Energy+sector+and+ Global+ Warming by fjzhangm


									Press Conference - ESCOBALT Project Dec. 13, 2006 Sundsvall

Press Conference
Sundsvall, Dec.13,2006 ESCOBALT Project Dr. Arto Nuorkivi, Project manager, Uusimaa Regional Council, Helsinki, Finland

What can energy sector do to fight global warming? Requirements Official objectives: Naps, Energy conservation 20% by 2020, dependence on import; now 50% but will be 70% First, the UN Climate Change Conference in Nairobi said that climate change may be the worst threat ever faced by the human mankind. Second, the Inconvenient Truth1 movie moderated by the ex-vicepresident Al Gore offers a large number of indications from the nature, melting of polar ice, warming of oceans, rising of sea level, increasing number and strength of hurricanes, etc. Third, the report of Mr. Nicolas Stern, ex chief economist of the World Bank appointed by the British Government, has stated that the GDP may drop even 20% in case the societies do not react on global warming in time. On the contrary, the GDP may increase by 1% if the reaction will take place in appropriate way and soon.2 According to the International Energy Agency (IEA)3, there are barriers to the efficient use of energy, which isolate consumers from the consequences of their energy choices. Those include: • Lack of information on, or the low priority given to the energy performance of appliances, buildings and automobiles. • Tax incentives and subsidies that promote wasteful energy use (e.g. tax breaks that encourage car use). • Split incentives between investors and end-users with regard to the performance of energy-using equipments (e.g., for building technology choices). • Failure to incorporate fully the energy security risks in market prices.

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Press Conference - ESCOBALT Project Dec. 13, 2006 Sundsvall

The IAEA4 has suggested nuclear energy can not “fix all” but it would help reduce the climate risk as a bridge between the energy wasting presence and the energy efficient future. Therefore, as strongly supported by the ESCOBALT Project in their signed Declaration, using energy more efficiently and cost-effectively requires political leadership and raising energy efficiency expectations. Governments, in industrialised and developing countries alike, should help consumers make better-informed energy choices by removing these barriers. Therefore, the official goals should be considered as minimums, much more should be done. The energy sector has challenges to meet the requirements. What are the options? Some options are listed below separately for energy consumption, distribution and production non-exhaustively: Consumption Technological      Energy conservation: Heat recovery and (are different items) heat pumps, etc … Low-energy devices: bulbs, led-lighting, low-energy TVs, hybrid cars with smaller engines Re-insulation of building envelopes Low energy houses (total concepts) using of RES

Incentives and taxes    energy taxation: collected revenues of taxes to be used for supporting ES measures -> creates new business (Nick Stern) diesel taxation: diesel cars more efficient than bensin cars, but are taxed more heavily Taxation must be designed in such a way that the barriers faced by the end user are not too high to adopt energy efficient technologies

New habits in energy use have to be adopted. Such adoption can be strongly supported by tax incentives, investment subsidies and education campaigns. Information on energy efficiency and environmental protection should be more disseminated in schools as an essential part of teaching, not only as a part of special campaigns. Using energy associations and energy agencies would offer a workable link between authorities, companies and end-users.

Distribution For transition economies, one of the key issues is to rehabilitate the district heating systems in a sustainable way5 and to develop cogeneration of heat and power. The benefits in energy efficiency can be achieved faster than with rehabilitation of the building envelopes, which of course, have to encouraged in parallel but will be done by the house owners individually. Production CHP, despite having a strong footage in Scandinavia already, should be developed more strongly elsewhere, as supported by the CHP directive of the EU. Locally, energy systems should be integrated between municipalities and industries in order to recover waste heats and reduce fuel consumption
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Press Conference - ESCOBALT Project Dec. 13, 2006 Sundsvall

Renewable fuels should be expanded more. The real renewables are wind, solar, geothermal, and in most cases hydropower. Conversion biofuels and various wastes to energy must be done according to the latest and constantly developing technology In the long term CO2 recovery of flue gases of thermal (fossil fuel) power plants shall materialize. The U.S. Department of Energy6 plans to have the first zero-emission coal fired power plant by year 2013:
"Today I am pleased to announce that the United States will sponsor a $1 billion, 10-year demonstration project to create the world's first coal-based, zero-emissions electricity and hydrogen power plant..." President George W. Bush February 27, 2003

No similar development has been identified in Europe so far. Current nuclear capacity is a temporary solution, as one of few technologies to prevent greenhouse gases. Fusion energy after 50 years or so is an opportunity but does not offer solutions for the near future yet. Corporate Social Responsibility Concept - CSRC The energy companies have to extend their operations to the third pillar of the CSRC, namely the social pillar out of the two others being the economic and environmental pillars.7 The companies have to re-direct their operations from production to demand driven modes. The demand drive should be guided towards improved energy efficiency and reduced GHG emissions. As Mr. Stern has stated: acting now to tackle the global warming is likely a more profitable business strategy than “the business as usual” doing nothing. Regional planning Waste heat of ice hockey halls to swimming pools Short distances for DH distribution, dense buildings Storing snow in winter for summertime cooling of buildings, as already done by the hospital in Sundsvall. District cooling using water and District heating return water as energy source as a means to reduce electricity consumption. Network of Energy Saving Development of a trans-national networks, supported by energy agencies, energy associations and regional authorities with proper IT tolls, such as , for instance, would add value to the objectives and measures in the society.

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