Part 2 Description of project ac by fjzhangm


									Description of project activities
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28991-IC-4-1999-1-NL-ERASMUS-ESP-1 10054- CP - 1- 00-1-NL-ERASMUS-ETN


Description of project activities
1 Summary of activities undertaken

1.1 Meetings of the management team: Five management meetings have taken place during the current grant period. One meeting for the final preparations of the Network Conference of September 2000 in Paris. The other management meetings took place:  In December 2000 in Amsterdam in order to prepare the meeting in Osnabrück concerning the future policy of ENOTHE and implementation of curriculum guidelines.  In April 2001 in Warsaw a meeting was connected to a seminar organised by ENOTHE concerning developments in East and Central Europe and the consequences of Bologna. The management team evaluated the meeting in Osnabrück, Warsaw and made preparations for the annual conference meeting in Amsterdam, 2001.  In August 2001 in Stockholm a meeting was connected to the first final theses seminar of the European Masters course in Occupational Therapy. The management team made the final preparations for the annual conference and anticipated on the next TNP period by setting detailed goals for the projects. 1.2 Meeting of the General Assembly 25th of September 2001: The outcomes of the meeting were:  The agreed aims of the dissemination of the products of the first network period: To improve mutual recognition To promote higher education in occupational therapy education To promote the European Dimension in occupational therapy education To encourage and investigate new ways of teaching  The themes and responsibilities of the management team members for the next four years of the network : The European Dimension - Barbara Piskur, Ljubljana, University College of Health, Slovenia Harmonisation and quality - Hanneke van Bruggen, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, the Netherlands and Linda Renton, Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, UK Postgraduate/continuing education and research - Nils Erik Ness, SØr TrØndelag HØgskolen, Trondheim, Norway Development of teaching methods.- Marie-Chantal Morel, Formation en Ergothérapie, Bordeaux, France  A new board member Linda Renton (from Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh) was elected. 1.3 Student Assembly The students had debated the role of the family in occupational therapy and they had a discussion how to organise themselves within the framework of ENOTHE. 1.4 Printing and disseminating the three ENOTHE products and a new ENOTHE brochure The final printing of the following books took place in September 2000: 1) Occupational Therapy Education in Europe: an exploration 2) Occupational Therapy Education in Europe: curriculum guidelines 3) Occupational Therapy in Europe: learning from each other The publications have been disseminated among the member institutes and to all Occupational Therapy professional Associations in Europe as well as to the Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries as to the World Federation of Occupational Therapists. Outside the Occupational Therapy arena the publications have been sent to ministries of Education and Health, other Networks and several libraries. During the congress Ergo 2000 in Paris the publications have been disseminated to many professionals in the health and social care. 1.5 Dissemination conference-25th of September in Paris The aim of the conference was to launch the three ENOTHE products and to encourage all the members to use the books in their education. Three working group leaders introduced the publications to the audience and encouraged the representatives of the institutes to implement the principles and information described in the publications in their curricula. Over 250 participants attended the conference from 26 countries (including about 100 students). Furthermore the conference was focussing on Occupational Science as a major innovative development in Occupational Therapy education in the world. A growing number of occupational therapists in USA, Canada, Australia and in several European countries try to define this new branch of science. Plenary sessions have been organised on the following topics:  What is occupational Science?  Why do we need Occupational Science within the European occupational therapy curricula?  What are the possible implications of Occupational Science on the development of occupational therapy education and practice?  Ercologie, a French perspective on Occupational Science.  Is Occupational Science a relevant foundation for occupational therapy in Europe? A critical approach. The conference was closed by a panel discussion on: "Can Occupational Science be a source of joint development within the education of occupational therapists in Europe?" The conference was a joint event together with the European Congress for occupational therapists: Ergo 2000. It was the first ENOTHE conference, which was simultaneous translated in French-English, what made that about 50 French students and teachers were participating. A report of the meeting has been disseminated to all participants, members of ENOTHE and National OT associations.
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1.6 Discussion panel and lectures in the European Congress Ergo-2000 in Paris The co-ordinator of ENOTHE was involved in a plenary discussion panel about:" Fair health through the development of partnership and co-operation." She focussed on the question: Is education and training a springboard for harmonisation of health practices in Europe? The discussion was attended by at least half of the participants of the congress (500 participants). Over 15 ENOTHE members have given presentations and posters in the Ergo-2000 congress. The most important subjects were:  ENOTHE-European Dimension Working Group Project  Shared final projects through multimedia, a European dimension in occupational therapy education.  The model of human occupation used in practice in different European contexts  Teaching of conceptual models in occupational therapy  Challenges of collaborative practice (practical education)  The education of Occupational Therapy in Czech Republic; development of bachelor degree in OT through intervention of a TEMPUS project  Impact of 5 years European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education During the full congress ENOTHE was represented with a stand in the exhibition hall, where all the products and posters were on show. 1.7 Follow-up meeting concerning dissemination and implementation of the curriculum guidelines in Osnabrück An ENOTHE meeting was organised in Osnabrück, which addressed the influences of the Bologna Declaration on occupational therapy education across Europe. Secondly the opportunities and obstacles of the implementation of the ENOTHE curriculum guidelines were discussed. The conclusion was that the European curriculum guidelines should facilitate transferability within European countries, for those institutes, which are able to demonstrate achievement of the elements of the guidelines. The interest of the German occupational therapy educators in implementing the curriculum guidelines was high and as a result of the meeting three new German members joined ENOTHE. The second day of the meeting was devoted to discussions of the policy plan of ENOTHE and the several project groups for the next four years. The meeting was attended by 57 participants from 12 different countries and a report of the meeting has been disseminated to all participants. The policy plan has been the base for the new TNP application. 1.8 Seminar for new starting institutions on implementing the curriculum guidelines in Warsaw The aim of the meeting was to bring together occupational therapy (or interested in OT) educators from Eastern and Central Europe to explore development of occupational therapy education and the implementation of the Bologna Declaration, through dissemination of the three publications of ENOTHE. The meeting was well prepared by all key-participants by answering an open questionnaire on the situation of occupational therapy in their respective countries. 32 participants from 10 different countries participated. It was impressive that, despite many of the participants not being occupational therapists, they were so motivated regarding the development of occupational therapy programmes in their educational institutes. The most important conclusions of the seminar were:  The development of occupational therapy education is progressing in all represented countries, however there is a lack of experienced teachers, lack of literature, lack of equipped clinical places and often too less support from 'officials' (government and deans of Universities).  The support and guidance of ENOTHE in curriculum development is highly appreciated and needed. The report of the meeting has been disseminated to all participants, the Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries, The World Federation of Occupational Therapists and other institutes and organisations interested in the development of occupational therapy education in Eastern and Central Europe. 1.9 Products and results The products and results of this project period are: a. Three conferences: The three above mentioned conferences (including reports) in Paris, Osnabrück and Warsaw. The responsibility for the different conferences was shared between the local staff of the conference place for the logistic organisation, the ENOTHE office for the administrative organisation and the management team for the content of the programme and the minutes/reports. b. Publishing articles and giving lectures in National Occupational Therapy conferences and broader educational conferences Besides all the above mentioned lectures, The ENOTHE co-ordinator participated actively and /or gave a lecture in 10 National Occupational Therapy conferences and European Educational Conferences about the value of Thematic Networks in general and particularly the value of ENOTHE. Two articles have been published, one in a national and one in an international occupational therapy journal. c. Development of the Web site In collaboration with the Web-master of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam the Web-site for ENOTHE has been further developed and regularly up-dated.  The new themes and projects of ENOTHE have been introduced  A summary of the publications (including an order-form) has been placed on the site  All programmes and reports of conferences and seminars have been announced and made available through the web-sited. d. Extension of the network The number of network partners increased from 95 to 105. Due to the several dissemination seminars of the publications, the translation of some publications and the strategically chosen conference places 13 new partners joined Network.
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2.2 2.2.1

Description of activities General aim

To disseminate the impact of a Thematic Network on the development of a discipline (as well in international, educational as in professional respect) To make the service and work/results of the Thematic Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education (ENOTHE) known. 2.2.2     Aims and objectives of the dissemination project 2000/2001

To improve mutual (academic and professional) recognition of Occupational Therapy throughout Europe by dissemination of the curriculum framework To promote Occupational Therapy Education in Higher education To promote the European Dimension in Occupational Therapy Education by disseminating examples of good practice of teaching materials To stimulate 'new' ways of teaching, collaborative and life long learning Achievements: The maintenance and extension of the thematic network in Occupational Therapy

2.2.3 a.

Membership of ENOTHE offers:  A forum for exchange among professionals, educators and students engaged in European occupational therapy practice and education  Information exchange on funding and partnership opportunities, other European projects, available resources and expertise; the number of requests for information via e-mail is between 10 to 15 a day  Information through the web-site; average monthly statistics shows still a great interest: 25.000 hits and 4500 pages a month. The web-site is visited by Europeans, Americans, Canadians and New Zealanders  Information through dissemination a conference reports and other documents (published by ENOTHE)  Participation in the annual conference and workshops  Support in upgrading curricula for institutions, which are not yet in higher education  Support in developing quality assurance procedures in occupational therapy education  Facilitating relationships with other thematic networks, the European Commission and international related organisations  Support in developing the European dimension in occupational therapy education  A single voice on European policy matters concerning occupational therapy education and practice. The network has a strong liaison with the European professional association (COTEC); the co-ordinator of ENOTHE participated twice in the COTEC meeting and informed the delegates on the activities of ENOTHE. She was requested by the board of COTEC to prepare an answer on the 'staff working paper on the future regime for professional recognition' of the Internal Market Directorate General. The paper was discussed with all COTEC members and agreed upon. COTEC made clear that the curriculum guidelines and the other two ENOTHE documents are of great help in the process of mutual professional recognition. The World federation is as well showing interest in the documents and is communicating actively with ENOTHE members in the revising process in their own minimum standards. Over 70% of the network partners were represented by one or more teachers and students in the annual meeting in Paris (FR) September 2000. (in total 250 delegates from 26 countries) In the combined dissemination and expert meeting in Osnabrück 57 participants from 12 different countries were actively involved. In the meeting about harmonisation 'East, Central and West' and dissemination in total 28 participants from 15 different countries took part. A core group of about 30 partners have been actively involved in setting up new projects for the coming three years. The number of network partners increased from 93 (including 5 associate members) to 105 institutes, in total 12 new members joined the Network, while one withdraw (without any reason) and one partner merged with another member institute.

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Exchange of information of good practice and dissemination

A one-day conference connected to the European Congress for Occupational Therapy: Ergo 2000 was held in Paris, 25th of September. This was a milestone meeting because the products of all ENOTHE‟s work over the past few years were to be presented. It was the largest meeting of ENOTHE, where over 250 delegates from 26 countries were participating (including 100 students). The focus was on launching the three publications. In the second part of the meeting Occupational Science was the theme and whether or not occupational therapy in Europe can/should embrace this new science to underpin its practice base. Madame, Deputy Director of Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital officially welcomed the delegates. She wished the meeting success and stated that French occupational therapists need to learn from their neighbours and colleagues, urged all delegates to share their experiences and finally wished all a good, hard working day. The main issues of the meeting are highlighted hereafter: 1. The policy of integration of disabled persons and the role of OT’s in this policy Monsieur Patrick Segal, Interministerial Delegate for People with Disabilities, addressed the delegates. He had been trained as an adaptation therapist and as such had worked with occupational therapists. He was particularly pleased to have been invited to participate in the meeting because he knew that, unlike other medical disciplines, occupational therapy took the approach of social inclusion for its clients. However, he told delegates that he preferred the team „mainstreaming„ to „inclusion‟ feeling that the term „inclusion‟ implies that people are totally excluded prior to intervention which is rarely true. He believes that there are far too few occupational therapists in France and will work with French occupational therapists to convince government of the enormous need for expansion of the discipline. The main problem appears to be that occupational therapy in France is not yet recognised in the law. France is one of the few EU countries where occupational therapists are unemployed. This despite the great need and the small numbers of therapists (4,000 in the whole of France) French occupational therapists have a challenge ahead and monsieur Segal promised to help them in their challenge. 2. Presentation of the publications by the working group leaders: Linda Renton, Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, UK, presented Occupational Therapy Education in Europe - an exploration. Linda explained and described the methodologies used to gather the data for this publication. The report took three years to complete and it was started:1997 at the ENOTHE Annual Conference. There was a feeling amongst European OTs that it was essential to collect and analyse data on OT education. The report aimed to offer: state of the art comment on OT education and the future direction of OT education in Europe. Data Collection Data were collected by the following means: All ENOTHE members were sent the initial questionnaire. COTEC /WFOT delegates, OT associations and representatives were sent a follow up questionnaire on the European Dimension and ECTs (1999). All ENOTHE members;a follow up questionnaire on models and approaches 1999. Data were also collected during ENOTHE Annual Conferences (1998 and 1999). Data Analysis Initial data analyses was carried out by Heike Wähner a fourth year OT student from the Hogeschool van Amsterdam and members of the working group. A draft report circulated to ENOTHE Board, other working groups and selected individuals for comment. Limitations One limitation was that this was not seen as a formal research project. The sample group was limited in that the questionnaires were not always answered by the most appropriate person and there were problems with translating the questionnaire into different languages. It took three years to carry out. Contents  ENOTHE ; International Context.  Facts and figures re. ENOTHE and Europe.  Philosophy of Occupational Therapy.  Undergraduate OT Education Programmes: (models and theories, structure, content, learning philosophy and strengths.)  Postgraduate and Continuing Education: (Masters, Ph.D., continuing professional development and staff training.)  Research.  European Dimension and ECTS.  Expectations of ENOTHE members.  Summary and Conclusions.

Conclusions The main conclusions are:  ENOTHE will provide a forum to discuss ideas, theories and language issues.
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ENOTHE will offer support to OT educational institutes seeking Bachelor and Masters level education, through European Curriculum guidelines.  ENOTHE will facilitate interaction, development and integration for and with Eastern European Region.  Further study needed to explore OT philosophy and educational philosophy.  Further study needed into teaching of models and theories.  ENOTHE will promote the use of ECTS to attempt to standardise programme structure.  ENOTHE will consider a credit accumulation system to aid mobility.  There is a general move away from "medical model" focus for OT, to a focus on occupation.  Development of European Masters in OT exciting and to be encouraged.  ENOTHE to encourage use of ECTs awards for CPD units of study.  Further study of research being undertaken needed.  Many suggestions for the continuation of ENOTHE made (i.e. valued).  ENOTHE will encourage more European OT educational institutes to become members, to enhance validity of further studies. Concluding Statement OT institutes need to take on the challenge to build up a compatible effective education system within Europe, and help to determine European standards for the core knowledge and competencies which occupational therapy students should acquire for entry into the European health and social care services. She thanked all the members of her working group for their hard work and commitment. Rona Howard, working group leader, University of Salford presented Occupational Therapy Education in Europe curriculum guidelines and described the method by which consensus on this work had been achieved. The guidelines were published as a book and presented in three languages - English, French and German. The content of the book includes: introductory information on ENOTHE and the rationale behind the development of the Curriculum Working Group; the process undertaken to complete the project; the philosophy of occupational therapy and how the profession promotes health, well being and quality of life; information and guidelines on the higher education process, drawing particular attention to the design of programmes, teaching/ learning and assessment, and the programme rating and award; recommendations regarding quality assurance systems and programme evaluation, promoting rigorous review and enhancement; and the learning outcomes required or an occupational therapy student to be eligible to practise. ENOTHE acknowledges that the range of education systems, degree, and award structures in Europe are varied and complex, and currently comparisons between programmes are difficult. However, whilst all institutions may not at this point in time be able to fully comply with the guidelines, it is hoped that they will provide an important steer towards mutual recognition of academic and professional standards. It is important that the guidelines are disseminated within academic and professional environments and that awareness of them is raised in our international communities if we are succeed on our goal to promote transferability, internationalisation and harmonisation. She also thanked the members of her working group for their commitment and hard work Ramon Daniels, working group leader, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, NL, presented Occupational Therapy Education in Europe - learning from each other and described the development of the three projects contained within this publication - case studies, an educational module on European Health and guidelines for shared final year projects. The publication Occupational Therapy in Europe: learning from each other is the result of the work of the European Dimension working group of ENOTHE. The working group's overall aim was to encourage schools of occupational therapy to involve the European Dimension in occupational therapy in their teaching. The working group felt that this objective could be achieved by creating a source of information about occupational therapy practice in Europe, and by developing and collecting working examples of teaching which involves the European Dimension. This book, which is interesting for practitioners, students and teachers, contains the following chapters: Case History Review A collection of 40 case histories from 17 countries across Europe:  16 on elderly persons who has suffered a cerebrovascular accident  13 on young adults with schizophrenia  11 on young persons with cerebral palsy This material can be used in many ways for instance for reflection for occupational therapists in practice, for case examples to enhance students' learning, for preparing students for going abroad for clinical practice or for a database of material for analysis.


Shared Final Projects A description of two pilots in which students from three countries worked together on their final student projects using multi-media. From the two pilots the collaborating partner institutes have gained great faith in the possibilities of this kind of long distance co-operation. Probably the most important factor of continuing their collaboration during the final thesis is the enthusiasm of the students. Their growing awareness of differences in occupational therapy throughout Europe, their reflections on occupational therapy in their own country and the responsibility the students took for the collaboration has surpassed the expectations of the partners.
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European courses An account of two courses in occupational therapy undergraduate education encompassing the European Dimension. Both courses focus on the international awareness of the students by enhancing their understanding of international health care systems and processes in relation with their profession. The two courses are examples of bringing international aspects into a curriculum. Finally Ramon thanked the members of his working group for their effort and commitment Marije Bolt, an occupational therapy student from The Hogeschool van Amsterdam and Klavdija Mozina, an occupational therapy student from University College of Ljubljana shared their experience of taking part in a shared final year project. They felt that they had both gained a great deal from such an experience- how to undertake research, the development of occupational therapy in other countries, the cultures on other countries and they also made many new friends. Their main recommendation for students taking part in such a project in the future is „stay in touch and debate everything!‟ The publications were then presented to Maeve Groom, chairperson of COTEC (Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries), to each member of all the working groups and to each representative of the present occupational therapy educational institutes. 3. Occupational Therapy in France: Pinel and the roots of Occupational Therapy Marguerite Lemarchand and Sylvie Freulon, Institut de Formation en Ergothérapie, Paris (FR) gave delegates a fascinating review of the history behind the development of occupational therapy in France particularly the part played by Pinel. Pinel, known for freeing psychiatric patients from their chains also created psychiatry as a medical discipline. He was head of the hospital in which the ENOTHE conference was being held – l‟ Hopital Pitié Salpêtrière. He believed that his patients should be involved in work and set up workshops, sewing groups, gardening groups etc. An authoritarian figure, he did not believe that his staff need be trained. Moving on to more recent development of occupational therapy in France delegates learned that the first two schools were set up in the „50s in Paris and Nancy, the course lasted two years and no psychiatry was taught. Psychiatry was introduced into the curriculum in 1960 and in 1962 France became an associate member of WFOT being accepted as a full member of WFOT in 1964. 4. Occupational Therapy Education in France: The challenges ahead Marie-Chantal Morel, Head of the Bordeaux School of Occupational Therapy gave an overview of occupational therapy education in France and outlined the challenges ahead. She concluded her talk by saying that the challenges ahead included increasing the number of occupational therapists and preparing the students better for work in the community. Research also needs to be encouraged and occupational therapists should be encouraged to return to post-graduate study. 5. Occupational Science What is Occupational Science? An introduction Ulla Krogsmark, an occupational therapist from Sweden set the scene for the main theme. She asserted that occupational therapy needs its own theoretical base to enhance our understanding of the complex phenomenon of human occupation and its relation to health and well being. She outlined the background to the work in occupational science particularly by Florence Clark, which led to the formation of a Scandinavian group to form around the development of occupational science in Scandinavia. One aim of those interested in occupational science is for occupational therapy education to switch from a medical model to an occupational model with an emphasis on health promotion. What are the possible implications of Occupational Science on the development of occupational therapy education and practice? Staffan Josephsson, an occupational therapy educator from Sweden then examined the possible implications of occupational science on the development of occupational therapy education and practice. He shared with delegates some preliminary arguments for the development of occupational science in Europe:  There is a growing demand for a scientific base for practice and education.  We need to question ourselves in a scientific manner  We need to have a distinct field of enquiry based on occupation and health However, he stressed that it would be unwise for European occupational therapists to strive for a uniform definition of occupational science suggesting that ongoing debate and critical reflection are vital. Ergologie, a French perspective on Occupational Science Isabelle Pibarot, a French occupational therapist discussed ergologie - a French perspective on occupational science. She argued that the ergological approach seemed best to support the occupational approach in that it examines a large number of aspects of human activity:  Being and having  Engaging in action and doing  Human activity, occupational and tasks  Culture and cultural identity  Life and love of life
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 

The individual in his/her environment and social setting The environment as a stimulus of being and culture.

She concluded that this science of ergologie should not only interest occupational therapists but also educators, sociologists, psychologists in fact all human beings. Is Occupational Science a relevant foundation for OT in Europe? Irene Illott questioned the suggestion that occupational science is a relevant foundation for occupational therapy in Europe. From being an advocate of occupational science in 1990 she is now a sceptic about the possibility of establishing a new, inter-disciplinary academic discipline. She argued that a critical even sceptical approach is required if the profession is to „close the loop between theory, education, practice and research‟ in a way which serves the good of the European community. She concluded that occupational science is the most relevant foundation for theory, education, practice and research. It needs to be owned and promoted in a way, which clarifies rather than confounds the complexities of occupational competence, justice, deprivation and the rest. The greatest risk may be complacency, splitting within the profession and failure to heed the transformation from real to virtual doing and relationships in this new wired world. Plenary and panel discussion led by Gunner Gamborg and Nils Erik Ness Debate and discussion followed with delegates from all over Europe sharing their ideas and views. Some concerns were expressed that European occupational therapists may be „jumping on an American bandwagon‟. How are we going to make sure that occupational science in Europe has a truly European Dimension? How will occupational science benefit the patient/client? Discussion needs to be ongoing, rich and open-ended if this new science is truly going to be a useful underpinning science for European occupational therapy. 6. Report of the Student group Students had debated the role of the family in occupational therapy. They had discussed how to set goals to assist patients achieve quality of life and how the occupational therapists might assist families in accepting their family members' handicap. They concluded that there was no absolute recipe as everyone was different and expressed interest in the Bordeaux potential family system approach. They had appreciated the opportunity to be involved in the meeting and to share their views, thoughts and opinions with other occupational therapy students. Students discussed as well their own organisation, but they felt time was too short to come to any conclusions about how European occupational therapy students might organise themselves but decided this would be a major focus for the meeting in Amsterdam in 2001. c. Dissemination and evaluation of the publications

Osnabrück meeting Because of the fact that Occupational therapy education is not part of the university system in Germany, it was decided to held a one day meeting focussing on the consequences of the Bologna Declaration and on the reform of occupational therapy education across Europe(Germany, UK, Denmark and France were taken as an example). The second half of the day the opportunities and obstacles of the implementation of the ENOTHE curriculum guidelines in Germany were discussed. 57 participants from 12 different countries took part in the meeting. The participants were divided in small working groups and were requested to answer three questions, of which the collective responses are given hereafter: Do the ENOTHE Curriculum Guidelines give enough direction to comply with the Bologna Declaration? It was generally considered that the guidelines produced a helpful steer to comply with the principles particularly in relation to:  Implementation of the Diploma Supplement – the guidelines helped individuals to present details in a more structured way, and having the curriculum guidelines and Diploma Supplement documentation together in the booklet was valuable.  Adoption of a system of comparable degrees – whilst it was acknowledged that it would take some time before we had consistency of structure and content, the curriculum guidelines did provide a sound basis on which to develop programmes. Though there were issues related to award, length of programme, institutional status, politics and economics.  Establishment of a system of credit rating – expectations of a universal system is clearly documented, it will be up to individuals to implement the changes/additions required. Support from the education institutions will be necessary.  Promotion of mobility for students, teachers, researchers and administrative staff – the curriculum guidelines alone do not facilitate this principle, but linked with the activities of ENOTHE in the development of educational activities cooperation, communication, enhancement of teaching and learning is evident.  Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance – this section in the guidelines clearly sets out expected standards and is already promoting discussion related to comparability, monitoring of activity and audit of performance.
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Promotion of European dimensions in education – the curriculum guidelines are not very specific in this area, but some reference is made to inclusion in the curriculum. There is a lack of emphasis on inter-institutional cooperation and mobility schemes.

Issues raised in discussions were: This document should not be concentrated on in isolation from other educational reference material/policy documents, we need to study and refer to a range of documents to help us define our programmes and professional direction. As one of the documents available, this is an important reference.(Denmark, Switzerland) This document stimulates our thinking about professional practice and philosophy.(Germany) Often our cultural differences and the way we interpret professional philosophy and define practice makes comparability and ultimately consistency between courses difficult.(Germany) The guidelines can be used to give direction and provide a base line which you can use to compare your own standards against, they encourage reflection and a desire to promote internationalisation. Interpretation of the contents may not always be the same but we have to be flexible enough to allow that.(Slovenia) There is “a state of innocence” about the guidelines because the detail is not explicit, perhaps we need more detail related to the domains of content (Germany) Research is identified as a key area for inclusion in the curriculum, but this is not possible in some of the educational environments that OT students are educated in. One could be creative in the translation of the guidelines though and encourage a way of thinking and working that is informed by the research process(Germany) Mobility between institutions does not necessarily mean we have to deliver the same curriculum, so programmes can still have diversity. (Germany) The Curriculum Guidelines are an instrument that will help us prepare and be ready for changes and developments in OT.(Denmark) The Curriculum Guidelines will be an important and useful tool to influence change and discussion locally and regionally and nationally.(Germany) The Guidelines will help those students who have not undertaken a programme with these contents to decide what further development they might need.(Germany) We may have to remind our Ministries what the originally signed up to for the Bologna Declaration!(Germany) How can the Curriculum Guidelines be implemented? This was considered a difficult issue for many of the delegates as they may have conflicting instructions from Ministries, government (educational/ health) departments. For some delegates the guidelines were not sufficiently detailed for them to implement. Although others welcomed the opportunity to try to integrate them as far as practicable into their own curriculum, and said they should be viewed as a good model to follow. The guidelines could be used as a model for discussion, to bring a course team together to express opinions, and to decide on a way forward. If you wanted to introduce changes in the curriculum it was important that you all shared the same goals and orientation. It was felt to be very important to continue to collaborate internationally as this would raise awareness of differing standards, curriculum content and delivery, and research. As there was more understanding of each others issues and differences then we could support our colleagues to make changes and develop. The document must be used to educate and influence those people and institutions who have power and control of our educational and professional practice. Are there any obstacles which need to be raised/followed up by ENOTHE? Germany: We may need to clarify what standard has to be reached to comply with the guidelines. How will we identify if/ when we are falling below them? How can we overcome the financial issues/consequences of these developments, German OT‟s are not degree students and are not funded like them. We need support from the Ministries if these developments can be realised. More information about ECT‟s. Create/support possibilities for student mobility. Support us in addressing the issue of educating OT‟s in the Higher education sector. ENOTHE will follow up the above mentioned issues as much as possible. The report of the meeting have been disseminated to all participants and relevant other organisations. It is published on the web-site, partly in german as well.
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Warsaw meeting The Polish Minister for Education sent his respect and recognition of the activities of ENOTHE and his congratulations regarding the initiative of organising this conference on European education of occupational therapists. His department supports the concept of occupational therapy education and the ministry is willing to attempt to facilitate and develop the law, as so many Polish people need the help of therapists. He commented on the conference programme and that it looked to be on a high level and that he sent his apologies for not being able to attend. The aims of ENOTHE are to encourage harmonisation, continuing education, a European dimension and quality assurance in European Occupational Therapy Education. The aim of this particular meeting was to discuss strategies to develop occupational therapy education in East and Central Europe and the role ENOTHE can play in this process. 11 Representatives of 8 different Eastern and Central European countries gave their vision on the developments of occupational therapy education in their country and the value of ENOTHE's curriculum guidelines in that process. In total 28 representatives from 15 different countries were involved in the seminar. Discussion took place on the following topics: Occupational Base When starting occupational therapy education, it is important to try to decide which is the best faculty for occupational therapy programmes to be part of. In universities this is often a choice between a Medical Faculty and a Social or Health Care Faculty. Maria Faktorova, at Charles University in Czech described the occupational therapy programme there initially being run by medical doctors in 1994. However now it is moving towards an independent department. The obvious benefit to being allied with doctors is that they have access to the Ministries of Health and that they are often the main referrers of patients/clients to occupational therapists. Why do students choose Occupational Therapy? Another question to consider is why students choose your educational establishment. Many students appear to like the link between the arts and sciences which occupational therapy offers. Occupational therapy education appears to offer links to every day life and combines students‟ hobbies, interests and education. The variety of demands of an occupational therapy educational programme appears to be appealing to prospective students and self development also appears to be a relevant factor in why students choose occupational therapy. Importance of legislation An occupational therapy educator from Estonia felt that legislation was also a very important factor to consider. If occupational therapy is not allied to medicine then they can not work in hospitals. The main areas of employment for European occupational therapists are government (Ministry of health or Social services) and health insurance companies. But also commercial opportunities are becoming apparent e.g. companies wish to employ OTs to prevent disabilities. Private practice is also developing. Political power of clients The political power of the client group was also raised as an issue. For example in Slovenia this has been vital and this is a welcome, new and exciting development. Client groups appear to be very politically powerful in the development of occupational therapy. Importance of occupational therapy associations Another topic discussed was the importance of trying to develop an Occupational Therapy Association within each European country. Once there is an association then this association can approach the relevant government bodies and can speak as one voice for the profession. In Czech the Ministries now call on the occupational therapy association for input and comment on legislation etc. ENOTHE curriculum guidelines Rona Howard, Salford University, explained why ENOTHE had developed the Curriculum Guidelines. Many countries had signed the Bologna Declaration, including Poland which states the following:  Comparable Degrees: throughout Europe and we need to work towards degrees which mean the same and all take place in Higher Education. The minimum degree is a Bachelor Degree.  Diploma Supplement: this is a document, which shows that we all are working towards the same educational and vocational standards.  Three year Undergraduate Degree: That this should be the minimum offered and that post graduate opportunities should be available i.e. Masters and PhD.  Credit Rating System: European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). We are to work towards a European standard system and this will facilitate student study, exchanges and integration throughout Europe.  Mobility: this is for students, teachers, researchers and admin. staff. It is seen to be important to integrate students Internationally and this is often very difficult due to language, culture and differing health care systems. Sharing of skills and knowledge is very important.  Quality Assurance: There is a need for European quality assurance but also a recognition that individual countries retain their own autonomy. This is vital if we want to achieve comparable degrees. Quality assurance is not just about assessment, it is about helping each other to improve quality.
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 European Dimension: Promoting the European Dimension in education is important and this knowledge should enhance and improve our curriculum. We can achieve this through common curriculum design and co-operation with other countries in developing teaching materials, staff conferences such as ENOTHE and visits. This all is important for countries that are already meeting the objectives mentioned in the curriculum guidelines, but even more so for those who are not. We are responsible as individuals and professionals to work towards implementing the Bologna Declaration. We have to own it and work with it. When ENOTHE was formed one of it‟s objectives was to work to develop curriculum guidelines for European Occupational Therapy Education. These guidelines have been developed and they are a “vision” of what we want to achieve, as this will help us take on our responsibility for the Bologna Declaration. Rona Howard suggested the following key fundamental philosophy for occupational therapy including self identity, which is made up of being a human being (with skills values, beliefs and desires the environment (including political, social, economic and cultural) and occupations. Occupational therapy works with dysfunction, handicap and the influences of society of people. Rona suggests that throughout Europe we have the same philosophy. So in developing these guidelines the development group looked at particular skills, abilities and competencies of the occupational therapy student which are required in order to help humans develop a good self identity. The WHO ICIDH2 Document is a directive on how to deliver health systems. It promotes a move away from the medical model towards a greater understanding of the person and his environment. It is translated into most languages and it is a very important document regarding world health and it‟s direction. It also promotes interdisciplinary work. This document is about health and social care and about us all working together to promote a better service for our clients. The curriculum guidelines build on WHO-ICIDH2 document and they promote the Bologna Declaration. There are many important sections, but one very important section is section 7. This section is about the competencies of the student on graduating. It does not tell the educator what you put into the curriculum it tells you what you should achieve at the end. This is important because when you develop a programme one should design it to achieve the competencies. It is important to work with other occupational therapy educators to try to achieve similar standards. Now ENOTHE will have a project to look at quality assurance to see if curricula and occupational therapy educational programmes are meeting standards. Through projects like this establishments who have difficulty meeting the standards can be helped to maintain standards and assure quality in a supportive way. It is important for occupational therapy not to only look at education. They should also be liasing with government departments and ministries, developing their associations and promoting the profession to the public. So the guidelines are a small but very important part of the development of our professions. For occupational therapy educators other sections of the guidelines are also helpful. Many educational institutions still have a very didactic approach to teaching. Occupational therapists need to be problem solvers and to be practical, therefore occupational therapists need to be dynamic thinkers, flexible and often teaching by talking at students is not the best way to develop this. Many institutions now use problem based learning (PBL) and some integrate some of the principals of PBL into a more traditional curriculum. This is hopefully producing dynamic and independent thinking occupational therapists. Next the participants were asked how the curriculum guidelines might help them evaluate their own programmes: Czech: The book helps us talk to ministries with confidence. Also the book “Exploration of Occupational Therapy Education in Europe” is very valuable, as it has so many helpful facts. Georgia and France: In France and Georgia the booklets have been very helpful. The Occupational Therapy educators in France feel that they have been able to “fight” with the booklets. Belarus: There was a request to have the booklet translated into Russian there will be no separate OT school here and there is a great need for occupational therapy. The Academy of Sport is recognised at the moment by the Ministry. This is not a member country of the EU. There is a move to open an Occupational Therapy school in a general education centre in Minsk. This will hopefully produce graduates who will become teachers and researchers as well as clinical Occupational Therapists. However this will be a long course of education especially if they want to go onto Masters (2 years on top of their original 5). There are also moves to consider a “Correspondence Course” for clinical Occupational Therapists. ENOTHE future plans Hanneke van Bruggen, Hogeschool van Amsterdam (NL) gave an explanation of the main themes of ENOTHE for 2001-2004: General aim: ENOTHE aims to create one European area for occupational therapy by harmonising occupational therapy education and assuring quality. Themes:
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1. Harmonisation and Quality Assurance.  Terminology is an issue, especially with the name of occupational therapy, so ENOTHE plans to facilitate understanding of terminology to make it accessible for all occupational therapists in Europe. (ENOTHE will cooperate with the World Federation of Occupational Therapists that has already been working on a glossary in occupational therapy).  ENOTHE also has a project to establish a peer review system, to explore quality issues. This project will analyse education programmes by assessing them and encourage them to develop.  ENOTHE also will link TEMPUS and SOCRATES to facilitate interaction throughout Europe, linking Eastern Central Europe to the rest of Europe. 2. Development of the European Dimension in Occupational Therapy Education. The final outcome of this strand of ENOTHE will hopefully be a module on the internet available for all occupational therapists on the European Dimension in Occupational Therapy. 3. Continuing Education and Research. There are also plans to develop continuing education, specifically in occupational science, and to create a scientific data base. 4. Development of Teaching methods.  Another ENOTHE project has been set up to explore the teaching of practical subjects on occupational therapy programmes.  A group of interested ENOTHE members have established a Problem Based Learning interest group.  The ENOTHE Website is established.  Members have been asked to submit examples of “good teaching” which will be posted on the Website for all to use.  The OTIS project has been on going and this is a collaborative internet learning environment. These four themes will produce products or outcomes, which are as follows: Translation of curriculum guidelines, glossary of terms, publications (core issues in occupational therapy, occupational science, peer review, guidelines for innovative teaching methods), a better student network, database on PhD studies, three annual conferences and a conference on implementation strategies. Other European funding programmes Other European funding programmes were shortly mentioned like TEMPUS and Leonardo. The general conclusion of the meeting was:  The development of occupational therapy education is progressing in all countries, however there is a lack of experienced teachers, lack of literature, lack of equipped clinical places and often too less support from 'officials' (governments and deans).  The support and guidance of ENOTHE in curriculum development is highly appreciated and needed. The report of the meeting have been disseminated to all participants , professional associations and those, who are interested in the development of occupational therapy in East and central Europe, like Rehabilitation International. d. Other dissemination actions

ENOTHE members participated actively and gave key lecturers in the following meetings and conferences: November 2000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Annual conference of the Slovenian Association for Occupational therapy, lecture about trends and challenges in occupational therapy practice and education in Europe December 2000 Zagreb, Croatia, meetings with Dean and Vice dean of the School of health studies, the Associate of the Minister for European Integration and the Croatian Association of Occupational Therapy about the development of occupational therapy education and the co-operation with ENOTHE May 2001 Essen, Germany, Meeting of German occupational therapy school leaders (70 institutes were represented), lecture about facts and figures of occupational therapy education in Europe June 2001 Heerlen, the Netherlands, attending the final presentations of the German up-grading course in Occupational Therapy of the 'Hogeschool Zuyd' September 2002, Stockholm, attending the seminar programme for the thesis examination of the first students of the European Masters degree study in occupational therapy September 2002, Montpellier, France, meeting of French occupational therapy schools, lecture on 'Le reseau Européen de l'enseignement superieur en Ergothérapie. This presentation is published in the book 'Expériences en Ergothérapie'. September 2002, Vienna, Austria, 30 year celebration of the 'Akademie für Ergotherapie", lecture on 'Zukunftperspektieven der ergotherapeutischen Ausbildung aus europäischer Sicht'.

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Articles were published in; British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, OT Education in Europe, A European Master of Science programme in occupational therapy, by Ulla Runge, Hélène Fittinghoff, Staffan Josephsson, Astrid Kinebanian, Gaynor Sadlo and Karin Winding British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, OT Education in Europe, Preregistration education of occupational therapists, by Rona Howard and Jet Lancée Bijdragen, Onderwijsmagazine van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, ERGO terapeuten nr11/2000, Norsk Ergoterapeutforbund, ENOTHE, vever et nett for skoler og ergoterapeutstudenter by BjØrn Hugo Petersen ERGO terapeuten nr11/2000, I Kofferten fra Paris, by Nina Kristin Øverdoal and Roar Hellem Occupational Therapy International, 8(2), 2001, European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education: A five -year review' by Hanneke van Bruggen e Dissemination of the concept of a Thematic Network in general

The co-ordinator of ENOTHE took part in two international events to disseminate the general concept and impact of networks. The EAIE conference In the EAIE (European Association for International Education) conference (Nov.2000, Leipzig, Germany) a session was organised by three network co-ordinators on thematic networks called 'Knowledge for all'. A critical analysis of the last four years projects was presented and two concrete examples of thematic networks including the impact of their work were discussed. The session was well attended by more then 150 educators and representatives of Naric's and the European Commission. TEMPUS seminar The co-ordinator of ENOTHE was invited as a key speaker in the TEMPUS seminar on regional co-operation and networking, Tirana, April 5-8, 2001. The aim of the seminar was to further develop the concept of regional cooperation and networking in South-East Europe. The outcome of the discussions should serve as a basis for the preparation of the 2002 Guide for Applicants. In 2000, the TEMPUS III programme introduced so called Networking Projects (NP) as a new Tempus project type in addition to Joint European Projects. The low number of applications received, as well as the frequent questions from potential applicants, suggested that the concept of networking was not clearly explained in the current Guide for Applicants. There was, therefore, a need to further develop the concept of networking by more clearly defining the objectives and the activities of a networking project and by setting conditions for the composition project consortium, the eligible cost, the maximum budget and the duration in accordance with these objectives and activities. A workshop was organised to assess the validity of the proposed strands: Multiplier Projects and projects on Policy and System Development. (It should be recalled that Tempus networking activities should be linked to institutions rather than individuals, and that Tempus cannot finance activities linked to research.) 22 participants discussed the concept of the networking projects during the sessions that were held in accordance with the agenda of the Seminar. Having valuable experience in networking (Tempus and projects funded by other donors in the countries of South-East Europe, associations of universities in the region, the Danube rector‟s conference, regional projects in civic education, Erasmus Thematic Networks, projects supported by the British Council, the Norwegian programme for support to the Higher Education development in South-East Europe, etc), the members of the group actively participated in the discussion. The following invited presentations facilitated the discussion:  The Erasmus Thematic Network in Occupational Therapy – case study presented during the plenary session on 6 April by Mrs Hanneke von Bruggen, Hogeschool van Amsterdam  The concept of the Tempus Networking Projects – presented at the Workshop C, by Mr Michel Arrouays from the National Tempus Contact Point from France, on 6 April  the Civic Education Project – presented at the Workshop C by, Mrs Liana Ghent from the Regional Office in Budapest, on 6 April  the Regional Civic Education Project for Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo and Serbia – presented at the Workshop C, by Mr Frank Dalton, the project-manager located in Tirana, on 6 April. Given the fact that the networking projects provide channels for communication and establishment of new links, the Workshop recognised the following “added values” of the networking vis-à-vis the other types of Tempus projects:  The projects provide possibilities for dissemination of successful results/products and multiplier effects  The regional and wider, trans-European dimension of the networks would be essential for the development of relevant competencies in the targeted fields
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   

Support to development and functioning of thematic networks (discipline oriented projects) was strongly recommended by the participants to the Workshop Development of inter-regional co-operation (e.g. EU - CARDS – TACIS co-operation) would be an “added value” of the networking projects Projects for establishing small networks financed with an “initiation budget” aiming to support initial activities for establishing larger networks in accordance with Tempus aims have been recommended Co-operation between Tempus networking projects and Erasmus Thematic Networks would be relevant for synergy in the development of the European educational space.

The participants to the Workshop came to a conclusion that both proposed strands (Strand 1 – Multiplier Projects and Strand 2 – Projects on Policy and Systems Development), would be covered with a more generally defined networking project, titled “Network Project”. Basic characteristics of this type of projects were developed for the TEMPUS guide. It is expected that the ministries, the rectors' conferences or other policy and advisory bodies in the CARDS countries take the initiative in setting up the above networks. The networks should lead to the drafting of higher education legislation and the implementation of policy changes. f. Start and development of new themes and project groups

New initiatives have been taken to prepare the next thematic network period. Project group in quality assurance Membership consists of: Rona Howard, University of Salford, UK ( Leader) Rainer Külker, Schule für Ergotherapie, Bielefeld, Germany Aila Pikkarainen, Jyväskylä Polytechnic, Finland Anne Carnduff, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK An initial meeting was held in attendance of 8 member institutes at the Ergotherapieschule Osnabruck on 27 January 2001 parallel with the dissemination and expert meeting. The Working Group reviewed and revised the details of the Project Proposal providing further detail of activities to be undertaken and specifying time scales for the activity for consideration and approval by ENOTHE Board members. During the meeting the Quality Assurance documentation extracted from the Occupational Therapy Education in Europe-Curriculum Guidelines were circulated and discussed and issues arising from them were explored. It was felt that these should be the guiding principles for the focus of the project, but that not all Schools of Occupational Therapy in Europe would be in a position to comply with them or even have the authority to strive towards meeting them. However a supportive Quality Review system was felt to be a positive way forward, especially if Schools could learn from each other and exchange good practice. Some QA systems in use were identified by members and documented for further review re their appropriateness for use in the project eg ISO 9000 Project group European Dimension The group consists of: Ramon Daniels, Hogeschool van Amsterdam,NL (Leader) Annelise Kristensen, Ergotherapeutskolen Naestved, DK Fran Stokes, University College of St. Martin, Lancaster, UK The aim of the group is to encourage European occupational therapy institutes to implement the European dimension into their curricula. As a first step in the process three institutes were asked to join a shared final project to explore current ideas about what should be taught about 'Occupational Therapy in Europe'. 5 interviews in 11 countries were conducted to explore and identify learning outcomes concerning this issue. Students worked on the project from Febr. till June 2001 and the results, laid down in a report will be discussed in the annual ENOTHE meeting of November 2001. Project group Occupational Science The group consists of: Nils Erik Ness, SØr TrØndelag University College, Trondheim, NO Sissel Alsaker, SØr TrØndelag University College, Trondheim, NO Dennis Persson, Lund University, SE Lena-Karin Erlandsson, Lund University, SE Mathew Mollineux, The group met in Osnabrück, January 2001, in attendance of two German institutes. The group made a plan for continuing education. The first step should be a discussion and exploration on how Occupational Science is implemented in the European curricula. Questions for the workshop of the annual meeting in Amsterdam Nov.2001 were formulated like:
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Is Occupational Science discussed in the different European countries? Is Occupational Science included in the European curricula and is there any research or continuing education going on within the frame of Occupational Science in Europe. ENOTHE Problem Based Learning sub-network The coordination group is existing of:  Jet Lancee, Department of Occupational Therapy, Hogeschool Limburg in Heerlen (now Hogeschool Zuyd) (NL)  Mary Gilbert, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (UK)  Gitten Hammerberg, the School of Occupational Therapy in Copenhagen (DK) At the ENOTHE conference in Paris in September 2000, it was decided to acknowledge the PBL Network as a subnetwork. This meant that the co-ordination group started arranging the first PBL conference for European OT schools, to be held immediately prior to the ENOTHE conference in Amsterdam in November 2001. The coordination group had a planning meeting in Copenhagen in November 2000, and in March 2001 another meeting at the Hogeschool Rotterdam, the host of the first PBL conference. . The purpose of these 2 days organisation meeting was: - to evaluate last year‟s conference, - to work out a preliminary frame for next year‟s conference, and - to delegate responsibilities within the co-ordination group concerning the contact to speakers, workshop facilitators etc. In addition, this meeting gave the co-ordination group the opportunity to see the facilities and talk to the people responsible for the practical arrangements in connection with the conference. Main goals for the PBL sub-network: - To help new PBL schools get in touch with, and keep the contact with, the more PBL experienced schools, in order to improve the quality of the OT education programmes. - To create a forum for lecturers at the OT schools in Europe, in which they can meet and discuss the concrete organisation of the curriculum, so that the students will acquire the skills necessary to an OT, in the most suitable way. - To create a network providing a simple and quick way of spreading information on PBL and OT education programmes. All the above mentioned project groups have contributed and participated in the expert-meeting in Osnabrück on future issues and development of the Thematic network. g. Collaboration and contacts

Several other meetings were attended: TNP-co-ordinating meeting The TNP co-ordinating meeting and a second meeting in Brussels on the future developments of the TNP's in relation to the Bologna Declaration (February, 2001) was attended. Comments and advises given in the meeting were incorporated in the final Thematic Network application of March 2001. 3 COTEC meetings The ENOTHE co-ordinator and the link person between COTEC and ENOTHE participated in three meetings of the Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries. In the first meeting, which was linked to the European Congress, Ergo 2000, the three publications of ENOTHE were presented and the delegates were requested to make publicity for the work of ENOTHE in their countries and give names of organisations and officials, who should receive a set of publications. In the second meeting information between the two organisations was exchanged and actions in particularly towards extending occupational therapy towards the Eastern and Central European countries were attuned. The last meeting was focused on formulating a reaction on:' the staff working paper on the future regime for professional recognition' of the Internal Market Directorate General Unit D4. COTEC had asked the co-ordinator of ENOTHE to prepare a draft answer for discussion with all delegates. Consensus was fully achieved and the importance that all European OT programmes should comply with the ENOTHE curriculum guidelines and an international peer reviewing system was stressed. Cohehre meeting The annual COHEHRE (Consortium of Institutes of Higher Education in Health and Rehabilitation in Europe) held in Izmir, Turkey, April 2001 was attended by the ENOTHE co-ordinator. The meeting was focussing on allied health care education in Turkey, System reform in EU in Health Care Education and domains of coherence in the education of health and rehabilitation. Since there is no occupational therapy education in Turkey, this meeting was seen as a possibility to introduce occupational therapy and to make links with Turkey. Contacts with the Dokuz Eylül University and the academic hospital have been made.

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Other contacts Contacts for further co-operation were made during the Ergo 2000 congress with WHO, centre for environment and health and Rehabilitation International about co-operation in the development of Occupational Therapy in East and Central


Monitoring of the activities

The project had a detailed work plan including aims, objectives and expected outcomes. The management team had regular meetings in order to monitor the progress of all disseminating activities. Discussions and open revisions and additions to original plans were invited through the expert meeting, the general assembly and the members. Results of a written evaluation on the conference in Paris 2000 showed that the members in general were positive about the conference; the lectures were appreciated as good or very good and the organisation was judged as well as good or very good. In this meeting the workshops were missed and time for more discussion. The ENOTHE meeting was only one day while other lectures were integrated in the Ergo 2000 congress. The other two dissemination seminars in Osnabrück and Warsaw were as well evaluated by a written questionnaire and showed also an average between good and very good. The need for similar meetings in other countries was expressed by several members. 2.2.5 The impact of the achievements on the overall steering of the project

The network activities have had an impact on the individual members, the European and national professional associations in the sense that all of them are more and more aware of the differences in educational level of the occupational therapists in Europe and that their is a great need for harmonisation in the level of education and for common curriculum guidelines. 28 Institutes indicated that they have changed certain items in their curriculum due to the contacts they have had in the network. 8 Institutes indicated the change in teaching and learning methods as the most significant. 4 Institutes have changed their content and organisation of the fieldwork and 10 have changed the content of the curriculum like implementing occupational therapy-models, theories, philosophy, ethics, research and internationalisation. 13 institutes mention that they have started new international projects since they have been a member of ENOTHE. Most of the projects are bilateral Institutional Socrates contracts for student and teacher exchange. Sharing information, collaboration in the network and providing links for students, staff and research are highly valued within the network. In all countries where occupational therapy education was not yet recognised as bachelors degree discussions with Ministries and universities have started to achieve at least this undergraduate level. (Germany, Denmark, France, Italy, Belgium, Norway and Spain). The network has led to feasible actions on the way to harmonisation of the level of the occupational therapy education in different European countries. Not only the European professionals do appreciate the work of the network, but also the World Federation of Occupational therapists is very much interested the results of the network. One of the ENOTHE management team members, Nils Erik Ness, SØr TrØndelag University College, Trondheim is actively involved in revising the minimum standards of the WFOT, whereby the committee is inspired by ENOTHE's curriculum guidelines. Also outside the professional world of the occupational therapists, there is a growing interest in our network by doctors, allied health practitioners, defectologists, teachers and client groups. 2.2.6 Organisational approach and structure

Description of the roles of partners and the organisation of the work ENOTHE has grown during this project year to an organisation of 105 member European Occupational therapy programmes. There is at least one member OT programme/ institute of each EU country participating in the network, except from Luxembourg, where no recognised OT programmes are provided. More educational institutes from the Central and Eastern European region have got involved as well. The operational organisation is built upon the principles of decentralisation and representation. The Network is organised around:  the co-ordinator/ president Hanneke van Bruggen, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, NL  the management team/ the board Gunner Gamborg, Ergotherapeutskolen, Arhus, DK Marie Chantal Morel, Formation en Ergothérapie, Bodeaux, FR Nils Erik Ness, SØr TrØndelag University College, Trondheim, NO Linda Renton, Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, UK Barbara Piskur, Ljubljana University College, SL  project leaders
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   

project groups conferences and workshops general assembly representatives of member institutes or associations

A general co-ordinating administrative office has been established at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, that is the chief contractor of ENOTHE. The general administration of ENOTHE and its financial matters are handled as well by the Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Main responsibilities of the Co-ordinator and project partners Tasks and responsibilities of the co-ordinator * To submit on behalf of ENOTHE the work plan, setting and assuring the time schedule, setting and assuring the budget for each activity. * To divide the tasks among the management team/board members, the working group leaders and evaluating the work regularly in accordance with the work programme. * To submit regular (at least every three month) reports about the progress of the project on the website. * To assure dissemination of the products to all participating institutes, prof. associations and other mentioned target groups. * To receive and distribute the overall grant proportionally to the costs incurred. * To co-ordinate the project. * To draft and submit the project report to the European Commission. Tasks and responsibilities of the management team: To organise the conference for launching the products. To manage the project with respect to organisation, planning, financial control, administration, information and evaluation. To supervise the running project activities. To develop and maintain links with relevant external organisations (horizontal thematic networks, governments, related professional organisations). To promote ENOTHE within OT educational programmes in higher education. Tasks and responsibilities of the working/project group leaders To submit a work plan indicating objectives of dissemination, activities, approaches To involve the working group members actively To write a final report on the results of the dissemination To present the products of the working group at the conference To develop and up-date part of the web-site concerning the products To participate in a joint meeting with the management team and invited experts on the future direction of ENOTHE Tasks and responsibilities of the poject groups To fulfil the activities described in the work plan To develop and maintain links with relevant (external) other groups or organisations Tasks and responsibilities of the General Assembly: To determine the policy of the project. To determine the progress of the project. To validate the results of the project

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Over 70% of the members of ENOTHE have participated in the launching conference and contributed to the dissemination of the results.


Comments on the appropriateness and effectiveness of the organisational approach

During this dissemination year the tasks for the project groups and individual members were very general defined in dissemination, except the task formulating new objectives and a work plan for the new TNP which requested more details and specialisation. That made that more plenary conferences were used rather then specialised workshops. tto the work of ENOTHE has still to be improved. Making better use of the web site discussion forum should intensify communication in between the annual conferences. At the moment the members do not regularly consult the web-site and not yet all members have the possibility. 2.2.8 The pedagogical and didactic approaches

The following approaches have been used:
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a) Exchange of information During the total project period it has been essential to produce an overview of existing material, given that these are quite extensive, whether in the form of studies or data banks. A web based data base of all OT educational institutes and OT books published in Europe has been set up and up-dated. Development of the Web-site In order to facilitate contacts between members, to create a platform for dissemination and exchange of ideas, high priority has been given to develop the Web-site. Ger de Gooijer, the Web-master of the Hogeschool has been continuing to take the responsibility for the technical renewal of the site and made a big effort in making the Website as user friendly as possible. An obstacle still to overcome is, that not yet all members work with this medium in their education and several members lack access to the internet and to e-mail. Information seminars and workshops A seminar and workshops have been organised for the participating institutes to exchange information between experts and discuss ideas on implementing the curriculum guidelines. b) Strategy for dissemination The following strategy for dissemination has been used: Conference The start of the project has been a one day ENOTHE conference, linked to the European Congress in OT, in order to launch the products and the work of the Network. It has been very important to start the project with big publicity in order to achieve that all partners (Students, teachers and managers) are going to use the documents and to reach as many new institutions as possible. Information stand at the European Congress (26th,27th and 28th September) At the European Congress Ergo 2000 ENOTHE has had an information stand and presented its products to the public. (Health care employers, consumers and occupational therapists , students and teachers) Lectures on wider forums and writing articles (see under achievements) Disseminating the publications and conference reports to all relevant target groups c) Quality assessment Achieving high quality OT education throughout Europe is one of the main objectives of the network. Given the diversity of the OT education systems, the criteria defining quality must be established jointly. The development of European curriculum guidelines in OT, based on the core skills of the competent OT and on ECTS and including a chapter on quality assurance systems and programme evaluation provides an important steer for mutual recognition of academic and professional qualifications. 2.2.9 Contribution to Socrates priorities

 The network has been growing from 93 to 103 members; several members report that ENOTHE is their only possibility for international co-operation  The European Master course in OT has been supported by ENOTHE  Several members have reported that they have started new cooperational initiatives (like shared final project and intensive courses ) Curriculum innovation  A few joint modules or joint intensive courses have been produced like OT and European Health (3 partners); assistive technology (4 partners) pain management; Course on Health care Issues and Complementary Therapies; creative expression and art training  28 members have reported that they have changed their curricula under influence of the information in the ENOTHE publications Improving teaching methods  Discussions are continuing on problem based learning, distance learning and internet learning (OTIS project)  The sub-network on PBL has grown from 25 to about 50 members Paving the way for joint  The validation procedure for the European Masters course in OT courses had to overcome quite some administrative, legal and organisational obstacles. The procedure can be used as an example of good practice for the validation of other courses. The first 15 students have graduated. Up-grading of courses\  Under influence of the Bologna Declaration and the ENOTHE Raising the qualifications curriculum guidelines in Germany, Denmark, France, Norway, Spain and Belgium discussions have taken place about the undergraduate and graduate level of the occupational therapy education. A cross border up grading course of one year has been developed by the Hogeschool Zuyd (NL) for German Occupational therapist. The course has been running successfully now for two years. Increasing co-operation
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 The SØr TrØndelag College in Trondheim has been reporting the start of a Masterclass Module in Occupational Science.  In Czech the Charles University, which has completely renewed it's curriculum during the last fours years, is seeking WFOT recognition.  Slovenia changed their fieldwork education and extended their programme with half a year and is also seeking WFOT recognition.  The Portuguese and the Greece school reported as well the extension of their programmes.  Up grading of the qualifications of European Occupational Therapists, innovation of occupational therapy, better understanding of and research in the concept of a European dimension OT is the general aim of the new developed joint European Masters degree in OT. Improving the dialogue  ENOTHE is in a continuing dialogue with the professional between academics and associations and COTEC. There is a relation between ENOTHE socio-economic partners and representatives of the WHO, national Ministries, fieldworkers and client groups. Although the policy of the project is a long-term policy aiming for harmonisation, advancement and mutual recognition in OT education, the trend can already been recognised, that the network is gradually building up one open area for occupational therapy education in Europe. Occupational therapy education institutes want to take on the challenge to build up a compatible effective education system within Europe 2.2.10 Open and distance learning In fieldwork education and several masters' courses distance learning is used. Web-based course delivery is becoming feasible, but at the same time this is limited for occupational therapy education. Four ENOTHE members have started under the Directorate General XIII (TEN-TELECOM Programme) a pilot project, called Occupational Therapy Internet School. (OTIS) This project has been providing an interactive distance learning course for undergraduate and post-graduate professionals. (see for more details under related projects) 2.2.11 Technology The use of e-mail and internet within the network has increased enormously over the last years. (At the moment over 80% of the partners are using e-mail) The web-site has become the primary source of information on the project and is containing, databases, reports, programmes and a forum. However the members are still not visiting the web-site very regularly. 2.2.12 Evaluation The fact that ENOTHE attracts an increasing membership and a growing number of participants in the annual conference are part of an ongoing evaluation of the network. A written questionnaire on the value of the three publications has been disseminated together with the books. Unfortunately not many reactions have been returned. However the reactions which returned have been positive. All three publications have been valued as relevant to very relevant. Comments in general were: Very useful books in reviewing the contents of curricula. Valuable to present to ministries of education in order to change national guidelines An enhancement of occupational therapy education across Europe The profession will benefit from them The books are used for the following purposes: Curriculum guidelines: defining learning outcomes, rewriting the curriculum (innovation process), assistance in revalidating degree, assistance in introducing quality assessment and as a reference in discussions with ministries and professional organisations. Exploration: resource of information, as teaching material, to inform students undertaking part of their studies abroad and for facts and figures about occupational therapy in Europe in communication with Ministries. Learning from each other: as teaching material. A more detailed example was the use in an intensive course with 24 students of 2 different institutes; students made therapy plans and compared the results. Working with the same case studies in different countries is a very effective teaching method in learning about each others differences and similarities.

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Recommendations: Translation in Spanish and Italian (Would be of great help for new schools) Add topics as: Details about clinical placements and assessment of students Detailed example of an occupational therapy curriculum Example of conversion into ECTS More case studies The future themes, which were highly recommended in last year's evaluation, are: - development of the European dimension in occupational therapy education (100%) - harmonisation and quality assurance in OT education (87%) - development of continuing education and research (94%) - development of teaching methods (92%) The general assembly in Paris approved these themes and the project groups discussed in detail how to carry out the work concretely. 2.2.13 General dissemination The minutes of the Parish conference (including the lectures) and the first announcement for the seventh ENOTHE meeting in Amsterdam have been disseminated to all Network partners and all European OT Associations. The report has also been put on the web-site; a summary has been made in French. The final Socrates report 1999/2000 has been spread as well to all OT Associations and to those members, who requested for it. The internet site is giving the members and others access to information on the Network and its activities and is enabling them to take an active part in the on-going debate on the various issues, which are tackled in the different working groups. Links with member institutions have been established. All meetings of the management team and working groups are announced on the web-site. The reports of the conferences and the working plans have been published on the site. Reports of the Osnabrück meeting and the Warsaw meeting have been disseminated to the participants and governments and professional associations. Both reports have been published as well on the web-site. Other dissemination actions have been mentioned already under achievements, since the purpose of this project year has been in general dissemination. 2.2.14 A qualitative description of the outcomes of the project After a successful launching conference in Paris, the members felt that ENOTHE has grown up and has placed the European Occupational Therapy on the global map. The wish to collaborate, to exchange ideas and to identify the European dimension has grown. The following has been considered by the members as strengths of the network:  an exchange multifaceted forum for OT educators and students  opportunity for (new) contacts  provider of information about (international)OT education  support in up-grading the level of OT education  a pro-active network with a structured vision  creating a debate and putting into synergy standards of OT education in Europe  catalyst for other international collaborative projects, like the European Masters in OT, the OT internet school and joint intensive courses  stimulator of innovations in the curricula and teaching methods  promoting the impact of culture on people‟s daily living  link to COTEC and other European thematic networks and resources  supporting and integrating the OT education of the newly „associated‟ countries Weaknesses, which have been mentioned are:  language/ terminology  members are too busy with their day to day work (lack of commitment)  too long/lack of contact in between meetings  large difference in occupational therapy education

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2.3 2.3.1

Evaluation of the work undertaken Difficulties encountered:

Difficulties in management of the network: Because of the different position and status of the OT education in Europe, the different profile of the profession and the fact that only a few institutes are involved in Socrates IC‟s\ ERASMUS, is it difficult to create synergy in the aim and objectives of the network and get all partners committed to them. There is a big gap between the more academic orientated institutes and the more practical orientated institutes. In the new TNP different themes have been initiated, so that both kind of institutes can work on issues of their own interest. Even within the management team the experience in managing international projects is quite different and therefor delegation of tasks remains a difficulty. Since the network has been growing quite a lot, the co-ordination office is overloaded with inquiries, which are quite time consuming and affecting the progress of the rest of the work. In future more support in the office will be needed and an attempt to standardise the answers and to put them on the web-site as general information will be made. Commitment: The commitment of the institutes is often depending on the enthusiasm of one or two staff members, while the institutions themselves (heads of institutions) do not always support or give recognition to these activities. However the dissemination of the products have made the network more known and given more credits. Another earlier mentioned problem is, that several institutes of Occupational Therapy have only two or three Occupational therapy teachers, who have already too much work and cannot actively contribute. However we expect our members to recognise that the more they contribute the more valuable the conferences and the products of the network will be. Implementation of Network results Many of the institutes find it difficult to implement the Network results, like the curriculum guidelines, as they may have conflicting instructions from Ministries or government (educational/health) departments. However the ENOTHE products open at least the discussion with the officials. Dissemination of information: Several institutes have a lack in general information about SOCRATES and other European programmes, because they still do not belong to Higher Education Institutes. Culture and Language: The language is causing barriers in communication; about 60% is speaking English and the rest is very much divided. (French, Spanish, German, Swedish, Finnish) The most important issues will be translated (in French and German and some in Spanish), but it is too costly and time consuming to work with translators all the time. However for full understanding of concepts and to be able to compare them, translation and cultural understanding is needed. Funding There are several difficulties in the funding system: It is evident, that the present economic situation of the educational institutes is not favourable for co-financing activities, which will not necessarily produce direct results for their own institutes. Furthermore the client groups of Occupational Therapy and the employers (hospitals and rehabilitation centres) are also not the right socioeconomic partners to co-finance this kind of work. Delivering the financial figures including the co-financing makes the financial report very complicated. Furthermore it is not possible to control the own contributions of the members and to get all the right figures and receipts from them. It should be more reasonable to account only for the Community grant amount.(like it is done in the Socrates IC‟s) The network tries to make synergy between the activities of different European programmes like: Socrates (Curriculum Development Advanced)- joint Masters degree in Occupational Therapy TEMPUS - upgrading of Occupational therapy in Czech Republic DG-XIII- Ten Telecom Programme

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Achievements, side effects

ENOTHE has made a big step forwards with the production and dissemination of three major publications. Reflecting on all the above mentioned activities and achievements ENOTHE can be seen as a network, that is contributing to:  placing the discipline in a European context  discussions to determine the level of education; acting as a catalyst in the development of up-grading courses in Occupational therapy and the development of Post graduate OT courses  discussions with competent authorities about mutual recognition and criteria  the co-ordination of the rapid developments in central and Eastern Europe; collaboration between e.g. the University of Ljubljana and the Zagreb school for Health studies, the Linköping University and the Kaunas University and developments for a University Curriculum in Minsk and Tiblisi are continuing.  showing the importance and need of a general acquisition of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) skills  identify good practice  paving the way for student and teacher mobility and for international validation procedures  co-operation and cross fertilisation with other TNP‟s,  introducing the European Credit Transfer System  stimulation of new projects; like the OT internet school Side effects or related projects developed by ENOTHE members . a. OT internet school (Project under the Ten Telecom Programme of Directorate General XIII) The OTIS project addresses the feasibility of a European internet school. Partners in four European countries collaborate in the design and delivery of courses which promote a high degree of interaction between students and across country boundaries. The initiative has been taken by four different universities (Hogeschool van Amsterdam, NL, the Hogeschool West Vlaanderen, Kortrijk, BE, University of Linköping, SE and the University of Liverpool, UK) to evaluate the use of an electronic learning environment for occupational therapy students. A pilot course has been developed and delivered on assistive technology in occupational therapy. The course includes portfolios to provide evidence of student competency, electronic communication for group working, multimedia case studies, learning resources and student assignments. A study has been carried out on assessing European collaborative aspects of e-learning from the perspective of the users, students as well as staff and from the perspective of the institutions. From the students as well as from the staff experience the OTIS project has been judged positively as far as collaboration is concerned. However it is also made clear that by more attention for structuring e-learning community-building and by better staff-training the effects of collaborative learning could have been improved. General conclusions of the study: Experience indicates that success of e-learning is about much more than putting content on line. E-Learning needs to be thought of as the combination of learning services and technology to provide high value integrated learning, anytime any place. Delivering the benefits of collaborative e-learning requires skilled people who understand e-learning models and specialist products. Students benefit from a flexibility in the learning process; they get access to educational materials outside their own institution and they are presented with cross-cultural viewpoints and given opportunities to discuss these viewpoints with peers from other countries. They become part of a European/international learning environment. OTIS makes it possible for students to move intellectually into foreign learning environments without having to move physically. The same educational technologies also make it possible for students to enrol in courses at other universities through virtual mobility. For universities this means that virtual mobility brings competition right into their own backyard. The virtual idea deployed in the OTIS project is an alternative to this development for small institutions, which are seeking to establish co-operation and collaboration on a European scale (for instance the OT department of Kortrijk). Through networking, the institutions might enhance the quality of their programmes, add a European dimension, and establish attractive virtual mobility schemes for their students. This collaborative approach was stressed in the 'Bologna Declaration' signed by the European ministers of education in June 1999. Moreover, in any subject area the OTIS concept may be successfully applied to the sharing of 'rare' knowledge or expertise between institutions, or to the dissemination of such high-quality material to (selected) individual learners elsewhere. Focussed on the aspects of collaborative learning 2.3.3

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Collaborative learning is one of the main values of e-learning and stimulates the students to in depth discussions. However collaborative learning needs to be designed and guided by the tutors and supported by the educational technical system. An e-learning community should be gradually formed by guiding the tutor group through the different stages.(Salmon's five stage model,2000) A training programme for tutors should provide them with the skills they will need to run an effective online, and possibly transnational, course. This would ensure that they understand their new roles and provide some familiarisation with the relevant media. The collaborating institutions need long-term co-operation arrangements in order to standardise procedures in their e-learning platforms. The implications of a wider OTIS system can have the advantages of: Increased opportunities for consortia partnership and other collaborative initiatives Increased efficiency in information dissemination, with respect to one's own institution More work is recommended to be done on: Developing tutors' online facilitation skills. The role of the tutor in involving students into productive discussions and facilitating a real learning experience. The role of the tutor in combining PBL (problem based learning) and CMC (computer mediated communications). The challenge for online facilitators of tutor groups in the e-learning environment involves the tutors using their creativity and innovation in developing these new skills. Another issue will be to develop the suitable educational technical system to support collaborative learning and cost-effective approaches to online learning, which are successful with large numbers of students. The right balances between synchronous and a-synchronous learning within the e-learning community have to be developed supported by facilitating tools for linking, summarising, making threads and weaving. The project was generally well received by the reviewers, and the overall recommendation is to continue. A new project proposal is under construction. b) Dutch bachelor degree for German Occupational Therapists At the University of Professional Education Zuyd again 35 German occupational therapists graduated as Bachelors in OT. In Germany there is still hardly any possibility to follow OT education at higher educational level. The up-grading course has a direct impact on the German education and practice, because several of these students work in the German OT schools and others are working in practice. Some of the students do consider to continue their education in the European Masters course. The Co-ordinator of ENOTHE attended the final project presentations of the students. c. Joint European Masters of science in OT The European Master of Science degree in OT is the first of its kind. This degree is truly international. Students from several countries are attending, the staff works in different countries and the course is conducted in various European cities. It represents an alliance between several European institutions of higher education producing a programme of study, that will foster a much needed European dimension in the profession of occupational therapy. The course organisers are: University of professional education of Amsterdam (NL); Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (SE); School of Occupational and Physiotherapy Naestved (Dk). The first course finished in September 2001 and 15 students received their Masters degree in Occupational Therapy. The full ENOTHE management team attended the seminar for the thesis examination of the European Masters degree study in occupational therapy in Stockholm on the 3rd of September. The results of the studies were so interested that five students were invited to present their work in the coming ENOTHE annual conference. It is felt that all 15 studies will contribute to the development of occupational therapy in Europe and it is expected that several results will be soon published in different scientific journals. 6 of the students are already teaching in occupational therapy educational institutes. It is expected that the occupational therapy education will be influenced and improved in the coming years by the research of the Masters students. 17 new students started in the second cohort of the Masters course. e. Ergo 2000; VIth European Congress of Occupational Therapy in Paris 27, 28, 29 September 2000. Ergo 2000 has been focussing on the Achievements and Challenges of occupational therapists of this century and is a signpost in the trends and challenges for the profession in the new century. The ENOTHE president has been taken part in the scientific committee and the opening session of the congress. ENOTHE members have been given lectures and poster presentations.

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f. IAS The InterActive materials Set (IAS)in occupational therapy courses, An overview of the last three years Project Concept and Coordination: Maria Hoppe, Medizinische-Technische Akademie f'ür den Ergotherapeutischen Dienst, Klagenfurt, Austria History: The IAS is a medium consisting of 11 subsets containing everyday objects and materials. The innovative concept of "Performance Interviews" which lies at the heart of this set has been developed since 1997 (initiated by Maria Hoppe) - as an open project - especially for occupational therapy students. Educational Goals:  to improve the students' communication and interactive skills  to train them to focus on the uniqueness of their interaction with others (by comparing their use of the same instrument, the IAS, with different persons),  to encourage the students to reflect on the quality of their therapeutic approach and to learn how they can enter the unique world of the client by using the IAS. Project group Three colleges of occupational therapy in Europe have been involved in the project:  Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland: 1999 (28 students). Coordination: Geraldine O‟Neill, director.  Hogeschool Zuyd (former Hogeschool Limburg), Heerlen, The Netherlands: 1999 (120 students), 2000 (120 students), 2001 (120 students). Coordination: Mieke Le Granse; Co-ordinator of OT upgrade programmes; Coordination for teaching communication and interactive skills: Inge Speth, lecturer.  Medizinisch-Technische Akademie fuer den ergotherapeutischen Dienst des Landes Kaernten, Klagenfurt, Austria: 1997 (Initiating the IAS with 17 students), 1998 (18 students), 2000 -2001 (48 students). Setting up the IAS project & project coordination: Maria Hoppe, director; Teacher for OT skills training: Doris Cekan, lecturer. Products:  The InterActive materials Set (IAS), Versions I and II. st  A module in the 1 year of OT education (Hogeschool Zuyd).  Videotaped IAS sessions from the above-mentioned OT schools (1998 - 2001). The video sequences show how OT students use the IAS with each other and with clients.  "The IAS - observation training. A teaching concept": Authors: Iris Lamacz-Koetz, Kathrin Meisgeier, Germany. 2001. This project work concludes that students experience their own way of interacting (by using the IAS) in a "therapistclient relation" and can reflect on whether communication takes place on a level of partnership. g. Introductory Course in Occupational Therapy in Trieste In September 2000 ENOTHE was approached by AISM (Associazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla Sezione Provinciale di Trieste) to provide a course regarding occupational therapy and the treatment of clients with Multiple Sclerose. As Occupational Therapy education in Italy is under developed ENOTHE made contact with the University of Trieste in order to look into the possibility of developing a full Occupational Therapy course in the future. In the mean time ENOTHE and AISM found each other as partners to organise a short introductory course in Italy. Looking at the current situation and future development of occupational therapy in Italy it was decided to focus the course on the role and place of occupational therapy in a rehabilitation team. Introduction to Occupational Therapy: A multidisciplinary approach to working with clients with Multiple Sclerosis was an official title of the course, which took place in Trieste (Centro Villa Sartorio) and started on September 24, 2001 and finished on October 5, 2001. Twenty participants from different regions in Italy participated in the course. The official language of the course was English, which was directly translated in Italian. The project team consisted of: Barbara Piškur – course leader (ENOTHE - EU) Hanneke van Bruggen – course supervisor (ENOTHE - EU) Ann Carnduff – quality manager (ENOTHE - EU) Ramon Daniels – guest OT teacher (Hogeschool van Amsterdam - NL) Jelka Janša – guest OT speaker (Clinical Centre Ljubljana – SI) Eena De Paoli – guest PT speaker (Ufficio H-Communita ONLUS – IT) Annelies Krusselbrink - guest OT speaker (Trivium Consultancy – NL) Callista Koedood - guest OT speaker (Trivium Consultancy – NL)

The main aim of the course was to clarify the role and place of occupational therapy in the rehabilitation team of the Italian Association for Multiple Sclerosis in Trieste. Through a description of the core concepts of occupational therapy, assessment and intervention methods and intensive discussion of the occupational therapy process for clients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) the participants would be able to develop their own perspective on it.
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In the evaluation all participants concluded that Occupational therapists are needed, they are a connection between medicine – family – environment – life. The course has made the participants aware that occupational therapy itself is a profession with an own paradigm and body of knowledge. It needs education to become a competent occupational therapist. Participants acknowledged the need for a profession that focuses on occupation, wellbeing and quality of life of the client and therefor saw a place for occupational therapy in Italy. It is too soon to talk about side effects. A course like this can have many side effects on practice and education. AISM and participants stressed that more courses will be organised in the future and ENOTHE has been invited to do the course again. h. TEMPUS application for a Networking project Because of the many requests from institutes of the "TEMPUS" countries for support in up-grading or developing OT education an application for a sub network will be started where the specific issues of OT education in those countries can be discussed and results of Socrates ENOTHE can be integrated.(like the curriculum guidelines for OT education) Results from the up-grading OT education JEP project nr.11223-96 in Charles University, Czech Republic, the TACIS project no. ESS TACIS EDRUS 9503 in Penza, Russia and results of Projects in Latvia and Lithunia, supported by the Swedish OT association and Swedish Institute for Handicapped will be disseminated and used as well. The project is aiming for:  developing and harmonising occupational therapy education in the TEMPUS countries in order to improve quality of life and create better chances for participation of the handicapped people in their society  establishing a East and Central European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education, linked with the Socrates Network ENOTHE is awaiting the approval of the project in the beginning of 2002. 2.3.4 Divergence from the original conception of the project

No major changes have been made in the original concept of the project. There were no divergences with respect to the work plan. Actually more initiatives then described in the dissemination plan have been taken. 2.3.5 Recommendations for the Commission

Within the network over 50% of the members are not involved in Institutional Contracts. These are mainly institutes, who are not a part of a bigger institution, like a University or Polytechnic. The need for student and teacher mobility is high, but the numbers are too small to make a contract. The members are suggesting to facilitate thematic networks with a grant for student and teacher mobility within the given discipline. The financial structure is too complicated; it should be much more simple when the network only had to account for the grant amount; that is the amount which can be controlled, while co-finance money often is divided over different account numbers and different partners and can not be controlled. In order to make the Networks more known, DG XXII could stimulate cross-fertilisation between the other DG‟s. A seminar where the Networks present their results could also be beneficial.

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