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FORMAL PREPARATION OF DIPLOMA THESIS Extent The extent of Diploma Thesis should be minimum 55 and maximum 80 normalized pages (1800 characters per page), written on typing machine or computer. From this, approximately 1/3 is reserved for theoretical and 2/3 for practical part.

Layout Diploma Thesis should have a standard layout in concordance with international norm ISO 7144:1986: Documentation – Presentation of theses and similar documents. The layout of Diploma Thesis is in harmony with Comenius University rector`s guidelines No. 5/2005 (with all updates) about basic requirements of theses on Comenius University in Bratislava (Vnútorný predpis č. 8/2006). In following chapters recommended layout used by electronic preparation of thesis in MS Word is described.

Writing (script), margins and lining In whole thesis the same style of script is used (Times New Roman or Arial). The text size is differs as follows:  for standard text size 12 pt is used  for main headings size 14 p is used, all letters are capitals  for sub-headings size 12 pt is used, first letter is capital For headings and sub-headings Bold (B) style is used. The footnotes (under line) are to be inserted via function “Insert footnote”. The script size should be set to 10 pt. Upper, lower and right margins are set to 2.5 cm, the left margin is 3.5 cm. Heading and foot are set to 1.25 cm. The text lining should be set to 1.5 lines throughout the whole thesis, the interspaces before and after the paragraph to 6 pt. Zarovnanie textu je do bloku.


Numbering of chapters By numbering of chapters Arabic numerals are used. The numbering starts with No. 1 (the introduction is without number). Every chapter can be divided to several sub-chapters. Between the numerals marking sub-chapters of various levels small dot is to be inserted. There is no dot after the last number. The dot is missing after the title of chapter or subchapter, too.

1 XANTHINE DERIVATIVES (14 pt., Bold, capitals)
1.1 Mechanism of action 1.1.1 Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 1.1.2 Antagonism of adenosine receptors (12 pt., Bold)

Numbering of tables and figures Tables, figures (e.g. graphs, charts, schemas and photographs) are numbered individually from the first to the last as well as from the first figure to the last in the thesis. The number and legend of table should be before the table, the number and legend of the figure under the figure. Text size of legend is 10 pt, type Bold.
Tab. 1 Changes in heart rate (HR) after administration of the testing substance

Testing substance Caffeine (100 mg) Theophylline (100 mg)

HR before administration (min-1) 64 66

HR after administration (min-1) 78 76

Fig. 1 Structural formula of caffeine


Page numbers The pages are numbered from the first chapter including the count of all previous pages. It means that introductory pages, abstract as well introduction are not numbered (have no number), but are counted (e.g. if the first chapter starts on the 8th page of the thesis, the first “written” number will be 8). The last numbered page is the first page of conclusion. The consequent pages of conclusion and list of references are not numbered. The numbers are printed on the right bottom corner of the page.

Structure of the front part of the Diploma Thesis Introductory pages The introductory pages have prescribed form. In following section are examples in real text size. The numbers behind the text represent the text sizes in MS WORD software.

cover (hard binding)

Thesis title (16 pt., Bold)

Author`s name and surname (14 pt., Bold)

MARTIN 20xx (14 pt., Bold)


Title page

Thesis title (16 pt., Bold)
(alternatively subtitle)

DIPLOMA THESIS (14 pt., Bold)

Author`s name and surname (14 pt., Bold)


General Medicine 7.1.1 (14 pt., Bold)

Tutor of Diploma Thesis (14 pt., Bold) Name and surname, academic titles (14 pt., Bold) MARTIN 20xx (14 pt., Bold)


Content of Diploma Thesis The content of Diploma Theses is created according following example. The order of unnumbered chapters written by capitals is obligatory. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABSTRACT PREFACE CONTENT INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL PART 1 XANTHINE DERIVATIVES.......................................................................... 8 1.1 Mechanism of action ................................................................................. 11 1.1.1 Inhibition of phosphodiesterase................................................................ 15 . PRACTICAL PART AIMS ............................................................................................................. 33 METHODS AND RESULTS ........................................................................... 35 6 MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................... 35 6.1 Evaluation of theophylline plasmatic levels ............................................... 35 . DISCUSSION ................................................................................................ 65 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 80 LIST OF REFERENCES APPENDICES (12 pt.)


List of abbreviations In case we use abbreviations in the text, the full explanation in chapter List of abbreviations before Abstract must be included. This list is necessary only if more than 5 abbreviations are used. HR – heart rate PDE – phosphodiesterase cAMP – cyclic adenosinmonophosphate

Abstract The content and layout of abstract is deducted from international norm ISO 214 Documentation – Abstracts for publications and documentation. In Diploma Thesis must be also in Slovak version with minimal extent of 1 page. English version is recommended, too. The abstract contains name and surname of author, title of the thesis, name of University, Faculty and Department/Clinic, name and surname of tutor, commission for Diploma Thesis defense, qualification level, place, year, No. of pages, and abstract body (text) – short (informative) characteristics of Thesis content. The abstract should have structured form (see Appendix No. 1). It is divided to introduction, methods, results, discussion and conclusion. The abstract is a short summary of the whole Diploma Thesis. The body of abstract (text) should be not exceeding 250 words.

Preface Preface is a basic characteristic of Diploma Thesis with maximum of 1 page. This brief information should contain:         main topic, concept of home and international context, the aims of the thesis as well as its relation to other works from the same field. the target reader and user should be acknowledged, which methods were used and who assisted to the author by preparation, brief description of current knowledge or practice in respective area, contribution of the thesis main information sources used in the thesis who or what helped the author (thanksgiving)

The preface should not be understood as introduction.


Core of the thesis The core of the Diploma Thesis is the text, usually divided to theoretical part (theoretical background of study problem) and practical part (aims, methods, results, discussion and conclusions). The theoretical and practical part can be divided to chapters and sub-chapters.

Theoretical part In the theoretical part the author shows his/her ability to use the scientific terminology and knowledge in respective area. It is based on corroboration of current literature sources related to selected topic. It should include comparing the various attitudes and its evaluation, should be original and show the ability of independent scientific work of the student.

Citation in the text After any paraphrasing or direct citation in the text, the name of author, year of publication as well as page number, where the cited text can be found, is written in parenthesis (brackets). The page number can be omitted in case of referring to the whole document). The same procedure should be applied in case of citing the documents available from Internet. The Internet address (link) is never written directly to the text body. The whole address is written in the LIST OF REFERENCES. Nowadays, 11 families of phosphodiesterases (PDE) are known, which decrease the levels of cAMP and cGMP (Jeon et al., 2005). As PDE-3, PDE-4 and PDE-5 isoforms are able due to their anti-inflammatory properties (Bender a Beavo, 2006) play certain role in the pathogenesis of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), the use of non-selective PDE inhibitors (e.g. methylxanthines), as well as selective PDE-3, -4, and -5 inhibitors could be beneficial in the therapy of MAS (Barnes, 2003).

Practical part The theoretical part is followed by practical part and they both should create one unit. The practical part of Diploma Thesis should have character of survey, experimental or clinical research with clearly defined aims, methods, results, and appropriate discussion containing confrontation of own results with published data of other authors, and conclusions. Another option is casuistic (case study) with appropriate analysis of problem, discussion and proposals or recommendations for clinical practice. Practical part can consist of objective summary of knowledge in selected topic with own comments and attitude of student (meta-analysis). This kind of work must have clear benefit in widening the knowledge in corroborated problem, or alternatively, may have educational character.


Bibliographic references The Theses must fulfill internationally respected formal and citation criteria of citing the primary and secondary literature. The technique of citing and list of references should be created throughout the whole document in the same style according to the norm STN ISO 6903. All references used in theoretical and practical parts are summarized in the list of references. The Diploma Thesis should contain appropriate number of international sources. The references are ordered alphabetically without numbering. The list of references is zarovnávame to the left; otherwise unwanted breaks in bibliographic links can occur.

Books: NEMČEKOVÁ, M., ŢIAKOVÁ., K, MIŠTUNA, D. 2000. Práva pacientov: Filozofická reflexia a zdravotnícka prax. 1. ed. Bratislava: Iris, 2000. 234 p. ISBN 80-88778-94-8. All authors are listed, if they are too many, the first author and „et al.“ is used. Almanacs: NEMČEKOVÁ, M. 2002. Poňatie človeka v Oremovej modeli. In Trendy v ošetřovatelství. Ed. D. Jarošová. Ostrava : Ostravská univerzita, 2002, p. 5-9. If there is more than one editor, the name of the first one and „et al.“ is used with adding Eds. Journals: ŢIAKOVÁ, K., HORVÁTHOVÁ, M., HICÍKOVÁ, J. 2001. Skúsenosti s ročným pouţívaním edukačných listov v dialyzačnom stredisku. In: Moderný medicínsky manažment, 2001, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 14-18. Electronic documents: ADAMS, K. et al. 2002. Ethical Consideration of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies in Conventional Medical Setting. In Annals of Internal Medicine [online]. 15 October 2002, Vol. 137, No. 8, p. 660-664. [cit. 2002-10-17]. Availabl on Internete : <http:/www.annals.org>. No author: Meeting Report Country meeting on Equity in Health in Malawi. 2004. In Malawi Health Equity Network, Lingadzi Inn, Lilongwe [online]. 6 October 2004, p. 1-14. [cit. 2005-09-19] Available on Internet: <http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/REP102004malawi.pdf.>.


LIST OF REFERENCES CREASIA, J.L., PARKER, B. 1991. Conceptual Foundation of Profesional Nursing Practice. Baltimore : Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1991. 679 p. ISBN 0 8016-6148. DUGGLEBY, W. 2001. Hope at the End of Life. In Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, April-June 2001, Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 51-57. DOENGES, M.E., MOORHOUSE, M.F. 2001. Kapesní pruvodce zdravotní sestry. 2. prepracované a rozšírené vyd. Praha : GRADA Publishing, 2001. 565 p. ISBN 80-247-02428. GRIMM, P.M. 1991. Hope. In Conceptual Foundation of Profesional Nursing Practice. Baltimore : Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1991. p. 507-518. KRIVOHLAVÝ, J. 2004. Pozitívní psychologie. 1. ed. Praha: Portál, 2004. 195 p. ISBN 807178-835-X. KBLER-ROSS, E. 1995. Otázky o smrti a umíraní. 1. ed. Praha: Tvorba, 1995. 288 p. MILLER, J.M., POWERS, M.J. 1988. Development of an Instrument To Measure Hope. In: Nursing Research, 1988, Vol. 37, No. 1, p. 6-10. NEMČEKOVÁ, M., PALENČÁR, M., KAVCOVÁ, E. 1995. Onkologický pacient ako osobnost. In Slovenský lekár, 1995, Vol. 5. (19), No. 5 – 6, p. 6-10.

Appendices in Diploma Theses The appendices are listed in separate part and they are numbered from one (e.g. Appendix No. 1). Just before the appendices, the list of appendices with their actual pages range should be added. In every appendix it is obligatory to use the respective literature source.

Approval of Ethics Committee If the department, where the survey or research will be done, has an Ethics Committee, it is necessary to obtain its approval (e.g. at JFM CU or MFH). In case the department hasn`t any Ethics Committee, the consent of head of respective department should be added to the thesis. This consent/approval is mentioned in separate appendix. If the author of any form of Diploma Thesis plans to publish the results of his/her research in extenso, obtaining the approval of Ethics Committee is recommended.


PRESENTATION OF DIPLOMA THESIS The student has right to prepare the presentation of the Thesis in MS PowerPoint software and present it with assistance of multimedia projector. The presentation should last 10-15 minutes (maximum 20 slides). The major part should consist of presenting the results. On one slide it is recommended to use maximum of 8 lines with maximum of 8 words in one line of text. The script should be clear and contrasting to the background. The size of title should be maximum 40 pt, size of text maximum 30 pt. It is possible to adjust the text size to content and form of presenting material.

LIST OF REFERENCES ECO, U. 1997. Jak napsat diplomovou práci. Votobia: Olomouc, 1997. 271 p. ISBN 80-7198173-7. GAVORA, P.1997. Výskumné metódy v pedagogike. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského, 1997. 198 p. ISBN 80-223-1005-0. HÖSCHL, C. 1999. Jak napsat vědecký článek. In Psychiatrie, 1999, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 61– 62. KATUŠČÁK, D. 1998. Ako písať vysokoškolské a kvalifikačné práce. 2. doplnené vydanie. Bratislava : Stimul, 1998. 121 p. ISBN 80-85697-69-6. KIMLIČKA, Štefan. Ako citovať a vytvárať zoznamy bibliografických odkazov podľa noriem ISO 690 pre „klasické“ aj elektronické zdroje. Bratislava : Stimul, 2002. 82 p. ISBN 8088982-57-X. MEŠKO, D., KATUŠČÁK, D. et al. 2004. Akademická príručka. Martin : Vydavateľstvo Osveta, 2004. 316 p. ISBN 80-8063-150-6. NEMČEKOVÁ, M. 2003. Výskumný proces a jeho fázy. In Ošetrovateľstvo: teória a vedecký výskum. In : Ţiaková, K. et al. Martin: Vydavateľstvo Osveta, 2003. 319 p. ISBN 80-8063131-X. ORIEŠKA, J. 1995. Ako spracovať diplomovú prácu. Banská Bystrica: Univerzita Mateja Bela, EF, 1995. ISBN 80-88825-01-6. ŢIAKOVÁ K, ČÁP J, BÓRIKOVÁ I. 2007. Manuál k príprave záverečných prác v ošetrovateľstve. Martin : JLF UK, 2007. 38 p. http://vili.uniba.sk/AK/citovanie_priklady.pdf http://vili.uniba.sk/AK/metodika_pisania_zp.pdf Vnútorný predpis č. 8/2006. Úplné znenie Smernice rektora UK č.5/2005. (Smernica rektora UK č. 5/2005 o základných náležitostiach záverečných prác na Univerzite Komenského v Bratislave + Dodatok č. 1, 2006.) Základné náležitosti záverečných prác študentov na Jesseniovej lekárskej fakulte UK v Martine, 6. marec 2007. Študijný poriadok JLF UK v Martine Authors: Juraj Mokrý, MD, PhD., doc. Mgr. Katarína Ţiaková, PhD, Mgr. Juraj Čáp, Mgr. Ivana Bóriková In Martin, March 8, 2008


Appendix No. 1 Form of structured abstract (Bibliographic identification) Jakubesová Maria. Mechanism of action of xanthine derivatives in airways hyperreactivity [Diploma Thesis]. Comenius University in Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Department of Pharmacology. Tutor: Juraj Mokrý, MD, PhD. Commission for defence: General medicine – pre-clinical disciplines. Qualification level: Doctor of general medicine. Martin: JFM CU, 2008. 80 p. (Abstract body/text – max 250 words) Introduction: Xanthine derivatives belong to the group of… The aoim of presented thesis was to evaluate mechanism of action of selected xanthine derivatives in inflammatory conditions. Methods: For experiment, 24 guinea-pigs were used, divided in… Results: The sensibilization of animals led to significant… Discussion: Our results are in concordance with observations of Hirota et al. (2007), who found… Conslusions: Theophylline caused significant decrease… Key words: phosphodiesterase, methylxanthines, caffeine, airway reactivity