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Annex One Abbreviations used
GP GPS Gyn-Obs PHC DRS S.L.C TBA TH THS edu General Population General Population Study Gynaecologist- Obstetricians Primary health care doctors School Leaving Certificate Traditional Birth Attendants Traditional healer Traditional healer study education


Annex Two
Nepali terms
S.N. Local Name English Name Emblic myrobalan Scientific Name Useful parts Fruit, bark, leaf, root Medicinal Properties fruit powder is taken in common cold, constipation, as tonic; fruit juice in alleged anthelmintic; leaf juice in constipation; bark to relief from headache; root in dysentery and diarrhea, contains vitamin c, antioxident properties, several other uses swollen parts of the body, joint pains, stem is smoke like cigarette to cure sinusities; boils, hastening pus formation, cough, to cure pimples, massage on sprain parts, anthelminitic drugs use in diarrhea, pain abdomen, abdominal discomfort, bleeding Paste made from aeriel part is used to massage to treat gout, root powder is used to cure sinusitis, plant jiuce is applied in cuts and wounds, stomach disorders, pimples for spains and joints pain, making a paste like and applying locally For skin diseases and ulcers Astringent, cooling, general debility, malariyal type of fever, constipation, spleenmegaly, emmenagogue Fruits are used as antipyretic, chewed to cure cough, cold and also appetizer, dried fruits are mixed with tobacco and smoked for sedetive, tonic, asthma; seeds are used in bronchitis, Sacred plant, useful in different gastro-intestinal diseases, skin, metabolc, nerologic dosorders, diabetes Paste is used to expedite the union of fractured and dislocated bines, swelling, caused by some hurts, used as anticeptic in wounds, curative, mixed with cow milk to treat food poisoning, applied for boils. Stem chewed for refreshment, decoction of stem used for swollen feet, plant paste is applied for wound, rhizome for sensation of internal heat, stomach inflamation, Ripe friuts are eaten raw. Fruit paste , when take, is regarded good for eye sight. Seed oil ia applied on crack and fissure, sprains, affected parts, laxative, skin diseases Leaves are diuretic and stimulant; seeds are rubefacient, galactogogue, emmenagogue, laxative, tonic, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Helps to reduce thirst, burning feeling, good nutrition, leucorrhoea soaked in water and used for diarrhoea, mixed with yogert and given in indigestion,



Phyllanthus emblica Linn



Milkweed wild variety of banana not known a climbing stem A small shrub Throny bamboo Belleric myrobalan Beal tree

Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R.Br.

Latex, leaf, stem


Anthya Kola


fruit Whole plant, tender fruit stem steam and leaf Stem, leaf



Clematis buchananiana DC Unidentified Unidentified Bambusa arundinacea (retz.) Roxb Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Corr Curcuma longa Linn.

5 6 7

Badimal Bakande Bansko Ankhla Barro


Fruit Fruit, leaf, bark Rhizome







Bet lauri Bhainse Kaada Castor oil Chamsur Chaulani Chiura


Costus speciosus (Koieng.)Sm. Rosa macrophylla Lindelly Ricinus communis Linn Lepidium sativum L. Any type of rice Rice flakes from any types of rice.

Stem, Root Fruit Seed oil

12 13 14 15 16

not known Castor Garden cress Rice water Rice flakes

Rice water Rice flakes




not known Cassia lingea not known

Unidentified Cinnamomum tamala (Buch-Ham) Nees & Ebern Unidentified Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.


In bleedding, boils

18 19

Dalchini Dambare

Leaf, bark root Whole plant alum crystal like Seed powder Whole plant Root Root, leaf, fruit Root, leaf, flower Latex Stem

Bark extract is used in treatment of intestinal disorders for fever, headache Leaf juice to stop nose-bleeding, plant juice for indigestion, plant is chewed to heal cuts and wounds, decoction is used to treat urino-genital diseases, dysentry, diarrhoea, mixed with garlic and mustard oil and massage to relief frm body pain in bleeding, mouth ulcers, fever, pain, water purification, only after purification Seeds are astringent, diuretic and tonic. for indigestion, diarrhoea, cold cough Brain tonic, nervine tonic, in skin disorders, leprosy, blood purifier, rejuvenative Root is is used as colic and consumption Juice of stem is dropped to treat cataract of the eye; leaf, fruit and root are used in toothache Root- astringent, diarrhoea; leaves- treating wounds, opthalmia: flower- sweet, aromatic, cooling, cardiotonic, skin diseases. uninjured traumas, makes strong muscles and restore good health after delivery of child to the mother Squeezed stem is used as a remedy of stomach troubles; leaves, roots and shoots are used for urinary problems Antiseptic, anti-allergic, carminative, detergent, cosmetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, refrigerent, hair tonic, food additive, spice, perfumery, coloring agent Root paste is applied in case of boils and also administered to treat bone dislocation. Unripe fruit is used in dysentry and diarrhoea, fruit powder is is used to cure cough; fruit pulp is used in chronic diarrhoea, dysentry, flatulence, vomit and urinary disorders. Bark- diabetes, lucorrhea, stomachalgia, dermatopathy, mouth washes; leaves- antibacterial, strenghtening teeth and gums; fruit- sweet, acrid, tonic Aromatic, tonic, stimulant, diuretic, stomachic, antispasmodic easily digestable and good for sick peoples used to minimize the affects of evil spirits, epilepsy for blood purification and fever Nutritious, demulcent, cooling, emollient, diuretic, antifungal, cardiac tonic, useful in stomatitis, skin eruptions For pain abdomen, placenta retention used in blood purification, bad odor of mouth Root juice in case of hardened stool, diarrhoea; leaves tenders in diarrhoea



21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Fitkiri Gagat Garam Masala Ghod tapre Ghokre Golkankri Gulabko ful Gund Gurjo

Alum mineral Horsegram Hot spices Penny wort

Alum Dolichos biflorus auct. Non L. Mixture of spices Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban Ajuga macrosperma Wal.. Ex Benth

Ivy gourd Cabbage Rose Latex Tinospora

Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. Rosa centifolia Linn unidentified Tinospora cordifolia Linn Curcuma longa Linn. Vanda cristata Lindley

30 31

Haledo Harchul


Rhizome Root



Chebulic myrobalan Black plum Spikenard not known not known not known Lotus flower not known not known not known

Terminalia chebula Retz. Syzygium cumini (Linn. )Skeels Nardostchys jatamansi DC Unidentified Unidentified Morus serratus Roxb. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Unidentified Unidentified Amaranthus viridis L.

Fruit, seed

33 34 35 35 36 37 38 39 40

Jamun Jattamari Jonil Kali buti Kalo kafal Kamal Kammari Laharo Kanak Sundari Kande Lunde

Fruit, seed, bark Rhizome Seeds root fruits Rhizome, seed stem flower Root, leaf


41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Kaphal Kapur Katahar Kayo Kera ko bungo Keraboth Kerako chop Keshari Khareto jaar Kharseto Khursani Lajbanti ful Lajjawati jhar Lalupate Magar Kanchi Margi Lagne Marich Mas ko dal Methi Mugimas Neem ko Bokra Nilkamal

Bay Berry Camphore tree Jack fruit Mango seed Banana type of banana Banana Saffron

Myrica esculenta BuchHam ex D.Don Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. mangifera indica Musa paradisica Linn. Unidentified Musa paradisica Linn. Crocus sativus Linn Hypericum uralum Buch.-Ham ex. D. Don Ficus hispida L.

Bark, friut Leaf, bark, bark. Oil Latex, fruit pulp seed Flower plant juice Latex Style and stigma Leaf Bark, fruit Fruit

Astringent, carminative, antiseptic, asthma, diarrhoea, sedative Camphor, aromatic, bitter, emolliment, diasphoretic, cough pulp higlhy nutritious, latex in case of bleeding, seeds as a good nutrition, Diarrhoea, hair dyeing, antiiabetic Used inn intestinal disease burining urine, fever, headache Used in intestinal disorders Aromatic, aphrodisiac, facial cream, sedative, glactogogue, flavoring, dyeing agent in burining urine Burns, ulcers, leucoderma, anaemia, jaundice, stomatorrhagia, internal fever, Acrid, bitter, thermogenic, digestive, sialagogue, stimulant, arthritis Useful in skin diseases, menstrual disorders, vesical calculi, rheumatism, myalgia, and tumour of the uerus Useful in skin diseases, menstrual disorders, vesical calculi, rheumatism, myalgia, and tumour of the uerus Poisonous to livestock


Capsicum annum Linn Mimosa pudica Linn.

Sensitive plant Poinsettia Begonia Cold fue and fever Black pepper Black gram Fenugreek Green gram Neem Tree Blue water Lily Meag seas Night jasmine

Mimosa pudica Linn. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.ex Kletzsch Begonia picta Sm.



Boiled petioles are pickled and taken as an appetizer

Pipar nigrum Linn. Vigna mungo (Linn) Hepper Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek Azadirachta indica A. Juss Nymphaea stellata Willd. Berginia ciliata (Wall.)Engl. Nyctanthes arbortris tris Linn.


Carmicative, digestive, stomach, useful in arthritis, pharyngodynia, astham and in dermatopathy sweet, emollient, aphrodisiac, neuropathy, galactogogue, widely consumed as a pulse, food Leaves- refrigerant, aperient; seed- mucilaginous, aromatic, carminative, tonic, galactogogue, aphrodisiac, boils, diabetes Sweet, astringent, galactogogue, digestive, tonic, leucoderma, dropdy, general debility Blood purifier, insecticidal, skin diseases, liver tonic, fever, tooth powder, soap, diabetes, chonic ulcers, Rhizome is used in dyspepsia, diarrhoea, piles, emollement, diuretic, diesease of urinary tract; leaves used in eruptive fever, seedsa are stomach. Rhizome juice for fever, considered carminative and vital tonic, seeds for diarrehoea, rhidome powder for roundworm Matured seeds are chewed and swallowed to cure boils in throat, leaves and flower use by women during delivery to ease expulsion of placenta Stomachache, diarrhoea, asthma, fever, sprains, headache, stomach disorders, scabies, bleeding wounds, cuts, antiseptic, febrifuse, cough in infants, anthelmintic, cough and cold, dysentry, intestinal and throat problems, intestinal worms, nausea

Leaf, seed Seeds Leaf, bark, bark. Oil Whole plant Root Flower, seeds








Artemisia vulgaris auct. Non L.

Whole plant


66 67

Peepal Rati

Peepa tree Crabe's eye

Ficus religiosa Linn Abreus precatorius Linn

Bark, leaf, friut, seed Root, leaf, seed whole plant Molases Seed, resin Wood Fruit Purifed Shilajeet Seed,Fruit, Bone Red ore powder

Astringent, cooling, aphrodisiac, anti-bacterial Leaf paste is applied to boils, root for urine infection and cough, decoction of root for coudgh, cold, stomach pain and urinary troubles, wounds. Young leaves are nutritious, dried plant is considered antiscobutic and cooling, use to cure wounds, paste is used in scorpian sting, flowers are used in dysentry, menorrhagia Glactogauge, nutritious, in iron deficiency, increases digestion capacity Astringent, tonic in bactorial affections, use in diarrhoea, dysentry, splenomegaly fever, burining urine, fragrance, holy tika Digestive, carminative, trembling of limbs, Vitamin C, thermogenic Aphrodisiac, rejuvenative, antidiabetic, urinary problem, gastric problems Seeds are efficaciious in treating the poisoing caused by eating poisonous plants, fruits are eaten in case of stomach complaints and flatulence Bone is used for strength, very less used Mixed with ghee and used in cut wounds


Sahasra buti Sakkhar Sal Seto Chandan Seto jyamir Silazit

Cock'a comb Molases Sal tree Sandal wood Lemon Herbomineral exudate not known Bone of Lion Red ore Land distribution Garlic pear Not known Cooked pricky neetles soup not known Ansi seed Jackle bone Cinnamon Wild Fern not known

Celosia argentea L.

69 70 71 72 73

Saccharum officinarum Shorea robusta Gaertn f. Santaum album Citrus limon (Linn) Burn f. Herbo-mineral exudate Lindera neesiana (Wall. Ex Nees) Kuez Animal part Unidentified Unidentified Crataeva religiosa auct. Non Forst. Imperataarundinaceaea (L.) Pal. Urtica diotica Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.)Palla Pimpenella annusum Animal part Cinnamomum tamala (Buch-Ham) Nees & Ebern Unidentified Unidentified Juglans regia L

74 75 76 77 78 79

Siltimur Simhako Haddi Simrik Simsar Sipligan Siru Sisne Fando Suire Jhar Sup Syalko Haddi Tej patta Thakailo Thatta Mare Thulo Okhar

Bark,leaf Root

Astringent, bitter, diuretic, lithontriptic, detergent, lymphadenopathy Diuretic, anthelmintic, cure diarrhoea, vomiting This is preparation cooked with flour and pricy nettle leaves. This is good source of iron, vitamin D, nutritous diuretic, antioxidant, appetiser, antifatigue digestive, carminative, antidysentry, antiflatulence, Joints pain, evil spirit Bark extract is used in treatment of intestinal disorders diuretic, fever, burining body


leaves whole plant Seed Jackel Bone Leaf, bark Wild fern not known Friuts, bark Fruit, seed, leaf not known Whole plant

81 82 83 84 85 86 87



Nepalese Peeper not known Holy basil

Zanthoxylum armatum DC Unidentified Ocimum sactum Linn

Decoction of stem bark is anthelmintic, bark is used to relief toothache Decoction of fruit (with or without leaves) with common salt relief abdominal pains, constipation, used as an anthelmintic, indigestion, as anti microbial spice, seed as spice, to cure indifestion, stomach disorders, cholera; bark for toothache. Aromatic, insecticidal, used in cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, urinary disorders, skin diseases.

89 90

Toto Tulsi




not known


not known


Annex Three
Type of diarrhoe a Trea tmen t used How was it prepared /arrange d How was it administe red Who suggeste d it Where did you get it Cost of treatm ent/Me How did you pay/ar range Did it solve/c



diarrho ea

If yes, after how long?

How often did it work

Which side effects did you get


1 2 3 4 5 (a) (b) 1=herbal treatment, 2=massage, 3=aromatherapy, 4=Spiritual (shaman) healing, 5=other (specify)_______________________________________ (c) 1=boiled, 2=it was ready to be used, 3=not applicable, 4=other (specify)__________________________________________________________ (d) 1=per os, 2=infusion, 3=inhaled, 4=external use, 5=not applicable, 6=other (specify)_________________________________________________ (e) 1=parents, 2=friends, 3=elderly, 4=local healers, 5=media (Television, radio, magazine, newspaper), 6=other (specify)________________________ (f) 1=provided by the traditional healer, 2=bought, 3=self-provided, 4=provided by lay people, 5=other (specify)______________________________ (g) specify in local currency (h) 1=cash, 2=goods, 3=free of charge, 4=other (specify)_______________________________________________________________________ (j) 1=all together (totally cured), 2=partially, 3=not at all (jj) 1= a few minutes, 2=one or two hours, 3= a day, 4=two or three days, 5=one week, 6= other (specify) ___________________________________ (k) 1=always, 2=often, 3=at times, 4=never (l) 1=none, 2=skin irritation (rash), 3=nausea, 4=other (specify)__________________________________________________________________


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