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					COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE: CREATING A PROSPEROUS WORLD AT PEACE

The Emergence of a Global Brain
Francis Heylighen1
Introduction
There is little doubt that the most important technological, economic and social development of the past decades is the emergence of a global, computer-based communication network. This network has been growing at an explosive rate, affecting—directly or indirectly—ever more aspects of the daily lives of the people on this planet. A general trend is that the information network becomes ever more global, more encompassing, more tightly linked to the individuals and groups that use it, and more intelligent in the way it supports them. The web doesn't just passively provide information, it now also actively alerts and guides people to the best options for them personally, while stimulating them to share their experience. To support this, the web increasingly builds on the knowledge and intelligence of all its users collectively, thanks to technologies such as blogs, wikis, ontologies, collaborative filtering, software agents, and online markets. It appears as though the net is turning into a nervous system for humanity. The “Global Brain” is a metaphor for this emerging, collectively intelligent network that is formed by the people of this planet together with the computers, knowledge bases, and communication links that connect them together. This network is an immensely complex, self-organizing system. It not only processes information, but increasingly can be seen to play the role of a brain: making

1

Francis Heylighen is a research professor at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), where he directs the Evolution, Complexity and Cognition group. His research is focused on the self-organization and evolution of complex, intelligent systems consisting of many interacting agents. He is editor of the Principia Cybernetica Project for the development of an evolutionary-systemic philosophy, and chair of the Global Brain group. He has published over a hundred scientific papers on these and related topics. Home page: http://pcp.vub.ac.be/HEYL.html

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decisions, solving problems, learning new connections, and discovering new ideas. No individual, organization or computer is in control of this system: its knowledge and intelligence are distributed over all its components. They emerge from the collective interactions between all the human and machine subsystems. Such a system may be able to tackle current and emerging global problems that have eluded more traditional approaches. Yet, at the same time it will create new technological and social challenges that are still difficult to imagine.

History of the Global Brain vision
Although these developments seem very modern, the underlying visions of knowledge and society have deep roots, going back to Antiquity, and developed in particular during the 19th and 20th centuries. This concept of a cognitive system at the planetary level has been proposed by many different authors under different names: planetary brain, world brain, global mind, noosphere, social brain, Metaman [Stock, 1993], super-organism [Heylighen, 2007c], super-being [Turchin, 1977], and collective consciousness are some of the roughly equivalent synonyms. The evolutionary theologian Teilhard de Chardin [1969, first published 1947 but written earlier] was probably the first to focus on the mental organization of this social organism, which he called the “noosphere”. Around the same time, the science fiction writer H. G. Wells [1938] proposed the concept of a “world brain” as a unified system of knowledge, accessible to all. The term “global brain” seems to have been first used by Russell [1995]. The first people to have made the connection between this concept and the emerging Internet may well be Mayer-Kress [1995] and de Rosnay [2000]. Heylighen and Bollen [1996], and Goertzel [2001] appear to be the first researchers to have proposed concrete technologies that might turn the Internet into an intelligent, brain-like network. The global brain vision draws part of its inspiration from a number of related approaches. Collective intelligence [Lévy, 1997; Heylighen, 1999] is the idea that a group can be more intelligent than its members. The best-known examples are social insects, such as ants, termites or bees, which are individually dumb, but capable of surprisingly intelligent behavior when functioning as a group. The intelligence of the global brain will be collective, as it arises from the interactions between millions of individuals. Symbiotic intelligence is the idea that intelligence can also emerge from the interactions between essentially different components, such as people and computers. As de

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Rosnay [2000] proposes, people will live in symbiosis with this surrounding network of technological systems, and out of this symbiosis, a higher-level intelligence will emerge. Although most researchers have addressed the global brain idea from a scientific or technological point of view, authors like Teilhard de Chardin [1969] and Russell [1995] have explored some of its spiritual aspects. Similar to many mystical traditions, the global brain idea holds the promise of a muchenhanced level of consciousness and a state of deep synergy or union that encompasses humanity as a whole. Theists might view this state of holistic consciousness as a union with God. Humanists might see it as the creation, by humanity itself, of an entity with God-like powers. Followers of the Gaia hypothesis have suggested that the “living Earth” of which we are all part deserves awe and worship; it therefore could form the basis of a secular, ecologically inspired religion. The Global Brain vision may offer a similar sense of belonging to a larger whole and of an encompassing purpose.

The evolution of cooperation
While most conceptions of the Global Brain are based on some kind of progressive evolution towards higher levels of complexity and integration, this assumption receives surprisingly little support from the theory of evolution itself. The traditional (neo-)Darwinist theory emphasizes the gradual, erratic, and non-directed character of variation and natural selection, and the struggle for existence between selfish organisms or genes. It is only in the last decade that biologists have started to focus on the “major transitions” in evolution, such as the emergence of multicellular organisms out of single cells, or societies out of individuals—studying the specific circumstances in which components can turn from selfish, competing individuals to cooperating members of a collective. The general consensus seems to be that, while such transitions have happened, they are rare and difficult to achieve, because they require sophisticated control mechanisms to protect the cooperative from being exploited by “free riders”, i.e. individuals that profit from the efforts of others without investing anything in return. The new approach of evolutionary cybernetics [Heylighen, 2007b] integrates the Darwinian logic of variation and natural selection with the cybernetic analysis of emergent levels of organization. This approach originates with the ideas of the Russian-American computer scientist Turchin [1977].

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Turchin's most important contribution is the concept of metasystem transition: the evolution of a higher level of control and cognition. In analogy with the emergence of multicellular organisms, Turchin predicted that humans would be integrated into a global superbeing, communicating through the direct connection of their nervous systems. Turchin had not yet tackled the problem of free riders, though. Extending his theory, I have suggested a possible solution [Heylighen & Campbell, 1995], arguing that shared knowledge or culture (“memes”) can function like a control mechanism to thwart free riders, and that its spread will be facilitated by global communication technology. A more general version of this process was proposed by the Australian social scientist John Stewart [2000]. He argues that any system, whether an individual, institution or ideology, that manages to take control of a collective—even if for initially selfish purposes—will eventually evolve into an efficient “manager” that keeps selfish abuses in check, because it is in its own interest to have the collective function synergetically. As a result, evolution produces ever wider and deeper synergy, up to the global level. A similar conclusion was reached by Robert Wright [2000], who examined the historical role of different technologies and institutions, such as writing, money and law, in turning the “zero-sum” competition between individuals into a “positive-sum” cooperation. Unlike material resources, knowledge and information do not diminish by being shared with others (economists call this property “non-rivalry”) [Heylighen, 2007a]. Since an intelligent web would make this sharing effortless and free, this enables a positive-sum interaction in which everyone gains by making their individual knowledge and experience available to others. This provides a continuing incentive for further cognitive integration. The web plays here the role of a shared memory, that collects, organizes and makes available collective wisdom [Heylighen, 1999]. It achieves this without demanding anything from its users or contributors beyond what they would have had to invest if they were working on their own—thus removing any incentive for free-riding. This is the perspective of stigmergy, i.e. the spontaneous, indirect collaboration made possible and stimulated by a shared medium [Heylighen, 2007a,c].

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Stigmergy
The mechanism of stigmergy, which was proposed to explain the collective intelligence of social insects, is perhaps best exemplified by Wikipedia, the global electronic encyclopedia that is being written collaboratively by millions of people. Any user of the web can add to or edit the text of any Wikipedia article—or create a new one, if its subject is not covered yet. Yet, the collaboration between Wikipedia contributors is essentially indirect. Over its history of a few years a typical article has been edited by a few dozen different people from different parts of the globe. In general, these people have never met or even communicated from person to person. Their interaction is merely implicit, through the changes that the one makes to the text written by the other. When they disagree about how to express a particular subject, the one may repeatedly correct the statements written by the other and vice versa, until perhaps a compromise or synthesis emerges—which may have been proposed by one or more third parties. This is variation and selection at work: different people contribute different text fragments, some of which are clear, accurate and relevant, some of which are less so. The continuing process of revisioning by a variety of users will normally leave the good contributions in place, and get rid of the poor ones, until the text as a whole provides a clear, coherent and in-depth coverage of its subject, without glaring mistakes. This example shows the power of stigmergy: thanks to the availability of the medium (in this case the Wikipedia website) independent agents together perform a complex activity that is beneficial to all, minimizing social frictions and stimulating synergy—and this without need for a hierarchical control or coordination, a clear plan, or even any direct communication between the agents [Heylighen, 2007c]. In the present web, similar mechanisms are being used to collaboratively develop not just an encyclopedia of existing knowledge, but a variety of novel knowledge and applications, including various types of open source software, scientific papers, and even forecasts of the world to come. In the future web, stigmergy can be extended from a qualitative mechanism (eliciting new knowledge or actions) to a quantitative one (ordering and prioritizing existing knowledge or actions) [Heylighen, 1999, 2007ac]. This will lead to new technologies for intelligent decision support.

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Technologies for a Global Brain
The web is the hypermedia interface to the information residing on the Internet. It makes it possible to seamlessly integrate documents that are distributed over the entire planet, and created by people who may not even be aware of each others' existence. What holds these documents together is not their geographic location, but their associations: links connecting mutually relevant pages. This hypermedia architecture is analogous to the one of our brain, where concepts are connected by associations, and the corresponding assemblies of neurons by synapses. The web thus functions like a huge associative memory for society. However, the brain is more than a static memory: it can learn and think. Learning takes place by the strengthening of associations that are used often, and the weakening of rarely used associations. Through learning, the brain constantly enhances its organization and increases its store of knowledge. Thinking happens by the activation of concepts and the “spreading” of this activation to related concepts, in proportion to the strength of association. Thinking allows the brain to solve problems, to make decisions, and to be creative, that is, discover combinations of concepts never encountered before. By making simple changes to its static architecture, we can implement similar processes on the web. In the brain, learning follows the rule of Hebb: if two neurons are activated in close succession, the strength of their connection is increased. I have proposed to apply a similar procedure to the web [Heylighen and Bollen, 1996, 2002]: if two web pages are consulted by the same user within a short interval, either the existing hyperlink between the pages gets a higher weight, or a new link is created. On any given page, only the links with a minimum weight are shown. Thus, links that are not sufficiently reinforced may eventually disappear. The result is that such a learning web constantly adapts to the way it is used, reorganizing its pattern of links to best reflect the preferences of its users. In practice, this creates direct links between the pages that are most strongly related, bypassing less interesting detours, and clustering pages together according to their mutual relevance. As such, the web becomes much more efficient to use, by assimilating the collective knowledge and desires of its users. The simplest way to implement web “thinking” is to create a specialized software agent. This is a program that works as a “delegate” of its user,

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autonomously collecting information that is likely to be interesting to its user. The agent can learn the user's preferences simply by observing which pages the user actively uses, or it can receive specific instructions (e.g. keywords) from the user. Given that preference profile, the agent can locate pages that satisfy the profile, and then use “spreading activation” to find further, related documents. It does this by “activating” pages in proportion to their degree of interestingness, and then propagating that activation according to the hyperlinks and their weights as learned from other users. Thus, it can discover new documents, that may not contain any of the initially given keywords, but that are still highly relevant to the query. This is especially useful when the user cannot clearly formulate the query, but only has an intuitive feel for it. With such technologies, the web would become a giant, collective brain, which you could consult at any moment to get an answer to your questions, however unusual or vaguely formulated they may be. Its thought processes would always be ready to enhance and extend your own thinking. To fully harness the power of this global brain, it should be constantly available. The rapid spread of mobile communication already offers universal access to the web, wherever you are. Further miniaturization will lead to wearable computers, incorporated in your clothing, with images projected on your glasses. Automatic recognition of speech, gestures and even emotions will make communication with the web much easier and more intuitive. In the longer term, we can foresee direct connections between computer and brain, through neural interfaces. This would allow you to communicate with the global brain simply by thinking, having your thoughts immediately sensed, understood, and enhanced. Your thoughts could also be directly turned into actions, as when you use the global brain to order a pizza, get a taxi, or switch on the heating, so that it would be nice and warm by the time you come home.

Social benefits
Now that we have a better grasp of how a global brain-like system would function in practice, let us try to summarize its great advantages for society. The market is the collective system of transactions that helps supply to match demand, and thus to fulfill the need of the collective customer for products and services. A traditional market is rather inefficient, requiring a huge infrastructure of middlemen, specialized organizations such as stock exchanges and auctions, and communication channels. The Internet already allows such transactions to take place much more quickly and transparently, with less cost

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and effort. This strongly reduces friction, making the economy more efficient so that demand can be satisfied more rapidly, more accurately, and at a lower cost [Heylighen, 2007b]. The global brain will not only facilitate direct communication between buyers and sellers, but help buyers to find the best value (e.g. through shopping agents to compare prices), and help sellers to get the best price (e.g. through auctioning systems). The net effect is that growth increases, while inflation and economic instability decrease. Moreover, there will be less waste because of unsold items or goods shipped far away when there is demand around the corner. The direct incorporation of collective effects (“externalities”) in the decision-making process will moreover allow a more efficient governance over the economy, thus protecting employees and consumers while reducing inequalities and pollution, without the added complexity, bureaucracy and rigidity that tend to accompany such interventions in a traditional political system. The global brain will moreover help eliminate conflicts. It in principle provides a universal channel through which people from all countries, languages and cultures of this world can communicate. This makes it easier to reduce mutual ignorance and misunderstandings, or discuss and resolve differences of opinion. The greater ease with which good ideas can spread over the whole planet will make it easier to reach global consensus about issues that concern everybody. The free flow of information will make it more difficult for authoritarian regimes to plan suppression or war. The growing interdependence will stimulate collaboration, while making war more difficult. The more efficient economy will indirectly reduce the threat of conflict, since there will be less competition for scarce resources. Of course, technology alone will not solve all the problems that threaten our planet: in the end, people will have to agree about concrete policies to tackle e.g. global warming or poverty. Yet, the global brain can support not only the process of reaching consensus on a plan of action, but also its practical implementation. For example, combating infectious diseases or pollution will require extensive monitoring of the number of infections or concentration of polluting gases in different regions. Information collected by local observers or by electronic sensors can directly enter the global brain, be processed to reveal underlying trends, and be forwarded to the people or institutions responsible for taking direct action.

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Bibliography
de Rosnay, J. (2000): The Symbiotic Man. McGraw-Hill. Goertzel, B. (2001): Creating Internet Intelligence: Wild Computing, Distributed Digital Consciousness, and the Emerging Global Brain (Plenum) Heylighen F. & Bollen J. (1996) “The World-Wide Web as a Super-Brain: from metaphor to model“, in: Cybernetics and Systems '96 R. Trappl (ed.), (Austrian Society for Cybernetics).p. 917-922. Heylighen F. & Bollen J. (2002): “Hebbian Algorithms for a Digital Library Recommendation System“, in Proceedings 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (IEEE Computer Society Press) Heylighen F. & Campbell D.T. (1995): “Selection of Organization at the Social Level”, World Futures 45, p. 181-212. Heylighen F. (1999): “Collective Intelligence and its Implementation on the Web: algorithms to develop a collective mental map“, Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 5(3), 253-280. Heylighen F. (2004): “The Global Brain as a new Utopia”, in: R. Maresch & F. Rötzer (eds.) Renaissance der Utopie (Suhrkamp, Frankfurt). Heylighen F. (2007a). Why is Open Source Development so Successful? Stigmergic organization and the economics of information), in: B. Lutterbeck, M. Baerwolff & R. A. Gehring (eds.), Open Source Jahrbuch 2007, Lehmanns Media, 2007, p. 165-180. Heylighen F. (2007b): “The Global Superorganism: an evolutionary-cybernetic model of the emerging network society”, Social Evolution & History. 6 No. 1, p. 58-11. Heylighen F. (2007c): Accelerating Socio-Technological Evolution: from ephemeralization and stigmergy to the global brain, in: “Globalization as an Evolutionary Process”, edited by G. Modelski, T. Devezas, & W. Thompson, London: Routledge, p.286-335. Heylighen F., Heath M., F. Van Overwalle (2004): The Emergence of Distributed Cognition: a conceptual framework, Proceedings of Collective Intentionality IV, Siena (Italy).

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Lévy P. (1997) Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace Plenum, New York, Mayer-Kress, G. & Barczys C. (1995): The Global Brain as an Emergent Structure from the Worldwide Computing Network, and its Implications for Modelling, The Information Society 11:1, 1-28. Russell, P. (1995): The Global Brain Awakens, Miles River Press. Stewart, J. E. (2000): Evolution's Arrow: The direction of evolution and the future of humanity (Chapman Press, Australia) Stock, G. (1993): Metaman: the merging of humans and machines into a global superorganism. Simon & Schuster, New York Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1969): The Formation of the Noosphere, in: The Future of Man, New York, Harper and Row. Turchin, V. (1977): The Phenomenon of Science. A Cybernetic Approach to Human Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York. Wells, H.G. (1938): World Brain. London: Methuen. Wright, R. (2000): Non-Zero. The Logic of Human Destiny (Pantheon Books). (all my papers can be downloaded via http://pcp.vub.ac.be/HEYL.html)

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