accept anything by merely considering the reasons It may have a false front and change with the seasons Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions This is a higher believe you are searching for, put aside your emotions Do not accept anything merely because it seems acceptable Be strong in your own verdict, do not be so susceptible Do not accept anything thinking that the ascetic is respected by us To come to believe in a religion, you must bring more into it than blind trust. Warming-up questions Choose one of these beliefs and talk about them in your familiar aspects. ? Buddhism Religion Beliefs History
? ? ? ? ?
Hinduism Beliefs Hindu Gods Confucianism Confucius Beliefs Christianity Jesus Christ Christian Catholicism Catholic Church Islam Muslim Religion Quran
Listening materials Trask: Mr. Simms, you are a cover-up artist and you are a liar. Frank: But not a snitch! Trask: Excuse me? Frank: No, I don't think I will. Trask: Mr. Slade. Frank: This is such a crock of shit! Trask: Please watch your language, Mr. Slade; you are in the Baird School, not a barracks. Mr. Simms, I'll give you one final opportunity to speak up. Frank: Mr. Simms doesn't want it. He doesn't need to be labeled ―still worthy of b eing a Baird man‖! What the hell is that? What is your motto here? Boys, inform on your classmates, save your hide, anything short of that, we're gonna burn you at the sta ke? Well, gentleman, when the shit hits the fan some guys run and some guys stay, her e's Charlie, facin' the fire and there's George hidin' in big daddy's pocket. And what are you doing? And you are gonna reward George, and destroy Charlie. Trask: Are you finished, Mr. Slade? Frank: No, I'm just gettin' warmed up! I don't know who went to this place, Willia m Howard Taft, William Jennings Bryant, William Tell, whoever, their spirit is dead, if they ever had one. It's gone. You're buildin' a rat ship here, a vessel for seagoin' snitc hes. And if you think you're preparin' these minnows for manhood, you better think aga in, because I say you're killin' the very spirit this institution proclaims it instills. What a sham! What kind of a show are you guys puttin' on here today? I mean, the only clas s in this act is sittin' next to me, I‗m here to tell you this boy‘s soul is intact, it‗s non -negotiable, you know how I know, someone here, and I‘m not gonna say who, offered to buy it, only Charlie here wasn‗t sellin‘. Trask: Sir, you're out of order. Frank: I'll show you out of order. You don't know what out of order is, Mr. Trask, I'd show you, but I'm too old, I'm too tired, I'm too fuckin' blind, if I were the man I was five years ago, I'd take a flame thrower to this place! Out of order? Who the hell do you think you're talkin' to? I've been around, you know? There was a time I could see, and I have seen, boys like these, younger than these, their arms torn out, their leg s ripped off, but there is nothin' like the sight of an amputated spirit. There is no prost hetic for that, you think you're merely sendin' this splendid foot solider back home to Oregen with his tail between his legs, but I say you're executin' his soul! And why? Be cause he is not a Baird man. Baird men, you hurt this boy, you're gonna be Baird bum s, the lot of you. And Harry, Jimmy, and Trent, wherever you are out there, fuck you t oo! Trask: Stand down, Mr. Slade!
Frank: I'm not finished. As I came in here, I heard those words: cradle of leadershi p. Well, when the bough breaks, the cradle will fall, and it has fallen here, it has fallen. Makers of men, creators of leaders, be careful what kind of leaders you're producin' he re. I don't know if Charlie's silence here today is right or wrong, I'm not a judge or ju ry, but I can tell you this: he won't sell anybody out to buy his future! And that my fr iends is called integrity, that's called courage. Now, that's the stuff leaders should be ma de of. Now I have come to crossroads in my life, I always knew what the right path was. Without exception, I knew, but I never took it, you know why, it was too damn h ard. Now here's Charlie, he's come to the crossroads, he has chosen a path. It's the righ t path, it's a path made of principle that leads to character. Let him continue on his jou rney. You hold this boy's future in your hands, committee, it's a valuable future, believe me. Don't destroy it, protect it. Embrace it. It's gonna make you proud one day, I pro mise you. How's that for cornball? Part Two Language Study allowance: an amount of money that is given to sb. regularly or for a particular purpos e e.g. an allowance of $100 a month make allowance(s) for 考虑到；估计到；体谅到 e.g. I am tired of making allowances for his lack of experiences. Making allowances for bad weather and for my own laziness, I think that the job will be finished before the end of the year. attribute: v. a.to relate to a particular cause or source; b.to regard as the work of a specified agent or creator:认为是…所为(所写/所做) e.g. David attributed his company's success to the unity of all the staff and their persev ering hard work. a symphony attributed to Mozart attribute: n. a quality or feature of sb./sth. e.g. Organizing ability is essential attribute for a good manager. Lightning bolts are an attribute of Zeus. belittle: to make sb. or sth. seem unimportant e.g. A poor but honest man is not to be belittled. The size of the office tower belittles the surrounding buildings. bungle: v. to do sth. badly or without skill; to fail at sth. n. sth. that is done badly and that causes problems e.g. He bungled the job. a bungled robbery
c.f. blunder: v. to make a stupid or careless mistake n. a stupid or careless mistake adj. blundering; impatient and impetuous 浮躁的 conceive: to form an idea, a plan, etc. in your mind; to imagine sth.; to become pregna nt with e.g. Ancient peoples conceived of the earth as flat. She is unable to conceive. …, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new Nation, conceived in Liberty, dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. (Gettysburg Address, Lincol n) dogma: n. a fixed belief or set of beliefs that people are expected to accept without qu estion 教义；教条 e.g. The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present. ---A braham Lincoln dogmatic: a. being certain that your beliefs are right and that others should accept them, without paying attention to evidence or other opinions 教条的；武断的；自以为是的 grudge: n. a feeling of anger or dislike towards sb. because of sth. bad they have done to you in the past 积怨；怨恨 syn: resentment bear (a) grudge (against): have no resentment against e.g. I bear him no grudge. He has a grudge against the society v. to think that sb. does not deserve to have sth. syn: begrudge e.g. I grudge having to pay so much tax. He grudges the time he spends idling around. adj. grudging: given or done unwillingly syn: reluctant headhunting: n. the practice of obtaining and preserving the heads of one‘s enemies 猎头 headhunt: v. to find sb. who is suitable for a senior job and persuade them to leave th eir present job 猎头 e.g. He was headhunted by a world 500 company.
improvident: a. not providing for the future; thriftless; incautious 不顾将来的；不节俭 的；鲁莽的 e.g. He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to "save for a rainy day." in the light of: after considering sth. 考虑到；鉴于 e.g. He rewrote the book in the light of further research. 他根据进一步的研究重写了那本书。 justify: to demonstrate or prove to be just, right, or valid 证明……正确；为……辩解/辩护；对……作出解释 e.g. It‘s hard to justify the gunman‘s killing 32 people in Monday's shootings at Virgini a Tech Uni. You don‘t need to justify yourself to me. n. justification: a good reason for sth. 正当理由 legitimate: for which there is a fair and acceptable reason; allowed and acceptable accor ding to the law e.g. legitimate consiceration/execuse/quesiton Is his business strictly legitimate? originate from/in sth. originate from/with sb. : have sb/sth as a cause of beginning or as the creator or auth or of (sth) e.g. All theories originate from / in practice and in turn serve practice. The optic theory originated with Einstein. originate a new style of dancing polygamy n.一夫多妻 rel. monogamy n. 一夫一妻 ant. polyandry n. 一妻多夫 Prohibition: The period (1920-1933) during which the 18th Amendment forbidding the manufact ure and sale of alcoholic beverages was in force in the United States. 禁酒时期: 美国第十八条修正案禁止生产和销售烈性酒实施的时期（1920-1933 年） sentiment: feeling or opinion, esp. that based on emotions; feelings of pity, romantic lo ve, sadness, etc. which may be too strong or not appropriate 情绪；伤感；哀伤 e.g. the spread of nationalist sentiments Anti-American sentiment is running high in some countries There is no room for sentiment in business.
sentimental: connected with emotions rather than reason; producing emotions such as pit y, romantic love or sadness, which may be too strong or not appropriate 情感的； 伤感 的 e.g. The ring wasn‘t worth very much but it had great sentimental value. Wording Building 1. root– verse: to turn converse adverse averse diverse inverse obverse reverse 2. root– cide: to kill infanticide fratricide insecticide matricide patricide suicide Part Three Text Appreciation I. Text Analysis Theme of the story: The article is meant to serve as a suggestive example of a curio us, inquiring mind at work. It encourages us to find out how we came by our beliefs a nd manage to be bold enough to test our beliefs. Structure of the text Part 1 (para.1) about: The author‘s proposition of the general practice of thinking. Part 2 (paras.2-21) about: The author‘s analysis of five non-rational factors in the deter mination of people‘s opinions. Part 3 (paras.22-25) about: The author‘s encouragement on clear, fresh and rational way s of thinking. Question 1: According to the author, what are the five sources for many of our ground less beliefs? 1. Result of early environment. 2. Parroting 3. Self-interest 4. Sentimental associations
相反的事物 不利的，敌对的 厌恶的，反对的 不同的，互异的，种种的 倒转的；反转的 正面的 颠倒的，相反的
杀婴 杀害兄弟姐妹者 杀虫剂 杀母者 杀父者 自杀
5. Fashion Question 2: Give examples of our most deeply-rooted and fundamental convictions that we happen to have been ―brought up‖ to them? 1. Money is dirty. 2. Man will struggle to conquer nature. 3. Many hands make light work. 4. We must save every penny to support our national reconstruction. 5. China is a large country with abundant natural resources. II. Detailed study of the Text Paragraph 1: In future we are going to follow the practice—until it becomes a habit—of classifying propositions according to their grounds. classify: to arrange or organize according to class or category ground: (usu. pl.) the foundation/underlying condition for an argument, a belief, or an a ction; a cause or good reason for sth. e.g. What were his grounds for wanting a divorce? Neither statement can be faulted on the grounds that it is inaccurate. (Lesson 3) groundless: a. not based on reason or evidence e.g. groundless optimism Our fears proved groundless. Probably we shall be astonished at the number of propositions met with in everyday li fe which we shall find it necessary to class as groundless. be astonished at: be very surprised at met with: encountered; experienced class as: classify as similar usage: see P117.5 to be astonished at; to be surprised at; to be alarmed at; to be amazed at; to be astou nded at to class as; to regard as; to describe as; to accept as; to view as; to conceive as; to rec ognize as Paraphrase: Probably we will be surprised at the number of ideas we meet in everyday life because there are too many of them, and we will find that these ideas have no gr ound or foundation at all and it is necessary for us to classify them as ―groundless‖. They rest upon mere tradition, or on sb‘s bare assertion unsupported by even a shado w of proof… rest upon: to be based on; depend/rely on bare assertion: strong statements without the support of proof a shadow of: the slightest trace of e.g. A shadow of a smile touched his mouth.
There is not a shadow of justification for your behavior. She knew beyond a shadow of doubt that he was lying. Paraphrase: They are only based on tradition, or merely on somebody‘s assertion, but a re not supported even by the least amount of proof. bare: a. naked; not covered with or protected by anything; empty; just efficient, mere… e.g. bare arm/feet/wall/necessities/facts the bare branches of winter trees The fridge was completely bare. Phrases: with your bare hands: without weapons or tools bare your soul: to tell your deepest and most private feelings bare your teeth: to show your teeth in a fierce and threatening way barefaced: a. showing that you do not care about offending sb. or about behaving badly e.g. a barefaced lie Paragraph 2: Perhaps it was way back in our early childhood… way back in: a long time ago e.g. I first met him way back in the 60s. Many of strongest convictions were established then. conviction: a strong opinion or belief established: formulated Paraphrase: Many of our strongest beliefs were formulated at that time conviction could also mean the judgment of a jury or judge that a person is guilty of a crime as charged e.g. He has six previous convictions for theft. Paragraph 3: But if the staunchest Roman Catholic and the staunchest Presbyterian had been exchange d when infants, and if they had been brought up with home and all other influences reversed, we can have little doubt what the result would have been. when infants: elliptical sentence: when they were infants with home and all other influences reversed: by exchanging all kinds of influence the y‘ve got from home or other sources
Paraphrase: But if they were exchanged when they were infants and brought up in diff erent homes and under different influences, then the staunchest Roman Catholic would b e the staunchest Presbyterian, and vice versa. Presbyterian（长老教信徒）: a member of the Presbyterian Church, a Protestant denomi nation Roman Catholic: a member of the Roman Catholic Church Divisions of Christianity Three major divisions of Christianity: Catholicism: the largest single Christian body, composed of those Christians who ackno wledge the supreme authority of the bishop of Rome, the pope, in matters of faith Orthodoxy: said to be created by the apostles（使徒）of Jesus in the region of the east ern Mediterranean, and which spread by missionary activity throughout Eastern Europe Protestantism: began as a movement to reform the Western Christian church in the 16t h century, resulting in the Protestant Reformation. It consists of the Lutheran （路德教派） (known in continental Europe as Evangelical), the Presbyterian (Reformed)（长老教，加 尔文教派）, the Anabaptist（再洗礼教派）, and the Anglican（英国圣公会） Martin Luther (1483-1546) German theologian and religious reformer, who initiated the Protestant Reformation, an d whose vast influence, extending beyond religion to politics, economics, education, and language, has made him one of the crucial figures in modern European history. John Calvin (1509-1564) French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, known today as Presbyterianism, in In stitutes of the Christian Religion (1536), and his ideas spread to other countries and s parked other major Protestant religions. It is consistent with all our knowledge of psychology to conclude that each would hav e grown up holding exactly the opposite beliefs to those he holds now…… be consistent with: be in agreement with conclude: to draw a conclusion; to arrive at a conclusion e.g. The results are entirely consistent with our earlier research. Paraphrase: We can conclude, based on all our knowledge of psychology, that each wo uld have grown up having exactly the opposite beliefs to what they have now. The same thing is true, of course, of many beliefs other than those of a religious natu re. be true of: can apply to e.g. The proverb " it is never too old to learn" is true of everyone.
other than: here means apart from; the traditional meaning is except e.g. I don‘t know any French people other than you. adopt: to take into one's family through legal means and raise as one's own child ; to start to use or to accept… e.g. to adopt a child adopt a different approach adopt a name/title/language Q: Here the author says that some of our convictions are strong because they have bee n in our mind for a long time, because they were imprinted on our mind when we wer e little children when we could not judge for ourselves, or because they were passed on to us during our most formative years and often by people we trusted and loved, do y ou agree with the author? Can you give some specific examples of this kind of convicti on(s)? Note: formative: having an important and lasting influence on the development of sth. or sb.‘s character e.g. the formative years of childhood formative education Paragraph 4: Of course we do not cease…to adopt new beliefs on mere suggestions… to take only t he most striking examples, the enormous influence of newspapers and the effectiveness of skilful advertising. cease to: stop to do e.g. You never cease to amaze me! striking: attractive; noticeable Paraphrase: Of course it does not mean that when we grow up we no longer have the se mistaken beliefs. We still do. We are still easy and often willing victims of newspap ers and advertising. Phrases and expressions: wonders will never cease: (spoken, usu. ironic) to express surprise and pleasure at sth. Much of what passes as such is not, strictly, thinking at all. It is the mere ―parroting‖ of ideas picked up by chance and adopted as our own without question. Most people, most of the time, are mere parrots. what passes as such: what people take as thinking pass as=pass for: be accepted as e.g. He speaks the language so well he could easily pass as/for German.
parrot: n. 鹦鹉; one who imitates the words or actions of another, especially without u nderstanding them v. to repeat what sb. else has said without thinking about what it means Paraphrase: Most people, most of the time, are mere parrots. They simply echo, or rep eat others‘ ideas without question. But as we leave childhood, we tend to accept only such new ideas as fit in with the i deas we already hold; … fit in with: to say the same thing or follow the same principle; to agree with Comment: If we tend to accept such new ideas as fit in with the ideas we already hol d, they are, strictly speaking, no longer new ideas. Therefore it is often the case that w hen we say we are thinking, we are really rearranging our deeply-rooted prejudices. Possible psychological reasons: force of inertia; fear of the unknown; fear of losing face; fear of loss of interest, etc. Can you give some examples? e.g. climb/jump on the bandwagon: (infml, disapproving) to join others in doing sth. t hat is becoming fashionable because you hope to become popular or successful yourself Paragraph 5: But we should fully face the fact that beliefs which are merely inherited from the past must have originated at a time when men knew much less than they know today. So th e fact that a belief is ―old‖ is no argument in its favour. in its favour: in its support Paraphrase: But we should admit that the beliefs passed on to us by our ancestors are based on the limited knowledge of the old time. Their beliefs must be lack of strong s upports since it is certain that we know much more than our ancestors did. Therefore, we should not adopt a belief just because it is old. Paragraph 6: We need especially to be on our guard when we come across propositions which seem to be ―obviously‖ true. be on our guard: to be very careful Paragraph 7: When we find ourselves entertaining an opinion about which there is a feeling that ev en to enquire into it would be absurd, unnecessary, undesirable or wicked---- we may know that opinion is a non-rational one. find ourselves entertaining: to realize that one is unconsciously doing sth
enquire into: to find out more information about; to investigate wicked: morally bad; evil; in Spoken English it can mean mischievous Paraphrase: When we find that we have the very feeling that our certain opinion is su re to be true and that we should not question its validity and that if we do so it would seem very ridiculous, needless, objectionable, or even evil of us, we should come to th e conclusion that this opinion is not a rational one since a rational opinion is one that i s open to question and challenge. entertain: to extend hospitality toward; to interest and amuse sb. in order to please the m; here (formal.) to consider or contemplate e.g. to entertain a doubt/suspicion 持怀疑态度 entertain an idea 考虑一个主意 entertain few illusions 几乎不抱幻想 Paragraph 8: …, we should remember that the whole history of the development of human thought h as been full of cases of such ―obvious truths‖ breaking down when examined in the li ght of increasing knowledge and reason. break down: to cease to be useful; to fail to function; to stop being acceptable in the light of: in consideration of; as a result of Examples of such cases: We used to regard the following as obvious truth: that the sun moves round the ea rth; the earth is flat; the air is weightless; there is always a king; men are always stron ger than women; etc. Paragraph 9: The age-long struggle of the greatest intellects in the world to shake off that assumptio n is one of the marvels of history. intellect: person of great intellectual ability shake off: get rid of Paraphrase: It took many scientists of greatest learning hundreds of years to struggle a gainst the assumption that the planets moved in circles. The success of getting rid of th at assumption is one of the miracles in human history.
Brief History of Astronomy
BABYLONIAN ASTRONOMY Interesting constellation maps and useful calendars were developed by several ancien t peoples, notably the Egyptians, the Maya, and the Chinaese, but the Babylonians acco mplished even greater achievements. The Babylonian civilization thrived from the 18th to the 6th century bc in what is now Iraq.
GREEK ASTRONOMY Eudoxus created the first model of a geocentric universe around 380 B.C. After Aristotle developed a more intricate geocentric model (which was later refined by Ptolemy), general cosmology clung to these misconstrued ideas for the next 2,000 y ears. The Ptolemaic Theory Ptolemy Almagest (about a.d. 150) MEDIEVAL ASTRONOMY The German philosopher and mathematician Nicholas of Cusa and the Italian artist a nd scientist Leonardo da Vinci questioned the basic assumptions of the centrality and im mobility of Earth. The Copernican Theory Copernicus (1473—1543) On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies (1543) The history of astronomy took a dramatic turn in the 16th century as a result of th e contributions of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. Little attention was paid to the Copernican, or heliocentric, system until Italian astronom er Galileo discovered evidence to support it. The struggle between the Roman Catholic Church and 17th-century Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo has become symbolic of the clash between authority and i ntellectual freedom. Galileo refused to obey orders from Rome to cease discussions of his theories and was sentenced to life imprisonment. It was not until 1992 that a papal commission acknowledged that the church was wrong. Galileo (1564-1642) In 1633, the Inquisition found Galileo guilty, forced him to recant (publicly withdraw hi s statement), and sentenced him to life imprisonment. Because of Galileo's advanced age and poor health, the church allowed him to serve his imprisonment under house arrest in a villa outside Florence. There, he passed the remainder of his years in relative isolation, eventually becoming blind. But he managed to complete his second scientific masterpiece, the Discourse on Two New Sciences. He died on Jan. 8, 1642. In 1979, Pope John P aul II declared that the Roman Catholic Church may have been mistaken in condemni ng Galileo. He instructed a church commission to study Galileo's case. In 1983, the co mmission concluded that Galileo should not have been condemned. In 1984, at the com mission's recommendation, the church published all documents related to Galileo's trial. I n 1992, Pope John Paul II publicly endorsed the commission's finding that the church had made a mistake in condemning Galileo. suggested reading: Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992 ---Maurice A. Finocchiaro
Paragraph 10: Many modern persons find it very difficult to credit the fact that men can ever have s upposed otherwise. Yet—they did. credit the fact: believe the fact otherwise: differently Paraphrase: Many modern people are hard to believe that for some time men had ever thought they were thinking with their hearts. Yet it is true that the ancient people reall y thought in that way. Paragraph 12: An assumed or dogmatic proposition which had been universally accepted as ―obvious‖; and which, when challenged, was supported by reference to a dogma of Aristotle. Until Galileo actually demonstrated the contrary, nothing could have seemed more beyond p ossibility or doubt. demonstrate the contrary: to prove that the contrary is true by means of a demonstrati on beyond possibility or doubt: be impossible or unquestionable Paraphrase: It was a proposition that had been universally accepted as an obvious truth. Whenever it was challenged, it would be proved true with the strong support of Aristo tle‘s theory, one of the most firmly held dogmas. It would never be questioned or doub ted if there was no Galileo who proved that the contrary was true by means of a demo nstration. Paragraph 13: Progress in human thought seems to consist mainly in getting rid of such ideas.
consist of: to be made of or composed of consist in: to have a basis in; to lie in; to be found in e.g. Happiness consists in appreciating what you have. True education does not consist in simply being taught facts. The committee consists of ten members. Their diet consisted largely of vegetables. Para 14: Self-interest (and modern psychology) a general rule: the person concerned is about the last person in the world to be able to recognize this in himself Para 15: Explanation of ―self-interest‖ in its general sense. Para 16: Explanation of ―self-interest‖ in its broad sense: our attitude toward our opinio n Para 17: a similar case: desire to justify (finding excuses)
leave no room for doubt: to make it impossible for people to doubt cling to: to be unwilling to get rid of sth., or stop doing sth. e.g. Throughout the trial she had clung to the belief that he was innocent. He had one last hope to cling on to. pay sb to do sth: to bring benefit or advantage to sb to do sth e.g. It pays to tell people the truth. It pays to forgive others. It doesn‘t pay to work too hard at the expense of your health. is about the last person to do sth: is the least possible person to do sth attribute…to…: result as resulting from to extend the term: to extend the meaning of the word; to understand the word in a b roader sense. to be somebody in some circle: to be and important person in a certain group of peop le who know each other sour grapes e.g. He said he didn‘t want the job anyway, but that‘s just sour grapes. Para 18: Sentimental association (definition) One‘s thought is associated with memories of particular persons who held similar opinions, (illustration) e.g. a man who was hostile to his father in childhood, ot her examples Para 19: Its influence on people‘s thought recollection: memory; a thing that you remember from the past e.g. have a vivid/vague recollection of sth. I have no recollection of meeting her before. To the best of my recollection I was not present at that meeting. recollect: v. to remember sth., esp. by making an effort to remember it e.g. I don‘t recollect what she said then. antagonism: hostility; dislike; resentment keen satisfaction: strong satisfaction keen: eager; enthusiastic about; e.g. He is very keen to help. She is one of the keenest supporters of that team.
keen is also often used before noun, it could mean quick to understand, strong or deep, or very sensitive or sharp e.g. a keen mind/intellect keen interest/satisfaction keen sense of smell My friend has a keen eye for a bargain. dispose sb to do sth: to make sb more likely to fell or think a particular way about st h dispose of sb./sth.: to get red of; to deal with (P178) Para 20: Fashion (illustration) Para 21: Its influence on people‘s thought (sooner or later our thought become fixed) Para 22: We tend to have fixed thinking habit (thought pattern) Para 23: Illustration: people with fixed thoughts are quite common in everyday life. Para 24: How it functions to our thought and changes us to Old Fogeys. Para 25: Purpose of this essay: be inquisitive, critical, rational… well worn: old because it has been used for a long time brain-centre (BrE) = nerve centre (AmE) 神经中枢 connect up: join two or more things together e.g. connect up these computers stock anecdotes: stories about your personal experiences that you keep telling people w henever you can think of nothing else to tell e.g. ―No comment‖ is entertainers‘ stock response. (P179) go to the dogs: to get into a very bad state e.g. This firm has gone to the dogs since the new management took over.
Phrases and expressions:
every dog has his/its day raining cats and dogs sick as a dog let sleeping dogs lie: to avoid mentioning a subject or sth. that happened in the past in order to avoid any problems or arguments straight can mean honestly and directly e.g. I told him straight that I didn‘t like him. Are you playing straight with me?
Lesson Seven Spring Sowing Liam O’Flaherty
About the author Liam O'Flaherty is one of the most significant and important modern Anglo-Irish authors. His no vels have not been met with much critical analysis over the last forty years because he stopped publ ishing work in 1956. Both his novels and his short stories define Anglo-Irish literature in that his th emes stem from his experiences growing up in a poverty-stricken society on the island of Aran; his naturalistic, mystical, romantic, and realistic styles were also defined by his experiences in his native Ireland. Liam O‘Flaherty was born in Ireland in 1896. He wrote in English and Irish. His main works in clude the novels: Thy Neighbour’s Wife The Black Soul The Informer The Assassin Shame the Devil Famine Do You Know? Liam O'Flaherty is an often overlooked, though quite prolific, Irish writer. His writings are hard to quantify. He vacillates from the romantic to the realistic to the naturalistic to the mystical. O'Flahert y never really found his place in society, which may have actually helped his writings. His abandon ment led to imaginative insights. His rebellious nature led to a passion for his writings. The mythical history of Ireland and his impoverished upbringing affected O'Flaherty for the remainder of his life. The unique author Liam O'Flaherty died in Dublin on 7 September 1984. Pre-class work 1. Have you ever sowed before? Describe it in your own words. 2. Do you know how spring sowing is done in our country? 3. What‘s your opinion of being a farmer? After-class work: Please give a simple character sketch of the couple. Word Building compound: ivy-covered snow-covered
n.+ past participle 被雪覆盖的
wind-blown flood-stricken weather-beaten hen-pecked dog-tired student-centered
被风吹的 受灾的 因风吹日晒粗糙的，受损的 怕老婆的，惧内的 极度疲乏的，累极了 以学生为中心的
Suffix:--en whiten v. -en: to make or become darken 变黑暗 fasten 装牢；系紧 heighten 增高；增强 lengthen 使变长 moisten 使湿润 sharpen （使）锐利；（使）敏锐 strengthen 加强；（使）坚固 weaken 使弱；使稀薄 worsen （使）恶化；（使）变坏 woolen adj. -en: made of; looking like brazen 黄铜制的；坚硬的 earthen 土制的；地球上的 golden 金制的；金色的 leaden 铅制的；沉闷的 wooden 木制的；呆笨的 About the story: ―Spring Sowing‖ is taken from the author‘s first collection of short stories which bears the same title published in 1924. The story describes the first day of the first spring planting of a newly-wed ded couple against the background of a traditional agricultural country. Theme The simple life, honest nature and good wishes of the newly-married couple are presented throug h the descriptions of their spring planting in minute detail. It reveals the traditional virtues of a typi cal farmer: hard work, simple living, discipline, and above all, strong sense of responsibility for the happiness of his wife and family. Text Structure Part 1 (Paras. 1—8): The young couple‘s preparations for the first day of their first spring sowing Part 2 (Paras. 9—23): A detailed description of the spring sowing. Part 3 (Paras. 24—26): The young couple‘s yearnings for the future.
Detailed Discussion of the Text Para 1 rake out …: remove ashes from ( a fire, kiln, etc) live coals live: still burning or glowing; not extinct e.g. live spark; a live volcano other: a live TV program; a live performance; a live bomb hearth: the area around a fire place or the area of floor in front of it streak: a streak is a long thin mark, line or band of a different substance or color. Here in the text, it refers to the ray of early sunlight which was white against the dark sky. e.g. There are streaks of gray appearing in her black hair. streak (v.): 1) to cover with lines e.g. The woman finished her moving story, our faces were streaked with tears. 2) to move very fast e.g. The cat streaked across the road with the dog behind it. (idm.) 1) like a streak of lightning: very quickly 2) a winning/losing streak: refers to the repeated success/failure during a time of good or b ad luck as it were: seemingly; in a way; so to speak ( used to comment on the speaker‘s own choice of w ords, which may give only an approximate meaning) e.g. She seemed very relaxed--- in her natural setting as it were. Para 2 hateful: unpleasant; detestable freckled: covered with small light-brown spots on the human skin fair: light in color; blond. Westerners hold the notion that light coloring is desirable. Her black hair piled at the rear of her head with a large comb gleaming in the middle of the p ile, Spanish fashion. P: Her black hair is piled into a mass at the back of her head with a comb shining in the middl e (of the pile), in the way Spanish do. Para 3 They ate in silence, sleepy and yet on fire with excitement, for it was the first day of their spr ing sowing as man and wife.
P: They had their breakfast, keeping silent, although still not fully awake, the young couple was alre ady greatly excited, because that day was the first day of their first planting after they got married. on fire: burning; (fig.) burning with emotion, passion or sensation; greatly excited; full of ardor; ver y enthusiastic, excited, or passionate e.g. He was on fire with excitement at this marvelous sight. man and wife: husband and wife glamour: the attractive and exciting quality of sth. 魅力 e.g. glamour model open up: (cause sth to) be available for development, production, etc e.g. open up undeveloped land, new territory, etc But somehow the imminence of an event that had been long expected, loved, feared and prepare d for made them dejected. P: The couple had been looking forward to and preparing for this spring planting for a long time. B ut now that the day had finally arrived, strangely, they felt somehow a bit sad. the imminence of an event: the fact that sth (usu. unpleasant) is now about to take place. ―Event‖ here refers to the spring planting dejected: irritated; in low spirits; depressed; sad Para 4 Martin fell over a basket in the half-darkness of the barn, he swore and said that a man would be better off dead than… P: In the barn, it was still very dark as it was very early in the morning. So Martin tripped over a basket. He cursed and said that it would be better for him to die than ( to have to get up at such an early hour and begin the day‘s toil--- probably for the rest of his life). be better off (doing sth): be wiser ( to do sth specified ); in a more favorable position or financial circumstances This phrase is the comparative form of ― well off‖. e.g. He'd be better off going to the police about it. They would be better off flying than driving there. be cross ( with sb) (about sth): be rather angry or irritated; annoyed; ill-tempered e.g. She was cross with him for his being late. And somehow, as they embraced, all their irritation and sleepiness left them. And they stood there e mbracing until at last Martin pushed her from him with pretended roughness and said: ―Come, come, girl, it will be sunset before we begin at this rate.‖ P: However, all of the unhappiness and drowsiness melt away with their hug. They remained in each ot her‘s arms until finally Martin pushed her away, with pretended roughness, to show that he was now
the bread-winner of the family and had serious work to do and therefore must stop this sentimental nonsense, otherwise they would not be able to get anything done in the whole day. at this rate: at this speed Para 5 Still, as they walked silently in their rawhide shoes through the little hamlet, there was not a so ul about. P: When they walked silently through the small village, they saw not a single person around then b ecause they were earlier than everybody else. hamlet: a small village soul: here it means a person, not the spiritual part e.g. I‘ve never seen a more honest soul than Tom. She promised not to tell another living soul about this. And they both looked back at the little cluster of cabins that was the center of their world, wit h throbbing hearts. For the joy of spring had now taken complete hold of them. P: Both of them looked back towards their small village, which was the most important place for th em because they and their forefathers before them were born and raised here. Their hearts were quivering with excitement at that moment, for the coming of spring had already filled their hearts with pleasure. a cluster of: number of people, animals or things grouped closely together a cluster of cabins: a group of wooden houses very close together e.g. cluster of houses, spectators, bees, islands , etc throbbing: beating rapidly or violently to take complete hold of: to gain complete control or influence over sb; to have great power over sb; to hold tightly e.g. She felt a strange excitement taking hold of her. manure: v. here means to fertilize rot: to decay, naturally and gradually e.g. rotting leaves/fruit heap (of sth.): an untidy pile of sth. 一堆 e.g. The building was reduced to a heap of rubble. spit it out [俚]请说吧! 毫无保留地讲, 大声说
Para 9 peg: n. a small piece of wood or metal that is used for fastening sth. or to hang sth. on 钉, 栓, 桩; a piece of wood or plastic used for attaching clothes 衣夹 (=clothes peg=clothespin)
v. to fasten or plug with a peg or pegs; here in the text just means to fasten Phrases: off the peg (BrE)=off the rack (AmE) clothes that are made in large numbers and sent to shops, not made specially for a particular person 成品的；现成的 e.g. He buys his clothes off the peg. row: a row of things or people is a number of them arranged in a line when you row a boat, you sit in a boat and make it move through the water by using oars Phrase in a row: sth. happen several times or repeatedly e.g. They have won the championships in a row. advance: v. to move forward to the head: to the front commence: to begin; to start Para 10 in the name of (God): used to add force to determination palm: the inner surface of the hand that extends from the wrist to the base of the fingers; any of v arious chiefly tropical evergreen trees five fingers‘ names: thumb; index finger, forefinger; middle finger; ring finger; little finger Phrases: butterfingers: a person who often drops things green fingers: if you have green fingers, you are good at making plants grow be all thumbs: very awkward thumbs up/down: show acceptance/rejection a rule of thumb: a practical method of doing sth. stand/stick out like a sore thumb: to be very noticeable in an unpleasant way twiddle you thumbs: to move your thumbs around each other with your fingers joined because of b oredom; to do nothing while you are waiting for sth. to happen thumb your nose at sb./sth.: to make a rude sign with your thumb on your nose; to show that you have no respect for sth.. Para 12 Suppose anybody saw us like this in the field of our spring sowing, what would they take us f or but a pair of useless, soft, empty-headed people that would be sure to die of hunger.
P: If people should see us like this (with your arm round my waist), what would they think of us? They were sure to take us for a pair of good-for-nothings, people who are unable to endure hard ship and foolish and, therefore, were sure to die of hunger. take for: regard as e.g. I think they took me for Japanese. soft: here means weak in character, not able to endure hardship and tend to live comfortable and ea sy life empty-headed: stupid; silly and ignorant His eyes had a wild, eager light in them as if some primeval impulse were burning within his brain and driving out every other desire but that of asserting his manhood and of subjugating the earth. P: His eyes shone and his only desire now was to prove what a strong man he was and how he co uld conquer the land. but: except; with the exception of; save e.g. The problem is anything but easy. to assert one’s manhood: to state strongly or behave in such a way as to show that you are alre ady a full-grown man, an adult, a man capable of supporting his family and able to handle all diffic ulties in life Para 13 (Note the obvious contrast) draw back: withdraw; retreat e.g. I guess I looked terrible, because my mother drew back when she saw my face. gaze distantly at the ground: to look at the ground as if she were far removed from the present si tuation Q: What information can we get from the description here about Martin and Mary? Obviously they don’t think alike, why? turn up: to dig up basic meanings: e.g. Turn up the radio a little bit. I can‘t hear. I don‘t know why she didn‘t turn up at the meeting the other day. sod: a section of grass-covered surface soil held together with matted roots crunch: to make a crackling sound as if you are chewing sth noisily Q: Why did Mary sigh? Why did she walk back hurriedly with furrowed brows?
Mary sighed probably because she was reluctant to dismiss her romantic feelings at that moment. Sh e sighed because she knew she would have to go back to work. furrowed brows: wrinkled eyebrows; deep frowns to drive out the sudden terror that had seized her at that moment when she saw the fierce, har d look in her husband‘s eyes that were unconscious of her presence. P: (… she began to work hard) in order to get rid of the terror that suddenly took control of her when she saw that her husband had suddenly changed from the loving husband she knew into a fierce-looking farmer who did not seem to be aware that his bride was with him. She became suddenly afraid of that pitiless, cruel earth, the peasant‘s slave master, that would keep her chained to hard work and poverty all her life until she would sink again into it boso m. P: She became afraid of the earth because it was going to force her to work like a slave and forc e her to struggle against poverty all her life until she died and was buried in it. pitiless: without pity; unfeeling; cruel; merciless to be chained to: to be bound to; to have your freedom restrained because of a responsibility you c annot escape e.g. Women nowadays refuse to be chained to the kitchen sink. to sink again into its bosom: to die and be buried in the earth; to return to the earth bosom: a woman‘s chest or breasts; a situation in which you are with people who love and protect you e.g. to live in the bosom of your family bosom friend: very close friend e.g. A bosom friend afar brings a distant land near. 海内存知己，天涯若比邻。 see P216.5.1 C.f. breast: man or woman‘s chest; the front part of a bird‘s body e.g. breast feathers chest: the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen Her short-lived love was gone. Henceforth she was only her husband‘s helper to till the earth. P: The love they had for each other did not last long. Their romance was now replaced by their ne cessity to face the hard work. From then on, she was merely her husband‘s helper and had to work side by side with him.
Q: Do you think the same thing would also happen to most young couples, i.e. their passion or love would be gradually be replaced by the necessity to do sth. or the reality? short-lived: lasting only for a short time henceforth: from this time on; from now on to till the earth: to prepare land for raising crops a by plowing and fertilizing; to cultivate And Martin, absolutely without thought, worked furiously… P: Martin on the other hand had no time to waste on idle thoughts. He just concentrated on his wo rk and worked with great energy. furiously: with great energy; fiercely whirl: to move around quickly in a circle or in a particular direction 挥动；转动 A sharp contrast is made in this paragraph between Martin and Mary, and this is also the tra ditional contrast between husband and wife, please make a comment on this. e.g. man: realistic; rational… woman: romantic; sensational … Para 14 to be dotted with: to have people or things spread here and there over a wide area There was a sharpness in the still thin air that made the men jump on their spade halts ferocio usly and beat the sods as if they were living enemies. P: The chilly and biting air of early spring made the peasants work fiercely with their spades, beati ng the sods a if they were enemies. halt: the top part of the spade which you press with your foot ferociously: furiously; fiercely to cock sideways: to tilt or turn (said of the head or ear) to one side e.g. He paused and cocked his head as if listening. dash: to walk or do thins suddenly or quickly to secure: to get hold or possession o; to obtain after a lot of effort; to acquire e.g. With a tremendous effort, she managed to secure a ticket for me. Para 16 draught (AmE draft): one continuous action of swallowing liquid; the amount swallowed 一饮（的 量） e.g. He took a deep draught of his beer. other meaning: e.g. a draught of air
mug: n. a tall drinking cup , usu. with straight sides and a handle; (slang) a person‘s face; (infml.) a stupid or foolish person v. to threaten or assault (a person) with the intent to rob; to make exaggerated facial expressio ns e.g. a beer/milk/coffee mug C.f. glass; cup; bowl; tumbler I never want to see his ugly mug again. She had been mugged in the street in broad daylight. Para 17 ―Yes, isn‘t it lovely,‖ said Mary, looking at the black ridges wistfully. wistfully: showing or expressing melancholy yearnings wistful: pensively sad; melancholy 忧郁的；伤感的 What do you think was on Mary’s mind at that moment? Comment: She was sad that this was going to be her life from now on, toiling and sweating over t he land until the day she died. But on the other hand what they had done that day also make her p roud and hopeful. munch: v. to eat steadily and often noisily 大声咀嚼；用力咀嚼 The hurried trip to the village and the trouble of getting the tea ready had robbed her of her a ppetite. P: She was so tired after running back home, getting the tea prepared and coming back that she lo st her appetite. to rob sb of sth: to deprive sb of sth belonging to that person by an unjust procedure e.g. The accident robbed him of his health. to blow at the fire: to sent out a current of air to the fire turf: peat; a soft brown substance like earth that is used for burning instead of coal, especially in Ir eland 泥炭 Compare rim: usu. applies to the verge or edge of sth. circular or curving edge: a sharply defined terminating line made by the converging of two surfaces (as of a bla de, a dish, a plank, or a box), it often implies sharpness and therefore power to cut 两平面 相接处 brim: applies to the inner side of the rim of a hollow vessel or to the topmost line of the b asin of a river, lake, or other body of water (杯, 碗等)边, 边缘 border: refers either to the boundary line or to the area that is immediately inside the bound ary 边界, 国界 verge: applies to the line or to a very narrow space which sharply makes the limit or termin ation of a thing
margin: a border of definite width usu. distinguished in some way from the remaining surfac e; the space immediately contiguous to a body of water 页边的空白, (湖、池等的)边缘 brink: the edge of sth. steep (峭岸、崖的)边缘
e.g. the rim of the glass/cup The rims of her eyes were red with crying. He stood on the edge of the cliff. a big house on the edge of town Don‘t put that glass so near the edge of the table. I sat down at the water‘s edge. They had brought the country to the edge of disaster. two wine glasses,. filled to the brim a national park on the border between Kenya and Tanzania It‘s difficult to define the border between love and friendship. the margin of a page/lake/river people living on the margins of society on the brink of collapse/war/death/disaster the brink of the precipice/cliff Phrases border on sth.=verge on sth.: to come very close to being sth., esp. a strong or unpleasant emotion or quality; to be next to e.g. She felt an anxiety bordering on hysteria. areas bordering on the Black Sea on the verge of sth./doing sth.: very near to the moment when sb. does sth. or sth. happens e.g. He was on the verge of tears. These events left her on the verge of having a nervous breakdown. teeter on the brink/edge of sth.: to be very close to a very unpleasant or dangerous situation e.g. The country is teetering on the brink of civil war. a strange joy swept over her: she was suddenly seized by a strange feeling of happiness sweep: here means to suddenly affect sb. strongly e.g. A wave of tiredness swept over her. Memories came sweeping back. phrases: sweep the board: to win all the prizes in a competition It overpowered that other feeling of dread that had been with her during the morning. P: The feeling of joy drove away the feeling of terror that she had had in the morning. overpower: to overcome by superior force e.g. I was so overpowered by my guilt and my shame that I was unable to speak.
Her beauty overpowered him. overpowering: adj. very strong or powerful e.g. an overpowering smell of fish an overpowering personality The heat was overpowering. dread: n. a feeling of great fear about sth. e.g. The prospect of growing old fills me with dread. My greatest dread is that my parents will find out. She has an irrational dread of hospitals. v. to fear that sth. bad is about to happen e.g. This was the moment he had been dreading. I dread being sick. They dread to think what would happen if there really was a riot. Para 18 Martin ate heartily, revelling in his great thirst and his great hunger, with every pore of his bo dy open to the pure air. Comment: The heavy work made Martin thirsty and hungry and made him enjoy his lunch and tea more. heartily: with enthusiasm and enjoyment, here means with a good appetite to revel in: to take much pleasure in; to delight in Shyly and in silence, not knowing what to say and ashamed of their gentle feelings, … Comment: Farmers are often described as men of few words. They are usually shy or bashful, not very demonstrative. And they often feel ashamed of their gentle feelings because a farmer‘s life is to ugh, and a good farmer is not supposed to be soft and sentimental. chase: v. to run, drive, etc. after sb./sth. in order to catch/get; to try to obtain; here in the text mea ns to rush or hurry somewhere e.g. a dog is chasing a rabbit Too many people are chasing too few jobs nowadays. David‘s been chasing after Jenny for months. Para 20 sore: a. painful, esp. of one‘s body being red because of infection or because a muscle has been us ed too much e.g. to have a sore throat/stomach a sore point: a subject that makes you feel angry or upset like a bear with a sore head: (infml) bad-tempered
stand/stick out like a sore thumb Para 22 wearily: tiredly, exhaustedly Then she thought of the journey home and the trouble of feeding the pigs, putting the fowls in to their coops and getting the supper ready, and a momentary flash of rebellion against the slav ery of being a peasant‘s wife crossed her mind. It passed in a moment. P: When she thought of all the drudgery waiting for her at home, suddenly she wanted to break th e chains on her as a peasant‘s wife, but it only lasted a very short time. She immediately dismi ssed the idea. fowl: n. (pl. fowl or fowls) a bird that is kept for its meat and eggs, for example a chicken syn. poultry coop: a shed for chicken C.f. co-op: n. a cooperative shop momentary: lasting for only a moment; passing; transitory e.g. momentary confusion a momentary lapse of concentration a flash of sth: a sudden, brief and intense display of sth e.g. a flash of anger/inspiration a flash of white teeth cross one’s mind: ( also: pass through one’s mind) suddenly occur to sb. e.g. It never crossed my mind that they would turn the proposal down. It passed through her mind that he might have got lost. Para 24 overcome: v. here means to be extremely strongly affected by sth. e.g. Her parents were overcome with grief at the funeral. The dead woman had been overcome by smoke. Para 26 Cows were lowing at a distance. to low: to make the characteristic moo sound of a cow Conclusion: The story here does not have much of a plot. But the author has seized a very dramatic mom ent in the young couple‘s life and has shown their life and dreams through his descriptions of their spring planting in minute detail. It is this quality that the power of this story mainly lies. Further Questions on Appreciation
1. What values and moral principles have been idealized here? Is it still the same today? Do you ag ree that the traditional work ethic is out of date? Are such qualities as hard work, diligence, thrift, responsibility, discipline, simple and honest living, rugged individualism and self-reliance, etc. still valued? 2. Let‘s pretend that you are Martin Delaney or Mary living in the 21st century. What kind of a pe rson would you like to have as your wife or husband? What qualities would you like to find in y our spouse? Writing Device Onomatopoeia（拟声法）: the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning Some onomatopoetic words are ―hiss‖, ―buzz‖, ―whirr‖, ―sizzle‖, ―crack‖. However, onomatopoeia in t he hands of a poet or a writer becomes a much more subtle device than simply the use of such wo rds. Examples: Outside, cocks were crowing and a white streak was rising from the ground. (Para. 1) … he turned up the first sod with a crunching sound as the grass roots were dragged out of the ea rth. (Para. 13) She was just munching her bread and butter. (Para. 17) The rasping noise carried a long way in the silence. (Para. 19) Cows were lowing at a distance. (Para. 26) A notable example appears in The Princess by Tennyson: The moan of doves in immemorial elms, And murmuring of innumerable bees. … I have ever heard—the ripple of the river, the soughing of the trees swayed by the wind, the m urmurs of the crowds, the faint ring of incomprehensible words cried from afar, the whisper of a v oice speaking from beyond the threshold of an eternal darkness. Quotes (On Love) For life, with all it yields of joy and woe, And hope and fear (believe the aged friend), Is just our chance o' the prize of learning love—How love might be, hath been indeed, and is. ~ Robert Browning Neither a lofty degree of intelligence nor imagination nor both together go to the making of genius. Love, love, love, that is the soul of genius. ~ Wol fgang Amadeus Mozart
Love is a smoke made with the fume of sighs. Being purged（净化）, a fire sparkling in lovers‗ ey es. Being vexed （使痛苦）, a sea nourished with lovers‘ tears. What is it else? A madness most di screet, a choking gall （恼怒，痛苦）and a preserving sweet. ~ William Shakespeare
Lesson Eight Globalization’s Dual Power by Robert J. Samuelson
Part One Warm-up 1. What is globalization? 2. What is its positive roles? 3. What is its negative roles? 4. Why people around the world would hold mass protest against globalization? 新闻链接：德国反全球化示威发生冲突百余名警察受伤 G8 (Group of Eight) Summit 1. More and more people now believe that the world is becoming more and more integrated. Actual ly, the world is becoming a small global village. Globalization is not just an irresistible trend; instea d, it is already a fact. In its broadest sense, globalization started a long time ago. One could trace it to the early caravans（商队） across the Sahara Desert and along the Silk Road, the trade around t he Mediterranean or across the Atlantic after Columbus discovered America. The process reached its first peak around the end of the 19th century, and although it was tempor arily suspended by widespread protectionism which led to the two world wars in the first half of the 20th century, the tide returned in the latter half with more peaceful international relations supported by the United Nations, GATT (today the WTO). The pace of international economic integration acc elerated in the 1980s and 1990s, esp. after the cold war ended. Many political barriers that hindered international trade were reduced or removed, and great technological development facilitated easy tra nsportation and communication. China‘s opening-up is an example of globalization. 2. The positive role of Globalization Globalization is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it can bring new products and services; new investment and markets; new technologies and management skills and generally higher living sta ndards.
3. The negative role of globalization On the other hand, it can also bring more debt, more instability, a greater gap between the rich a nd the poor, far worse environmental degradation, and the loss of national and cultural identity. 4. In spite of all the promises of a win-win situation, in this game, nations are not equally positione d. They do not have a level playground. Therefore, there are bound to be winners and losers. People in many developing countries are afraid that they are likely to lose their hard-won independence. T hey suspect that globalization is just another name for Americanization. They feel that they are being marginalized rather than integrated. No wonder, there has been intense mass protest against globali zation around the world in recent years. But this does not mean that globalization is completely wro ng. It means that it is more complicated than we thought. It means that many problems will have to be looked into and properly resolved. Globalization probably will eventually prevail. But it will hav e to be a more equitable（公正的）, more humane, more universally beneficial kind of globalization.
Part Two Background Information Author Robert J. Samuelson Samuelson is a 1967 graduate of Harvard University with a B.A. in government. Based in Washin gton, D.C., Samuelson began his journalism career as a reporter on The Washington Post's Business Desk in 1969. After four years he left the paper to freelance. He has been published by The Sunday Times (London), The Los Angeles Times, The New Republic and The Columbia Journalism Review. Samuelson joined The National Journal as an economics corr espondent in 1976 and began writing the "Economic Focus" column. He became a contributing edit or（特约记者） in 1981 and left the magazine in 1984. Robert Samuelson joined Newsweek as a con tributing editor in 1984, and has become one of the magazine's most recognized writers for his biwe ekly columns analyzing and reporting socioeconomic issues. In addition to his Newsweek column, Sa muelson writes a biweekly column which appears in The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, The Boston Globe and other papers. Part Three Vocabulary Study alien a. coming from a different country, race or group; foreign e.g. It‘s a country that has had an alien government and an alien language imposed on it by force. I find the ideal of sending young children off to boarding school totally alien. n. a foreigner, esp. someone who lives in a country of which they are not legal citizen e.g. When war broke out the government rounded up thousands of aliens and put them in temporary camps.
alienate v. to stop supporting; to cause to feel very distant from or not welcome to someone lese e.g. All these changes to the newspaper have alienated its traditional readers. Ten years in prison have alienated him from his family.
antidote n. a chemical, esp. a drug, which limits the effects of a poison, or a way of preventing or acting ag ainst something bad e.g. Regular exercise is the best antidote to tiredness and depression.
backlash n. a strong feeling among a group of people in reaction to a tendency or recent events in society or politics e.g. The new president encouraged the backlash against ―moral laxity‖. The accident has provoked/produced a backlash among local people who claim that the road is da ngerous.
binge n. an occasion when an activity is done in an extreme way, esp. eating, drinking or spending money e.g. a drinking/eating/spending binge Her illness involved periods of binge-eating and then making herself sick.
v. to eat in an uncontrolled way, sometimes as a part of an illness e.g. I tend to binge on chocolate when I am watching TV! She went through periods of binging (also binge-eating).
boom n. a period of sudden growth, esp. one that results in a lot of money being made e.g. This year has seen a boom in book sales.
v. e.g. Here, as elsewhere, the leisure industry is booming.
bust n. a time or period of widespread financial depression
v. to break something; to arrest somebody e.g. Oh no! I‘ve busted his CD player. Harry and his girlfriend busted up last week.
bust n. an occasion when police arrest people who are thought to have broken the law e.g. In their latest drugs bust police entered a warehouse where cocaine dealers were meeting.
bust a. When a company goes bust it is forced to close because it is financially unsuccessful. e.g. More than twenty companies in the district went bust during the last three months.
clamor = clamour n. a. a loud complaint about something or demand for something b. loud noise, esp. made by people‘s voices e.g. After the bombing, there was a public clamor for vengeance. He preferred solitary walks in the wilderness to the clamor of the city.
a. clamorous e.g. The newspaper devoted seven pages to a clamorous call for independence. The air was filled with clamorous, excited voices.
v. clamor e.g. The residents are clamoring against the dumping of chemical waste near their houses.
conspicuously ad. obviously; in a way that is easy to notice e.g. The temple‘s grand white arches rose conspicuously over the dirty decaying city.
a. conspicuous e.g. In China, where black hair is the norm, her blonde hair was conspicuous. He tried not to look conspicuous and moved slowly along the back of the room.
constituent n. a voter in a particular area of the country
constituency n. any of the official areas of a country that elect someone to represent voters nationally e.g. The MP‘s constituency covers the city‘s poorest areas.
daunting a. intimidating; disheartening e.g. In spite of unification the country was still faced with the daunting prospect of overcoming four decades of division.
daunt v. to make someone feel slightly frightened or worried about their ability to achieve somethin g; to discourage e.g. She was not at all daunted by the size of the problem.
downturn = downswing n. a reduction in the amount or success of something, such as a country‘s economic activity e.g. the continuing economic downturn There is evidence of a downturn in the building trade.
upturn n. (esp. in economics) an improvement or advantageous change to a higher level or value e.g. Investors should not expect a sharp upturn in the economy.
dwarf v. to cause to appear small by comparison e.g. The new skyscraper will dwarf all those near it. This new financial crisis may well dwarf most that have gone before.
dwarf n. a person who is much smaller than the usual size e.g. They have campaigned for many years against the discrimination experienced by dwarfs/ dwarves.
ensue v. to happen after something else, esp. as a result of it e.g. The police officer said that he had placed the man under arrest and that a scuffle had ensued. Boredom often ensues from inactivity.
a. ensuing e.g. He lost his job and in the ensuing months became more and more depressed. An argument broke out and in the ensuing fight, a gun went off.
glut n. a supply of something that is much greater than can be sold or is needed or wanted e.g. The fall in demand for coffee could cause a glut on/in the market, forcing some producers to c ut prices. There is a glut of large, expensive houses lying empty and unsold.
inept a. not skilled or effective e.g. Someone had made an inept attempt to iron the skirts. He was always rather inept at sport. He was criticized for his inept handling of the situation.
n. ineptitude e.g. political/social/economic ineptitude
The newspaper editorial correctly pointed out the government‘s ineptitude in dealing with the ozon e crisis.
irreversible a. not possible to change e.g. He listed some of the irreversible effects of ageing. Technology has had an irreversible impact on society.
maximize v. to make something as great in amount, size or importance as possible e.g. To maximize our walking time, we should be ready to start at dawn. antonym: minimize
merger n. the union of two or more commercial interest or corporations e.g. Their merger of the two companies would create the world‘s biggest accounting firm. The German tyre company is holding merger talks with its Indian rival.
v. merge e.g. The country‘s two biggest banks are planning to merge in order to fight off competition from a broad.
prevail v. to exist and be accepted among a large number of people, or to get a position of control and infl uence e.g. This is a strange custom that still prevails. Did greed prevail over generosity?
n. prevalence e.g. The prevailing mood is one of optimism. Under the prevailing law, the government cannot annul such marriages. These diseases are more prevalent among young children. The prevalence of drugs in the inner cities is alarming.
prone a. a. tending to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic b. lying on the front with the face down e.g. You‘re more prone to illnesses when you‘re tired and your body is run-down. The photograph showed a man lying prone on the pavement, a puddle of blood about his head.
a. -prone: combining form e.g. accident-prone, injury-prone
propel v. to cause something to move forwards e.g. Mr. Henry said that the country was being propelled towards civil war.
A propelling pencil or mechanical pencil is a pencil in which the lead can be pushed forward by tu rning or pressing a part of the pencil.
retard v. to make (something) slower e.g. Icy roads retarded their progress through the mountains. A rise in interest rates would severely retard economic growth.
a. retarded n. retardation e.g. The program offers long-term care for the elderly and intermediate care for the mentally retarde d.
slump n. recession e.g. There has been a slump in demand for beef ever since he recent health scare. The hotel industry, like most industries, is currently in a slump. There is fear that we are entering another economic slump as bad as the 1930‘s.
slump v. (of prices, values or sales) to fall suddenly e.g. The value of property has slumped. Car sales have slumped dramatically over the past year.
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Part Four. Text Analysis Theme of the Text Globalization is a double-edged sword: a promise to help everyone and a peril to hurt everyone.
Structure Part I (1-2): The author puts forward the topic---globalization and points out that it is a double-edge d sword. Part II (3-17): The process of globalization and the positive effects of it. Part III (18-31): The negative effects of globalization. Part IV (32-34): Generalization about the role of globalization.
Text Appreciation Paragraph 1: At the edge of a new century, globalization is a double-edged sword: a powerful vehicle that rais es economic growth, spreads new technology and raises living standards in rich and poor countries al ike, but also an immensely controversial process that assaults national sovereignty; erodes local cultur e and tradition and threatens economic and social instability. This is a typical introducing sentence, highly condensed yet conveys a huge amount of informati on: both positive and negative effects of globalization have been summarized by the author deliberate ly and comprehensively. Try to follow this pattern and give introducing sentences for the following t opics.
总分式写法 （结论解释型） 1. Marketization 市场化
2. Liberalization 自由化 3. Democratization 民主化 4. Nationalization 国有化 5. Privatization 私有化
e.g. XXX is nowadays a more and more trendy phrase for Chinese, actually XXX is a double-edged sword: …
at the edge of: it means be very close to
vehicle: here means sth used to achieve sth. 工具，手段 e.g. Art may be used as a vehicle for propaganda. The play is an ideal vehicle for her talents.
alike (1) adj. very similar. (not before n.) e.g. My mother and I are ~ in many ways.
(2) adv. In a similar way./equally e.g. The twins are dressed ~. I benefit a lot from books and practice ~.
assault national sovereignty: threaten national sovereignty 危害国家主权
assault: to attack erode: to destroy gradually n. erosion a. erosive e.g. Waverly‘s confidence has been slowly eroded by repeated failures.
P: As the new century approaches, globalization means two different things. It can have both positiv e and negative effects. One the one hand, it can greatly increase economic production, spread new te chnology and improve the living standards in both rich and poor countries; on the other hand, it is highly controversial because it threatens national sovereignty, destroys local culture and traditions, and is likely to cause economic and social instability.
Paragraph 3: in some respects: here respect means a particular aspect or detail of sth. 事物的方面 e.g. in all/many/some respects In this respect we are very fortunate.
Other phrases: in respect of sth. (fml.) 关于；就…而言 e.g. money received in respect of overtime worked
trendy: (infml.) fashionable; of the latest fad or fashion
P: To some extent, globalization is not new. It has always been in the process of market expansion. What is new is the term ―globalization‖, which became fashionable only recently.
retard: v. to make the development or progress less slower n. (AmE) (slang) a person who is stupid or who has not developed normally 弱智
Para 4. Cold war--- a state of extreme hostility between countries with opposite political systems existing af ter WWII.
―socialist group‖ (Warsaw Treaty Organization) (headed by the Soviet Union)
―free world‖ NATO (headed by U.S)
They fight each other not through shooting wars, but through fierce economic competition, as wel l as through political pressure and threats. During the Cold War, the U.S. fought for trade liberation partly in order to combat communism.
champion: to fight for; to support or defend a principle, movement or person e.g. He has always championed the cause of gay rights.
combat: to fight against e.g. combat crime/terrorism/inflation/disease/drug abuse
a succession of: a number of things or people following each other in time or order; a series of e.g. Last week we had a succession of visitors. The poor man had a succession of misfortunes.
in succession 接连地 e.g. Victory followed victory in rapid succession. His words came out in quick succession.
in succession (to) 继承 e.g. The eldest son is the first in succession to his father‘s property.
Paragraph 5: antidote n. a chemical, esp. a drug, which limits the effects of a position (fig.) a way of preventing or acting against sth bad. e.g. an antidote for snakebite 毒蛇咬伤的解毒药 an antidote to boredom 解除厌倦的方法 an antidote against inflation 反通货膨胀的手段
Do you know? It was nationalism that caused the two world wars.
Many far-sighted politicians in Europe regarded economic unification as a way to prevent nationalism, and now they also want to turn Europe into a political union.
EU (European Union) started in 1957, now it consists of 27 countries: 1957: France 1973: England Germany Denmark Italy Ireland Netherlands Belgium Luxemburg
1981: Greece 1986: Spain 1995: Austria Portugal Sweden Finland Lithuanian Slovenian Malta Cyprus
2002: Poland Hungary Czech Slovakian Estonia Latvia 2007: Bulgaria Romania
Technology complemented politics. P. The development of technology also supports the political concern of unite Europe.
favor: v. to be or tend to be in support of; to prefer; to treat better, esp. in an unfair way e.g. The warm climate favors many types of tropical plants. Many counties favor a presidential system of government. The teacher seems to favor beautiful girls.
inflation: a persistent increase in the level of consumer prices or a persistent decline in the purchasi ng power of money, caused by an increase in available currency and credit beyond the proportion of available goods and services 通货膨胀
ant. deflation monetary situation 银根
Paragraph 6: What does this mean: ―Now, this is becoming less true‖?
A: Nowadays countries are no longer viewed as distinct economic entities.
disregard: not consider; to treat as unimportant
Paragraph 7-8: a sharp contrast
multilateral: involving more than two groups or countries. credit: here means an amount of money placed by a bank at the disposal of a client, against which he may draw 信贷
Prefix multi-: from Latin, meaning ―many, much, multiple, many times, more than one, composed of many like parts, in many respects‖
e.g. multicolored, multivitamin, multilateral, multinational
mono-: from Greek, meaning ―one, single, lone‖ e.g. monarch, monastery, monochrome, monogamy, monograph, monolingual, monotonous, monosyllab le
bi-: from Latin, meaning ―twice, two‖ e.g. biennial, bisect, bicentennial, biped, bigamy, binoculars, bilateral, biweekly
In some words referring to time periods, the prefix bi- has two meanings: ―twice a+-‖ and ―every t wo+-s‖. Thus, biannual means both ―twice a year‖ and ―every two years‖.
tri-: from Latin, meaning ―three‖ e.g. triatomic, trilateral
quadri-: meaning ―four‖ e.g. quadrilateral, quad
penta-: from Greek, meaning ―five‖ e.g. pentagon
sex-: from Latin, meaning ―six‖ e.g. sexpartite
octa-: from Greek, meaning ―eight‖ e.g. octagon
deci-: from Latin, meaning ―ten‖. e.g. decibel, deciliter
poly-: from Greek, meaning ―much, many‖ polyglot, polyandry (the custom of having many husbands)
Asia’s 1997-1998 financial crises 亚洲金融危机
flow: n. the steady and continuous movement of sth. in one direction e.g. the flow of river/blood/information/refugees/goods
dwarf: v. to make sth. seem small by comparison
bond: n. a certificate of debt issued by a government or corporation guaranteeing payment of the original investment plus interest
by a specified future date 债券 e.g. government bonds 国库券
equity investment 产权投资, 直接投资
Paragraph 9: binge: n. (infml) a short period when you do too much of sth, esp. drinking alcohol 狂欢作乐，大 吃大喝 e.g. Each holiday is a binge of eating and sleeping.
vi. (on) To eat a lot of food in a short time e.g. Whenever she is depressed, she binges on chocolates.
to go on a binge: (infml.) to do too much of sth., such as eating, drinking, shopping e.g. He must have gone on a binge with his friends, because he is addicted to alcohol.
cross-border: between countries cross-: from one to another or between two things e.g. cross-culture, cross-state, cross-breed, cross-examination
merger 兼并 n. (c) the act of joining together 2 or more companies or organizations to form one larger one. e.g. A lot of workers have been laid off as a result of the ~.
merge: vt./vi A ~ with B A and B ~ together ~ A and B
e.g. They have made acquisitions in several EU countries.
other meanings: e.g. theories of language acquisition The money will be spent on acquisitions for the university library.
Para. 10 Vodafone 英国沃达丰公司 1999 年 1 月 沃达丰以高出其对手 Bell Atlantic 公司的价格购得 AirTouch 通信公司，该项 630 亿美元交易的结 果是：首家无线电话全球性巨型企业诞生。 1999 年 9 月 与 Bell Atlantic 公司达成协议，联合双方在美国的无线网络，以 Verizon Wireless 名称挂牌上市。 German Telecom 德国电信公司 收购 Voice Stream 将为德国电信进军美国市场铺平道路。 英国 5 大移动网络运营商: Vodafone, O2, T-Mobile, 3G, Orange The recent takeover struggle between British and German wireless giants is exceptional only for its s ize and bitterness. takeover: the act of assuming control or management of 接管；合并 giant: a large company P: The only difference between the recent takeover struggle between British and German radio giants and other cases is that this takeover is much bigger and a lot bitter. Para. 11 corporate conviction: a firm belief of corporations
economies of scale 规模经济 stay abreast of=keep abreast of: to make sure that you know all the most recent facts about a sub ject Para. 13 But it is not just multinational companies seeking bigger sales and profits that drive globalization. Emphatic sentence: It is + n./noun clause + that do sth. What does ―governments do, too‖ mean? A: Governments also drive the tendency of globalization. Globalization is not only driven by companies‘ pursuit of profits, but also driven by governments‘ pu rsuit of their national interests. In Europe, the relentless pursuit of the ―single market‖ is one indicator. This reflects a widespread re cognition that European companies will be hard-pressed to compete in global markets if their local o perations are hamstrung by fragmented national markets. relentless: adj. (antonym---relenting) If sb is ~, he never stops being cruel, strict, determined, etc. e.g. ~ struggle for social status and power a king ~ in oppression of citizens relent: vi. to change your attitude and become less severe or cruel toward sb. 变宽容，变温和 e.g. I bumped into her on the street. At first she would shout at me, but she ~ed when she recogni zed me. hard-pressed: adj. having a lot of problems and not enough money or time （to do sth) 处于困境的，遭受巨大压力的 sb/sth is ~ to do sth: it is difficult for sb to do sth. e.g. Because of shortages, the emergency services were hard-pressed to deal with the accident. a widespread recognition: a general opinion; a general agreement; a general consensus hamstring: to cripple; to destroy or hinder the efficiency of e.g. The company is hamstrung by its poor management. fragmented: broken into parts e.g. a fragmented society P: In Europe, the persistent and unremitting effort to turn all countries on the continent into a single market shows that there is a general agreement that if the European market remains divided into m
any small parts behind national borders, their companies will not be able to compete in the internati onal market. Para. 14-15 clamor: a noisy outcry seek membership: to try to join; to apply for the membership engage: (fml.) vt. to win over or attract; to connect with or involve e.g. His smile engages everyone he meets. WTO (World Trade Organization) 世界贸易组织 Established in 1995 as a successor to GATT (General Agreement on Tariff and Trade). Above all, it’s a negotiating forum … It’s a set of rules … And it helps to settle disputes … China joined WTO on 11 December 2001 150 members on 11 January 2007 Para. 16 Despite its financial crisis, rapid trade expansion and economic growth sharply cut the number of the desperately poor. to cut the number: to reduce the number desperately poor: extremely poor P: In spite of the financial crisis, rapid increase of trade and economic growth drastically reduced th e number of the very poor people. Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa—whose embrace of the world economy has been l ate or limited—fared much less well. sub-Saharan Africa: the African countries south of the Sahara Desert sub-: 1) below or under e.g. sub-Sahara; submarine 2) almost or nearly e.g. subtropical; subhuman; subconscious 3) less important or lower in rank e.g. subordinate; substandard 4) a smaller part of a whole e.g. subcontinent, subcommittee, subculture fare: (slightly dated) v. to get along; to turn out e.g. How did you fare in your exams? The coal miners have fared badly in recent years because the coalmine is being worked out. reckon: to calculate; to think or expect P: Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Sahara Africa, whose integration with the world economy has been late and limited, were not so lucky. Para. 18 … two problems could neutralize its potential benefits.
neutralize: to offset; to negate; to make ineffective P: … two problems could offset the possible benefits. This is the transitory sentence, and the following paragraphs are going to discuss the negative aspect s of globalization. Para. 19 The global economy may be prone to harsher boom-bust cycles than national economies individually. be prone to: likely or inclined to do sth. e.g. The fierce competition makes students more prone to nervous breakdowns. boom: a period of sudden economic growth or prosperity as opposed to bust There are many idiomatic pairs of nouns like boom and bust: e.g. She walked out, bag and baggage, and left him. (完全地, 连同行李地) I am all for it, body and soul. (全心全意) It was just a bread and butter job. (not very interesting) Modern spies no longer fit in with our traditional image of cloak and dagger adventures. A new nation was born through the test of fire and sword. （战争中）杀人放火 We will never go to war against our own flesh and blood. They were bound hand and foot. Other examples: friend and foe; land and sea; heart and soul; part and parcel 重要的部分; vice and virtue 善恶; skin and bone 皮包骨头; profit and loss; pins and needles（手、脚的）发麻 cloak and dagger 关于间谍的(电影或传说) 由 1946 年的美国电影「斗篷与短剑(Cloak And Dagger)」而来。间谍电影经典之作，后来片名成为间 谍情节的代名词。 e.g. A: The stories about the company are like a cloak and dagger tale. B: Why don't you write about it then, and make some extra money? A:公司的来历、就像是一个间谍故事。 B:那你为何不借此写部书，挣点外快呢? Comment: Once integrated with the world market, nations will naturally be more vulnerable to the f luctuations of the world economy. The capital flows in and out of a country, for example, can creat e a boom or bust very quickly and with much harsher effects. Para. 20 The Asian financial crisis raised questions on both counts. count: (usu. pl.) n. a point made during a discussion or an argument 观点；问题；事项 on both counts: on both points under discussion e.g. I disagree with you on both counts. Q: ―Both counts‖ refer to two questions, what are they? P: The Asian financial crisis brought these two questions to people‘s attention: investment funds wer e not well used and trade flows became too lopsided.
Para. 21 The ensuing spending boom in turn aided Europe, Japan, and the United States by increasing imports form them. ensue: (fml.) v. to happen as a result of sth. or immediately after sth. e.g. If the Middle East crisis is not resolved, terrible problems will ensue. in turn: in proper order or sequence 然后又…… e.g. If you treat workers better and make them happier, they in turn will work harder. The government should respect people‘s democratic rights, and the people in turn should obey gov ernment regulations. P: The growth in spending that followed helped Europe, Japan, and the United States by increasing i mports from them.
… it became apparent that as a result of ―crony capitalism‖, inept government policies and excess o ptimism, much of the investment had been wasted on unneeded factories, office buildings and apartm ents.
P: It became clear that because of the corruption in those countries where political and financial res ources are in the hands of a few privileged people along with their dishonest friends, their foolish g overnment policies and unreasonable optimism, much of the investment was wasted on unneeded fact ories and a real estate bubble. crony: a close friend or companion crony capitalism: an economic, political and social system controlled by a small gang of people bou nded by private interests and based on favoritism inept: not effective; foolish; clumsy office buildings and apartments 写字楼和公寓房
Para. 22 What prevented the Asian crisis from becoming a full-scale global economic downturn has been the astonishing U. S. economy.
downturn: a tendency downward, especially in business or economic activity Word-formation: adverb + n. e.g. upturn, downpour, downfall, uproar, input, output, outcome, outset, outlook, onrush
P: It was the surprisingly vigorous growth of the U. S. economy that saved the Asian crisis from es calating into an all-round economic depression.
Para. 23 current-account： account of credits, debits, receipts, and expenditures between two countries 经常 an 项目账目 balance of payments: the difference between a country‘s imports and exports 国际收支 e.g. balance of payments surplus 国际收支顺差/盈余 balance of payments deficit 国际收支逆差/亏损
Para. 25 …a slowdown or recession-reflecting a decline in the stock market, a loss of consumer confidence o r higher interest rates-might snowball into an international slump. snowball into: to grow into; to escalate into; to develop into with escalating speed
Poor economic performance is usually described as economic stagnation, a slowdown, a slackening, a downturn, a decline, a setback, a recession, a depression, a slump, or a crisis, roughly in the o rder of seriousness. P: A slowdown of the U.S. economy might develop into a serious international depression because t he world economy is so dependent on it.
gross domestic product: GDP 国内生产总值 C.f. GNP projection: forecast; estimate
If the forecasts materialize-and the OECD‘s growth estimates for Japan exceed most private forecaststhey will restore some balance to the world economy and relieve fears of a global recession. materialize: to become actual fact; to come true relieve: to alleviate or to reduce
P: If the forecasts come true-and the OECD‘s growth estimates for Japan are higher than most priva te forecasts-they will, to some extent, help the world economy return to its earlier balance, and redu ce the fear or a worldwide recession.
Para. 28 It remains possible that abrupt surges of global capital, first moving into Asia and then out, will hav e caused, with some delay, a larger instability. surge: a sudden and great increase e.g. There has been a surge in house prices recently.
P: It is still possible that sudden increase or withdrawal of the world‘s capital, first moving into Asi a and then out of it, will have made Asia more unstable.
Para. 30 The street protesters at the Seattle meeting…opposition to cross-border mergers. agenda: a list of things to be done; a program a case against sth.: grounds for opposing sth. inspire: to stimulate; to create genetically modified food 转基因食品 nationalistic opposition: opposition based on your loyalty to your nation‘s interests viewed as separa te from international common interests
P: The street protesters…may not have a common program or even well-reasoned case against free t rade. But they showed clearly their worries and anger about globalization.
Para. 32 Just because globalization is…against foreign investors. irreversible: incapable of being reversed; impossible to return to a previous condition e.g. Technology has had an irreversible impact on society
shield: v. to protect e.g. The ozone layer shields the earth from the sun‘s radiation. Several officials are accused of trying to shield the defendant.
discriminate against sb.: to act on the basis of prejudice against sb. e.g. She felt she had been discriminated against because of her nationality.
P: just because globalization on the whole occurred quite naturally as a result of better communicati ons and transportation, it does not mean that it is bound to happen and can not be turned back. Go vernment can … protect local industries and workers against imported products or discriminate agains t foreign investors.
Para. 33 But this does not mean that a powerful popular backlash, with unpredictable consequences, is not po ssible. backlash: an excessive or marked adverse reaction
P: But this does not mean that a powerful hostile reaction from ordinary people, which will have un predictable consequences, is not possible.
A plausible presumption is that practical politicians would try to protect their constituents form globa l gluts. plausible: seeming likely presumption: supposition; assumption constituent: sb. represented by an elected official glut: an oversupply of sth.
P: We can presume that practical politicians would no doubt try to protect their voters from th flood of products form other countries. Para. 34 If too many countries did, globalization could implode. implode: if something such as an organization or an economic system implodes, it is completely des troyed by things that are happening within it e.g. The country‘s economic system is facing very serious problems. If they are not addressed imme diately and effectively, it could implode any day
C.f. explode: to burst or be destroyed by an explosion
P: if too many countries did, globalization could collapse violently from the inside.
It‘s a scary prospect. Economic interdependence cuts both ways. prospect: sth. to be expected; possibility interdependence: mutual dependence; the condition of depending on each other cut both ways: (infml.) to have disadvantages as well as advantages
Globalization‘s promise may exceed its peril--but the peril is still real. Both await the new century. One of the great dramas will be to see which prevails. await: (fml.) to wait for e.g. He is in custody awaiting trial. 他已被拘留候审。 A warm welcome awaits all our guests. drama: a series of events or a situation which is exciting like a dramatic play prevail: to triumph; to succeed; to win out adj. prevailing prevalent
P: Globalization may bring us more advantages than disadvantages—but the dangers are still there. B ut let‘s wait and see how things will develop in the new century. One of the most interesting things will be to see which will be greater: the advantages or the disadvantages.
The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell Part One Warm up 1. What games did you play in childhood? And which one impresses you most? 2. Have you played any dangerous games? What are they? Would you introduce one to your classm ates? 3. Do you love hunting? Why or why not? Do you think animals have any feelings? 4. What are always being hunted? Do you believe that men could become the hunted? Attention: pun of the title: game Part Two Background Information Introduction The text is an excerpt from the story by Richard Connell (1893---1929), famous American writer of short stories and screen plays. The story describes the most unusual adventure of Rainsford, a w orld-renowned hunter, who got stuck on a small island in the Caribbean sea. He was held as captive by a man named Zaroff, the ex-Czarist-Russian general who was indulged in the game of man hunt ing as a result of his boredom with life and passion for fresh experience. When Rainsford is invited to take part in the game, he poses himself as a victim. In his desperat e struggle for survival, we have the most exciting drama of the story.
Read from another angle, the story might be taken as a fable of modern society. Human society is nothing but a hunting ground, ruled by the law of the jungle, and the people are divided into the strong and the weak, namely, the hunters and the hunted, who are all engaged in the fierce struggl e for survival. Madame Butterfly 蝴蝶夫人 Italian composer Puccini‘s sixth opera, Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly), was an unqualifie d failure when it opened at La Scala opera house in Milan, Italy, in 1904. The opera, which centers on the romance between a Japanese geisha and an American military officer, was greeted with accl aim several months later, after Puccini revised it. Part Three Vocabulary Study agility n. the state of being able to move in a quick and easy fashion e.g. He has got the agility of a mountain goat. This job requires considerable mental agility. (the ability to think quickly and clearly) a. agile e.g. My grandmother isn‘t as agile as she used to be. For a man of 80, he has a remarkable agile mind. concealment: n. hiding; hiding place e.g. They watched what was happening from a place of concealment. The police may search someone if they suspect the concealment of a knife or other prohibited art icles. v. conceal a. concealed e.g. I tried to conceal my surprise. The robbery had been recorded on a concealed security camera. courtly: a. polite and graceful in behavior e.g. These difficult negotiations require a courtly approach. n. courtliness cower: v. to bend down and/or move backwards in fear e.g. Do stop cowering! I am not going to hit you. deplorable: a. very bad; most lamentable e.g. I think smoking is a very deplorable habit. No one should have to live in such deplorable conditions. v. deplore: to say or think that (something) is very bad e.g. He said that he deplored all violence.
What is the trait you most deplore in yourself? ad. deplorably furnish: v. to supply or provide e.g. We can furnish everything you need for a successful party. lore: n. [U] traditional knowledge and stories about a subject e.g. It‘s been part of the lore of medicine over the years that lying on your right side will make he artburn worse. C.f. folklore; know-how: the knowledge and skill required to do something correctly mock: v. to laugh at, esp. by copying in an amusing way e.g. Don‘t mock (at) him just because he keeps falling off his bike. n. mockery a. mocking e.g. She agreed with him, but there was mockery in her eyes. The renewed fighting has made a mockery of the peace agreement. muck: n. animal excrement, esp. used as fertilizers to make plants grow well or dirt or waste matter; manure e.g. When the farmers spread muck on their fields you can smell it for miles. The immigrants were treated like muck. a. mucky: dirty e.g. The child‘s feet were mucky and covered with cuts. muck about/around: to behave in a silly way or to treat a person in a careless way e.g. I‘m fed up with them mucking me about and canceling our arrangements. muck in: to share the work that needs to be done e.g. All my friends mucked in and helped when I moved house. muck sth. up: to spoil sth. completely or do sth. badly e.g. I wanted to make a good impression at the interview but I mucked it up. mutter: v. to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not easy to hear e.g. He muttered something under his breath to the person next to him, but I only heard the word ―unexpected‖. n. mutter [C] n. mutterings e.g. There were mutters that other developments might receive more of the money available.
ooze: n. a thick brown liquid that is found at the bottom of a river or lake and a mixture of earth and water e.g. Millions of years ago, our ancestors climbed out of the primeval ooze onto dry land. v. ooze: to flow slowly out of something through a small opening e.g. Blood was still oozing from the cut on his wrist. Little green patches of moss grew on the rock where water had oozed out. placid: a. having calm appearance or characteristics e.g. On a warm sunny day the river seems placid and benign, and it‘s hard to believe it can be dan gerous. They mentioned the placid pace of life as their main reason for moving to the village. n. placidness/placidity ad. placidly e.g. This breed of dogs is known for its placidity. She took the news quite placidly. quarry n. a. a person or animal being hunted or looked for b. a large artificial hole in the ground where stone, sand, etc., is dug out of the ground for use as building material e.g. They pursued their quarry into an empty warehouse. a granite/limestone/marble quarry It‘s in the mountains above Verona that the red limestone is quarried. (v.) recoil: v. to move back because of fear or disgust e.g. She turned round to greet him but then recoiled in horror when she saw the state he was in. He recoils in disgust at the mere mention of her name. She recoiled at the idea of paying $70 for a theatre ticket. savagely: adv. violently or brutally e.g. She was savagely murdered at the age of 22. ―What do you want?‖ he demanded savagely. a. savage 野蛮的, 未开化的, 凶猛的, 残忍的 v. savage 用暴力对付 n. savage 原始的人, 粗鲁的人 e.g. He made a savage attack on the policies of the government. The savage cuts in education spending will mean bigger classes and fewer books. (very large) The child was savaged by a dog. (attacked violently) Twelve thousand years ago, your ancestors were primitive savages living in caves. stalk: v. to follow as closely as possible without being seen or heard e.g. He spent the weekend stalking deer in the Scottish highlands. Famine and disease began to stalk the region after the flood. (appear there in a threatening way)
n. stalker e.g. Stalkers pay large sums of money to hunt deer in the region. v. stalk: to walk in an angry or proud way e.g. She refused to accept that she was wrong and stalked furiously out of the room. stamina: n. [U] the physical or mental strength to do something that might be difficult and that will take a long time e.g. The triathlon is a great test of stamina. It takes stamina more than anything else to read all the books. utmost: a. greatest or the most possible e.g. I need to speak to you on a matter of utmost importance. He searched to the utmost ends of the earth. n. [U] utmost/uttermost 极限 e.g. The children‘s endless demands tried her patience to the utmost. Each area felt it must do its utmost to make its part of the festival a success zealous: a. enthusiastic and eager e.g. She has become a zealous convert to the environmentalist cause. They have been extremely zealous in their attempts to get smoking banned in their office. n. zeal ad. zealously e.g. He thinks that with the new zeal for money-making, a certain quality of life has been lost. Dictionary Work Please look up the dictionary and find out the meanings of these phrases and expressions 1. at bay 2. get a grip on 3. intent on 4. make one‘s way 5. press on 6. rest with 7. spur on 8. strike off 9. take stock of 10. venture on Word Building 1. root: ceed: from Latin, meaning ―go; move; yield‖ e.g. exceed 超越 proceed 进行 succeed 成功 cede: go away from; withdraw; yield e.g. accede, antecedent, cede, concede, precede, precedent, recede, secede cess: move, yield (It‘s related to –cede-.) e.g. access, accessible, accessory, cession, process, procession, recess, recession, success, succession
2. suffix: -ling: from Old English 1). to form a noun that indicates a feeling of distaste or disgust for the person or thing named e.g. hireling, underling 2). to form a noun that is the smaller version or example of the base word e.g. duckling, foundling, princeling, sapling, seedling, weakling 3. combination form: craft: meaning ―work; art; practice of‖ aircraft 航空器 handicraft 手工艺品 hovercraft 气垫船 statecraft 管理国家的本领 witchcraft 魔法；魔力 woodcraft 木工术 Text Analysis Theme of the Text Rainsford, a noted hunter, falls off a ship and swims to an island. He finds there the evil Gener al Zaroff who, with the help of his assistant, hunts humans for sport. After three days of fighting fo r his life in the jungle while Zaroff hunts him, Rainsford surprises Zaroff and kills him. Structure of the Text Part 1 (Paras. 1—14) Zaroff invited Rainsford to play the game and Rainsford was forced to accept the proposal. Part 2 (Paras.15—45) The game began and Rainsford tried his best to survive. Part 3 (Para. 46) The game ended in the winning of Rainsford. And Rainsford proved to be the mos t dangerous game. Detailed Analysis of the Text to rest with sb to do sth: (fml) to be sb‘s responsibility to do sth; to be up to sb to do sth. e.g. It rests with you to settle your differences as best as you can. venture to: (fml.) to do sth. in a careful way, esp. because it might upset or offend sb. e.g. Very few people ventured to go out on that stormy night. sport: n. amusement or fun e.g. The comments were only made in sport. to make sport of sb. 开 X 人的玩笑 Do you know? Ivan, who was deaf and dumb, had been the official flogger of the Czar. When the general‘s ca ptives (he would call them his guests) refused to play his game, he would hand them over to Ivan,
who would then flog/whip them to death. He nodded toward the corner to where the giant stood, his thick arms crossed on his hogshead of a chest. (Para. 7)
P: He nods toward Ivan, who is standing in the corner of the room, whose chest is as big and thic k as a barrel. Note: ―of ― is used between two nouns, with the first describing the second 1. a tyrant of a father 暴君般的父亲 2. that palace of a house 宫殿般的房子 3. some fool of a man 傻子一样的人 4. That‘s a hell of a thing to do. 非常难的事情 5. Ha! What a devil of a name! 糟糕的名字 6. In rushed a giant of a French officer. 巨人般的法国官员 7. She was a mere slip of a girl. Could she do that? 只是个丫头片子 Phrases： at stake: that can be won or lost, depending on the success of a particular action 成败难料；有风险 e.g. People‘s lives are at stake and we cannot afford to take risks. ―Ivan will supply you with hunting clothes, food, a knife …I suggest too that you avoid the bi g swamp in the southeast corner of the island.‖ (Para. 13)
Notice how considerate the general is. What he is doing now simply shows his self-assurance and o ver-confidence in the coming contest, the result of which turned out to be ironical. One foolish fellow tried it. The deplorable part of it was that Lazarus followed him. He was t he finest hound in my pack. (13) pack: a group of hunting animals What the general says here shows this is not the first man-hunting game he has ever played. Rainsf ord isn‘t the first victim. At the same time his evil contempt for human life is made evident in his much sorrow for the loss of his dog instead of the life of his captive. General Zaroff, with a deep courtly bow, strolled from the room. (Para. 14) courtly: graceful and polite because he was once a Russian general strolled from the room: walked out of the room in a slow and relaxed way because he was quite confident that he would win and he would have a wonderful time playing with Rainsford Rainsford had fought his way through the bush for two hours. ―I must keep my nerve. I must keep my nerve,‖ he said through tight teeth. (Para. 15) fight one’s way: to struggle on/forward desperately
c.f. make one‘s way elbow one‘s way
push one‘s way plunge one‘s way
inch one‘s way
shoulder one‘s way
keep one’s nerve: to keep calm P: Rainsford had run for his life through the bush for two hours. ―I must keep calm and act wisely or I would be caught,‖ he said with his teeth clenched because of nervousness. He had not been entirely clear-headed when the chateau gates snapped shut behind him. His w hole idea at first was to put distance between himself and General Zaroff. He had plunged alon g, spurred on by a sharp feeling of panic. (Para. 16) plunge: to move suddenly and quickly spur on: drive; push forward; stimulate P: He couldn‘t think clearly and wisely when the gates were shut with a loud sound. At first the o nly thing he wanted to do was to get as far away as possible from Zaroff. He had moved quickly, driven by a feeling of extreme fear. But now he had got a grip on himself, had stopped, and was taking stock of himself and the situation. (Para. 16) get a grip on: begin to control one's emotions when one is very upset or fear-stricken take stock of: to assess; to make an appraisal of; to seize up (the situation) P: Now he calmed down, had stopped the blind running for life, and was making an appraisal of hi mself and the situation. He saw the straight flight was futile; inevitably it would bring him face to face with the sea. He was in a picture with a frame of water, and his operations, clearly must take place within t hat frame. (Para. 17) flight: noun form of flee, the act of escaping from danger futile: useless; in vain P: He realized the straight escape was useless; of course it would make him face the sea. He was s urrounded by the sea, and as a result all his actions must be carried out within the border of water. strike off: to walk away in a determined way He executed a series of intricate loops; he doubled on his trail again and again. (Para. 18) execute: to perform a difficult act or movement loop: a shape produced by a curve crossing itself double: to reverse one‘s course P: He moved round and round many times and after that he covered the same trail repeatedly so as
to confuse Zaroff. ―I have played the fox,‖ he thought, ―now I must play the cat.‖ … after a fashion, rested. (Par a. 18) after a fashion: to some extent, but not very well P: Rainsford said to himself that he has done enough running and now should hide up in a tree. … rested in a way although it is not very satisfactory. Rainsford‘s impulse was to hurl himself down like a panther, but he saw that the general‘s righ t hand held something metallic—a small automatic pistol. (Para. 20) hurl oneself down: jump down P: Rainsford‘s first reaction was to jump upon General Zaroff and take his chances, but then he was checked by the sight of the pistol in the general‘s right hand. tense: v. stiffen; become tense deliberately: here means slowly and calmly The pent-up air burst hotly from Rainsford‘s lungs. (Para. 22) the pent-up air: the air he had held in his lungs while the general was right under the tree hotly: violently e.g. pent-up emotions If you have your emotions pent up for too long, one day you will have an outburst or you‘ll be come an abnormal. uncanny: a. weird; mysterious the merest chance: the slightest chance quarry: n. object of pursuit Rainsford‘s second thought was even more terrible. It sent a shudder of cold horror through his whole being. (Para. 23) through his whole being: through his whole body P: After a second thought, Rainsford realized that the situation was even worse than what he had th ought. And it made him tremble all over. loose one’s nerve: opposite of keep one’s nerve; become very scared, be in panic strike off: to walk away in a determined way precariously: dangerously lacking in security or stability e.g. a precarious posture precarious footing on the ladder 不稳当的，不安全的
throw oneself down: to lie down 卧倒; 躺下 log: a usually large section of a trunk or limb of a fallen or felled tree log in; log out Following the trail with the sureness of a bloodhound came the general. (Para. 27) Inverted sentence 倒装句 the normal order is: The general came following the trail with the sureness of a bloodhound. P: The general followed the trace, with the sure guide of a bloodhound. searching eyes 锐利的眼神 blade of grass 叶片 bent twig 弯曲的嫩枝 A proverb: A rolling stone gathers no moss. 滚石不生苔。 e.g. Mike has had five jobs within three years. This will not get him very far. A rolling stone gathe rs no moss. So intent was the Cossack on his stalking that he was upon the thing Rainsford had made befo re he saw it. (Para. 27) intent on: be determined to do sth. stalking: pursuing; tracing C. f protruding; bulging (P. 21) but for: if it had not been for; if it were not for (P. 276) e.g. But for your help, I would not have been able to resume my courage. stagger: v. to move or stand unsteadily, as if under a great weight; totter You are proving interesting: you are turning out to be interesting dress: v. to clean and bandage a wound (P. 275) take up his flight: to continue his escape; went on escaping press on: to continue doing sth. in a determined way; to hurry forward e.g. ―Shall we stay here for the night?‖ ―No, let‘s press on.‖ stake: here it means a pointed piece of wood to be pushed into the ground
e.g. His life is at stake. （危险） Many people were burnt alive at the stake for religious reasons in the Middle Ages. （火刑柱） The stakes in this political gamble were very high. （赌注） Once people have property of their own, they will have a stake in social stability. （投资股份； 利益） He crouched behind lightning-charred tree and waited. Soon he heard the padding sound of feet on the soft earth. (Para. 31) lightning-charred tree: a tree which had been struck and burnt by lightning padding: walking with a soft and steady sound Then he felt an impulse to cry out with joy, for he heard the sharp scream of pain as the cov er of the pit gave way and the pointed stakes found their mark. (Para. 31) give way: to collapse because of too much pressure find their mark: hit their target At daybreak Rainsford was awakened by a sound that made him know that he had new things to learn about fear. (Para. 33)
P: At sunrise Rainsford was waken up by the barking of the hounds that made him feel more fright ened than before. That was postponing the inevitable. (Para. 34)
P: That was merely delaying the inevitable result. He was going to die either way. an idea that held a wild chance: a very wild idea; a crazy idea strain one’s eyes: exert the utmost the see lean: thin in a healthy and athletic way make out: to be only just able to see, hear or understand sth. springy: a. marked by resilience; elastic 弹力显著的 Rainsford had hardly tumbled to the ground when the pack took up the cry again. (Para. 38) tumble: to fall quickly and suddenly downward P: No sooner had Rainsford fallen to the ground than the pack barked again. he stood regarding: he stood looking at; he stood contemplating Two slight annoyances kept him from perfect enjoyment. (Para. 39)
P: However it could have been a perfect hunting game but for two slight annoyances. deliciously tired: tired in a pleasant way
at bay: in a situation in which those attacking or pursuing must be faced because it is impossible to escape from them 被逼做困兽之斗 Lesson Nine The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison Presentation Work Please find out information about the author Tony Morrison, about her childhood, her education, her career, her publications, the prizes/awards she got, her influence to the world, her writing theme and style, etc. and prepare to give a presentation next class Please summarize the story of The Bluest Eye, its theme, its character, the structure of the selected t ext, or anything related to it and prepare to give a presentation next class Useful links: Classic Note on Bluest Eye (http://www.gradesaver.com/classicnotes/titles/bluesteye/) Toni Morrison: The Bluest Eye (http://www.luminarium.org/contemporary/tonimorrison/bluest.htm) 参考书目 1. 胡杰 黑人文化的自我审视与自我批判——评托尼·莫里森的《最蓝的眼睛》中山大学学报论丛》200 5 年 25 卷 6 期 2. 高继海. 佩科拉悲剧探源——评托尼·莫里森《最蓝的眼睛》[J]河南大学学报 (社会科学版) , 2001, (03) . 3. 周珊. 简评托尼·莫里森处女作《最蓝的眼睛》的写作特色[J]江南大学学报 (人文社会科学版) , 200 3, (02) . 4. 王守仁,吴新云. 白人文化冲击之下的黑人心灵——评托妮·莫里森的小说《最蓝的眼睛》[J]河南师范 大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2000, (03) . 5. 章汝雯. 《最蓝的眼睛》中的话语结构[J]外国文学研究 , 2004, (04) . 6. 王颖. 白人文化冲击下的迷失与幻灭——评莫里森《最蓝的眼睛》[J]理论学刊 , 2004, (05) . 7. 沈莹. 用精神分析法进行英美文学教学的典型范例——解读托尼·莫里森的处女作《最蓝的眼睛》[J] 教育探索 , 2004, (11) . 8. 焦晓婷. 小说文本里的读者——评《最蓝的眼睛》的召唤结构[J]四川外语学院学报 , 2002, (02) . 9. 张晔,王丽丽. ―最蓝的眼睛‖中的盲点——莫里森 《最蓝的眼睛》 中的文化视角 [J]学术交流 , 2003, (07) . 10. 马英. 《最蓝的眼睛》中的非洲传统意义的上帝[J]沈阳大学学报 , 2004, (01) .
Vocabulary Study shrill: very high and loud, in an unpleasant way; unrestrained and irritatingly insistent 刺耳的；非 要…不可的；不依不饶的 e.g. a shrill voice/laugh/whistle shrill demands/protests/threats
starch: v. to make clothes stiff with starch (n. 淀粉） adj. starchy: (of food) containing a lot of starch grits c.f. grit n. 沙砾；勇气；毅力 grit one’s teeth: to bite your teeth tightly together; to be determined to continue to do sth. in a difficult or unpleasant situation paw: 爪子；(infml.) a person‘s hand e.g. Take your filthy paws off me! association: pawn――――pawnshop―pawnbroker－broker; stockbroker 小卒；典当 当铺 当铺老板 经纪人；证券经纪人 preen: v. (of a bird) to clean itself or make its feathers smooth with its beak; (disapproving) to spe nd a lot of time making yourself look attractive and then admiring your appearance; to show satisfac tion or self-admiration 整理羽毛；沾沾自喜；刻意打扮、经心修饰（并自我欣赏） surfeit: overindulgence in food or drink; an excessive amount c.f. P128 I. A. 5. satiety: the condition of being full or gratified beyond the point of satisfaction; su rfeit soufflé: 蛋奶酥 girdle: 束腰
seat of: (formal) a place where people are involved in a particular activity, especially a city that has a university or the offices of a government (Note. 3) P128 I. A. Dictionary Work bleeding heart: 荷包牡丹 mother-in-law tongue (P.2) : also name of a kind of flower 岳母舌 Please look up the dictionary and find out the other meaning of this phrase. monkey bars：a three-dimensional structure of poles and bars on which children can play, as in a pl ayground 猴架 shotgun house: New Orleans A house whose architecture is characterized by several rooms joined in a straight line from the front to the back 盒式房屋 dime store: n. (old-fashioned, AmE): a retail store selling a wide variety of inexpensive articles. Al so called five-and-dime, five-and-ten, ten-cent store Please look up the dictionary and find out the meaning(s) of other words or phrases.
Part Two Background Information
I. Author: Toni Morrison
Biography of Toni Morrison (1931--) ? 1931: born Chloe Anthony Wofford in Lorain, Ohio ? 1953: B.A. (with honors) in English, Howard University (the most distinguished black colle ge in America) changed her name into Toni Wofford ? 1955: M.A. in English, Cornell Universities. ? 1955-1964: taught at Texas Southern Uni., Howard Uni ? 1958: get married to Harold Morrison ? 1964-1983: divorced; editor at Random House ? 1970: published first novel: the Bluest Eye ? 1971-1972: professor of English, State Uni. of New York ? 1973: published second novel: Sula ? 1976-1977: visiting lecturer at Yale ? 1977: published third novel: Song of Soloman (National Book Critics Circle Award) ? 1981: published forth novel: Tar Baby ? 1984: taught at the State Uni. of New York ? 1987: published fifth novel: Beloved (Pulitzer Prize, 1988); became Robert F. Goheen Profe ssor at Princeton University, the first Afro-American female writer to hold a named chair at
a university in the Ivy League ? ? ? 1992: published sixth novel: Jazz and Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imag ination 1993: Nobel Prize in Literature (the eighth woman and the first black woman to receive it) 1998: published seventh novel: Paradise
2003: published eighth novel: Love
Her eight major novels, The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon,Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradis e and Love have received extensive critical acclaim
II. The Story The Bluest Eye is the story of eleven-year-old Pecola Breedlove--a black girl who is regarded “ugly” by everyone, including her parents--who prays for her eyes to turn blue: so that she will be beautiful, so that people will look at her, so that her world will be different. She is ra ped by her drunk father and get pregnant, later she gives birth to a stillborn（夭折的） child. Finally Pecola lose her mind and spend the rest of her life as a madwoman thinking she has t he bluest eyes of the world„ Morrison got the idea for the Bluest Eye in part from an elementary school classmate. The girl wish to have the eyes of a white girl. Primer Story Here is the house. It is green and white. It has a red door. It is very pretty. Here is the family. Mother, Father, Dick, and Jane live in the green-and-white house. They are very happ y. See Jane. She has a red dress. She wants to play. Who will play with Jane? Mother laughs. Laugh, Mother, laugh. See Father. He is big and strong. Father, will you play with Jane? Fat her is smiling. Smile, Father, smile. See the dog. Bowwow goes the dog. Do you want to play with Jane? See the dog run. Run, dog, run. Look, look. Here comes a friend. The friend will play with Jane. They will play a good game. Play, Jane, Play. (Back Cover)
―Each night Pecola prayed for blue eyes. In her eleven years, no one had ever noticed Peco la. But with blue eyes, she thought, everything would be different. She would be so pretty that her parents would stop fighting. Her father would stop drinking. Her brother would stop runn ing away. If only she could be beautiful. If only people would look at her.‖ III. Theme Source of the tragedy: black people accepted and internalized white values and developed self-contem pt and self-hatred for themselves or other black people, making some of their own people victims an d scapegoats (替罪羊). The impact of mainstream white culture upon black people, which make them victim of the circumst ances. More specifically: Beauty and racism. ―Beauty, love … actually, I think, all the time that I write, I’m writhing about love or its a bsence. „ I thought in the Bluest Eye, that I was writing about beauty, miracles, and self-ima ges, about the way in which people can hurt each other, about whether or not one is beautifu l.” ---------Toni Morrison Questions? ? How can it be that a little girl could be made to feel so ugly? ? Why do the black children of the novel and of the period insult each other by calling each other black? ? What does it mean (and what does it do) when a black woman wishes she could look like
Jean Harlow? ? How has this happened? ? What has been lost? ? Is there a way out? ? Do you still remember the former ―pop icon‖ Michael Jackson? How do you explain his becoming whiter and whiter? Is this some example of black people‘s feeling that white is beautiful? Michael Jackson (1958- ) American musician, entertainer, and pop icon
Some Analysis About the Title: The title uses the superlative (最高级) of “blue” because at the end of the novel, when Pecola has gone mad, she is obsessed with having the bluest eyes of anyone living. But the title also has “ey e” in the singular, by disembodying (使脱离实体) the eye, Morrison subverts the idea of beauty or standards of beauty, tearing the idealized part away from the whole, creating a beauty icon that is not even human. from: http://www.gradesaver.com/classicnotes/titles/bluesteye/shortsumm.html
About the Names:
Names play an important part in The Bluest Eye because they are often symbolic of conditions in so ciety or in the context of the story. Pecola and her family are representative of the larger African-A merican community, and their name, “Breedlove”, is ironic because they live in a society that does not breed love. In fact, it breeds hate—hate of blackness, and thus hatred of oneself… from：http://www.tcnj.edu/%7Erhet/blind2.html
About the Seasons: The Bluest Eye is broken up into seasons – Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer. This type of organiz ation suggests that the events described in the Bluest Eye have occurred before, and will occur again.
“Inherent in the notion of the seasons is the fact that they are an annually recurrin g condition from which there is no escape.‖ ------Linda Dittmar
Detailed Analysis of the Text Structure Part 1 (Paras.1-9) About those brown girls. I. (1-5) General analysis of these brown girls: normal characteristics: gentle, quiet, not emotional, elegant, educated, good housewife, white-oriented„ II. (6-9) Distorted personality because of their hiding their funkiness, their nature. Hypo crisy. Part 2 (Paras. 10-53) What happens to Pecola in the house of such a brown girl. Discourse analysis (Para 1-5) There is a central idea in each of the five paragraphs. Can you point them o ut? In paragraph 1, the author refers to a character type resulting from the brown girl s’ hometowns. In paragraph 2, the author gives a general picture of who these brown girls are, w hat they are like, and how they live. In paragraph 3, the author shows the brown girls’ school education. In paragraph 4, the author shows that the brown girls have not only assimilated th e way of life but also the ideology of the white middle-class. In paragraph 5, the author shows the brown girls’ skills in keeping a household. Para. 1 1. They come from Mobile. Aiken. From Newport News. From Meridian.
Question on content: Who are “they” described in Paragraph 1 to 5? Where do they c ome from? What do these places have in common? Why does the narrator say, “the so unds of these places in their mouths make you think of love?‖ A: They refer to a type of black people here: brown-skinned people, they have brown s kins, which are lighter than those of the normal black people, and they usually have wh ile blood, and thus they think they are closer to white people and also despise other bla ck people. They are all towns in the Deep South, where slavery and the plantation syste m existed before the Civil War. 2. And the sounds of these places in their mouths make you think of love. When the brown girls pronounce the names of these places, they are full of affection an d make other people associate these places with love. 3. „they tilt their heads and say “Mobile” and you think you have been kissed. tilt one’s head: to move one‘s head sideways They say “Mobile” with pride. “You think you have been kissed”is another way of saying “the sounds of these places in their mouths make you think of love”. glance off: hit a surface at an angle and move away from it in another direction ease out: come out with ease; lessen, let go 4. a white butterfly glance off a fence with a torn wing: here the author uses a butterfly with a torn wing as a metaphor, meaning fragile beauty.
5. They say "Nagadoches" and you want to say "Yes, I will.― Again, this is associated with “love”. When a man proposes marriage, he asks the wo men, “Will you marry me?” if the woman agrees to marry him, her answer will be: “Yes, I will.‖ What can you learn from this paragraph? Para. 2 1. How does the author describe the brown girls from the Deep South cities in Paragr aph 2? In this paragraph the author gives a general picture of who these brown girls are, what they are like, and how they live. The descriptions show that they are thoroughly assimil ated into the white, middle-class way of life.
2. The sound of it opens the windows of a room like the first four notes of a hymn. 1) hymn: a song of praise to God 2) When one sings a hymn, the very first four notes will fill one‘s heart with an air of freshness, just like opening a window of a Room. The sound of the four-syllable name of Meridian has the same effect. 3. sly: playfully mischievous; cunning sly affection: love toward their hometown which has great influence upon them, and wh ich is deeply rooted in their mind, when say talk about their hometown, they would unc onsciously demonstrate their deep love/influence 4. Perhaps because they don’t have home towns, just places where they were born. But these girls soak up the juice of their home towns, and it never leaves them. soak up: to take in or absorb juice: the essence of anything; (slang) power and influence Paraphrase: This is perhaps because they only have places of birth, but no places wher e they feel at home and which they identify themselves with. But these girls are strongl y influenced by their home towns, and the influence stays with them forever even after they leave their home towns. 5. hollyhock: a tall plant with large, showy flowers in elongated spikes 蜀葵
6. They have the eyes of people who can tell what time it is by the color of the sky. 他们的眼睛可以根据天空的颜色判断是什么时间了。 7. Such girls live in quiet black neighborhoods where everybody is gainfully employed. … In the black neighborhoods, everyone has a good and steady job, things are arranged for leisure, and many plants are grown to make a pretty house. where everybody is gainfully employed: 每个人都有一份好工作
porch swings hanging from chains: 用铁链悬挂的游廊摇椅 scythe: [ saie ] 长柄大镰刀 Rooster Comb 鸡冠花
Bleeding heart 荷包牡丹
bleeding heart could also refer to what kind of people? Mother-in-law Tongue 岳母舌
All the details about the quiet black neighborhoods, porch swings, neatly cut grass and potted plants lining the steps and windowsills indicate that these brown girls live in pret ty houses. According to the white middle-class values, a pretty and comfortable house is one of the essentials of a happy home. In the primer used at the beginning of the nov el, the first thing of the happy family is a pretty house: ―Here is the house. It is green and white. It has a red door. It is very pretty.” They are thoroughly assimilated into t he white, bourgeois (middle-class) way of life.
8. They have put in the window the cardboard sign „-and No ICE on the fourth. In the days without refrigerator, people bought ice for keeping food cool. Every day pe ople could put up a cardboard sign in the window to tell the iceman if they needed ice and how much. They could turn the edge with different weight or No ICE shown to t he iceman. 他们在窗上挂了一块硬纸板做的牌子, 上面的三边分别写着 10 磅,25 磅,50 磅,第四边写着 ―不要冰块‖. 9. their eyes do not bite: they would not stare at other people ruthlessly or impolitely 10. These sugar-brown Mobile girls move through the streets without a stir. stir: here used as a noun, meaning excitement, anger or shock that is felt by a number of people e.g. Her resignation caused quite a stir. Comment: The black people is usually a very emotional and flamboyant people, they us ed to be very showy and like to draw other people‘s attention, but these brown girls do n‘t act that way, why? 11. They are as sweet and plain as buttercake. The author compares these brown girls to a buttercake, describing them as being sweet but plain and ordinary, lacking special or exciting qualities. 12. They wash themselves with orange-colored Lifebuoy soap, dust themselves with Cas hmere Bouquet talc, clean their teeth with salt on a piece of rag, soften their skin with Jergens Lotion. dust: v. to sprinkle with a powdery substance 撒粉末于 Lifebuoy soap, Cashmere Bouquet talc and Jergens Lotion are toilet articles that cost mo re and represent prestige, and are used by middle-class white people. These brown girls try to imitate the middle-class whites and to make themselves clean and pretty according the standards of beauty set by the dominant culture. 13. They straighten their hair with Dixie Peach, and part it on the side. part: v. to comb (hair) away from a dividing line 梳理（头发） Like people of any race, the African-American people are born with certain physical trai ts. They have dark skin, broad nose, thick lips and kinky hair. Some black people try t
o alter their appearance and look more like white people because they are told that whit e is beautiful while black is ugly. So, they whiten the skin, or have surgery that makes the nose narrower and higher, or straighten their hair and maybe dye it blond. Here in this story, the brown girls straighten their naturally curled hair with Dixie Peach and p art is on the side. These acts reflect the self-contempt existing in some African-America ns. print scarf 印花围巾/头巾 14. They do not drink, smoke, or swear, and they still call sex ―nookey‖. swear: to curse 诅咒 nookey: [ 'nuki ] (nooky) slang for sexual intercourse Drinking, smoking and swearing are considered to be bad behavior. Therefore these bro wn girls don‘t drink, smoke or swear. They still think sex is vulgar and indecent. This is another example showing how the brown girls try to meet the conventional puritanical codes of moral conduct. 15. second soprano: 第二女高音 choir: a group of people who sing together, esp. during religious services. 唱诗班, 合唱 队 C.f. chorus: 1. a group of people who sing together 2. a piece of music written to be sung by such a group solo: a piece of music for one performer,独唱, 独奏 Q: Why they can only sing the second soprano and never picked to solo? Hint: think about the time setting of the text, and also think about the character of thes e brown girls. Para. 3 & 4 Translate “They go to land-grant colleges, „,entertain his blunted soul‖ into Chinese, p lease. ? ? ? ? ? Land-grant colleges: 政府拨地建造的学校 normal school: 师范学院 Home economics: a science and art of homemaking, including nutrition, clothing, budgeting, and childcare soothe: to calm, ease or relieve blunted: lacking in feeling; insensitive; numb
她们就读于政府拨地建造的大学以及师范学院。 她们学习如何把服务白人的工作做的更细 致: 学家政是为了给他们烧饭做菜；学当老师是为了教育黑人孩子顺从；学音乐是为了让 疲惫的主人身心放松，为他那已经麻木的灵魂提供消遣。 1.What does the author tell us about the brown girls in Para. 3 and 4? In these two paragraphs the author shows that these brown girls have not only assimilat ed the way of life but also the ideology of the white bourgeoisie/middle-class. They rec eive more formal school education than their poorer sisters, as a result they are more al ienated from their black cultural heritage and try to ―get rid of the funkiness of nature, the funkiness of the wide range of human emotion‖. 2. Funkiness: see Note 12 to the text. “Funkiness” is obviously an important word in our text. It is repeated three times in the next sentence, and the word “funk” is capit alized in paragraph 4. “Funky” has several meanings. It is associated with a jazz style having an earthy quality derived from early blues or gospel music. It may mean uncon ventional, eccentric, offbeat, etc. it also may mean very emotional, informal, relaxed, cas ual, etc. funk is associated with spontaneity and sensuality. A number of Chinese terms may be applied to describe ―funky‖. 自然原始的,朴实的,本性的, 感官的,非传统的, 奇特 的,无拘束的,非正式的,即兴的,随意的,etc. 3. The dreadful funkiness of passion, the funkiness of nature, the funkiness of the wide range of human emotions. The word “dreadful” is said in an ironical tone. That is to say, in the eyes of the mi ddle-class white people and in the eyes of the brown girls, the funkiness of passion, nat ure and a wide range of human emotions is dreadful. Therefore, ―wherever it erupts‖ th ey ―wipe it away‖. Q: What details are given to show that these brown girls live a comfortable life? ? ? ? ? The brown girls live in a quiet black neighborhood where flowers and plants are gr own and well looked after; the porch is suitable for rest. In the room, they can afford ice for keeping food cool. Moreover, the toilet articles they use are often used by well-off middle classes of while people. More important, they can afford to go to land-grant colleges and attend the choir, which provides them with more choices to get along with white people.
4. Wherever it erupts, this Funk, they wipe it away; where it crusts, they dissolve it; w herever it drips, flowers, or clings, they find it and fight it until it dies. wipe sth. away: to get rid of or remove sth. crust: v. here means to become solid/strong dissolve: v. to cause to disappear or vanish; dispel
flower: v. to develop naturally or fully; mature cling: v. to hold fast or adhere to tightly Paraphrase: The brown girls try hard to repress their emotions and passions. However, these natural human emotions cannot be wiped out totally. Sometimes they will emerge and burst out. And they will develop, become stronger and stay with them. So wheneve r and wherever this “Funk” bursts out, the brown girls will do their best to stifle it. 5. They hold their behind in for fear of a sway too free… behind: (inf.) buttocks; bottom for fear of a sway too free: if a woman walks with a free sway, moving her buttocks from side to side too much, s he will be considered to be sexy. And this is what the brown girls try to avoid. So the y hold their buttocks in when walking. Question on content: How do these girls behave? How would you describe their character and manners? What does funkiness mean? Why do the brown girls want to get rid of the funkiness? 6. billow: n. a large wave or swell of water v. to surge or roll in billows; to swell out or bulge 波浪涌动或翻滚; 膨胀或隆 起 e.g. sheets billowing in the breeze 床单被微风吹开 7. There will be pretty paper flowers decorating the picture of his mother. The paper flowers imply that these girls‘ way of life is not natural but artificial, in cont rast to the Funk. Para. 5 Q: In the first four paragraphs the author uses “ they” to refer to the brown girls. Bu t in Paragraph 5 she begins to use the singular form “such a girl”. Why does the aut hor make this switch? Where does the author begin to narrow down to one particular gi rl instead of talking about such girls in general? A: Because the author wants to narrow down to a particular girl in Para 10. After the last sentence of Para 5 “And they are right”, the author begins to narrow down to on e particular girl. Question on content: How come that they never seem to have boyfriends but they alw ays marry? Do they take good care of their husbands? Do they love their husbands and their children?
Paras. 6-9 What does the author tell us in Paragraphs 6-9? What men do not know is that the brown girl will make her home her own inviolable world against any outsider, even against her husband. She runs the house in her own w ay. Although she keeps the house clean and tidy, she does not give it any warmth. Usu ally she would have distorted personality stick by stick: little by little, by and by stand /mount guard over: guard Para. 7 In this paragraph the author describes how a cat might engage the brown girl‘s affection s. In her stifled womanhood, she denies herself of normal sensual experience and theref ore can only find occasional sensual delight in a cat. Occasionally some living thing wil l engage her affections. engage: v. to attract, hold (the attention, etc.) affection: n. fond or tender feeling. In paragraphs 5 and 6 we see how the brown girl takes good care of everything in the house. She stands guard over its every ―plant, weed, and doily‖. But none of them are warm and alive. Occasionally some living thing, a cat, will engage her affections. Note the use of the expressions of “pleasant sensation‖ and “sensual delight‖. Sensu al pleasures or delights are eruptions of the funkiness. The brown girl attempts to stifle them consciously. But she is a human being after all. Subconsciously she still wants th em. As she can‘t enjoy them in her relationship with her husband in a normal and healt hy way, she accepts them as they come when she is playing with the cat. From these d etailed descriptions we can see the brown girl transfers her sensual pleasures that she ou ght to share with her husband to an animal. By describing her affections for the cat the author intends to show how the false social values can distort womanhood. In this sen se, the brown girls are victims of false social values. At the same time, as we see in later passages, this distorted personality victimizes other people. At her gentlest touch he will preen, stretch, and open his mouth. 当她轻轻地抚摸他时,他会满意地舔着毛,伸着懒腰,张开嘴巴. Para. 8 She will fondle that soft hill of hair„: fondle: v. touch lightly and with affection 爱,爱抚,溺爱 …when the intruder comes home from work…
The intruder is her husband. She has built her nest, in which the only living thing that engages her affections is the cat. soft hill of hair: hair like a soft hill 像小山一样的软毛 Note: ―of‖ is used between two nouns, with the first describing the second e.g. a tyrant of a father 暴君般的父亲 that palace of a house 宫殿般的房子 In rushed a giant of a French officer. 巨人般的法国官员 She was a mere slip of a girl. Could she do that? 只是个丫头片子 Part II ( Paras. 10-53) I. (Paras. 10-14): About Mrs. Geraldine and her son Junior. II. (Paras. 15-53): What happens to poor little Pecola. Para. 10 1. Q: What is the function of Paragraph 10? A: This paragraph serves as a transition of the brown girls in general to focusing on on e particular brown girl – Geraldine. sweat: v. perspire 出汗 armpit: n.腋窝 thigh: n. 大腿
No sweat! (spoken) e.g. “Thanks for everything.”“Hey, no sweat.‖ blood, sweat and tears: very hard work; a lot of effort e.g. The only way to succeed is the old-fashioned blood, sweat and tears. Para. 11 1. As long as his needs were physical, she could meet them-comfort and satiety. satiety: the state of being satiated; surfeit Paraphrase: If his needs were physical, she could meet them. She could make him co mfortable and give him enough or even more than enough to satisfy his physical needs.
2. shod: past participle of shoe (v. 穿鞋） indulge sb. in sth./doing sth.: to allow sb. to have whatever one likes or wants 沉浸 于；沉溺于… bout: n. a period of them spent in a particular way see (to it) that: make sure that„
3. As he grew older, he learned how to direct his hatred of his mother to the cat, and spent some happy moments watching it suffer. The absence of love breeds hatred. With this detail, the author shows that the distorted motherhood further distorted the personality of the child. This detail also prepares the re ader for what is going to happen later in the story. 当他长大一点时,他学会了如何把对妈妈的仇恨发泄到猫的身上.当他看到那只猫受折磨时, 他开心极了。 Para. 12 Washington Irving (1783-1859): the first American writer who win the international fa me, best known for the short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Wi nkle". Other famous works includes: History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty 《纽约外史》, The Sketch Book 《见闻札记》
Junior considered the playground his own, and the schoolchildren coveted his freedom to sleep late, go home for lunch, and dominate the playground after s chool. 小路易把运动场看成是自己的,小学生们都羡慕他有这么多自由,可以睡懒觉,可以回家吃 午饭,放学后还能控制运动场. covet: v. to wish for longingly 觊觎 swing: 秋千 slide: smooth slope, track or chute down on which children can play at slidin g 滑梯 Monkey bars: an arrangement of horizontal and vertical bars erected as in a p layground for children to climb on, swing from, etc. seesaw: long plank, balanced on a center support, and with a person sitting a t each end, which can rise and fall alternately 跷跷板
to avoid any suggestion of wool: 避免显出像羊毛般卷曲的样子 part: n. 发缝
etch: to make a drawing, design, etc. on mental, glass, etc. engrave; here us ed metaphorically to refer to the action of the barber’s scissors telltale: a. revealing what is meant to be kept a secret The line between colored and nigger was not always clear; subtle and telltale signs threatened to erode it, and the watch had to be constant. 有色人与黑人的界限并不总是分明,一些微妙的、能暴露秘密的迹象可能造成这一界限模 糊不清,所以要时时当心才是。 Para. 13 Question on content—What kind of boy Junior used to be? What change has take n place in Junior in his relationship with other boys (Paragraph 13-15)? What has caused such a change in him (Paragraph 11)? King of the Mountain: a game in which each player attempts to climb to the to p of a mound of earth and to prevent all others from pushing or pulling his/h er off the top. “山大王游戏” Geraldine put ideas of racial prejudice into her son’ mind. She also taught s him to avoid the funkiness. When he was still a normally and innocent boy, he used to long to play with the black boys, and he experienced pleasure in pla ying with them. According to the brown girls, this was an instance of the eru ption of the funkiness. Geraldine helped her son to get rid of it eventually.
„smell their wild blackness„: 闻他们黑人身上的野味儿„ He wanted to sit with them on curbstones and compare the sharpness of jackkni ves, the distance and arcs of spitting. 他想和他们坐在马路的石牙上,比谁的折叠刀最锋利,谁的唾沫吐的最远,弧线最好. Several details are mentioned here to show Junior was a normal boy and would have enjoyed doing things just as any other naughty boys would like to do. laurel/ laurels: n. honor gained for something done ; fame 桂冠, 殊荣; one ho nored or awarded a prize for great achievements, esp. in the arts or sciences e.g. a Nobel laureate 诺贝尔奖得主 a poet laureate 桂冠诗人 bully: v. to frighten or hurt a weaker person; to use your strength or power to make sb. do sth.
pick on (infml.): to tease or bully; choose for punishment, blame, or an unpl easant job, esp. repeatedly and unfairly e.g. Why are you always picking on me? I’m tired of being picked on. travel in packs: travel in groups 一起行动 pack can refer to a group of animals, people or things e.g. wolves hunting in packs 成群猎食的狼 a pack of journalists 一群记者 beat him witless: 把他打的吓破了胆 similar usage: beat him dead witless: silly or stupid; not sensible Paras. 14-15 when the mood struck him: 当他来情绪时（心血来潮时） at recess: a pause from doing something (as work)/ break. 课间休息时. Q: How to explain Junior’s “alternately bored and frightened at home”? He is frightened of what? A: His mother, from whom he could not get normal love but fear and hatred. The black girl kept her head down, showing she was very timid and frightened. She was very lonely, too. At recess kids played together, but nobody ever pl ayed with her. Para. 35 Q: What’s the symbolic meaning of the description of the Bible and the pictu re of Jesus Christ? A: The Bible, containing all the important teachings of Jesus Christ, is a sy mbol of Christian faith. However, the big red-and-gold Bible placed on the mo st conspicuous place in the room had become a showpiece. For the same purpose of showing off, a color picture of Jesus Christ hung on a wall with pretty p aper flowers. It is easy to see the irony here because Jesus Christ teaches l ove of one another, love of your neighbors, but what Junior and his mother di d to Pecola later before the picture of Jesus is just the opposite. They have nothing but hatred for this little black girl. rug: a piece of thick warm material like a blanket 小地毯 screech: to cry out in a high-pitched voice; scream
suck in: to take liquid, air, etc. into your mouth C.f. suck out: 吸出；汲取 right itself: to restore itself in an upright or proper position I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, a nd not, when I came to die, to discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practice res ignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out a ll the marrow of life„ 我步入丛林，因为我希望有意义地生活„„以免当我生命终结时，发现自己从没有活 过。„„我希望活得深刻，汲取生命中所有的精华„„ from Walden, by Thoreau Para. 40 He wound himself in and about her legs. would: past tense of wind, here means to twist around 围绕 The blue eyes in the black face held her. hold: to keep one’s attention or interest; engage Para. 42 His voice broke. break: v. (of voice or tone) change because of emotion Para. 43 streaks of horror 恐怖的光芒 streak (n.) streak (v.) streaker (n.) 条纹 裸奔 裸奔者 Para. 48 limp: a. here means lacking strength or energy e.g. His hand went limp and the knife fell to the ground. (notice: limp (v.) means to walk with difficulty 跛行) plait 辫子 matted: a. (of hair) forming a thick mass, esp. because of wet and dirty 乱蓬蓬的 undone: v. not fastened or tied 没绑紧的 sole 鞋底 soiled socks: dirty socks; soil here means to make sth. dirty heel 鞋跟 safety pin 安全别针
saloon: (old-fashioned) bar 酒吧 She looked at Pecola. Saw the r head, hair matted where the e wad of gum peeping out from of which had been walked down dirty torn dress, the plaits sticking out on he plaits had come undone, the muddy shoes with th between the cheap soles, the soiled socks, one into the heel of the shoe.
她打量着佩克拉，看见她穿者又脏又破的裙子，头上扎着小辫子，有几根已经散开了，头 发乱糟糟的，鞋子上沾满了泥土，廉价的鞋底中露出一团胶块，袜子也是脏兮兮的，其中 一只还在走路时滑到了鞋的后跟。 Q: In the sentence “she had seen this little girl all of her life”, does “t his little girl” refer to Pecola specifically? A: No, it refers to black girls like Pecola. Eyes that questioned nothing and asked everything. This sentence contains a sharp contrast. On one hand, they (girls like Pecola) were so ignorant that they didn’ ask why their lives were so miserable. On t the other hand, they were so poverty-stricken that their eyes showed desires for anything that could make their lives easier. It is an ambiguous sentence.
The end of the world lay in their eyes, and the beginning, and all the waste in between. “End of the world” could refer to Geraldine, to the little black girls she is the ideal person and they want to lead a life like hers, “the beginning” could refer to other poor, dirty black girls, of course they don’t want to h ave that kind of life, so for them, either try hard to get rid of their pover ty to become a woman like Geraldine or to stay as they used to be, the rest i s meaningless, is a waste. (Teachers’ Reference Book) In the eyes of these girls one could see that the y had no hope for the future and that their life would be nothing but a waste.
Para. 49 clown: v. to behave in a silly way n. 小丑 bill: n. here refers to the visor of a cap
They lived on cold black-eyed peas and orange pop. pop: n. (old-fashioned) a sweet drink 汽水
Grass wouldn’t grow where they lived. Flowers died. Shades fell down. Tin ca ns and tires blossomed where they lived. On the surface, the sentence means that these children roamed around among ga rbage, thrown away tin cans and tires. On a deeper level, the sentences impli es that Geraldine was blaming these black children for causing all the good t hings to die and bad things to happen in the black community. Lesson Ten Notes on the English Character E. M. Forster Part One Warm-up 1. Try to analyze the character of one of your friends or classmates? 2. Try to make your analysis more general and apply it to a larger group, e.g. the char acter of your family, the character of your class, the character of your college, and final ly, the character of the Chinese people. 《中国人的素质》Chinese Characteristics 明思溥 (Arthur Henderson Smith) 《中国人的精神》辜鸿铭 《中国人的智慧 》《吾国与吾民》 林语堂 《美国与中国》费正清 (John King Fairbank ) 《丑陋的中国人》柏扬 Part Two Background Information I Author Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879–June 7, 1970) English novelist, short story writer, and essayist, most famous for his ironic and we ll-plotted novels examining class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British s ociety. Forster's humanistic impulse toward understanding and sympathy may be aptly su mmed up in the epigraph to his 1910 novel Howards End: "Only connect." Forster was homosexual, but this fact was not made public during his lifetime. His posthumously released novel Maurice, never intended for publication, tells of the coming of age of an explicitly gay male character. II. Novels 1. Where Angels Fear to Tread 1905《天使不敢涉足的地方》 ; 2. The Longest Journey 1907 《最长的旅行》; 3. A Room with a View 1908 《看得见风景的房间》 ; 4. Howards End 1910 《霍华兹庄园》 ; 5. A Passage to India 1924 《印度之旅》; 6. Maurice 《莫瑞斯 》 (supposedly written in 1913-1914, published
posthumously in 1971, attributed to Forster); 7. Arctic Summer 1980 (posthumous, unfinished) http://www.musicandmeaning.com/forster/index.html (the unofficial E. M. Forster site) III. Theme and Style Forster's views as a secular (世俗的) humanist are at the heart of his work, which often depicts the pursuit of personal connections in spite of the restrictions of contem porary society. His humanist attitude is expressed in the non-fictional essay What I Belie ve. Forster is noted for his use of symbolism as a technique in his novels, and he has been criticized for his attachment to mysticism. One example of his symbolism is the Wych Elm tree in Howards End; the characters of Mrs. Wilcox in that novel and Mrs. Moore in A Passage to India have a mystical link with the past and a striking ability t o connect with people from beyond their own circles. IV. About the text Title: This article was originally given as a talk in India, but later worked up for publi cation. In conclusion Forster says, ―They are the notes of a student who is trying to ge t at the truth and would value the assistance of others.‖ The author uses “notes” to show that his analysis is not authoritative and open for di scussion and criticism. The intention of the author is to let people and nations have a better understanding of each other and come closer to each other, which is shown at the end of the essay. Organization Part 1 ( Para.1): middle classes (dominant force) Part II ( Paras.2-3): English public school system Part III ( Paras.4-8): the undeveloped heart of the middle-class Englishman Part IV ( Paras. 9-10): an answer to his own question: is English cold? … Part V ( Paras. 11-15): of hypocrisy Part VI (Paras. 16-17): other charges like treachery, cruelty, and fanaticism Part VII. (Paras. 18-19): conclusion Part Three Vocabulary A. Dictionary Work 1. let the cat out of the beg: to tell a secret carelessly or by mistake rel: like a cat that’s got the cream: very pleased with yourself 洋洋得意；踌躇满志
look like sth. the cat brought in: (infml.) (of a person) to look dirty and untidy not have a cat in hell’s chance: have no chance at all play cat and mouse with sb. 耍弄 when the cat’s away the mice will play: (saying) people enjoy themselves more when the person in charge of them is not there be raining cats and dogs: (infml.) be raining heavily no room to swing a cat: (infml.) the space is too small or limited 2. indifferent: having or showing no interest at all n. indifference 3. public school: in England, independent schools supported by funding through the priv ate sector and through tuition rates; in the US, Australia, Scotland, etc., a free local sch ool paid for by the government 4. prefect: (in some British schools) an older student with some authority over younger students and some other responsibilities and privileges （某些英国学校中负责维持纪律 等的）学长 5. form: n. (good/bad form) (old-fashioned, BrE) the way of doing things that is sociall y acceptable/not socially acceptable 礼貌；礼节 6. to bottle up: to not allow other people to see your true feeling or strong emotion, t o hold in or suppress emotions 隐藏；隐瞒（感情、不快等） 7. liabilities: n. the state of being legally responsible for sth. e.g. The company cannot accept liability for any damage caused by natural disasters. 公司对自然灾害造成的任何损失概不承担责任。 8. concession: n. a privilege granted by a government, company, etc. 9. muddle: v. to confuse, to put thins into disorder muddle-headed: (BrE) confused or not able to think clearly 10. incidental: a. happening in connection with sth. else, but not as important as it B. Glossary 1. fag: n. (AmE, slang, taboo) an offensive word for a male homosexual (BrE, infoml.) sth. that is boring and tiring to do a boy at a public school who has to do jobs for an older boy 公学中受高年级学生使唤的低年级男生 2. Lawyer: 律师(总称) the general term for a person trained in the law and authorized to advise or represent others in legal manners.
barrister ( BrE) / counselor (AmE) : a lawyer who conducts cases in court 出庭律师 solicitor ( BrE) / attorney ( AmE): a lawyer who is legally empowered to act for a cli ent, as in drawing up a contract or will, settling property, etc. 事务律师
Part 1 ( Para.1) What is the main idea of Paragraph 1? The first point of his talk is that the character of the English is essentially the cha racter of the middle class. The Reform Bill of 1832: 1832 年改革法案 But it is on the middle classes „ the aristocracy in Japan. The middle classes draw most attention of the critic, just as Russians pay attention to t he poor, while Japanese pay attention to the noble. 但是，（在英国）最吸引评论者关注的是中产阶级，正如在俄国人们关注的是穷人，在日 本人们关注的是贵族一样。 English Literature in the 19th Century 1) The early decades saw the great poets of the Romantic Movement, such as Keats, Shelley, Byron and Wordsworth. There were novels written in the spirit of Romanticism. Works by Jane Austen and the Bronte sisters were among the best-known romantic no vels. 2) During the period of the reign of Queen-Victoria (1837-1901). A number of novelists of Realism emerged, whose representative was Charles Dickens. John Bull (Mr. Bull) John Bull is a national personification of Britain created by Dr. Arbuthnot in 1712. As a literary figure, John Bull is well-intentioned, frustrated, full of common sense, and enti rely of native country stock. Bull is usually portrayed as a stout man in a tailcoat（燕 尾服）with breeches（马裤） and a Union Flag waistcoat（马甲）. He also wears a lo w topper （礼帽）(sometimes called a John Bull topper) on his head and is often acco mpanied by a bulldog（左轮手枪）.
Uncle Sam The government of the United States, often personified by a representation of a tall, thi n man having a white beard and wearing a blue swallow-tailed coat, red-and-white-stripe d trousers, and a tall hat with a band of stars.
John Bull and Uncle Sam
Saint George may caper on „who delivers the goods. As Saint George is a hero, his image often appears on banners 旗帜,横幅, and his nam e is often mentioned in the speeches of politicians. He is used as a symbolic figure for political purposes. But John Bull is the tradesman and delivers the goods we need in o ur daily life while making money at the same time. And even Saint George-if Gibbon is correct-wore a top hat once; he was an army contr actor and supplied indifferent bacon. indifferent: here means rather poor or bad; mediocre If Gibbon‘s supposition about St. George is correct, then even St. George wore a top h at once, could be identified as an army contractor, and supplied bacon of poor quality, i n short, behaved like John Bull. Part II ( Para.2-3): the English public school system and its role in character buildin g. How perfectly it expresses their character — far better, for instance, than does the univ ersity, into which social and spiritual complexities have already entered. which: here indicate university Exclamatory sentence: secondary school children are free from social or spiritual comple xities, which emerge in the university. The public school system perfectly expresses the character of the English middle classes that by implication lack social and spiritual com plexities. boarding school: a school where pupils are provided with meals and lodging compulsory games: organized games as part of the school curriculum; as we can see s ports are emphasized in public schools good form: good behavior esprit de corps: (French) team spirit weight: influence; importance out of all proportion: disproportionate C.f. out of all reason 无理的 out of all knowledge 无法辨认的；认不出的 Paraphrase: Only a small number of children go to public schools, but their weight, th at is, their influence is disproportionately great.
Para. 3: The lasting effect of the public school education on the middle-class Englishme n. They remember with regret that golden time when life, though hard, was not yet comple x; when they all worked together and played together and thought together, so far as t hey thought at all… so far as they thought at all: the author is being satirical, implying that owing to the public school system the students do not think independently enough in miniature: on a small scale; greatly reduced “ The battle of waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton”. (Implied meaning) The military discipline required to defeat Napoleon at Waterloo was acquired while they were engaged in sports on the playing fields of the public schools. In other words, these sports played a very important role in the development of characte r in preparing the English boys in their future tasks for the British Empire. It is nothing to them „ Duke of Wellington was an Irishman. inapplicable: a. unsuitable It does not matter to them that the remark is not historically accurate and was not mad e by Duke of Wellington, and that the Duke of Wellington was not even an Englishma n, but an Irishman. They go forth into it with well-developed bodies, fairly developed minds, and undevelope d hearts. The “body” refers to one‘s physical condition; the “mind” or head refers to one‘s a bility to think rationally, and the ―heart‖ refers to one‘s capacities of feelings and emoti ons. “And it is this undeveloped heart that is largely responsible for the difficulties of Englis hmen abroad.” Forster points out that the public school system is responsible for the characteristic weak ness of the English middle classes---their inability to give proper importance to their em otional life and their incapability of spontaneity of feeling. This weakness becomes more obvious and sometimes puts them in a difficult situation or a cultural conflict when the y travel or live abroad. Part III (Paras. 4-8): the undeveloped heart of the middle-class Englishman.
Para. 4: explanation of ―undeveloped heart‖ Paras. 5-7: an anecdote that illustrates this point Para. 8: the slowness of the English character be plunged in: be forced/thrown into sth. (unhappy) make a fuss: 大惊小怪,吵吵闹闹 But in me the Englishman came out strong. 但是我身上表现出强烈的英国人的特性。
Para. 6 The conclusion of the anecdote is even more instructive. 题。
throw/cast/shed light on sth.: to make a problem easier to understand e.g. Recent research has thrown new light on the causes of the disease. measure out: to take a certain amount of liquid, powder, etc. from a larger amount 计 量，按量分配 This rhetorical question implies criticism. If one measures out one’s emotions, as they were potatoes, one would act like a businessman, like John Bull. slopping them about like water from a pail: 把它（感情）像一桶水一样泼出去 Para. 7 “Note the word “bankrupt”. I spoke as a member of a prudent middle-class nation, alw ays anxious to meet my liabilities. “ liabilities: here means the amount of debt that is owed 债务 to meet my liabilities: to pay one‘s debts 偿还债务 Paraphrase: Pay attention to my use of the word “bankrupt”, a word related to busin ess. This reveals my identity as a member of the commercial nation, who would be car eful and sensible enough to avoid any risks of failing to pay their debts. 注意破产这个词。我是作为谨慎的中产阶级民族的一员讲这番话的，我们总惦记着欠的债 务一定要偿还。 as regards: as to; on the issue of 关于；至于 Shelley, at all events, „ we can never feel sorrow or joy too acutely. at all events: no matter what happens, anyhow take the consequences 承担后果 acutely: very strongly
无论怎样，雪莱相信精神的财富是无穷无尽的，他相信我们可以大量地、充满激情地在各 种场合表达我们的情感，我们无论怎样表现悲哀和欢乐都不过分。 EPIPSYCHIDION (心之灵) Shelley, 1821 True Love in this differs from gold and clay, 160 That to divide is not to take away. Love is like understanding, that grows bright, Gazing on many truths; 'tis like thy light, Imagination! which from earth and sky, And from the depths of human fantasy, 165 As from a thousand prisms and mirrors, fills The Universe with glorious beams, and kills Error, the worm, with many a sun-like arrow Of its reverberated lightning. George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824) 36 Manfred Childe Harold Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) 30 To a Skylark John Keats (1795-1821) 26 Ode to a Nightingale Don Juan
Ode to the West Wind Adonais Ode on a Grecian Urn To Autumn
Para. 8 In the above anecdote, I have figured as a typical Englishman. I will now descend from that dizzy and somewhat unfamiliar height, „ business of notetaking. figure: to appear dizzy: having or causing a whirling sensation 晕眩的 Paraphrase: In the above anecdote, I have become an example of the Englishmen for t he moment. That put me in a high position, which makes me dizzy and is unfamiliar to me. I will now come down from the high position of representative which makes me dizzy and is unfamiliar to me, and return to my role to analyze the characteristics of th e Englishman. coach: a large carriage pulled by horses caught on: to become held, fastened, or entangled 刮着 totter: move unsteadily, with a rocking motion 蹒跚,动摇 fling oneself about = throw oneself about 乱摇乱晃 draw up: cause (a vehicle) to stop after driving somewhere; pull up; haul up nervous breakdown: a severe emotional disorder 精神崩溃 nerves: (pl.) feeling of worry or anxiety 神经质；神经紧张
Part IV (Paras. 9-10) We cannot get fire out of ice.
Both words ―fire‖ and ―ice‖ are used metaphorically, ―fire‖ symbolizing passion, warm s ympathy, romance, imagination, etc. and “ice” symbolizing the quality of being cold, u nemotional, unimaginative, etc. hidden springs of fire: invisible resources of emotions Since literature always rests upon national character, there must be in the English natur e hidden springs of fire to produce the fire we see. 由于文学总是以民族特性为基础的，因此，英国特性中肯定隐藏着激情的源泉，这样才会 创造出我们见到的火一般的文学作品。 national song: here refers to English poetry Para. 10: English Character is not easy to understand Q: What figure of speech does the author employ in examining the relationship between the English nature and literature in paragraph 10? A: Metaphor. For example, “That Sea is the English character”, ―The depths and color s are the English romanticism and the English sensitiveness‖ and ―English literature is a flying fish.‖ air: here means a person‘s bearing, manner or appearance The depths and the colors „, but they exist. for the most part: mostly, to a great extent inhospitable: (of place) difficult to live; (of people) unfriendly Part V (Paras. 11-15): of hypocrisy Para. 11: What’s Englishman‘s attitude toward criticism? The Englishman is not annoyed by criticism and always takes criticism lightly because he is self-complacent And now let’s get back to terra firma.
Here the author implies that he is through with the use of his sea metaphor and now h e is returning to the discussion in a non-figurative way, using plain English instead of metaphorical language. He listens or not „monkey tricks don’t hurt me. smile and pass on: 一笑了之 monkey tricks: informal tricks and jokes Paraphrase: That kind of criticism is just like Bernard Shaw‘s attacks. It is nothing ne w and I am used to these tricks and jokes; they won‘t do any harm to me. The two typical responsive remarks show that the Englishman never takes criticism serio usly but always brushes it aside（漠视）. might do well: had better take sth. to heart: to take sth. seriously. take the criticism to heart and profit by it：认真对待批评并从中受益 It never strikes him-except as a form of words-that he is capable of improvement„ it never strikes him = it never occurs to him It is implied that the Englishman is so self-complacent that he regards himself as perfe ct and therefore needs no further improvement. a form of words: a verbal construct empty of meaning uneasy: a. worried or anxious about sth. in consequence: as a consequence; as a result resent: v. to feel bitter or angry about sth. 愤恨 snappy: a. here means quick to react in an angry way mask: v. hide; conceal; disguise In consequence they„to improve themselves. They resent criticism because it hurts them. And they often make snappy answers in res ponse to other people‘s criticism. Clearly they are self-defensive, but inwardly they are determined to improve themselves. This attitude is very different from that of the Englis h. And the “tolerant humorous attitude” with which he confronts them is not really humo rous, because it is bounded by the titter and the guffaw. confront: v. to face sb. so that they have to deal with it bound: v. prevent from doing by…
The Englishmen think they have a tolerant and humorous attitude toward criticism. In fa ct it is not so, because their attitude is limited by uncomfortable laughter, which indicat es that beneath the surface of their tolerant humorous attitude, they are uneasy. (as whe n they try to be humorous and brush aside criticism, they would titter and guffaw. Such uncomfortable laughter is a sign of uneasiness.) Para. 12: English people‘s hypocrisy is unconscious deceit or muddle-headedness With a Bible in one hand, a pistol in the other. With an ironic tone, the author is using a figure of speech to express the idea that in building the British empire the English have resorted to both soft and hard means-religio us and military means. The Bible represents religious activities of spreading the gospel, of encouraging Christian ideas of salvation, and the pistol represents military aggression.
This figure of speech is called metonymy 转喻: the substitution of the name of one thi ng for that of another with which it is closely associated. e.g. Washington for U.S. government naissance: the humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning tha t originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe villain: n the main bad character in a story, play, etc. Here the Renaissance villain refers to Niccol Machiavelli 马基雅维利 (1469-1527), Itali an political theorist whose book The Prince《君王论》(1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations. make for: to help to make sth. possible A public-school education is not likely to make one think clearly. Para. 13 Q: Why does the author dwell on the characters in Jane Austen‘s novel Sense and Sens ibility? A: The author quotes the plots of Sense and Sensibility to illustrate hypocrisy and hypo crites, and how to deal with real hypocrites and acceptable hypocrites. Jane Austen „ into the English mind. have an eye for: to have an appreciation for. 对…的鉴赏力
Some people may think Jane Austen is a very strange authority to cite because she live d in a very narrow world, and her characters never try to commit serious sins . Howev er, Forster knows she has a marvelous insight into the English mind and a merciless ey e for questions of conduct. embark upon: to begin doing sth. 开始着手某事 well off: be in a good condition; very rich badly off: be in a bad condition; very poor Sense and Sensibility is a novel by Jane Austen that was first published in 1811. It w as the first of Austen's novels to be published. Austen wrote the first draft in about 179 5, when she was about 19 years old. Jane Austen is noted for her penetrating observation of middle-class manners and moral ity and her irony, wit, and meticulous style. Her novels include Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice (1813) and Emma (1816), etc. mentally: it shows that he is only thinking of giving each of his half sisters a thousand pounds but has not actually done so by no means: not at all deprive sb. of sth.: to prevent sb. from having or doing sth. e.g. Why should you deprive yourself of such simple pleasures as reading or thinking? but though less of a wrench it might be more of a drain wrench: n. sudden feeling of anguish, grief, etc. drain: n. a thing that uses a lot of the time, money, etc. it might be less sad to do this (to give only a hundred a year) but it might be more e xhausting for them amply: adv. enough discharge my promise: fulfill my promise Para. 14 Well, are the John Dashwoods hypocrites? It depends upon our definition of hypocrisy. Whether they are hypocrites or not depend upon how we define hypocrisy: is it conscio us deceit or unconscious deceit? If hypocrisy is defined as conscious deceit, they are n ot hypocrites, but if hypocrisy is unconscious deceit, then they are. gain on sb./sth.: to get closer to sb./sth. gathered force and gained on him: (the evil impulses) become stronger and gradually overtake his good intentions.
Para. 15: analysis of the national diseases of England draw a parallel between them: to show that two things are similar It has always 被误诊… ，隐伏危害，容易 impressed me„be something else;… 我一直在想，英国的民族疾病应该是癌症和痨病---发展缓慢 consumption: 肺痨 consumptives: 肺痨患者 strike at sb.: to cause damage or have serious effect on sb. Para. 16: common English people should not be accused of treachery, cruelty, and fanat icism because their character prevents them from being so bad In these charges I have never been able to see the least point … Here the author is trying to say that none of these charges makes any sense/point to hi m. Tartuffe: see Note 15 to the text. 答尔丢夫: (法国 17 世纪喜剧作家莫里哀所作同名喜剧中的主人公) Iago: see Note 16 to the text. 莎士比亚悲剧《奥赛罗》中的反角 prefer A to B: like A better than B villainy: n. vice, evil, criminal behavior From villainies such as „ prevents him from sinking to these depths. from villainies such as these the average Englishman is free: common Englishmen do n‘t have such villainies … prevents his rising to certain heights, also prevents him from sinking to these depths. Here the author uses antithesis 对偶, a figure of speech characterized by strongly contra sting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas. The implied meaning here is that the average Englishman is moderate and does not go to extremes. 普通的英国人没有这样的恶行。他的性格会阻碍他上升到一定的高度，同时也不会让他堕 落到如此糟糕的地步。 Because he does not „no fanatics-religious or political.
正因为普通的英国人不会成为神秘主义者，因此他也不会成为恶棍；他既不为世界造就预 言家，也不给世界带来无政府主义者或宗教与政治的狂热分子。 Para. 17: the author is defending the English against untrue charges such as cruelty and treachery infamy: n. a state of extreme dishonor 声名狼藉, 丑名, 丑行 e.g. His name will live in infamy. 他的名字将与耻辱共存。 Amritsar massacre 阿姆利则大屠杀: see Note 17 Partly because they are annoyed with certain genuine defects in the English character, and in their irritation throw in cruelty in order to make the problem simpler. genuine defects: real faults in their irritation: while they were very angry throw in cruelty: throw cruelty in; use cruelty as a remark against English character Moral indignation is always agreeable, but nearly always misplaced. It is indulged in b oth by the English and by the critics of the English. indignation: a feeling of anger and surprise caused by sth. that you think unfair or unr easonable agreeable: pleasant and easy to like 道义上的义愤是令人高兴的，但几乎总是用错了地方。 drawback: n. a disadvantage or problem Para. 18: Forster sums up his discussion of the English nature English character is not self-complacent, unsympathetic and reserved machinery: system; any combination of things or persons by which something is kept i n action or a desired result is obtained it is the machinery that is wrong: in the author‘s opinion, the English public school s ystem is at the core of the machinery that is wrong Para. 19: summary of the essay Q: Why does he call his observations ―notes of a student‖? A: Since the author’s notes are both unauthoritative and open for discussion and critici sm. incidental: of a minor, casual, or subordinate nature get at sth.: to learn or find out
I have no faith in official caution and reticence. Forster has discussed what he feels and what he thinks about the English national faults in a frank way. Officials would not have done so as they are always cautious and un willing to discuss their views openly. reticence: n. unwillingness to talk about what you feel or what you know 无言,沉默,谨 慎 The cats are all out of their bags, and diplomacy cannot recall them. rel. “let the cat out of the bag‖ diplomacy: subtly skillful handling of a situation I have already made all my opinions known to you, and being diplomatic cannot unsay what has been said. The nations must understand one another, and quickly; and without the interposition of their governments, for the shrinkage of the globe is throwing them into one another’s a rms. 各民族必须互相了解，而且要快，不要政府的插手与干预，因为世界在缩小，这使得他们 不可避免的要进行接触。 Lesson Eleven Beauty Scott Russell Sanders Part I Warm-up 1. Comment on the following sayings: Beauty is only skin deep. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. 2. What‘s your opinion about beauty? Try to give a definition, please.
What is beauty?
e.g. a delightful quality associated with harmony of form or color, excellence of craftsm anship, truthfulness, originality, etc. Part II Author & Organization Scott Russell Sanders (1945-)
Born in Tennessee, Scott Russell Sanders spent much of his youth at the military muniti ons base where his father worked. After earning his B.A. from Brown University and hi s Ph.D. from Cambridge University, he began his teaching career at Indiana University. Sanders‘s youthful memories form the basis for the title essay of his well-known collecti on The Paradise of Bombs (1987). He has also published fiction, a study of the writer D. H. Lawrence, and book-length nonfiction that includes Staying Put: Making a Home in a Restless World (1993) and Hunting for Hope: A Father’s Journey (1998). Organization Part I ( Paras.1-13): the recollection of Eva‘s wedding and the author‘s feeling at that time Part II ( Paras.14-17): the recollection of the universe Part III ( Paras.18-21): is beauty a subjective or objective existence Part IV ( Paras. 22-27): whether biology also plays a role in our pursuit of beauty Part V ( Paras. 28-31): the wedding scene again Part VI (Paras. 32-35): the beauty of law of nature Part VII. (Para. 36): his special feelings about beauty Part VIII. (Paras. 37-39): in order to perceive beauty, we need training Part IX. (Para. 40) conclusion: the importance of beauty Part III Vocabulary A. Dictionary Work 1. crystallize: to make a liquid take on a solid form 结晶 2. creation: the birth of the universe and everything in it 创世 3. humble: in a favorable sense, suggesting an unassuming character in which there is a n absence of pride and assertiveness 4. well up: (as of feeling or tears) to rise to the surface, ready to overflow 涌起 5. plant: v. to fix in position 固定 6. light: n. one‘s individual opinion, standards or life philosophy 个人观点、标准、生活 哲学等 7. out on a limb: in a precarious or vulnerable position or situation; at a disadvantage 处境危险 8. grain: n. essential quality 9. break: v. to dash apart, as a wave on the shore 分散 rel. To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour. ——William Black 一粒沙中看出一个世界， 一朵花里看出一座天堂；
把无限放在你的手掌， 把永恒在一霎那收藏。 Part IV Detailed Study of the Text Part I (Paras. 1-13): of Eva‘s wedding Para 1 vestibule: a small entrance hall or room, either to a building or to a room within a bui lding 门廊, 前厅 bridesmaid: n. one of the young women who attend the bride at a wedding 女傧相 c.f. bridesman 男傧相 fuss: v. to bustle about or worry, esp. over trifles train: n. sth. that hangs down and drags behind, specifically a part of a dress, that trail s behind the wearer when she walks 长袍(裙)拖地的部分 ivory: here indicates the creamy white color 象牙色的 bun: n. hair worn in a roll or knot 圆发髻 strand: n. a single thin piece of thread, wire, hair, etc. e.g. a strand of wool a few strands of dark hair tuck into her bun a loose strand of hair: to thrust the edge of some dangling hair int o the hair knot 将一绺散落的头发塞到发髻里 patent leather: a type of leather with a hard shiny surface 漆革；漆皮 c.f. patent: n. 专利权 Clumsy in my rented patent leather shoes and stiff black tuxedo, I stand among these g orgeous women like a crow among doves. (1) How does the author feel in his formal dress? (2) Does he buy the shoes? What‘s the reason? (3) By ―in stiff black tuxedo‖, does the author mean the suit is very stiff or he feels st iff in such clothes? (4) Why does the author compare himself to a crow? A: (1) He feels uncomfortable and awkward. (2) No, he rents them. Because such formal shoes are only worn on very formal occasi ons and there is not much chance for the author to wear them. (3) Both, because a tuxedo is for formal occasions and is carefully starched and ironed. At the same time, he is not accustomed to such dress. (4) A crow with black feathers among white doves will present a sharp contrast. The au thor is in black and is stiff and awkward and maybe even appear quite out of place（不 合适） the suit among those women dressed in silk with bright colors. The contrast is in as sharp as the contrast between a crow and doves.
…, but because the festival of marriage has slowed time down until, any fool can see t heir glory. bouquet: a bunch of cut flowers Paraphrase: …, but because in wedding ceremony time seems to go slowly to everybo dy, even a fool could observe things clearly and see how wonderful they are. Para. 2 …Eva tries in vain to teach me a gliding ballet step to use as we process down the ai sle. glide: to move smoothly and easily Para. 3 … I botch it over and over. botch: to spoil by poor performance; bungle 笨手笨脚的工作 Para. 4 I fear that I will stagger along beside my elegant daughter like a veteran wounded in f oreign wars. stagger: v. to move unsteadily as from a blow, fatigue, drunkenness; characterized by a loss of balance and failure to maintain a fixed course 摇晃, 蹒跚 veteran: (AmE, infml. vet) n. a person who has been a soldier for a long time 老兵 c.f. veterinarian 兽医 Paraphrase：I am afraid that I will walk unsteadily beside my graceful daughter like an old demobilized soldier who got wounded in wars fought outside the country. Para. 5 blissful: adj. full of spiritual joy or happiness as she could do in her sleep: she could walk gracefully and effortlessly even in sleep walking congregation: a gathering of people, esp. in a church（教堂）会众 …, the man who waits in thinly disguised turmoil at the far end of the aisle. thinly: adv. in a way that does not hide the truth very well 容易识破的；显而易见的 e.g. The novel is a thinly disguised autobiography. 这部小说一看就知道是部自传。 turmoil: n. a state of great anxiety, confusion and uncertainly It‘s very obvious that the groom, Allen, is very nervous and anxious as he waits his bri de to come. Para. 11 The organ strikes up Bach’s “Jesus, Joy of Man’s Desiring” for the bridesmaids’ entran ce.
strike up: to start to play music or sing Bach (1685-1750): German composer and organist See Note 2 of text 管风琴奏起巴赫的“基督，人们期望的欢乐”，预示着伴娘即将进入大厅。 skim: to move along swiftly and lightly over a surface overawe: v. to impress sb. so much that they feel nervous or frightened 使敬畏； 使胆怯 e.g. The younger players were overawed by the occasion and played badly until their mother nudges them along: until their mother pokes them gently with the elbow to get them going dash: to move swiftly skip: to spring forward and quickly, hopping on alternate feet Para. 12 … so I can make up to my darling for anything she may have lacked in her girlhood. My daughter may feel she has missed something when she was young. If so, I wish I could make compensation to her now, before she is married. Eva tilts her face up at me, quirks the corners of her lips into a tight smile… tilt: to cause to slant; to tip quirk: (rare) to twist, turn And so, lifting our feet in unison, we go. Paraphrase: And we start moving down the aisle in the same way and at the same tim e. Para. 13 sizzling: extremely hot … I can summon up hundreds of details from that radiant day, but on the day itself I was aware only of a surpassing joy. summon (up): to call forth; to make an effort (to recall the details of that day) radiant: adj. showing great happiness; giving a warm bright light 喜气洋洋的；灿烂的 Paraphrase: I can now recall many, many, small things about the wedding but at that t ime I was so overwhelmed with joy that I did not notice any details. The glow of happiness had to cool before it would crystallize into memory. crystallize: v. to make a liquid take on a solid form 结晶
Paraphrase: With the passing of time, you will feel a bit more detached from the happ y event and then you can recall the things more clearly and they will stick in your min d. Part II (Paras. 14-17): of the universe Para. 14 … if we trace the universe back to its origins in the Big Bang, we find the multiplicity of things fusing into greater and greater simplicity, until at the moment of creation its elf there is only pure undifferentiated energy. Big Bang: the cosmic explosion that marked the origin of the universe （宇宙）大爆炸 Note 4 multiplicity: a great number and variety of sth. fuse: to mix together; blend 混合 creation: the birth of the universe and everything in it 创世 undifferentiated: having parts that you cannot distinguish between; not split into differe nt parts or sections 无法区分的；分不开的；一体的 …… 如果我们追溯宇宙的起源到原始大爆炸，我们就会发现众多的十五逐渐合并成简单 的事物，而且越往前追溯，事物就变得越简单，最后到创世那一刻时，就只剩下那一片浑 然一体的能量了。 equation: a statement showing that two amounts or values are equal 方程式 I also believe this primal energy continues to feed us, directly through the goods of cre ation, and indirectly through the experience of beauty primal: original; primitive 最初的；原始的 我还认为这种原始能源继续在给我们提供能量，直接地是通过上帝创造的万物，间接地是 通过美的感受。 The thrill of beauty is what entranced me as I stood with Eva’s hand hooked over my arm while the wedding march played, as it entrances me on these September nights whe n I walk over dewy grass among the songs of crickets and stare at the Milky Way. thrill: tremor of excitement; sharp, exhilarating excitement entrance: v. to make sb feel great pleasure; to fill with delight 使......狂喜 dewy: adj. wet with due 带露水的 cricket: 蟋蟀 Milky Way: the galaxy 银河 Paraphrase: It is the sharp excitement of beauty which filled me with joy when Eva h eld my arm during the wedding march. The same excitement of beauty fills me with jo y when, on these September nights, I walk over dewy grass while the crickets sing and when I stare at the Milky Way.
We are seeing the Milky Way, and …. This sentence begins with ―we are seeing the Milky way‖ to link this paragraph up with the last on e which ends with ―stare at the Milky Way‖. This way of writing lends a smooth transition. the blur of Earth’s atmosphere: the Earth‘s atmosphere is hazy, indistinct, which prevents instrumen ts from observing the rest of the universe very clearly From data beamed down by the telescope, for example, I summon onto my computer screen an imag e of Jupiter wrapped in its bands of cloud like a ball of heathery yarn. beam: v. to send out (signal, light) 譬如说，利用太空望远镜发回的信息，我在计算机屏幕上显示了一张被云团包着的木星的图像，就像 一个紫红色的线团。
Then I call up the Cat’s Eye Nebula, incandescent swirls of red looped around the gleam of a heliu m star, for all the world like the burning iris of a tiger. This fierce glare began its journey toward earth 3,000 years ago, about the time my Assyrian ancestors were in their prime. the Cat’s Eye Nebula 猫眼星云 Note 5 incandescent swirls or red: red hot dust whirling around Assyrian: a native or inhabitant of Assyria (the ancient empire and civilization of western Asia) 亚 述人 Note 6, 7 in their prime: when they were most fully mature or in the best situation
然后，我又显示了猫眼星云，一颗闪烁的氦星被灼热的红色漩涡所包围，整个世界就像老虎身上耀眼 的五彩斑纹。这种炽热的强光三千年前开始向地球进发，当时我的亚述祖先正处于全盛时期。 push back deeper in time: to go back further in time; to move back to an even earlier time the Eagle Nebula 天鹰座星云 see Note 8
… a trio of dust clouds like rearing horses, their dark bodies scintillating with the sparks of newbor n stars. ……三股尘埃就如三匹后脚站立的黑马，身上闪烁着新星的光芒。 I study images of quasars giving birth to galaxies, galaxies whirling in the shapes of pinwheels, sup ernovas ringed by strands of luminous debris… ring: v. to surround debris: n. the scattered remains of something broken or destroyed 残骸 我研究类星体产生星系的图像，这些星系如同玩具风车一样旋转，超新星周围是一条条由星体遗骸组
成的闪闪发光的带状物…… … and all the while I’m delving back toward that utter beginning when you and I and my daughter and her new husband and the bright heavenly host were joined in the original burst of light. delve: v. to investigate for information; to search 我一直不断地探索宇宙的开始，一直追溯到你我我的女儿她的新婚丈夫以及天空中大量闪闪发光的行 星汇合成的最初的原始大耀光。 Para. 16 pore over: to read or study carefully set up: to cause to feel stimulated, exhilarated, etc. The feeling is unusually intense for me just now, so soon after the nuptials, but it has never been r are. nuptial: n. marriage or a weeding ceremony adj. of or relating or marriage or the wedding ceremony Paraphrase: Since the wedding took place not long ago, my feeling of delight is naturally still very strong. But this kind of feeling has occurred to me many times. This is not the only time I have h ad such feelings. As far back as I „ have provoked in me an answering vibration. answering vibration: a response that reflects the external stimulus; emotion echoing the outside worl d Paraphrase: From what I can recall, things I have seen, or heard, or smelled, or tasted or touched, that is, perceptions I get from my five senses, have stirred appreciative response in me. The stimulus might be „, „, yet in each case a familiar surge of gratitude and wonder wells up i n me. silhouette: n. shape or outline purl: n. the murmuring sound of water moving in ripples 潺潺声 savor: a particular taste or smell humble: here means very common or ordinary well up: (as of a feeling or tears) to rise to the surface, ready to overflow 激情的引发也许来自倾泻在北美松松枝上的月光，或是蜻蜓尾部变幻不定的色彩，或是梯式靠背椅窄 窄的轮廓，或是手工制作的罐钵上的釉彩。它可能来自小鸟的鸣唱、巴赫的奏鸣曲或流水淌过石块的 潺潺声。它可能来自一行诗、某个人脸庞的轮廓、面包的香味以及树枝或琴弓的摇摆。它可能来自高 山日出的壮观场面，也可能仅仅起自不起眼的冰柱晶莹的柱尖，但不管是何种起因，每次我内心都会 涌起同样的感激和敬叹。 Para. 17 now and again: sometimes, occasionally
sympathetic: pertaining to vibrations, sounds, etc., produced by a body as the direct result of similar vibrations in a different body 感应的; 合应的 Q：How can the guitar give a sympathetic thrum? Hint: A sound at a particular frequency can cause a sympathetic vibration in a guitar string, but abo ve all, it is the author who is the center of responsiveness. Just so, over and over again, impulses from the world stir a responsive chord in me „ Paraphrase: In the same way, on many occasions, stimuli from the outside world would set up in me a corresponding vibration. A screech owl calls, a comet streaks the night sky, a story moves unerringly to a close, a child lay an arrowhead in the palm of my hand, my daughter smiles at me through her bridal veil, and I feel for a moment at peace, in place, content. streak: v. to make long, thin marks on or in unerringly: surely … I feel … at peace, in place, content: I have the feeling of satisfaction, of freedom from worry, of finding my suitable place in the world 当猫头鹰高声鸣叫，当流星划过夜空，当故事自然发展到结局，当小孩子把一只慈菇放在我的手掌， 当我的女儿在婚纱后向我微笑，我都能感受到瞬间的平和、自在和满足。 Summary of Part II (14-17) Para. 14 is a transition from the wedding to the wonder of the universe. The idea of beauty is first brought up in this paragraph. Para. 15 is a more specific description of the wonders of the universe. Paras. 16 and 17 go deeper into the matter and ask why such different things could provoke the sa me “answering vibration”. The author here lists a number of very ordinary occasions of natural be auty or human activity. Then at the end of Para. 17 the author comes to the theme of this essay: beauty. Part III (Paras. 18-21): is beauty a subjective or objective existence? Para. 18 make of: to explain; to know about 解释；了解 Do my sensory thrills tell me anything about the world? Does beauty reveal a kinship between my s mall self and the great cosmos, or does my desire for meaning only fool me into thinking so? sensory: adj. connected with the reception and transmission of sense impressions 感觉的 kinship: n. relationship; close connection
感官给我带来的激情是否让我对这个世界有所了解呢？是美揭示了小我与大世界之间的紧密关系还是 由于我追求事物的内在含义而主观地这么认为呢？ pattern: n. a regular arrangement of lines, shapes, colors, etc. 图案， 花样; here refers to (pattern o f) beautiful things Para. 19 cautionary: giving or serving as a warning; admonitory 告诫的 Q: What are the two negative ideas the author keeps thinking about? A: They are: i. beauty is only very shallow (skin deep) ii. beauty is highly subjective (in the eye of the beholder) Q: What‘s the implied meaning of “it is equally true that our taste may be influenced by our upbri nging, by training, by cultural fashion‖? A: Beauty could be influenced by our subjective experience plant: v. to fix in position overalls: n. 工装裤 by one’s own light: according to one‘s own opinion, standards or life philosophy chase: v. to follow quickly and persistently in order to catch or harm Para. 20 Mustn’t beauty be shallow if it can be painted on? Mustn’t beauty be a delusion if it can blink off and on like a flickering bulb? 如果美可以被描画出来的话它就一定不会是肤浅的吗？如果美能够像摇曳的灯泡一样明灭它就一定不 会是一种错觉吗？ The two questions are directly related to the previous two sayings: “beauty is only skin deep”, and “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”. The author is still digging into the question of beauty bei ng shallow/superficial or subjective/objective. The common thing of a painting and a flickering bulb is that it is tangible existence that can be felt or experienced. A wedding gown will eventually grow musty in a l seep out of the brightest day. musty: adj. having a stale, moldy smell or taste mothproof: adj. treated chemically so as to repel seep: v. to leak, drip, or flow out slowly through mothproof box; flowers will fade, and the glow wil 发霉的；有霉味的 clothes moths 防蛀的 small openings or pores
Paraphrase: The clothes made for the occasion of wedding, though kept in a box specially treated t o repel moths, will have a moldy smell as time goes on; flowers will gradually lose their color and die and even the brightest day will grow dim. Q: What does the author mean by this?
A: The best of things will not last for ever. Only change is permanent. grant: v. to admit; to acknowledge 承认；知道 facade: n. the visible front part of anything, often used figuratively, with implications of an imposin g appearance concealing something inferior （建筑物的）正面； （虚假的）外表 e.g. a classical facade 古典式建筑的正面 Squalor and poverty lay behind the city‘s glittering facade. 表面的繁华掩盖了这座城市的肮脏和贫穷。 lead astray：to direct sb. to the wrong direction 引入歧途 fickle: adj. capricious 易变的；多变的 Paraphrase: I acknowledge that sometimes we may be cheated by the surfaces of things, or be misl ed by our changeable eyes (for what we have seen). But I have been married to Ruth for thirty years, remember. I have watched my daughter grow for t wenty-four years, my son for twenty, and these loved ones have taught me a more hopeful possibility. These members of the family whom I love convince me that beauty is not skin deep and beauty exi sts objectively in the world. Season after season I have knelt over fiddleheads breaking ground, studied the wings of swallowtails nectaring on blooms, spied skeins of geese high in the sky. 冬去春来，我蹲在蕨类植物旁边，观察它们如何破土而出，我研究系吸吮着花蜜的凤蝶的翅膀，观察 在天上高高飞翔的一群群大雁。 … real beauty dwells not in my own eye alone but out in the world. Real beauty is not merely my subjective judgment, but an actual, objective existence. Para. 21 I must go out on a speculative limb if I am to speak about the qualities in the world that call it fo rth. out on a limb: (colloquial) in a precarious or vulnerable position or situation speculative can mean given to conjecture or speculation 猜测性的，推测的, also it can mean of, char acterized by, or based upon contemplative speculation 深思熟虑的, here in the text it has the first m eaning call forth: to evoke; to elicit 唤起；引起 Paraphrase: If I am to discuss what are the characteristic elements of the world which produce bea uty I am in a very vulnerable position because I have to take a risk at guessing. 如果让我谈论使美产生的事物的特质，我将处于非常不利的位置，因为我只能进行不充分的推断。 … it gives us a glimpse of the underlying order of things. It makes us aware of the way that life and the world are organized.
That grain runs through our own depths. grain: n. essential quality depths: n. the far inner or inmost parts Paraphrase: That essential quality has become a part of our innermost selves. What we find beautiful accords with our most profound sense of how things ought to be. Paraphrase: We find the thing beautiful because it fits in with our idea of how a thing should be. That is to say, when an objective thing meets our subjective desire, then we‘ll call it beautiful. Summary of Part III. Para. 18 raises four questions, including the two sentences beginning with ―perhaps‖ Para. 19 moves on to the two cautionary sayings which he thinks are valid Para. 20 discusses firstly three possibilities: (1) even if beauty is tangible, it can still be shallow or a delusion; (2) the best of things cannot last for ever; (3) outward appearances may be deceptive an d our own views may also be at fault; then the also changes his course starting with “but”. The f inal conclusion at the end is that beauty is not skin deep and that it dwells out in the world. In Para. 21, in a modest way, the author says he will venture to define the essence of beauty. Beau ty is a reflection of the natural order of things; it follows the grain of the universe and is also a pa rt of ourselves. Part IV (Paras. 22-27): whether biology (or our genes) also plays a role
in our pursuit of beauty Para. 22 Before I climb out any farther onto this limb, let me give biology its due. out on the limb due: n. a thing that should be given to sb. by right e.g. He received a large reward, which was no more than his due (= than what he dese rved). 他得到了重赏，这也是他应得的。 She‘s a slow worker, but to give her her due (= to be fair to her), she does try ver y hard. 她做事很慢，但说句公道话，她确实很努力。 Paraphrase: Before I go any further in my speculation, I would like to give recognitio n to the role of biology. It may be that the features „ carrying with them their oblivious genes. tinkle: v. here means to have a prickling or stinging feeling, as from excitement shapely: adj. (esp. of a woman‘s body) having an attractive curved shape die out: to stop existing oblivious: adj. lacking conscious awareness; unmindful
也许我们在男人或女人身上、在艺术、风景或天气中发现的美的特征正是那些使得我们祖 先得以生存下来的因素。换言之，如果早期人类中的某些人在看到驯鹿、闻到暴风雨的气 息、听到潺潺的流水声或抚摸到优美的腰身时都不会兴奋激动的话，他们很有可能已经带 着他们毫无感知的基因消亡了。 Para. 23 tune: v. to prepare or adjust sth. 调整；使适合 The gravity that draws a man and woman together, leading each to find the other ravis hing, carries with it a long history of sexual selection, one informed by a shrewd calcul ation of fertility and strength. gravity: n. the natural force of attraction 吸引力 ravishing: adj. extremely beautiful; gorgeous inform: v. to animate; to guide; to have an influence on sth. e.g. Religion informs every aspect of their lives. 宗教影响着他们生活的各个方面。 shrewd: adj. clever at understanding and making judgments about a situation 精明的 fertility: n. the state of being fruitful or prolific 肥沃；多产 Paraphrase: The force that pulls a man and woman together, making each find the oth er attractive, has behind it a biological standard of choosing a partner of the other sex f ormed over long period of evolutionary time. This standard is inspired by subtle conside ration of capability of giving birth to children and being physically strong. rivet: v. to hold sb‘s interest or attention so completely that they cannot look away or think of anything else e.g. I was absolutely riveted by her story. 我完全被她的故事吸引住了。 luxuriant: adj. growing thickly and strongly in a way that is attractive 茂盛的；浓密的 And I would have balked at the suggestion that my caveman ancestors had any say in my dawning desire, although now I can hear their voices grunting. balk (at sth.): to stop suddenly and refuse to continue sth./doing sth. have any say: here means have any influence dawning: beginning Paraphrase: Back then I would have denied that my genes which had been passed dow n from my early ancestors who lived in caves played an important role in the beginning of my sexual desire, but now I find that idea more credible and I seem to be able to hear their suggestions. Para. 24
If we take a ride through the suburbs and study the rolling acres of lawn dotted with c lumps of trees and occasional ponds, what do we see but a faithful simulation of the A frican savanna where humans first lived? rolling: adj. rising and falling; extending in gentle waves 起伏的 clump: n. a small group of things or people very close together, esp. trees or plants 丛，簇，群… simulation: n. imitation 如果我们坐车穿越郊区，观察一下占地好几英亩的起伏的草坪，点缀其间的树丛及偶尔出 现的池塘，我们看到的不就是人类最早居住的非洲热带大草原的忠实翻版吗？ The same combination of watering holes, sheltering trees, and grassland shows up in pa intings and parks the world over, from New Delhi to New York. It is as though we sha pe our surroundings to match an image, coiled in our DNA, of the bountiful land. The similarity of paintings and parks over the world gives the impression that we have in our mind a picture of what our rich and fertile land should be. This image is perhap s dictated by our DNA, our genetic heritage as humans. And then we paint and build i n accordance with such a mental picture. Para. 25 Perhaps in every case, as in our infatuation with lover or landscape, a sense of biologi cal fitness infuses the resonant, eager, uplifting response to the world that I am calling beauty. Yet I persist in believing there is more to this tingle than an evolutionary refle x. infatuation: n. foolish or unreasoning passion or affection, often a transient one （一时 的）热恋、痴迷 e.g. It isn‘t love, it‘s just a passing infatuation. infuse: v. to fill with; to make to have a particular quality 注入；充满 uplifting: adj. making you feel happier or more hopeful 令人振奋的；鼓舞人心的 ―there is more to (it or n.) than…‖: the meaning of the pattern is the part following ―than‖ cannot fully explain the thing e.g. There is more to it than a courtesy visit. (It is not just a courtesy visit. There must be other more important reason behind the vi sit.) The sentence means: An evolutionary response cannot adequately explain why there is th is physical feeling of excitement. There must be another more important reason --- beaut y. lust for: to have a strong wish or desire for Para. 26
finely tuned: careful adjustment is made so as to be able to hear accurately Gregorian chants: 格利高里圣歌 see Note 9 of the text Delta blues: 密西西比三角洲蓝调 所谓的街头蓝调 see Note 10 of the text enthrall: v. to attract; to captivate Shaker chair: (or ladderback chair) a chair with a beautifully simple design created by a religious group in the U.S.A. called by unfriendly outsiders the Shakers, because they used to shake their bodies as part of their religious rituals in the early days Durer: 阿尔布雷特·丢勒 （Albrecht Durer, 1471－1528) German artist of the Renaissance, famous for introducing mathematically exact proportions into his designs Para. 27 dazzle: v. to dim the vision of, especially to blind with intense light; to amaze, overwh elm, or bewilder with spectacular display 使目眩；使惊叹 keep track of: to have information about what is happening or where sb./sth. is 了解动 态；保持联系 the majesty of the night: 夜晚的肃穆 the mood of a deity: 神圣的心境 I’m looking for the sheer bliss of looking. sheer: adj. complete and not mixed with anything else 完全的；纯粹的 I‘m only enjoying the pleasure of watching. Summary of Part IV. Para. 22 explains the possibility that biology and our genes might play some role in ou r pursuit of beauty. Para. 23 & 24 moves on to specific examples of our primitive and internal desire for beauty, showing that biology (evolution) may have some influence on our idea of beauty. Para. 25 firstly reinforces the influence of biology on our idea of beauty, and then the author moves on to stress that biology can not explain fully the case, there must be so me other reason for our pursuit of beauty. Para. 26 gives us many examples of human‘s pursuit of beauty of which biology (evol utionary theory) can not explain. Para. 27 uses the example of both ancient people and the author himself‘s observing Ju piter to explain that sometimes the pursuit of beauty is not motivated by biology (genes/ evolution), but merely by beauty itself. Part V (Paras. 28-31): the wedding scene again Para. 28 gawky: adj. awkward; clumsy shimmer: v. shine with a soft light that seems to move slightly 闪烁 ripple: n. a small wave 波纹；涟漪
ripple of sth.: a sound that gradually becomes louder and then quieter again 起伏的声 音 e.g. a ripple of applause/laughter 一阵阵的掌声/笑声 C.f. A ripple of fear passed through him. 一股恐惧感传遍了他的全身。 The announcement sent a ripple of excitement through the crowd. 这件事一经宣布就在人群里引起了一阵兴奋。 break: v. to dash apart, as a wave on the shore thrash: v. to move in a violent or uncontrolled way Para. 29 The minister, our canoeing guide, gives us both a steadying glance. steadying: making calm; stop from moving, shaking or falling e.g. She steadied herself against the wall. Her heartbeat steadied. He took a few deep breaths to steady his nerves. Paraphrase: The minister gives us both a glance to make us calm and get ourselves un der control. inquire of: (formal) to ask sb. sth. hushed: adj. very quiet Para. 31 dab: v. to touch lightly and quickly 轻拍，轻触 deft: adj. skillful in a quick, sure and easy way 敏捷熟练的 shy of: short of all over again: 重新；再一遍 Part VI (Paras. 32-35): theories as a reflection of beauty Para. 32 Judging from the scientists I know, including Eva and Ruth, and those whom I have rea d about, you cannot pursue the laws of nature very long without bumping into beauty. bump into: (infml.) to meet sb. by chance If you try to study the law of nature, very soon you will encounter beauty. The study of the law of nature will inevitably lead to the discovery of beauty. He recalls for me this thrill on grasping for the first time Dirac’s equations describing quantum mechanics, or those of Einstein describing relativity. Dirac: 1902-1984, British mathematician and physicist. He shared a 1933 Nobel Prize fo r new formulations of the atomic theory. quantum mechanics: 量子力学 他给我讲述第一次领悟狄拉克量子力学方程式以及爱因斯坦相对论方程式时的兴奋。 Para. 33
The author lists two paradoxical examples: (1) the most incomprehensible about the univ erse is that it is comprehensible; (2) we are a long way from understanding everything, but we do understand a great deal about how nature behaves Why nature should conform to theories we find beautiful is far from obvious. conform to: to obey a rule, law, ect.; to agree with or match far from: almost the opposite of sth. or of what is expected 远非；几乎相反 It is not obvious at all why nature should follow those theories that we regard as beauti ful. How unlikely, that a short-lived biped on a two-bit planet should be able to gauge the speed of light, lay bare the structure of an atom, or calculate the gravitational tug of a black hole. short-lived biped: here refers to human being two-bit planet: here refers to the earth a short-lived biped on a two-bit planet: human beings whose life-span is limited and who inhabit a very insignificant planet: the earth gauge: v. to measure sth. accurately 测量 lay bare: reveal 暴露, 揭发, 展开 居住在一颗普通星球上的一种生命短暂的两足动物竟能够计算光速、 列出原子结构或计算 黑洞引力，这是否难以想象？ puzzle sth. out: to find the answer to a difficult or confusing problem by thinking care fully 琢磨出……的答案 Para. 35 Midway up the slope, however, I staggered to a halt, gasping in the rarefied air, well before I reached the heights where the equations of Einstein and Dirac would have mad e sense. 登到山坡的一半时，我摇摇晃晃的停下来，呼吸稀薄的空气，这时，距离我能够理解爱因 斯坦或狄拉克的方程式的高度还相差很远。 Still, I remember glimpsing patterns in mathematics that seemed as bold and beautiful a s a skyful of stars. 然而，我依然记得匆匆瞥见的数学排列，醒目美丽，如满天繁星。 Part VII (Para. 36): words and photos inadequate to convey the feeling experience of beauty I’m never more aware of the limitations of language than when I try to describe beauty. Paraphrase: Whenever I try to describe beauty, I find how ineffective, how pale languag e is. No language can convey adequately our experience of beauty. Q: What, according to the author, can pictures or words do?
A: At best pictures or words only serve to make us recall the beautiful things or scenes that have moved or inspired us. All that pictures or words can do is gesture beyond themselves toward the fleeting glory that stirs our hearts. So I keep gesturing. Q: What is meant by “I keep gesturing”? A: The author means that he keeps writing, as he considers words as gestures. And in writing on, he keeps pointing toward those special feelings he identifies with beauty. Part VIII (Paras. 37-39): in order to perceive beauty, we need training Para. 37 Because the Creation puts on a nonstop show, beauty is free and inexhaustible, but we need training in order to perceive more than the most obvious kinds. Paraphrase: Since the birth of the universe, everything in it has revealed its wonder co ntinuously. Beauty is obvious and open for everyone to see and it is unlimited. No one can say he/she has seen all the beautiful things. But in order to see beauty in more su btle forms, we need to be trained. Even 15 billion years or so after the Big Bang, echoes of that event still linger in the form of background radiation, only a few degrees above absolute zero. 原始大爆炸已过了 150 亿年左右，大爆炸的痕迹仍以背景辐射的形式存留在宇宙中间，只 比绝对零度高几度。 Just so, I believe, the experience of beauty is an echo of the order and power that per meate the universe. 因此，我相信对美的感受是对宇宙中无处不在的秩序与能量的共鸣。 Para. 39 Q: What does “this predilection” refer to? A: It refers to recognition of patterns through paying attention. Have we merely carried our animal need for shrewd perceptions to an absurd extreme? animal need: biological need or evolutionary need Paraphrase: Has our ability to find patterns in nature been the result of only meeting o ur biological need and going to an extreme? Or have we stumbled onto a deep congruence between the structure of our minds and t he structure of the universe? Paraphrase: Or does it mean that accidentally we have come to a stage of perceiving harmony between the working of our minds and the working of the universe? Part IX (Para. 40): concluding remark: beauty is the reflection or representation of nat ure and laws of nature
It reminds us of the shaping power that reaches through the flower stem and through o ur own hands. (1) What is the shaping power of the flower stem? The flower stem provides nourishment and produces flowers. That is its shaping power. (2) What is the shaping power of our own hands? With our hands, we build, we paint, we design, we carve. That is the shaping power of our hands. I find in that affinity a profound source of meaning and hope. affinity: here refers to the close relationship between our small minds and the great Mi nd of the Cosmos A universe so prodigal of beauty may actually need us to notice and respond, may need our sharp eyes and brimming hearts and teeming minds, in order to close the circuit of Creation. prodigal: extremely abundant, wasteful brimming: overflowing teem: to be full brimming hearts: hearts filled with strong emotion (to the point of running over the ed ge) teeming minds: minds full of ideas Q: What is meant by “to close the circuit of Creation”? A: God created beauty for man, and created man to appreciate the beauty.