Manual Testing Concepts

Document Sample
Manual Testing Concepts Powered By Docstoc
					Software Testing Material Software Testing: Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding error. Software Engineering: Software Engineering is the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to obtain economically software that is more reliable and works efficiently on real machines. Software engineering is based on Computer Science, Management Science, Economics, Communication Skills and Engineering approach. What should be done during testing? Confirming product as  Product that has been developed according to specifications  Working perfectly  Satisfying customer requirements Why should we do testing?  Error free superior product  Quality Assurance to the client  Competitive advantage  Cut down costs How to test? Testing can be done in the following ways:  Manually  Automation (By using tools like WinRunner, LoadRunner, TestDirector …)  Combination of Manual and Automation. Software Project: A problem solved by some people through a process is called a project. Information Gathering – Requirements Analysis – Design – Coding – Testing – Maintenance: Are called as Project

Software Project

Problem

Process

Product

Software Development Phases: Information Gathering: It encompasses requirements gathering at the strategic business level. Planning: To provide a framework that enables the management to make reasonable estimates of

Page 1 of 131

Software Testing Material     Resources Cost Schedules Size

Requirements Analysis: Data, Functional and Behavioral requirements are identified.    Data Modeling: Defines data objects, attributes, and relationships. Functional Modeling: Indicates how data are transformed in the system. Behavioral Modeling: Depicts the impact of events.

Design: Design is the engineering representation of product that is to be built.     Data Design: Transforms the information domain model into the data structures that will be required to implement the software. Architectural design: Relationship between major structural elements of the software. Represents the structure of data and program components that are required to build a computer based system. Interface design: Creates an effective communication medium between a human and a computer. Component level Design: Transforms structural elements of the software architecture into a procedural description of software components.

Coding: Translation into source code (Machine readable form) Testing: Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding error     Unit Testing: It concentrates on each unit (Module, Component…) of the software as implemented in source code. Integration Testing: Putting the modules together and construction of software architecture. System and Functional Testing: Product is validated with other system elements are tested as a whole User Acceptance Testing: Testing by the user to collect feed back.

Maintenance: Change associated with error correction, adaptation and enhancements.     Correction: Changes software to correct defects. Adaptation: Modification to the software to accommodate changes to its external environment. Enhancement: Extends the software beyond its original functional requirements. Prevention: Changes software so that they can be more easily corrected, adapted and enhanced.

Business Requirements Specification (BRS): Consists of definitions of customer requirements. Also called as CRS/URS (Customer Requirements Specification / User Requirements Specification)

Page 2 of 131

Software Testing Material Software Requirements Specification (S/wRS): Consists of functional requirements to develop and system requirements(s/w & H/w) to use. Review: A verification method to estimate completeness and correctness of documents. High Level Design Document (HLDD): Consists of the overall hierarchy of the system in terms of modules. Low Level Design Document (LLDD): Consists of every sub module in terms of Structural logic (ERD) and Backend Logic(DFD) Prototype: A sample model of an application without functionality is called as prototype(Screens) White Box Testing: A coding level testing technique to verify completeness and correctness of the programs with respect to design. Also called as Glass BT or Clear BT Black Box Testing: It is a .exe level of testing technique to validate functionality of an application with respect to customer requirements. During this test engineer validate internal processing depends on external interface. Grey Box Testing: Combination of white box and black box testing. Build: A .Exe form of integrated module set is called build. Verification: whether system is right or wrong? Validation: whether system is right system or not? Software Quality Assurance(SQA): SQA concepts are monitoring and measuring the strength of development process. Ex: LCT (Life Cycle Testing) Quality:  Meet customer requirements  Meet customer expectations (cost to use, speed in process or performance, security)  Possible cost  Time to market For developing the quality software we need LCD and LCT LCD: A multiple stages of development stages and the every stage is verified for completeness. V model: Build: When coding level testing over. it is a completely integration tested modules. Then it is called a build. Build is developed after integration testing. (.exe)

Page 3 of 131

Software Testing Material Test Management: Testers maintain some documents related to every project. They will refer these documents for future modifications.  Information Gathering & Analysis   Assessment of Development Plan Prepare TestPlan Requirements Phase Testing

Design and Coding

    

Design Phase Testing Program Phase Testing (WBT) Functional & System Testing User Acceptance Testing Test Environment Process

Install Build

 Port Testing  Test Software Changes  Test Efficiency  Port Testing: This is to test the installation process. Maintenance Change Request: The request made by the customer to modify the software. Defect Removel Efficiency: DRE= a/a+b. a = Total no of defects found by testers during testing. b = Total no of defects found by customer during maintenance. DRE is also called as DD(Defect Deficiency). BBT, UAT and Test management process where the independent testers or testing team will be involved. Refinement form of V-Model: Due to cost and time point of view v-model is not applicable to small scale and medium scale companies. This type of organizations are maintaining a refinement form of v-model.

Page 4 of 131

Software Testing Material

BRS/URS/CRS

User Acceptance Testing

S/wRS

Functional & System Testing

HLDD

Integration Testing

LLDD Code Fig: Refinement Form of V-Model

Unit Testing

Development starts with information gathering. After the requirements gathering BRS/CRS/URS will be prepared. This is done by the Business Analyst. During the requirements analysis all the requirements are analyzed. at the end of this phase S/wRS is prepared. It consists of the functional (customer requirements) + System Requirements (h/w + S/w) requirements. It is prepared by the system analyst. During the design phase two types of designs are done. HLDD and LLDD. Tech Leads will be involved. During the coding phase programs are developed by programmers. During unit testing, they conduct program level testing with the help of WBT techniques. During the Integration Testing, the testers and programmers or test programmers integrating the modules to test with respect to HLDD. During the system and functional testing the actual testers are involved and conducts tests based on S/wRS. During the UAT customer site people are also involved, and they perform tests based on the BRS. From the above model the small scale and medium scale organizations are also conducts life cycle testing. But they maintain separate team for functional and system testing.

Reviews during Analysis: Quality Analyst decides on 5 topics. after completion of information gathering and analysis a review meeting conducted to decide following 5 factors.

Page 5 of 131

Software Testing Material 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are they complete? Are they correct? Or Are they right Requirements? Are they achievable? Are they reasonable? ( with respect to cost & time) Are they testable?

Reviews during Design: After the completion of analysis of customer requirements and their reviews, technical support people (Tech Leads) concentrate on the logical design of the system. In this every stage they will develop HLDD and LLDD. After the completion of above like design documents, they (tech leads) concentrate on review of the documents for correctness and completeness. In this review they can apply the below factors.      Is the design good? (understandable or easy to refer) Are they complete? (all the customer requirements are satisfied or not) Are they correct? Are they right Requirements? (the design flow is correct or not) Are they follow able? (the design logic is correct or not) Does they handle error handling? ( the design should be able to specify the positive and negative flow also)

User Information

User

Login

Inbox

Invalid User
Unit Testing: After the completion of design and their reviews programmers are concentrating on coding. During this stage they conduct program level testing, with the help of the WBT techniques. This WBT is also known as glass box testing or clear box testing. WBT is based on the code. The senior programmers will conduct testing on programs WBT is applied at the module level. There are two types of WBT techniques, such as 1. Execution Testing  Basis path coverage (correctness of every statement execution.)  Loops coverage (correctness of loops termination.)

Page 6 of 131

Software Testing Material  Program technique coverage (Less no of Memory Cycles and CPU cycles during execution.) 2. Operations Testing: Whither the software is running under the customer expected environment platforms (such as OS, compilers, browsers and etc…sys s/w.) Integration Testing: After the completion of unit testing, development people concentrate on integration testing, when they complete dependent modules of unit testing. During this test programmers are verifying integration of modules with respect to HLDD (which contains hierarchy of modules). There are two types of approaches to conduct Integration Testing:   Top-down Approach Bottom-up approach.

Stub: It is a called program. It sends back control to main module instead of sub module. Driver: It is a calling Program. It invokes a sub module instead of main module. Top-down: This approach starts testing, from the root.

Main

Stub

Sub Module1

Sub Module2

Bottom-Up: This approach starts testing, from lower-level modules. drivers are used to connect the sub modules. ( ex login, create driver to accept default uid and pwd)

Main

Driver

Sub Module1

Sub Module2
+

Page 7 of 131

Software Testing Material Sandwich: This approach combines the Top-down and Bottom-up approaches of the integration testing. In this middle level modules are testing using the drivers and stubs.

Main

Driver

Sub Module1 Stub

Sub Module2

Sub Module3

System Testing:  Conducted by separate testing team  Follows Black Box testing techniques  Depends on S/wRS  Build level testing to validate internal processing depends on external interface processing depends on external interface  This phase is divided into 4 divisions After the completion of Coding and that level tests(U & I) development team releases a finally integrated all modules set as a build. After receiving a stable build from development team, separate testing team concentrate on functional and system testing with the help of BBT. This testing is classified into 4 divisions.     Usability Testing (Ease to use or not. Low level Priority in Testing) Functional Testing (Functionality is correct or not. Medium Priority in Testing) Performance Testing (Speed of Processing. Medium Priority in Testing) Security Testing (To break the security of the system. High Priority in Testing)

Usability and System testing are called as Core testing and Performance and Security Testing techniques are called as Advanced testing. Usability Testing is a Static Testing. Functional Testing is called as Dynamic Testing. From the testers point of view functional and usability tests are important. Usability Testing: User friendliness of the application or build. (WYSIWYG.) Usability testing consists of following subtests also.

Page 8 of 131

Software Testing Material User Interface Testing  Ease of Use ( understandable to end users to operate )  Look & Feel ( Pleasantness or attractiveness of screens )  Speed in interface ( Less no. of events to complete a task.) Manual Support Testing: In general, technical writers prepares user manuals after completion of all possible tests execution and their modifications also. Now a days help documentation is released along with the main application.

Development Team releases Build

User Interface Testing.

Remaining System Testing techniques like Functionality, Performance and Security Tests.

System Testing

Manual Support Testing.

Help documentation is also called as user manual. But actually user manuals are prepared after the completion of all other system test techniques and also resolving all the bugs. Functional testing: During this stage of testing, testing team concentrate on " Meet Customer Requirements". For performing what functionality, the system is developed met or not can be tested. For every project functionality testing is most important. Most of the testing tools, which are available in the market are of this type. The functional testing consists of following subtests System Testing

80 %

Functional Testing

80 %

Functionality / Requirements Testing

Functionality or Requirements Testing: During this subtest, test engineer validates correctness of every functionality in our application build, through below coverage. If they have less time to do system testing, they will be doing Functionality Testing only.

Page 9 of 131

Software Testing Material Functionality or Requirements Testing has following coverages         Behavioral Coverage ( Object Properties Checking ). Input Domain Coverage ( Correctness of Size and Type of every i/p Object ). Error Handling Coverage ( Preventing negative navigation ). Calculations Coverage ( correctness of o/p values ). Backend Coverage ( Data Validation & Data Integrity of database tables ). URL‟s Coverage (Links execution in web pages) Service Levels ( Order of functionality or services ). Successful Functionality ( Combination of above all ).

All the above coverages are mandatory or must. Input Domain Testing: During this test, the test engineer validates size and type of every input object. In this coverage, test engineer prepares boundary values and equivalence classes for every input object. Ex: A login process allows user id and password. User id allows alpha numeric from 4-16 characters long. Password allows alphabet from 4-8 characters long. Boundary Value analysis: Boundary values are used for testing the size and range of an object. Equivalence Class Partitions: Equivalence classes are used for testing the type of the object. Recovery Testing: This test is also known as Reliability testing. During this test, test engineers validates that, whether our application build can recover from abnormal situations or not. Ex: During process power failure, network disconnect, server down, database disconnected etc…

Abnormal

Backup & Recovery Procedures

Normal
Recovery Testing is an extension of Error Handling Testing.

Page 10 of 131

Software Testing Material Compatibility Testing: This test is also known as portable testing. During this test, test engineer validates continuity of our application execution on customer expected platforms( like OS, Compilers, browsers, etc..) During this compatibility two types of problems arises like 1. Forward compatibility 2. Backward compatibility Forward compatibility: The application which is developed is ready to run, but the project technology or environment like OS is not supported for running.

Build

OS

Backward compatibility: The application is not ready to run on the technology or environment.

Build

OS

Configuration Testing: This test is also known as Hardware Compatibility testing. During this test, test engineer validates that whether our application build supports different technology i.e. hardware devices or not? Inter Systems Testing: This test is also known as End-to-End testing. During this test, test engineer validates that whither our application build coexistence with other existing software in the customer site to share the resources (H/w or S/w).

Water Bill Automation

WBAS

Electricity Bill Automation

Tele Phone Bill Automation

Local Data Base Server

EBAS

TPBAS

Income Tax Bill Automation Newly Added Component Sharable Resource

ITBAS

New Server

Local ESeva Center

Remote Servers

Page 11 of 131

Software Testing Material

Banking Information System

Bank Loans

The first example is one system is our application and other one is sharable. The second example is same system but different components. System Software Level: Compatibility Testing Hardware Level: Configuration Testing Application Software Level: Inter Systems Testing Installation Testing: Testing the applications, installation process in customer specified environment and conditions.

Build

Server

Test Engineer Systems

Build +Required S/w components to run application

Instal lation Customer Site Like Environment

1. Setup Program 2. Easy Interface 3. Occupied Disk Space

The following conditions or tests done in this installation process.    Setup Program: Whither Setup is starting or not? Easy Interface: During Installation, whither it is providing easy interface or not ? Occupied Disk Space: How much disk space it is occupying after the installation?

Page 12 of 131

Software Testing Material Sanitation Testing: This test is also known as Garbage Testing. During this test, test engineer finds extra features in your application build with respect to S/w RS. Maximum testers may not get this type of problems. User Id Password Login Forgot Password

Parallel or Comparitive testing: During this test, test engineer compares our application build with similar type of applications or old versions of same application to find competitiveness. This comparative testing can be done in two views:  Similar type of applications in the market.  Upgraded version of application with older versions. Performance Testing: It is an advanced testing technique and expensive to apply. During this test, testing team concentrate on Speed of Processing. This performance test classified into below subtests. 1. 2. 3. 4. Load Testing Stress Testing Data Volume Testing Storage Testing

Load Testing: This test is also known as scalability testing. During this test, test engineer executes our application under customer expected configuration and load to estimate performance. Load: No. of users try to access system at a time. This test can be done in two ways 1. Manual Testing. 2.By using the tool, Load Runner. Stress Testing: During this test, test engineer executes our application build under customer expected configuration and peak load to estimate performance. Data Volume Testing: A tester conducts this test to find maximum size of allowable or maintainable data, by our application build.

Page 13 of 131

Software Testing Material Storage Testing: Execution of our application under huge amounts of resources to estimate storage limitations to be handled by our application is called as Storage Testing.

Performance
+

=

Trashing
--

Resources
Security Testing: It is also an advanced testing technique and complex to apply. To conduct this tests, highly skilled persons who have security domain knowledge. This test is divided into three sub tests. Authorization: Verifies authors identity to check he is a authorized user or not. Access Control: Also called as Privileges testing. The rights given to a user to do a system task. Encryption / Decryption: Encryption- To convert actual data into a secret code which may not be understandable to others. Decryption- Converting the secret data into actual data.

Source

Encryption

Decryption

Destination

Client
Destination Decryption Encryption

Server
Source

User Acceptance Testing: After completion of all possible system tests execution, our organization concentrate on user acceptance test to collect feed back. To conduct user acceptance tests, they are following two approaches like Alpha (α) - Test and Beta (β) -Test. Note: In s/w development projects are two types based on the products like software application ( also called as Project ) and Product. Software Application ( Project ) : Get requirements from the client and develop the project. This software is for only one company. And has specific customer. For this Alpha test will be done.

Page 14 of 131

Software Testing Material Product : Get requirements from the market and develop the project. This software may have more than one company. And has no specific customer. For this β- Version or Trial version will be released in the market to do Beta test.

Alpha Testing
1. For what software applications applicable to specific customer 2. By real customer 3. In development site 4. Virtual environment 5. Collect Feedback. Testing during Maintenance:

Beta Testing
1. For software products. 2. By customer site like people. 3. In customer site like environment. 4. Real environment. 5. Collect Feedback.

After the completion of UA Testing, our organization concentrate on Release Team (RT) formation. This team conducts Port Testing in customer site, to estimate completeness and correctness of our application installation. During this Port testing Release team validate below factors in customer site:         Compact Installation (Fully correctly installed or not) On screen displays Overall Functionality Input device handling Output device handling Secondary Storage Handling OS Error handling Co-existence with other Software

The above tests are done by the release team. After the completion of above testing, the Release Team will gives training and application support in customer site for a period. During utilization of our application by customer site people, they are sending some Change Request (CR) to our company. When CR is received the following steps are done Based on the type of CR there are two types, 1. Enhancement 2. Missed Defect

Page 15 of 131

Software Testing Material

Change Request
Enhancement Impact Analysis Perform that change Test that S/w Change CCB Developers Perform that change Review old test process capability to improve Tester Test that S/w Change Missed Defect Impact Analysis

Change Control Board: It is the team which will handles customer requests for enhancement changes. Testing Stages Vs Roles: Reviews in Analysis – Business Analyst / Functional Lead. Reviews in Design – Technical Support / Technical Lead. Unit Testing – Senior Programmer. Integration Testing – Developer / Test Engineer. Functional & System Testing – Test Engineer. User Acceptance Testing – Customer site people with involvement of testing team. Port Testing – Release Team. Testing during Maintenance – Change Control Board Testing Stages Reviews in Analysis Reviews in Design Unit Testing Integration Testing Functional & System Testing User Acceptance Testing Port Testing Testing during Maintenance/ Test Software Changes Testing Team: From refinement form of V-Model small scale companies and medium scale companies are maintaining separate testing team for some of the stages in LCT. In their teams organisation maintains below roles Quality Control: Defines the objectives of Testing Quality Assurance: Defines approach done by Test Manager Roles Business Analyst / Functional Lead. Technical Support / Technical Lead. Senior Programmer. Developer / Test Engineer. Test Engineer. Customer site people with involvement of Testing team. Release Team. Change Control Board

-

Page 16 of 131

Software Testing Material Test Manager: Schedule that approach Test Lead: Maintain testing team with respect to the test plan Test Engineer: Conducts testing to find defects Quality Control

Quality Assurance

Project Manager

Test Managers

Project Lead

Test Lead

Programmers

Test Engineer / QA Engineer

Quality Control: Defines the objectives of Testing Quality Assurance: Defines approach done by Test Manager Test Manager: Schedule, Planning Test Lead: Applied Test Engineer: Followed Testing Terminology:Monkey / Chimpanzee Testing: The coverage of main activities only in your application during testing is called as monkey testing.(Less Time) Gerilla Testing: To cover a single functionality with multiple possibilities to test is called Gerilla ride or Gerilla Testing. (No rules and regulations to test a issue) Exploratory Testing: Level by level of activity coverage of activities in your application during testing is called exploratory testing. (Covering main activities first and other activities next) Sanity Testing: This test is also known as Tester Acceptance Test (TAT). They test for whither developed team build is stable for complete testing or not?
Development Team Released Build Sanity Test / Tester Acceptance Test Functional & System Testing

Page 17 of 131

Software Testing Material Smoke Testing: An extra shakeup in sanity testing is called as Smoke Testing. Testing team rejects a build to development team with reasons, before start testing. Bebugging: Development team release a build with known bugs to testing them. Bigbang Testing: A single state of testing after completion of all modules development is called Bigbang testing. It is also known as informal testing. Incremental Testing: A multiple stages of testing process is called as incremental testing. This is also known as formal testing. Static Testing: Conduct a test without running an application is called as Static Testing. Ex: User Interface Testing Dynamic Testing: Conduct a test through running an application is called as Dynamic Testing. Ex: Functional Testing, Load Testing, Compatibility Testing Manual Vs Automation: A tester conduct a test on application without using any third party testing tool. This process is called as Manual Testing. A tester conduct a test with the help of software testing tool. This process is called as Automation.

Automation (40% -60%)

Impact & Criticality

Need for Automation: When tools are not available they will do manual testing only. If your company already has testing tools they may follow automation. For verifying the need for automation they will consider following two types: Impact of the test: It indicates test repetition
No1 No2 Multiply Result

Page 18 of 131

Software Testing Material

Criticality: Load Testing, for 1000 users. Criticality indicates complex to apply that test manually. Impact indicates test repetition. Retesting: Re execution of our application to conduct same test with multiple test data is called Retesting. Regression Testing: The re execution of our test on modified build to ensure bug fix work and occurrences of side effects is called regression testing. Any dependent modules may also cause side effects.

Impacted Passed Tests Failed Tests

Modified Build

Build

11 Test Fail 10 Tests Passed Development

Selection of Automation: Before starting one project level testing by one separate testing team, corresponding project manager or test manager or quality analyst defines the need of test automation for that project depends on below factors. Type of external interface: GUI – Automation. CUI – Manual. Size of external interface: Size of external interface is Large – Automation. Size of external interface is Small – Manual. Expected No. of Releases: Several Releases – Automation. Less Releases – Manual. Maturity between expected releases: More Maturity – Manual. Less Maturity – Automation. Tester Efficiency: Knowledge of automation on tools to test engineers – Automation. No Knowledge of automation on tools to test engineers – Manual.

Page 19 of 131

Software Testing Material Support from Senior Management: Management accepts – Automation. Management rejects – Manual. Testing Policy

C.E.O

Company Level
Test Strategy

Test Manager/ QA / PM
Test Methodology

Test Lead

Test Plan

Test Cases

Test Procedure

Test Lead, Test Engineer

Project Level
Test Script

Test Log

Defect Report

Test Lead

Test Summary Report

Testing Policy: It is a company level document and developed by QC people. This document defines testing objectives, to develop a quality software. Address Testing Definition : Verification & Validation of S/w Testing Process : Proper Test Planning before start testing Testing Standard : 1 Defect per 250 LOC / 1 Defect per 10 FP Testing Measurements : QAM, TMM, PCM.
CEO Sign

Page 20 of 131

Software Testing Material QAM: Quality Assessment Measurements TMM: Test Management Measurements PCM: Process Capability Measurements Note: The test policy document indicates the trend of the organization. Test Strategy: 1. Scope & Objective: Definition, need and purpose of testing in your in your organization 2. Business Issues: Budget Controlling for testing 3. Test approach: defines the testing approach between development stages and testing factors. TRM: Test Responsibility Matrix or Test Matrix defines mapping between test factors and development stages. 4. Test environment specifications: Required test documents developed by testing team during testing. 5. Roles and Responsibilities: Defines names of jobs in testing team with required responsibilities. 6. Communication & Status Reporting: Required negotiation between two consecutive roles in testing. 7. Testing measurements and metrics: To estimate work completion in terms of Quality Assessment, Test management process capability. 8. Test Automation: Possibilities to go test automation with respect to corresponding project requirements and testing facilities / tools available (either complete automation or selective automation) 9. Defect Tracking System: Required negotiation between the development and testing team to fix defects and resolve. 10. Change and Configuration Management: required strategies to handle change requests of customer site. 11. Risk Analysis and Mitigations: Analyzing of future common problems appears during testing and possible solutions to recover. 12. Training plan: Need of training for testing to start/conduct/apply.

Test Factor: A test factor defines a testing issue. There are 15 common test factors in S/w Testing. Ex: QC – Quality PM/QA/TM – Test Factor TL – Testing Techniques TE – Test cases PM/QA/TM – Ease of use TL – UI testing TE – MS 6 Rules PM/QA/TM – Portable TL – Compatibility Testing TE – Run on different OS

Page 21 of 131

Software Testing Material

Test Factors: 1. Authorization: Validation of users to connect to application Security Testing Functionality / Requirements Testing 2. Access Control: Permission to valid user to use specific service Security Testing Functionality / Requirements Testing 3. Audit Trail: Maintains metadata about operations Error Handling Testing Functionality / Requirements Testing 4. Correctness: Meet customer requirements in terms of functionality All black box Testing Techniques 5. Continuity in Processing: Inter process communication Execution Testing Operations Testing 6. Coupling: Co existence with other application in customer site Inter Systems Testing 7. Ease of Use: User friendliness User Interface Testing Manual Support Testing 8. Ease of Operate: Ease in operations Installation testing 9. File Integrity: Creation of internal files or backup files Recovery Testing Functionality / Requirements Testing 10. Reliability: Recover from abnormal situations or not. Backup files using or not Recovery Testing Stress Testing 11. Portable: Run on customer expected platforms Compatibility Testing Configuration Testing 12. Performance: Speed of processing Load Testing Stress Testing Data Volume Testing Storage Testing 13. Service Levels: Order of functionalities Stress Testing Functionality / Requirements Testing 14. Methodology: Follows standard methodology during testing Compliance Testing 15. Maintainable: Whither application is long time serviceable to customers or not Compliance Testing (Mapping between quality to testing connection) Quality Gap: A conceptual gap between Quality Factors and Testing process is called as Quality Gap. Test Methodology: Test strategy defines over all approach. To convert a over all approach into corresponding project level approach, quality analyst / PM defines test methodology.

Page 22 of 131

Software Testing Material Step 1: Collect test strategy Step 2: Project type Project Type Information Gathering & Design Coding System Maintenance Analysis Testing Traditional Y Y Y Y Y Off-the-Shelf X X X Y X Maintenance X X X X Y Step 3: Determine application type: Depends on application type and requirements the QA decrease number of columns in the TRM. Step 4: Identify risks: Depends on tactical risks, the QA decrease number of factors (rows) in the TRM. Step 5: Determine scope of application: Depends on future requirements / enhancements, QA try to add some of the deleted factors once again. (Number of rows in the TRM) Step 6: Finalize TRM for current project Step 7: Prepare Test Plan for work allocation. Testing Process: Test Design Regression Testing Test Report PET (Process Experts Tools and Technology): It is an advanced testing process developed by HCL, Chennai.This process is approved by QA forum of India. It is a refinement form of V-Model.

Test Initiation

Test Planning

Test Execution

Test Closure Defect

Page 23 of 131

Software Testing Material

Information Gathering (BRS) Analysis ( S/wRS )

Design ( HLDD & LLDD ) Coding Unit Testing + Integration Testing Initial Build

PM / QA Test Lead

Test Initiation Test Planning

Study S/wRS & Design Docs Test Design

Level – 0 ( Sanity / Smoke / TAT ) Test Automation Test Batches Creation Next Select a batch and starts execution ( Level - 1 ) (Regression ) (Level – 2) Defect Defect Fixing Report Otherwise Test Closure Final Regression / Pre Acceptance / Release / Post Mortum / Level -3 Testing User Acceptance Test Sign Off If u got any mismatch then suspend that Batch Independent

(Modified Build) Bug Resolving

Page 24 of 131

Software Testing Material Test Planning: After completion of test initiation, test plan author concentrates on test plan writing to define “what to test, how to test, when to test and who to test “. What to test How to test When to test Who to test - Development Plan - S/wRS - Design Documents - Team Formation

Development Plan & S/wRS & Design Documents

1. Team Formation 2. Identify tactical Risks Test Plan 3. Prepare Test Plan

TRM 4. Review Test Plan

1. Team Formation In general test planning process starts with testing team formation, depends on below factors.  Availability of Testers  Test Duration  Availability of test environment resources The above three are dependent factors. Test Duration: Common market test team duration for various types of projects. C/S, Web, ERP projects - SAP, VB, JAVA – Small - 3-5 months System Software - C, C++ - Medium – 7-9 months Machine Critical - Prolog, LISP - Big - 12-15 months System Software Projects: Network, Embedded, Compilers … Machine Critical Software: Robotics, Games, Knowledge base, Satellite, Air Traffic. 2. Identify tactical Risks After completion of team formation, test plan author concentrates on risks analysis and mitigations. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Lack of knowledge on that domain Lack of budget Lack of resources(h/w or tools) Lack of testdata (amount) Delays in deliveries(server down) Lack of development process rigor Lack of communication( Ego problems)

Page 25 of 131

Software Testing Material 3. Prepare Test Plan Format: 1) Test Plan id: Unique number or name 2) Introduction: About Project 3) Test items: Modules 4) Features to be tested: Responsible modules to test 5) Feature not to be tested: Which ones and why not? 6) Feature pass/fail criteria: When above feature is pass/fail? 7) Suspension criteria: Abnormal situations during above features testing. 8) Test environment specifications: Required docs to prepare during testing 9) Test environment: Required H/w and S/w 10) Testing tasks: what are the necessary tasks to do before starting testing 11) Approach: List of Testing Techniques to apply 12) Staff and training needs: Names of selected testing Team 13) Responsibilities: Work allocation to above selected members 14) Schedule: Dates and timings 15) Risks and mitigations : Common non technical problems 16) Approvals: Signatures of PM/QA and test plan author 4. Review Test Plan After completion of test plan writing test plan author concentrate on review of that document for completeness and correctness. In this review, selected testers also involved to give feedback. In this reviews meeting, testing team conducts coverage analysis.    S/wRS based coverage ( What to test ) Risks based coverage ( Analyze risks point of view ) TRM based coverage ( Whither this plan tests all tests given in TRM )

Test Design: After completion of test plan and required training days, every selected test engineer concentrate on test designing for responsible modules. In this phase test engineer prepares a list of testcases to conduct defined testing, on responsible modules. There are three basic methods to prepare testcases to conduct core level testing.  Business Logic based testcase design  Input Domain based testcase design  User Interface based testcase design Business Logic based testcase design: In general test engineers are writing list of testcases depends on usecases / functional specifications in S/wRS. A usecase in S/wRS defines how a user can use a specific functionality in your application.

Page 26 of 131

Software Testing Material

BRS

S/wRS Usecases + Functional Specifications

TestCases

HLDD LLDD Coding .Exe To prepare testcases depends on usecases we can follow below approach: Step 1: Collect responsible modules usecases Step 2: select a usecase and their dependencies ( Dependent & Determinant ) Step 2-1: identify entry condition Step 2-2: identify input required Step 2-3: identify exit condition Step 2-4: identify output / outcome Step2-5: study normal flow Step 2-6: study alternative flows and exceptions Step3: prepare list of testcases depends on above study Step 4: review testcases for completeness and correctness TestCase Format: After completion of testcases selection for responsible modules, test engineer prepare an IEEE format for every test condition. TestCase Id : Unique number or name TestCase Name : Name of the test condition Feature to be tested : Module / Feature / Service TestSuit Id : Parent batch Id‟s, in which this case is participating as a member. Priority : Importance of that testcase Po – Basic functionality P1 – General Functionality (I/p domain, Error handling …) P2 – Cosmetic TestCases (Ex: p0 – os, p1-difft oss, p2 – look & feel) Test Environment: Required H/w and S/w to execute the test cases Test Effort: (Person Per Hour or Person / Hr) Time to execute this test case ( 20 Mins ) Test Duration: Date of execution Test Setup: Necessary tasks to do before start this case execution Test Procedure: Step by step procedure to execute this testcase.

Page 27 of 131

Software Testing Material

Step No.

Action

I/p Required

Expected

Result

Defect ID

Comments

Test Design

Test Execution

TestCase Pass/Fail Criteria: When that testcase is Pass, When that testcase is fail. Input Domain based TestCase Design: To prepare functionality and error handling testcases, test engineers are using UseCases or functional specifications in S/wRS. To prepare input domain testcases test engineers are depending on data model of the project (ERD & LLD) Step1: Identify input attributes in terms of size, type and constraints. (size- range, type – int, float constraint – Primary key) Step2: Identify critical attributes in that list, which are participating in data retrievals and manipulations. Step3: Identify non critical attributes which are input, output type. Step4: Prepare BVA & ECP for every attribute. ECP ( Type ) Valid Invalid BVA ( Size / Range ) Minimum Maximum

Input Attribute

Fig: Data Matrix User Interface based testcase design: To conduct UI testing, test engineer write a list of test cases, depends on our organization level UI rules and global UI conventions. For preparing this UI testcases they are not studying S/wRS, LLDD etc… Functionality testcases source: S/wRS. I/P domain testcases source: LLDD Testcases: For all projects applicable Testcase1: Spelling checking Tesecase2: Graphics checking (alignment, font, style, text, size, micro soft 6 rules) Testcase3: Meaningful error messages or not. (Error Handling Testing – related message is coming or not. Here they are testing that message is easy to understand or not) TestCase4: Accuracy of data displayed (WYSIWYG) (Amount, d o b) Testcase5: Accuracy of data in the database as a result of user input. (Tc4 screen level, tc5 at database level) Form

Table DSN

Bal

66.666

66.7

Page 28 of 131

Software Testing Material Testcase6: Accuracy of data in the database as a result of external factors?

DS

Mail Server Image compression

Image Decompression

Mail + .Gif
Import

Mail + .Gif

Testcase7: Meaningful Help messages or not?(First 6 tc for uit and 7 manual support testing) Review Testcases: After completion of testcases design with required documentation [IEEE] for responsible modules, testing team along with test lead concentrate on review of testcases for completeness and correctness. In this review testing team conducts coverage analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Business Requirements based coverage UseCases based coverage Data Model based coverage User Interface based coverage TRM based coverage

Fig: Requirements Validation / Traceability Matrix. Business Requirements ****** Sources (Use Cases, Data Model…) ***** ***** ***** TestCases * * * * * *

Page 29 of 131

Software Testing Material Test Execution:

Development Site

Initial Build

Testing Site Level-0 (Sanity / Smoke / TAT)

Stable Build Defect Report Defect Fixing 8-9 Times Bug Resolving Modified Build

Test Automation

Level-1 (Comprehensive)

Level-2 (Regression)

Level-3 (Final Regression) Test Execution levels Vs Test Cases: Level 0 – P0 Level 1– P0, P1 and P2 testcases as batches Level 2– Selected P0, P1 and P2 testcases with respect to modifications Level 3– Selected P0, P1 and P2 testcases at build. Test Harness = Test Environment + Test Bed Build Version Control: Unique numbering system. ( FTP or SMTP)

Server Build FTP

Softbase

Test Environment

After defect reporting the testing team may receive  Modified Build  Modified Programs

Page 30 of 131

Software Testing Material To maintain this original builds and modified builds, development team use version control softwares.

Server 1 2

Modified Build

Modified Programs Test Environment Embed into Old Build

Level 0 (Sanity / Smoke / TAT): After receiving initial build from development team, testing team install into test environment. After completion of dumping / installation testing team ensure that basic functionality of that build to decide completeness and correctness of test execution. During this testing, testing team observes below factors on that initial build. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Understandable: Functionality is understandable to test engineer. Operable: Build is working without runtime errors in test environment. Observable: Process completion and continuation in build is estimated by tester. Controllable: Able to Start/ Stop processes explicitly. Consistent: Stable navigations Maintainable: No need of reinstallations Simplicity: Short navigations to complete task. Automatable: Interfaces supports automation test script creation.

This level-0 testing is also called as Testability or Octangle Testing (bcz based on 8 factors). Test Automation: After receiving a stable build from development team, testing team concentrate on test automation. Test Automation two types: Complete and Selective.

Test Automation

*
Complete Selective

(All P0 and carefully selected P1 Testcases)

Page 31 of 131

Software Testing Material Level-1: (Comprehensive Testing): After completion of stable build receiving from development team and automation, testing team starts test execution of their testcases as batches. The test batch is also known as TestSuit or test set. In every batch, base state of one testcase is end state of previous testcase. During this test batches execution, test engineers prepares test log with three types of entries. 1. Passed 2. Failed 3. Blocked Passed: All expected values are equal to actual. Failed: Any expected value is variated with actual. Blocked: Corresponding testcases are failed.

Skip

Passed

In Queue

In Progress

Failed

Closed

Blocked

Partial Pass / Fail

Level-2 Regression Testing: Actually this Regression testing is part of Level-1 testing. During comprehensive test execution, testing team reports mismatches to development team as defects. After receiving that defect, development team performs modifications in coding to resolve that accepted defects. When they release modified build, testing team concentrate on regression testing before conducts remaining comprehensive testing. Severity: Seriousness of the defect defined by the tester through Severity (Impact and Criticality) importance to do regression testing. In organizations they will be giving three types of severity like High, Medium and Low. High: Without resolving this mismatch tester is not able to continue remaining testing. (Show stopper). Medium: Able to continue testing, but resolve must. Low: May or may not resolve. Ex: High: Database not connecting. Medium: Input domain wrong. (Accepting wrong values also) Low: Spelling mistake.

Xyz are three dependent modules. If u find bug in z, then Do on z and colleges: High Full z module: Medium Partial z module: Low

Page 32 of 131

Software Testing Material

Resolved Bug

Severity

High

Medium

Less

All P0 All P1 Selected P2

All P0 Selected P1 Some P2

Some P0 Some P1 Some P2

On modified Build to ensure bug resolving
Possible ways to do Regression Testing: Case 1: If development team resolved bug and its severity is high, testing team will re execute all P0, P1 and carefully selected P2 test cases with respect to that modification. Case 2: If development team resolved bug and its severity is medium, testing team will re execute all P0, selected P1 [80-90 %] and some of P2 test cases with respect to that modification. Case 3: If development team resolved bug and its severity is low, testing team will re execute some of the P0, P1, P2 test cases with respect to that modification. Case 4: If development team performs modifications due to project requirement changes, testing team reexecute all P0 and selected testcases. Severity: With respect to functionality Priority: With respect to customer. Severity: All defects are not with same severity. Priority: All defects are not with same priority. Severity: Seriousness of the defect. Priority: Importance of the defect. Severity: Project functionality point of view important. Priority: Customer point of view important.

Page 33 of 131

Software Testing Material Defect Reporting and Tracking: During comprehensive test execution, test engineers are reporting mismatches to development team as defect reports in IEEE format. 1. Defect Id: A unique number or name. 2. Defect Description: Summary of defect. 3. Build Version Id: Parent build version number. 4. Feature: Module / Functionality 5. Testcase name and Description: Failed testcase name with description 6. Reproducible: (Yes / No) 7. If yes, attach test procedure. 8. If No, attach snapshots and strong reasons 9. Severity: High / Medium / Low 10. Priority 11. Status: New / Reopen (after 3 times write new programs) 12. Reported by: Name of the test engineer 13. Reported on: Date of Submission 14. Suggested fix: optional 15. Assign to: Name of PM 16. Fixed by: PM or Team Lead 17. Resolved by: Name of the Developer 18. Resolved on: Date of solving 19. Resolution type: 20. Approved by: Signature of the PM Defect Age: The time gap between resolved on and reported on. Defect Submission:

QA Test Manager Project Manager

Test Lead

Team Lead

Test Engineer

Developers

Transmittal Reports
Fig: Large Scale Organizations.

Page 34 of 131

Software Testing Material

Defect Submission:

Project Manager

Test Lead

Team Lead

Test Engineer

Developers

Transmittal Reports
Fig: Small Scale Organizations. Defect Status Cycle:

New

Fixed (Open, Reject, Deferred)

Closed

Reopen
Bug Life Cycle:

Page 35 of 131

Software Testing Material

Detect Defect

Reproduce Defect

Report Defect

Fix Bug Resolve Bug

Close Bug
Resolution Type:

Testing

Development Defect Report

Resolution Type
There are 12 resolution types such as 1. Duplicate: Rejected due to defect like same as previous reported defect. 2. Enhancement: Rejected due to defect related to future requirement of the customer. 3. H/w Limitation: Raised due to limitations of hardware (Rejected) 4. S/w Limitation: Rejected due to limitation of s/w technology. 5. Functions as design: Rejected due to coding is correct with respect to design documents. 6. Not Applicable: Rejected due to lack of correctness in defect. 7. No plan to fix it: Postponed part timely (Not accepted and rejected) 8. Need for More Information: Developers want more information to fix. (Not accepted and rejected) 9. Not Reproducible: Developer want more information due to the problem is not reproducible. (Not accepted and rejected) 10. User misunderstanding: (Both argues you r thinking wrong) (Extra negotiation between tester and developer) 11. Fixed: Opened a bug to resolve (Accepted) 12. Fixed Indirectly: Differed to resolve (Accepted)

Page 36 of 131

Software Testing Material Types of Bugs: UI bugs: (Low severity) Spelling mistake: High Priority Wrong alignment: Low Priority Input Domain bugs: (Medium severity) Object not taking Expected values: High Priority Object taking Unexpected values: Low Priority Error Handling bugs: (Medium severity) Error message is not coming: High Priority Error message is coming but not understandable: Low Priority Calculation bugs: (High severity) Intermediate Results Failure: High Priority Final outputs are Wrong: Low Priority Service Levels bugs: (High severity) Deadlock: High Priority Improper order of Services: Low Priority Load condition bugs: (High severity) Memory leakage under load: High Priority Doesn't allows customer expected load: Low Priority Hardware bugs: (High severity) Printer not connecting: High Priority Invalid printout: Low Priority Boundary Related Bugs: (Medium Severity) Id control bugs: (Medium severity) Wrong version no, Logo Version Control bugs: (Medium severity) Difference between two consecutive versions Source bugs: (Medium severity) Mismatch in help documents Test Closure: After completion of all possible testcase execution and their defect reporting and tracking, test lead conduct test execution closure review along with test engineers. In this review test lead depends on coverage analysis:      BRS based coverage UseCases based coverage (Modules) Data Model based coverage (i/p and op) UI based coverage (Rules and Regulations) TRM based coverage (PM specified tests are covered or not)

Page 37 of 131

Software Testing Material Analysis of the differed bugs: Whither deferred bugs are postponable or not. Testing team try to execute the high priority test cases once again to confirm correctness of master build. Final Regression Process: Gather requirements Effort estimation (Person/Hr) Plan Regression Execute Regression Report Regression Final Regression Testing: Gather requirements

Report Regression

Effort estimation

Execute Regression

Plan Regression

User Acceptance Testing: After completion of test execution closure review and final regression, our organization concentrates on UAT to collect feed back from customer / customer site like people. There are two approaches: 1. Alpha testing 2. Beta testing SignOff: After completion of UA and then modifications, test lead creates Test Summary Report (TSR). It is a part of s/w release note. This TSR consists of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Test Strategy / Methodology (what tests) System Test Plan (schedule) Traceability Matrix (mapping requirements and testcases) Automated Test Scripts (TSL + GUI map entries) Final Bug summary Report

Page 38 of 131

Software Testing Material Bug Id Description Found By Status(Closed Deferred) / Severity Module / Comme Functionality nts

Case Study (Schedule for 5 Months): Deliverable TestCase Selection TestCase Review RVM / RTM Sanity & Test Automation Test Execution as Batches Test Reporting Responsibility Test Engineer Test Lead, Test Engineer Test Lead Test Engineer Test Engineer Test Engineer & Test Lead Completion Time 20-30 days 4-5 days 1 day 20-30 days 40-60 days On going during test execution Weakly twice 4-5 days ( 5-10 days 1-2 days

Communication and Status Everyone in testing team Reporting Final Regression Testing & Test Engineer and Test Lead Closer Review User Acceptance Testing Customer Site People Involvement of Testing Team) Test Summary Report Test Lead (Sign Off) Testing computer software – Cem Kamer Effective methods for software testing – William E Perry Software Testing Tools – Dr. K.V.K.K. Prasad Nagaraju_testing@yahoo.com

What u r doing? What type of testing process going on ur company? What type of test documentation prepared by ur organization? What type of test documentation u will prepare? Whats ur involvement in that? What are key components of ur company test plan? What type of format u prepare for test cases? How ur pm selects what type of tests need for ur project? When u will go to automation? What is regression testing? When u will do this? How u report defects to development team? How u know whither defect accepted or rejected? What u do when ur defect rejected? How u will learn project with out documentation? What is the difference between defect age and Build interval period? How u will do test without documents? What do u mean by green box testing? Experience on winrunner Exposure to td… Winrunner 8/10. Load runner 7/10. Page 39 of 131

Software Testing Material Auditing: During testing and maintenance, testing team conducts audit meetings to estimate status and required improvements. In this auditing process they can use three types of measurements and metrics. Quality Measurement Metrics: These measurements are used by QA or PM to estimate achievement of quality in current project testing [monthly once] Product Stability: N o . O f b u g s Duration

20% Testing – 80% Bugs 80% Testing – 20% Bugs

Sufficiency:  Requirements Coverage  Type – Trigger Analysis (Mapping between covered requirements and applied tests) Defect Severity Distribution Organization trend limit check:  Organisation trend limit check Test Management Measurements: These measurements are used by test lead during test execution of current project [weakly twice] Test Status  Executed tests  In progress  Yet to execute Delays in Delivery  Defect Arrival Rate  Defect Resolution Rate  Defect Aging Test Effort  Cost of finding a defect (Ex: 4 defects / person day)

Page 40 of 131

Software Testing Material Process Capability Measurements: These measurements are used by quality analyst and test management to improve the capability of testing process for upcoming projects testing. (It depends on old projects maintenance level feedback) Test Efficiency  Type-Trigger Analysis  Requirements Coverage Defect Escapes  Type-Phase analysis. (What type of defects my testing team missed in which phase of testing) Test Effort  Cost of finding a defect (Ex: 4 defects / person day) This topic looks at Static Testing techniques. These techniques are referred to as "static" because the software is not executed; rather the specifications, documentation and source code that comprise the software are examined in varying degrees of detail. There are two basic types of static testing. One of these is people-based and the other is toolbased. People-based techniques are generally known as “reviews” but there are a variety of different ways in which reviews can be performed. The tool-based techniques examine source code and are known as "static analysis". Both of these basic types are described in separate sections below. What are Reviews? “Reviews” is the generic name given to people-based static techniques. More or less any activity that involves one or more people examining something could be called a review. There are a variety of different ways in which reviews are carried out across different organisations and in many cases within a single organisation. Some are very formal, some are very informal, and many lie somewhere between the two. The chances are that you have been involved in reviews of one form another. One person can perform a review of his or her own work or of someone else‟s work. However, it is generally recognised that reviews performed by only one person are not as effective as reviews conducted by a group of people all examining the same document (or whatever it is that is being reviewed). Review techniques for individuals Desk checking and proof reading are two techniques that can be used by individuals to review a document such as a specification or a piece of source code. They are basically the same processes: the reviewer double-checks the document or source code on their own. Data stepping is a slightly different process for reviewing source code: the reviewer follows a set of data values through the source code to ensure that the values are correct at each step of the processing. Review techniques for groups The static techniques that involve groups of people are generically referred to as reviews. Reviews can vary a lot from very informal to highly formal, as will be discussed in more detail shortly. Two examples of types of review are walkthroughs and Inspection. A

Page 41 of 131

Software Testing Material walkthrough is a form of review that is typically used to educate a group of people about a technical document. Typically the author "walks" the group through the ideas to explain them and so that the attendees understand the content. Inspection is the most formal of all the formal review techniques. Its main focus during the process is to find faults, and it is the most effective review technique in finding them (although the other types of review also find some faults). Inspection is discussed in more detail below. Reviews and the test process Benefits of reviews There are many benefits from reviews in general. They can improve software development productivity and reduce development timescales. They can also reduce testing time and cost. They can lead to lifetime cost reductions throughout the maintenance of a system over its useful life. All this is achieved (where it is achieved) by finding and fixing faults in the products of development phases before they are used in subsequent phases. In other words, reviews find faults in specifications and other documents (including source code) which can then be fixed before those specifications are used in the next phase of development. Reviews generally reduce fault levels and lead to increased quality. This can also result in improved customer relations. Reviews are cost-effective There are a number of published figures to substantiate the cost-effectiveness of reviews. Freedman and Weinberg quote a ten times reduction in faults that come into testing with a 50% to 80% reduction in testing cost. Yourdon in his book on Structured Walkthroughs found that faults were reduced by a factor of ten. Gilb and Graham give a number of documented benefits for software Inspection, including 25% reduction in schedules, a 28 times reduction in maintenance cost, and finding 80% of defects in a single pass (with a mature Inspection process) and 95% in multiple passes. What can be Inspected? Anything written down can be Inspected. Many people have the impression that Inspection applies mainly to code (probably because Fagan's original article was on "Design and code inspection"). However, although Inspection can be performed on code, it gives more value if it is performed on more "upstream" documents in the software development process. It can be applied to contracts, budgets, and even marketing material, as well as to policies, strategies, business plans, user manuals, procedures and training material. Inspection also applies to all types of system development documentation, such as requirements, feasibility studies and designs. It is also very appropriate to apply to all types of test documentation such as test plans, test designs and test cases. In fact even with Fagan's original method, it was found to be very effective applied to testware. What can be reviewed? Anything that can be Inspected can also be reviewed, but reviews can apply to more things than just those ideas that are written down. Reviews can be done on visions, strategic plans and "big picture" ideas. Project progress can be reviewed to assess whether work is proceeding according to the plans. A review is also the place where major decisions may be made, for example about whether or not to develop a given feature. Reviews and Inspections are complementary. Inspection excludes discussion and solution optimising, but these activities are often very important. Any type of review that tries to combine more than one objective tends not to work as well as those with a single focus. It

Page 42 of 131

Software Testing Material works better to use Inspection to find faults and to use reviews to discuss, come to a consensus and make decisions. What to review / Inspect? Looking at the „V‟ life cycle diagram that was discussed in Session 2, reviews and Inspections apply to everything on the left-hand side of the V-model. Note that the reviews apply not only to the products of development but also to the test documentation that is produced early in the life cycle. We have found that reviewing the business needs alongside the Acceptance Tests works really well. It clarifies issues that might otherwise have been overlooked. This is yet another way to find faults as early as possible in the life cycle so that they can be removed at the least cost. Costs of reviews You cannot gain the benefits of reviews without investing in doing them, and this does have a cost. As a rough guide, something between 5% and 15% of project effort would typically be spent on reviews. If Inspections are being introduced into an organisation, then 15% is a recommended guideline. Once the Inspection process is mature, this may go down to around 5%. Note that 10% is half a day a week. Remember that the cost of reviews always needs to be balanced against the cost of not doing them, and finding the faults (which are already there) much later when it will be much more expensive to fix them. The costs of reviews are mainly in people's time, i.e. it is an effort cost, but the cost varies depending on the type of review. The leader or moderator of the review may need to spend time in planning the review (this would not be done for an informal review, but is required for Inspection). The studying of the documents to be reviewed by each participant on their own is normally the main cost (although in practice this may not be done as thoroughly as it should). If a meeting is held, the cost is the length of the meeting times the number of people present. The fixing of any faults found or the resolution of issues found may or may not be followed up by the leader. In the more formal review techniques, metrics or statistics are recorded and analysed to ensure the continued effectiveness and efficiency of the review process. Process improvement should also be a part of any review process, so that lessons learned in a review can be folded back into development and testing processes. (Inspection formally includes process improvement; most other forms of review do not.) Types of review We have now established that reviews are an important part of software testing. Testers should be involved in reviewing the development documents that tests are based on, and should also review their own test documentation. In this section, we will look at different types of reviews, and the activities that are done to a greater or lesser extent in all of them. We will also look at the Inspection process in a bit more detail, as it is the most effective of all review types. Characteristics of different review types Informal review As its name implies, this is very much an ad hoc process. Normally it simply consists of someone giving their document to someone else and asking them to look it over. A document may be distributed to a number of people, and the author of the document would hope to receive back some helpful comments. It is a very cheap form of review because there is no monitoring of metrics, no meeting and no follow--up. It is generally perceived to be useful,

Page 43 of 131

Software Testing Material and compared to not doing any reviews at all, it is. However, it is probably the least effective form of review (although no one can prove that since no measurements are ever done!) Technical review or Peer review A technical review may have varying degrees of formality. This type of review does focus on technical issues and technical documents. A peer review would exclude managers from the review. The success of this type of review typically depends on the individuals involved they can be very effective and useful, but sometimes they are very wasteful (especially if the meetings are not well disciplined), and can be rather subjective. Often this level of review will have some documentation, even if just a list of issues raised. Sometimes metrics will be kept. This type of review can find important faults, but can also be used to resolve difficult technical problems, for example deciding on the best way to implement a design. Decision-making review This type of review is closely related to the previous one (in fact the syllabus does not distinguish them). In this type of review, which may be technical or managerial, the focus is on discussing the issues, coming to a consensus and making decisions, for example about whether a given feature should be included in the next release or not. Walkthrough A walkthrough is typically led by the author of a document, for the purpose of educating the participants about the content so that everyone understands the same thing. A walkthrough may include "dry runs" of business scenarios to show how the system would handle certain specific situations. For technical documents, it is often a peer group technique. Inspection An Inspection is the most formal of the formal review techniques. There are strict entry and exit criteria to the Inspection process, it is led by a trained Leader or moderator (not the author), there are defined roles for searching for faults based on defined rules and checklists. Metrics are a required part of the process. Characteristics of reviews in general Objectives and goals The objectives and goals of reviews in general normally include the verification and validation of documents against specifications and standards. Some types of review also have an objective of achieving a consensus among the attendees (but not Inspection). Some types of review have process improvement as a goal (this is formally included in Inspection). Activities There are a number of activities that may take place for any review. The planning stage is part of all except informal reviews. In Inspection (and possibly other reviews), an overview or kickoff meeting is held to put everyone "in the picture" about what is to be reviewed and how the review is to be conducted. This pre-meeting may be a walkthrough in its own right. The preparation or individual checking is usually where the greatest value is gained from a review process. Each person spends time on the review document (and related documents), becoming familiar with it and/or looking for faults. In some reviews, this part of the process is optional (at least in practice). In Inspection it is required. Most reviews include a meeting of the reviewers. Informal reviews probably do not, and Inspection does not hold a meeting if it would not add economic value to the process. Sometimes the meeting time is the only time people actually look at the document. Page 44 of 131

Software Testing Material Sometimes the meetings run on for hours and discuss trivial issues. The best reviews (of any level of formality) ensure that value is gained from the meeting. The more formal review techniques include follow-up of the faults or issues found to ensure that action has been taken on everything raised (Inspection does, as do some forms of technical or peer review). The more formal review techniques collect metrics on cost (time spent) and benefits achieved. Roles and responsibilities For any of the formal reviews (i.e. not informal reviews), there is someone responsible for the review of a document (the individual review cycle). This may be the author of the document (walkthrough) or an independent Leader or moderator (formal reviews and Inspection). The responsibility of the Leader is to ensure that the review process works. He or she may distribute documents, choose reviewers, mentor the reviewers, call and lead the meeting, perform follow-up and record relevant metrics. The author of the document being reviewed or Inspected is generally included in the review, although there are some variants that exclude the author. The author actually has the most to gain from the review in terms of learning how to do their work better (if the review is conducted in the right spirit!). The reviewers or Inspectors are the people who bring the added value to the process by helping the author to improve his or her document. In some types of review, individual checkers are given specific types of fault to look for to make the process more effective. Managers have an important role to play in reviews. Even if they are excluded from some types of peer review, they can (and should) review management level documents with their peers. They also need to understand the economics of reviews and the value that they bring. They need to ensure that the reviews are done properly, i.e. that adequate time is allowed for reviews in project schedules. There may be other roles in addition to these, for example an organisation-wide co-ordinator who would keep and monitor metrics, or someone to "own" the review process itself - this person would be responsible for updating forms, checklists, etc. Deliverables The main deliverable from a review is the changes to the document that was reviewed. The author of the document normally edits these. For Inspection, the changes would be limited to faults found as violations of accepted rules. In other types of review, the reviewers suggest improvements to the document itself. Generally the author can either accept or reject the changes suggested. If the author does not have the authority to change a related document (e.g. if the review found that a correct design conflicted with an incorrect requirement specification), then a change request may be raised to change the other document(s). For Inspection and possibly other types of review, process improvement suggestions are a deliverable. This includes improvements to the review or Inspection process itself and also improvements to the development process that produced the document just reviewed. (Note that these are improvements to processes, not to reviewed documents.) The final deliverable (for the more formal types of review, including Inspection) is the metrics about the costs, faults found, and benefits achieved by the review or Inspection process.

Page 45 of 131

Software Testing Material Pitfalls Reviews are not always successful. They are sometimes not very effective, so faults that could have been found slip through the net. They are sometimes very inefficient, so that people feel that they are wasting their time. Often insufficient thought has gone into the definition of the review process itself - it just evolves over time. One of the most common causes for poor quality in the review process is lack of training, and this is more critical the more formal the review. Another problem with reviews is having to deal with documents that are of poor quality. Entry criteria to the review or Inspection process can ensure that reviewers' time is not wasted on documents that are not worthy of the review effort. A lack of management support is a frequent problem. If managers say that they want reviews to take place but don't allow any time in the schedules for the, this is only "lip service" not commitment to quality. Long-term, it can be disheartening to become expert at detecting faults if the same faults keep on being injected into all newly written documents. Process improvements are the key to long-term effectiveness and efficiency. Inspection Typical reviews versus Inspection There are a number of differences between the way most people practice reviews and the Inspection process as described in Software Inspection by Gilb and Graham, AddisonWesley, 1993. In a typical review, the document is given out in advance, there are typically dozens of pages to review, and the instructions are simply "Please review this." In Inspection, it is not just the document under review that is given out in advance, but also source or predecessor documents. The number of pages to focus the Inspection on is closely controlled, so that Inspectors (checkers) check a limited area in depth - a chunk or sample of the whole document. The instructions given to checkers are designed so that each individual checker will find the maximum number of unique faults. Special defect-hunting roles are defined, and Inspectors are trained in how to be most effective at finding faults. In typical reviews, sometimes the reviewers have time to look through the document before the meeting, and some do not. The meeting is often difficult to arrange and may last for hours. In Inspection, it is an entry criterion to the meeting that each checker has done the individual checking. The meeting is highly focused and efficient. If it is not economic, then a meeting may not be held at all, and it is limited to two hours. In a typical review, there is often a lot of discussion, some about technical issues but much about trivia. Comments are often mainly subjective, along the lines of "I don't like the way you did this" or "Why didn't you do it this way?" In Inspection, the process is objective. The only thing that is permissible to raise as an issue is a potential violation of an agreed Rule (the Rulesets are what the document should conform to). Discussion is severely curtailed in an Inspection meeting or postponed until the end. The Leader's role is very important to keep the meetings on track and focused and to keep pulling people away from trivia and pointless discussion. Many people keep on doing reviews even if they don't know whether it is worthwhile or not. Every activity in the Inspection process is done only if its economic value is continuously proven. Page 46 of 131

Software Testing Material Inspection is more Inspection contains many mechanisms that are additional to those found in other formal reviews. These include the following: Entry criteria, to ensure that we don't waste time Inspecting an unworthy document; Training for maximum effectiveness and efficiency; Optimum checking rate to get the greatest value out of the time spent by looking deep; Prioritising the words: Inspect the most important documents and their most important parts; Standards are used in the Inspection process; there are a number of Inspection standards also; Process improvement is built in to the Inspection process Exit criteria ensure that the document is worth and that the Inspection process was carried out correctly One of the most powerful exit criteria is the quantified estimate of the remaining defects per page. This may be say 3 per page initially, but can be brought down by orders of magnitude over time. Inspection is better Typical reviews are probably only 10% to 20% effective at detecting existing faults. The return on investment is usually not known because no one keeps track even of their cost. When Inspection is still being learned, its effectiveness is around 30% to 40% (this is demonstrated in Inspection training courses). Once Inspection is well established and mature, this process can find up to 80% of faults in a single pass, 95% in multiple passes. The return on investment ranges from 6 hours to 30 for every hour spent. The Inspection process The diagram shows a product document infected with faults. The document must pass through the entry gate before it is allowed to start the Inspection process. The Inspection Leader performs the planning activities. A Kickoff meeting is held to "set the scene" about the documents and the process. The Individual Checking is where most of the benefits are gained. 80% or more of the faults found will be found in this stage. A meeting is held (if economic). The editing of the document is done by the author or the person now responsible for the document. This involves redoing some of the activities that produced the document initially, and it also may require Change Requests to documents not under the control of the editor. Process improvement suggestions may be raised at any time, for improvements either to the Inspection process or to the development process. The document must pass through the Exit gate before it is allowed to leave the Inspection process. There are two aspects to investigate here: is the product document now ready (e.g. has some action been taken on all issues logged), and was the Inspection process carried out properly? For example, if the checking rate was too fast, then the checking has not been done properly. A gleaming new improved document is the result of the process, but there is still a "blob" on it. It is not economic to be 100% effective in Inspection. At least with Inspection you

Page 47 of 131

Software Testing Material consciously predict the levels of remaining faults rather than fallaciously assuming that we have found them all! How the checking rate enables deep checking in Inspection There is a dramatic difference of Inspection to normal reviews, and that is in the depth of checking. This is illustrated by the picture of a document. Initially there are no faults visible. Typically in reviews, the time and size of document determine the checking rate. So for example if you have 2 hours available for a review and the document is 100 pages long, then the checking rate will be 50 page per hour. (Any two of these three factors determine the third.) This is equivalent to "skimming the surface" of the document. We will find some faults - in this example we have found one major and two minor faults. Our typical reaction is now to think: "This review was worthwhile wasn't it - it found a major fault. Now we can fix that and the two other minor faults, and the document will now be OK." Think: are we missing anything here? Inspection is different. We do not take any more time, but it is the optimum rate for the type of document that is used to determine the size of the document that will be checked in detail. So if the optimum rate is one page per hour and we have two hours, then the size of the sample or chunk will be 2 pages. (Note that the optimum rate needs to be established over time for different types of document and will depend on a number of factors, and it is based on prioritised words (logical page rather than physical page). Of course it doesn't take an hour just to read a single page, but the checking done in Inspection includes comparing each paragraph or sentence on the target page with all source documents, checking each paragraph or phrase against relevant rule sets, both generic and specific, working through checklists for different role assignments, as well as the time to read around the target page to set the context. If checking is done to this level of thoroughness, it is not at all difficult to spend an hour on one page!) How does this depth-oriented approach affect the faults found? On the picture, we have gone deep in the Inspection on a limited number of pages. We have found the major one found in the other review plus two (other) minors, but we have also found a deep-seated major fault, which we would never have seen or even suspected if we had not spent the time to go deep. There is no guarantee that the most dangerous faults are lying near the surface! When the author comes to fix this deep-seated fault, he or she can look through the rest of the document for similar faults, and all of them can then be corrected. So in this example we will have corrected 5 major faults instead of one. This gives tremendous leverage to the Inspection process - you can fix faults you didn't find! Inspection surprises To summarise the Inspection process, there are a number of things about Inspection which surprise people. The fundamental importance of the Rules is what makes Inspection objective rather than a subjective review. The Rules are democratically agreed as applying (this helping to defuse author defensiveness) and by definition a fault is a Rule violation. The slow checking rates are surprising, but the value to be gained by depth gives far greater long-term gains than surface-skimming review that miss major deep-seated problems. The strict entry and exit criteria help to ensure that Inspection gives value for money. The logging rates are much faster than in typical reviews (30 to 60 seconds; typical reviews log one thing in 3 to 10 minutes). This ensures that the meeting is very efficient. One reason

Page 48 of 131

Software Testing Material this works is that the final responsibility for all changes is fully given to the author, who has total responsibility for final classification of faults as well as the content of all fixes. More information on Inspection can be found in the book Software Inspection, Tom Gilb and Dorothy Graham, Addison-Wesley, 1993, ISBN 0-201-63181-4. Static analysis What can static analysis do? Static analysis is a form of automated testing. It can check for violations of standards and can find things that may or may not be faults. Static analysis is descended from compiler technology. In fact, many compilers may have static analysis facilities available for developers to use if they wish. There are also a number of stand-alone static analysis tools for various different computer programming languages. Like a compiler, the static analysis tool analyses the code without executing it, and can alert the developer to various things such as unreachable code, undeclared variables, etc. Static analysis tools can also compute various metrics about code such as cyclomatic complexity. Data flow analysis Data flow analysis is the study of program variables. A variable is basically a location in the computer's memory that has a name so that the programmer can refer to it more conveniently in the source code. When a value is put into this location, we say that the variable is "defined". When that value is accessed, we say that it is "used". For example, in the statement "x = y + z", the variables y and z are used because the values that they contain are being accessed and added together. The result of this addition is then put into the memory location called “x”, so x is defined. The significance of this is that static analysis tools can perform a number of simple checks. One of these checks is to ensure that every variable is defined before it is used. If a variable is not defined before it is used, the value that it contains may be different every time the program is executed and in any case is unlikely to contain the correct value. This is an example of a data flow fault. Another check that a static analysis tool can make is to ensure that every time a variable is defined it is used somewhere later on in the program. If it isn‟t, then why was defined in the first place? This is known as a data flow anomaly and although can be a perfectly harmless fault, it can also indicate something more serious is at fault. Control flow analysis Control flow analysis can find infinite loops, inaccessible code, and many other suspicious aspects. However, not all of the things found are necessarily faults; defensive programming may result in code that is technically unreachable. Cyclomatic complexity Cyclomatic complexity is related to the number of decisions in a program or control flow graph. The easiest way to compute it is to count the number of decisions (diamond-shaped boxes) on a control flow graph and add 1. Working from code, count the total number of IF's and any loop constructs (DO, FOR, WHILE, REPEAT) and add 1. The cyclomatic complexity does reflect to some extent how complex a code fragment is, but it is not the whole story. Other static metrics Lines of code (LOC or KLOC for 1000‟s of LOC) is a measure of the size of a code module. Operands and operators is a very detailed measurement devised by Halstead, but not much used now. Fan-in is related to the number of modules that call (in to) a given module. Modules with high fan-in are found at the bottom of hierarchies, or in libraries where they are Page 49 of 131

Software Testing Material frequently called. Modules with high fan-out are typically at the top of hierarchies, because they call out to many modules (e.g. the main menu). Any module with both high fan-in and high fan-out probably needs re-designing. Nesting levels relate to how deeply nested statements are within other IF statements. This is a good metric to have in addition to cyclomatic complexity, since highly nested code is harder to understand than linear code, but cyclomatic complexity does not distinguish them. Other metrics include the number of function calls and a number of metrics specific to objectoriented code. Limitations and advantages Static analysis has its limitations. It cannot distinguish "fail-safe" code from real faults or anomalies, and may create a lot of spurious failure messages. Static analysis tools do not execute the code, so they are not a substitute for dynamic testing, and they are not related to real operating conditions. However, static analysis tools can find faults that are difficult to see and they give objective quality information about the code. We feel that all developers should use static analysis tools, since the information they can give can find faults very early when they are very cheap to fix. WinRunner 7.0  Developed by Mercury Interactive  Functionality testing tool ( Not suitable to Performance, Usability and Security Testing)  Supports c/s and web technologies ( VB, vc++, java, d2k, power builder, Delphi, HIML etc…  WinRunner wont supports .Net, XML, SAP, People Soft, Maya, Flash, oracle applications etc…  To support .Net, XML, SAP, People Soft, Maya, Flash, XML, oracle applications etc… we can use QTP ( Quick Test Professional )  QTP is an extension of WinRunner. WinRunner Recording Process:

Learning

Recording

Edit Script Run Script Analyze that Test Results

Page 50 of 131

Software Testing Material Learning: Recognization of objects and windows in your application by testing tool is called Learning. Recording: A test engineer records our manual process in winrunner to automate. Edit Script: Test Engineer inserts required check points into that recorded test script. Run Script: A test engineer executes automated test script to get results. Analyze Results: A test engineer analyzes test results to concentrate on defect tracking. User Id *****

P ***** a s s O w k o r Exp: Ok enabled after entering user id d password. and Explain Icons in WinRunner Note: WinRunner 7.0 provides auto learning facility to recognize objects and windows in your project without your interaction. Every statement ends with ; like C. Test Script: A test script consists of Navigational Statements & Check Points. In winrunner scripting language is also called as TSL ( Test Script Language ) like as C. Add-in Manager: This window provides a list of WinRunner supported technologies with respect to our purchased license. Note: If all options in Add in Manager are off by default it supports VB, VC++ interface (Win32 API). Recording Modes: To record our business operations (Navigations) in winrunner we can use 2 types of recording modes. 1. Context Sensitive mode (Default Mode) 2. Analog mode Analog Mode: To record mouse pointer movements on the desktop, we can use this mode. In Analog Mode tester maintains constant monitor resolution and application position during recording and learning Application areas: Digital Signatures, Graphs drawing, image movements. Note:

Page 51 of 131

Software Testing Material 1. In analog mode, WinRunner records mouse pointer movements with respect to desktop co-ordinates. Due to this reason, test engineer maintains corresponding context sensitive mode window in default position in recording and running. 2. If u want to use Analog mode for recording, we can maintain monitor resolution as constant during recording and running. move_locator_track() : WinRunner use this function to record mouse pointer movements on the desktop in one unit of time. Syntax: move_locator_track(track number); By default it starts with 1. It is not based on time. But based on operation. mtype(): WinRunner uses this operations this function to record mouse pointer operations on the desktop. Syntax: mtype(<T Track Number> < K key on the mouse used > + / - ); Ex: mtype ("<T20><kLeft>+");

Track no – Deck top coordinates in which you operate the mouse. It stores the mouse coordinates. Actually it is a memory location. Type(): We can use this function to record keyboard operations in analog mode. Syntax: type(“Typed characters”/”ASCII notation”); Context Sensitive mode: To record mouse and key board operations on our application build, we can use this mode. It is a default mode. Context Sensitive Mode: In general functionality test engineer creates automation test scripts in Context Sensitive mode with required check points. In this mode WinRunner records our application operation with respect to objects and windows. To record mouse and key board operations on our application build, we can use this mode. It is a default mode. Ex: Focus to Window Set_window(“Window Name”, time); TextBox Edit_set(“Edit Name”,”Typed Characters”); Password text box Password_edit_set(“Pwd Object”,”Encrypted Pwd”); Push Button Button_press(“Button Name”); Radio Button Button_set(“Button Name”,ON); Button_set(“Button Name”,OFF); Check Box Button_set(“Button Name”,ON); Button_set(“Button Name”,OFF); List/Combo Box List_select_item(“List1”, “Selected Item”); Menu Menu_select_item(“Menu Name; Option Name”); Base State: An application state to start test is called as Base State. End State: An application state to stop test is called as Base State. Call State: An intermediate state of an application between base state and end state is call state. Page 52 of 131

Software Testing Material

Functionality Testing Techniques: Behavioral Coverage ( Object Properties Checking ). Input Domain Coverage ( Correctness of Size and Type of every i/p Object ). Error Handling Coverage ( Preventing negative navigation ). Calculations Coverage ( correctness of o/p values ). Backend Coverage ( Data Validation & Data Integrity of database tables ). Service Levels ( Order of functionality or services ). Successful Functionality ( Combination of above all ) Check points: WinRunner is a functionality testing tool, it provides a set of facilities to cover below sub tests. To automate above sub tests, we can use 4 check points in WinRunner: 1. GUI check points 2. Bitmap check points 3. Data Base check points 4. Text check points GUI Check point: To automate behavior of objects we can use this check point. It consists of sub options. 1. For Single Property 2. For Object/Window 3. For Multiple Properties For Single Property: To test a single property of an object we can use this option. Navigation: select a position in Script, Create Menu, GUI check point, for single property, select testable object(Double Click), select required property with expected, click paste. Ex: Update Object Focus to Window Open a Record Perform Change Update Order Disable Disable Enable

Syntax: object_check_info("Object Name", "Property", Expected value); Ex: button_check_info("Update Order","enabled",0); If the checkpoints are for numeric value, then no need for double quotes. If the checkpoints are for string value, then place the data in between double quotes. But winrunner takes any value by default in string with double quotes. Problem: Focus to Window – Item No should be Focused Ok enabled after filling itemno & qty.

Page 53 of 131

Software Testing Material

NagaRaju Shopping

Item No Quantity Ok Expected: No. of Items in Fly to equal to, no of items in Fly From -1, when you select an item in fly from. NagaRaju Journey

Fly From Fly To Ok

Ex: if u select an item in a list box then the no of items in next list boxes decreased by 1. Problem: Focus to Window – Ok should be Disabled Enter Roll No - Ok should be disabled Enter Name – Ok should be disabled Enter Class – Ok should be disabled

NagaRaju Shopping

Item No Quantity Ok

Page 54 of 131

Software Testing Material

NagaRaju Journey

List1 List2 List3

Ok

Problem: If type is A, Age is Focused, If type is B, Gender is Focused, If type is C, Qualification is Focused. Else others is focused. (use switch stmt)

Type

Age

Gender

Qualification

Others

switch(x) { case “A”: edit_check_info(“Age”,”focused”, 1); break; }

List Ok Text

Page 55 of 131

Software Testing Material Exp: Selected Item in List box appears in text box after Clicking Ok button. Exp: Selected Item in List box appears in Sample 2 text object after clicking display button.

Sample1 List1

Sample2

Display Text

Ok

NagaRaju Employee

Emp No Dept No Ok B Sal Comm

Problem: If basic salary >= 10000 then commission = 10% of basic salary. Else If basic salary in between 5000 & 10000 then commission = 5% of basic salary. Else If basic salary < 5000 then commission = 200 Rs. Problem: If Total >= 800 then Grade = A. Else If Total in between 800 & 700 then Grade = B. Else Grade = C.

Roll No Ok
o t a l T G r a d e Page 56 of 131

Software Testing Material For Object/Window: To test more than one properties of a single object, we can use this option. Ex: Update Object Focus to Window Open a Record Perform Change Update Order Disable Disable Enable & Focused

Syntax: obj_check_gui(“obj name”, “Check List File.ckl”, “expected values file.txt”, time to create ); In the above syntax check list file specifies list of properties to test of a single object. And its extension is .ckl Expected values file specifies list of expected values for that selected or testable properties. And its extension is .txt Ex: obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list1.ckl", "gui1", 1); For Multiple Objects: To test more than one property of more than one object in a single checkpoint we can use this option. To create this checkpoint tester selects multiple objects in a single window. Ex: Focus to Window Open a Record Perform Change Insert Order Disable Disable Disable Update Order Disable Disable Enable & Focused Delete Order Disable Enable Enable

Navigation: select position in script, create menu, GUI checkpoint, For Multiple Objects, click add, select testable objects, right click to relieve, specify expected for required properties for every selected object, click ok. Syntax: win_check_gui("Object Name", "Check List File.ckl", "Expected Values File", Time to Create); Ex: win_check_gui("Flight Reservation", "list3.ckl", "gui3", 1); Case Study: What type of properties you check for what objects? Object Type Push Button Radio Button Check Box List Box Table Grid Text / Edit Box Properties Enabled, Focused Status ( On , Off ) Status ( On , Off ) Count ( No of items in List Box ), Value ( Current Selected Value ) Rows, Columns, Table Content Enabled, Focused, Value, Range, Regular Expression, Date Format, Time Format

Page 57 of 131

Software Testing Material Changing Check Points: WinRunner allows us to perform changes in the existing check points. There are 2 types of changes in existing checkpoints due to project sudden changes or tester mistake. 1. Change expected values 2. Add new properties to test Change expected values Wr allows u to perform changes in expected values in existing checkpoints Navigarion: execute test script, click results, perform changes in expected values in results window of required, click ok, reexecute the test script to get right result Add new properties to test Sometimes test engineer add extra properties to existing checkpoint due to incompleteness of test through below navigation. Navigation: Create menu, edit gui check list, select check list file name, click ok, select new properties to test, click ok, to overwrite, change run mode to update, click run executed (default values selected as exp values), click run in verify mode to get results, perform changes in result if required

Enabled Focused Value

ON OFF
Default Value

Running Modes in WinRunner: Verify mode: in this mode wr compare our expected values with actual. Update mode: in this runmode, default values select as expected value Debug mode: to run our test scripts line by line. During GUI check point creation Winrunner creates checklist files and expected values files in HardDisk. Winrunner maintains the test scripts by default in tmp folder Script: c:\program files\mi\wr\tmp\testname\script Checklists: c:\program files\mi\wr\tmp\testname\chklist\list1.ckl Exp values: c:\program files\mi\wr\tmp\testname\exp\gui1 Input Domain Coverage: Range and Size Navigation: Create Menu, GUI Check point, for object/window, select object, select range property, enter from & to values, click ok. Syntax: obj_check_gui(“obj name”, “What Property you are checking”, “Range of Values from & To”, time to create )

Page 58 of 131

Software Testing Material In the above syntax check list file specifies list of properties to test of a single object. And its extension is .ckl Expected values file specifies list of expected values for that selected or testable properties. And its extension is .txt Ex: obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list1.ckl", "gui1", 1);

NagaRaju Sample

Age

Input Domain Coverage: Valid and Invalid Classes Navigation: Create Menu, GUI Check point, for object/window, select object, select Regular Expression property, enter Expected Expression as []*, click ok. Syntax: obj_check_gui(“obj name”, “What Property you are checking”, “Range of Values from & To”, time to create ) In the above syntax check list file specifies list of properties to test of a single object. And its extension is .ckl Expected values file specifies list of expected values for that selected or testable properties. And its extension is .txt Ex: obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list1.ckl", "gui1", 1); Problem: The Name text box should allow only lower level characters

NagaRaju Sample

Name

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Alphabets in lower case and initial cap only Alpha numeric and starting and ending with alphabets only Alphabets in lower case but starts with R ending with o only Alphabets in lower case with Under Score in middle Alphabets in lower case with Space and Under Score in middle

Bitmap Check Point: It is an optional checkpoint in functionality testing tool. Tester can use this checkpoint to compare images, logos, graphs and other graphical objects.( Like signatures) This checkpoint consists of two sub types:

Page 59 of 131

Software Testing Material 1. For Object/Window (Entire Image Testing) 2. For Screen Area (Part of Image Testing) These options supports testing on static images only. WinRunner doesn't support dynamic images developed using Flash, Maya… For Object/Window: To compare our expected image with actual image in your application build, we can use this option. Navigation: select a position in script, create menu, bitmap checkpoint, for object/window, select image object. obj_check_bitmap(“Image object Name”, “Expected image file. Bmp”, time to create the image check point) win_check_bitmap("About Flight Reservation System", "Img1", 1); Run on different versions. Expected – Record time Actual – Run time Differences – what are differences For Screen Area (Part of Image Testing): To compare our expected image part with actual image in your application build, we can use this option. Navigation: select a position in script, create menu, bitmap checkpoint, for Screen Area, select required region in testable image, right click to releave. obj_check_bitmap(“Image object Name”, “Image file. Bmp”, time to create the check point, x, y, width, height ) win_check_bitmap("About Flight Reservation System", "Img2", 1, 191, 29, 122, 71); Run on different versions. Expected – Record time Actual – Run time Differences – what are differences Note: TSL supports variable size of parameter line a function overloading For every project functionality testing, gui checkpoint is obligatory to use. By bitmap check point used by tester depends on requirements Database Check Point: To conduct backend testing using WinRunner we can use this option. Back End Testing: Validating Completeness and Correctness of front end operation impact on the backend tables. This process is also known as the database testing. In general, the Backend testing is also known as validation or data and integrity of data.

Page 60 of 131

Software Testing Material To automate this test, Database checkpoint provides three sub options 1. Default Check (Depends on Content) 2. Custom Check (Depends on rows count, columns count and content) 3. Runtime Record Check (New option in WinRunner7.0)

Application

DataBase

DSN Front End Back End

Default Check: To check data validation and data integrity in database, depends on content, we can use this option. DSN: Data Source Name. It is a connection string between front end and back end. It will maintain the connection process. Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Connect to the database Execute the select statement Return results in Excel Sheet Analyze the results manually

Application

DataBase

DSN Front End
Data Base Check Point Wizard

1 Back End 2 Select

3
In bitmap checking test between two versions of images. In GUI checking test same application but with expected behavior. In Database checking test twice on the original data. To conduct testing, test engineer collects some information from development team.

Page 61 of 131

Software Testing Material    Connection String or DSN Table definitions or Data dictionary Mapping between front end forms and backend tables.

Database Testing Process: Create Database checkpoint (Current content of database selected as Expected.) Insert / Delete / Update operation through front end. Execute Database checkpoint (Current content of database selected as Actual) Navigation: In GUI & Bitmap checkpoints we will starts with selecting the position in script. Create Menu, Database Checkpoint, default checkpoint, specify connection to database (ODBC / Data Junction) , select sql statement(c:\\PF\MI\WR\temp\testname\msqr1.sql), click next, click create to select DSN, write select statement ( select * from orders ), click finish. Syntax: db_check("Check List File .cdl", "Query Result File.Xls(EXE File)"); Ex: db_check("list5.cdl", "dbvf5"); Criteria: Expected Difference – Pass Wrong Difference – Fail What Updated: Data Validation Who and when updated: Data Integrity New Record - Green Color. Modified Record - Yellow Color. Custom Check: Test engineer use this option to conduct backend testing depends on rows count or columns count or table content or combination of above three properties. Default Checkpoint: Content is Property & Content is Expected Custom Checkpoint: Rows Count is Property & No of rows is Expected. During Custom check point creation, winrunner provides a facility to select these properties, in general test engineers are using default check option as maximum. Because content is also suitable to find the number of rows and columns. Syntax: db_check("Check List File .cdl", "Query Result File.Xls(EXE File)"); db_check("list11.cdl", "dbvf8");

A
X Y

B

1

1

Expected: X Y A B

2

2

3

3

Page 62 of 131

Software Testing Material Front End – Programmers (Programming Division) Back End – DataBase Administrators (DB Division) The front objects names should be understandable to the end user. (WYSIWYG) Runtime Record Checkpoint: Sometimes test engineer use this option to find mapping between front end objects and backend columns, it is optional checkpoint. Navigation: Create Menu, Database Checkpoint, runtime record check, specify SQL statement, click next, click create to select DSN, write select statement with doubtful columns ( select orders.order_number, orders.customername from orders), select doubtful front end objects for that columns, click next, select any of below options  Exactly one match  One or more match  No match record Click finish. Note: For custom and default check points you have to give ; at the end of the sql statement. But in Runtime record check point u have no need to give it. Syntax: db_record_check("Check list File Name.cvr", DVR_ONE_MORE_MATCH / DVR_NO_MATCH, Variable); Ex: db_record_check("list1.cvr", DVR_ONE_MATCH, record_num); In the above syntax checklist specifies expected mapping to test and variable specifies number of records matched. If mapping correct the same values will be presented. Runtime record checkpoint allows you to perform changes in existing mapping, through below navigation. Create menu, edit runtime recordlist, select checklist file name, click next, change query (if u want to test on new columns), click next, change object selection for new objects testing, click finish. Synchronization: To define the time mapping between testing tool and application, we can use synchronization point concepts. Wait(): To define fixed waiting time during test execution, test engineer use this function. Syntax: wait (time in seconds); Ex: wait (10); Drawback: This function defines fixed waiting time, but our applications are taking variable times to complete, depends on test environment. DVR_ONE_MATCH/

Page 63 of 131

Software Testing Material Change Runtime settings: During our test script execution, winrunner doesn't depends on recording time parameters. To maintain any waiting state, in winrunner we can use wait () function or change runtime settings. It maintains mainly following information: Delay: Time to wait between window focusing Timeout: How much time application should wait for context sensitive stage and checkpoints. There are two runtime settings time parameters Delay: For window synchronization Timeout: For execute in context sensitive and check points Window based statements are not able to execute: Delay + Timeout. Object based statements are not able to execute: Timeout. Navigation: Settings, General options, run tab, change delay & timeout depends on requirement, click apply, click ok. Window statements : delay – 1sec To focus – 10 sec Set_window(“”,6) ; -time = 11sec -2. button_press(ok); time = 10 3. button_check_info(“ok”,”enabled”,1); time = 10sec Drawbacks in Change Settings: If you are changing the Settings once they will be applied to each and every test without user specifications. Due to this most of the times they are not using this change runtime settings option. Now a days most of the test engineers are using the for object / window property for avoiding the time mismatch problems For Object/Window Property: Navigation: Select position in script, create menu, synchronization point, for object/window property, select object, specify property with expected ( Ex: Status / Progress Bar – 100% completed and enabled…), specify maximum time to wait, click ok. Syntax: obj_wait_info("Object Name", "Property", Expected Value, Maximum time to wait); Ex: obj_wait_info("Insert Done...","enabled",1,10);

Page 64 of 131

Software Testing Material For Object / Window Bitmap: Sometimes test engineer defines time mapping between tool and project depends on images in that application. Navigation: Select position in script, create menu, synchronization point, for object/window Bitmap, select the required image, Syntax: obj_wait_info("Object Name", "image1.bmp", Maximum time to wait); For Screen Area Bitmap: Sometimes test engineer defines time mapping between tool and project depends on image area in that application. Navigation: Select position in script, create menu, synchronization point, for Screen Area Bitmap, select the required image region, right click to releave. Syntax: obj_wait_info("Object Name", "image1.bmp", Maximum time to wait, x, y, width, height); Text Check Point: To cover calculation and other text based tests, we can use this option / concept in WinRunner. To create this type of check points in testing, we can use this “Get Text” option from the create menu. This option consists of two sub options : 1. From object / window 2. From screen area From object / window: To capture object values into variables we can use this option. Navigation: Create Menu, Get Text, From Object / Window, select required object (Dbl Click) Syntax: obj_get_text("Object Name", Variable); Ex: obj_get_text("Flight No:", text); Syntax: obj_get_info("Object Name", "Property", Variable); Ex: obj_get_info("ThunderTextBox_3","value",v1);

From Screen Area: To capture static text in your application build screen we can use this option.

Page 65 of 131

Software Testing Material Navigation: Create Menu, Get Text, From Screen area, select required required region to capture value [+sign] , right click to relieve Syntax: obj_get_text("Object Name", Variable, x1,y1,x2,y2); Ex: obj_get_text("Flight No:", text,2,3,50,60);

NagaRaju Sample
I n p u t

Output

Item No

Quantity Ok

Price

$

Total

Retesting: Re execution of our test on same application build, with multiple test data is called retesting. In WinRunner retesting is also called as Data Driven Test (DDT). Data is driving or changing to test the application. In WinRunner test engineers are conducting Retesting in 4 ways 1. Dynamic test data submission 2. Through flat file (notepad) 3. From front end grids (List box) 4. Through excel sheet During the test execution based on first type, tester gives values based on that test execution will be completed (like scanf() in C) But in the remaining three types can be done with out tester execution. Dynamic test data submission: To conduct retesting, to validate functionality, test engineer submits required test data to tool dynamically. To read keyboard values during the test execution, test engineer use below TSL statements. Syntax: create_input_dialog(“ Message “); Ex: create_input_dialog(“ Enter Your Account Number : “);

Page 66 of 131

Software Testing Material

Key Board

Build

Test Script
No1 No2 Multiply Result

Exp: res = no1 * no2
Item No Quantity Ok

Price

$

Total

$

Tl_step(): tl stands for test log. Test log means that test result. We can use this function to define user defined pass or fail message. Pass – green – 0 Fail – red – 1 Password_edit_set(“pwd”,password_encrypt(y))

Page 67 of 131

Software Testing Material

User Id Password Login Next

Sample 2

Sample 1

Display Text2

Text1 Ok

Problem: First enter EmpNo and Click Ok Button. Then it will displays bsal, comm. and gsal. Exp: gsal = bsal + comm. Bsal >= 15000 then comm. is 15% If bsal between 15000 and 8000 then commission is 5% If bsal < 8000 then comm. is 200.

Through flat file (notepad) Sometimes test engineer conducts data driven testing, depends on multiple test data in flat files (like notepad .txt files).

Page 68 of 131

Software Testing Material

To manipulate file data for testing test engineer uses below TSL functions file_open(): To load required flat file into RAM, with specified permissions, we can use function. Syntax: file_open(“Path of the File”,FO_MODE_READ/ FO_MODE_WRITE/ FO_MODE_APPEND); file_getline(): We can use this function to read a line from a opened file. Syntax: file_getline( “Path of the File”, Variable); Like in C file pointer incremented automatically. file_close(): We can use function to swap out a opened file into RAM. Syntax: file_close(“Path of the File”); file_printf(): We can use this function to write specified text into a opened file in WRITE or APPEND mode. Syntax: file_printf(“Path of the File”, ”Format”, what values you want to write or which variable values you want to write); %d - integer, %s - string, %f – floating point, \n – New Line, \t - Tab, \r – Carriage return Substr: we can use this function to separate a substring from given string. Syntax: Substr (main string, start position, length of substring); Split: we can use this function to divide a string to field: Syntax: Split(main string, array name, separator); In the above syntax separator must be a single character. File-compare: to compare two file contents. Syntax: file_compare(“ path of file1”, “ path of file2”, “path of file3”); File3 is optional. And it specifies concatenate of content of both files.

File

Values

Build

.txt Test Script

Page 69 of 131

Software Testing Material

No1 No2 Multiply Result

Exp: res = no1 * no2
Item No Quantity Ok

Price

$

Total

$

User Id Password Login Next

From Front End Grids (ListBox): Sometimes test engineer conducts retesting depends on multiple test data objects (like list box).

Page 70 of 131

Software Testing Material To manipulate file data for testing test engineer uses below TSL functions list_get_item(): We can use this function to capture specified list box item through item number. list_get_item(“ListBox Name”,Item No,Variable); list_select_item(): We can use this function to select specified list box item through given variable. list_select_item(“ListBox Name”,Variable); list_get_info(): We can use this function to information about the specified property(like enabled, focused, count) of list box item into given variable. list_get_info(“ListBox Name”, Property, variable);

Test Data Build

Test Script
NagaRaju Journey

Fly From Fly To Ok

Sample 2

Sample 1

Display Text2

Text1 Ok

Page 71 of 131

Software Testing Material

NagaRaju Sample1
List1

NagaRaju Sample2
Display Text

Ok

Type

Age

Gender

Qualification

Others

Data Driven Testing: In generally test engineers are creating data driven tests, depends on excel sheet data.

Loop
----

Test Data

Build

Excel Sheet Data

Test Script

From Excel Sheet: In general test engineers are creating retest test scripts depnds on multiple test data in excel sheet. To generate this type of script, test engineer use data driven test wizard. In this type of retesting, test engineer fills excel sheet with test data in two ways. 1. From data base tables using select statement (Back End) 2. Our own test data

Page 72 of 131

Software Testing Material

Navigation: Create test script for one input, tools menu, data driven wizard, click next, browse the path of the excel sheet ( path ), specify variable name to assign path of excel sheet ( by default table as variable ), select add statements to create ddt, select import data from database, optimized text 1. line by line 2. automatically, click next, specify connection to database, specify database connection (ODBC/Data Junction), select specify sql statement mssql1.sql , click next, click create to select dsn (machine data sourse – flight32), write select statement to capture database content for testing into excel sheet, specify position to replace excel sheet column in ur test script, select show data table now, click finish.

Col1

Col2

Col3

Test Script

C3 = c1 + c2

Problems: 1. Prepare a data driven program to find factorial of given number. Write result into same excel sheet. 2. Prepare a TSL script to write a list box item into excel sheet one by one. Ddt_open(): We can use this function to open excel sheet into Ram. In specified mode. Syn: ddt_open(“path of file”, DDT_MODE_READ/ DDT_MODE_READWRITE) This function will returns E_FILE_OPEN when that file is opened into RAM. Else it returns E_FILE_NOT_OPEN. Ddt_update_from_db(): To extend excel sheet data depends on dynamic changes in the database ( Insert , Delete, Update Syn: Ddt_update_from_db(“path of excel sheet”, “path of query file”, variable); In the above syntax variable specifies that how many rows newly altered. Ddt_save(): To save recent modifications in excel sheet. Ddt_save(“ path of excel sheet”); Ddt_get_row_count(): To find the no of rows in excel sheet. Ddt_get_row_count(“path of excel sheet”, variable) Var stores the no of rows in sheet.

Page 73 of 131

Software Testing Material Ddt_set_row(): To point a row in excel sheet. Ddt_set_row(“path of excel file”,row no): Ddt_val(): To read a value from specified column & pointed row. Ddt_val(“path of excel file”,col no): Ddt_set_val(): To write a value into a specified column and pointed row. Ddt_set_val(“path of excel file”, “col name”, value or variable): Ddt_close(): To swap out excel sheet from ram Ddt_close(“path of excel file”): Write a program to write list box items into a excel sheet one by one. Test Suite / Test Batch:- Arranging all tests in one proper order based on their functionality. It gives what test output is used as a input to all other values. Batch Testing: In general test engineers are executing their scripts as batches. Every batch consists of a set of tests, they all are dependent. In every batch end state of one test is base state to next test. When you are executing our tests as batches you are getting a chance to increase our probability of defect detection. Syntax: call “test name” () call “path of the test”(); In the above syntax we can use first one, when calling and called tests both are in the same folder. We can use second syntax when both are in different folders.

Calling Test Call TestName() -------

Test Name1 -------

Main Test

SubTest

Parameter passing: Winrunner allows you to pass arguments between, calling test to called test, or main test to subtest. Navigation: Open subtest, file menu, test properties, select parameters table, click add to create more parameters, click apply, click ok, use that parameters in required place to test script.

Page 74 of 131

Software Testing Material From the above model main test is passing values to subtest. To receive that values, subtest maintains a set of parameter variables. Data Driven Batch Test: WinRunner allows you to execute our batches with multiple test data.

Calling Test Call TestName(n) -------

Test Name -------

n = 10

Main Test

SubTest

texit(): sometimes test engineers are using the statement in test script to stop test execution in the middle of the process. Treturn(): we can use this statement to return a value from a called test to a calling test. Treturn(variable or value); Treturn(10);

Calling Test Temp = Call TestName(n) If(temp==1) Printf(); Else Printf(); Main Test Edit_set(“”,n); If(condition) Treturn(0) Else Treturn(1);

Test Name

n = 10

SubTest

Silent Mode: In general winrunner returns pause message, any standard checkpoint is failed during test execution. If u want to execute our tests scripts without any initiation when a checkpoint is failed we can follow below navigation to define silent mode. Navigation: Settings, general options, run tab, select “run in batchmode” option, click apply, click ok.

Page 75 of 131

Software Testing Material

Fail

Test1

Next

Enabled

Test2 Test3 Test4

Fail

Test1

Test2 Test3 Test4
window appears: if (win_exists(“sample”) == E_OK)

Sample Windo w appear s

win_exists() we can use this function to find existence of a window. In the desktop in min, max or hidden position. Syn: win_exists(“ window name “, time); Time – is optional. Homework: Login after 5 secs. If next enabled go to next window. Else try for other user. Shopping: Prepare above batch test for ten users which information available in excel sheet during this batch execution tester passing item no & quantity as parameters.

Page 76 of 131

Software Testing Material

User Defined Functions: Like as programming languages winrunner also provides a facility to create user defined functions. In TSL user defined functions are created by test engineer to initiate repeatable navigation.

In the above example, test engineer creates four automation test scripts to test four different functionalities depends on functionality dependency. Test engineers are calling this login process as base state. Public / static function function name(in/out/inout argument name, ……) { Repeatable Navigation return (value or variable ) } if u want to create a user defined function to maintain end state of one time execution is base state to next execution we can use static functions. But static maintains constant locations for internal variables in that current test execution. Out put of one test execution is input to other test.

a = 100 Static a=0 ------a = 100 Test

Note1: User Defined Functions allows only context sensitive statements and Control statements and doesn't allow check points and Analog statements. Note2: In batch testing one test calling other test through saved test name. One test invoking one function depends on function name. to call one function in test, that function .exe must reside in RAM.

Page 77 of 131

Software Testing Material

Public function add (in a, in b, out c) { c = a + b; }

Calling Test: X = 6; Y = 6; Add( x , y , z ); Printf(z);

Public function add (in a, in b) { c = a + b; return c; } Calling Test: X = 6; Y = 6; Z = Add( x , y); Printf(z); Public function add (in a, inout b) { c = a + b; }

Calling Test: X = 6; Y = 6; Add( x , y ); Printf(y);
In - general args

Page 78 of 131

Software Testing Material Out – return values Inout – both Return: to return one value Note: udf allow only cs statements & control stmts and doesn't allow check points & analog statements. Compiled Module: Open winrunner and build, click new in winrunner, record repeatable navigations as user defined functions, save that test in dat folder, file menu, test properties, general tab, change test type to compiled module, click apply, click ok, write load() statement of that compiled module in startup script of winrunner. Note: WinRunner maintains a default program as a startup script. This script executed automatically when u launching winrunner. In this script we can write load() statement to load your function. Load(“ Name of the compiled Module”, 0/1,0/1) 0-User Defined compiled module 1-system Defined compiled module 0-Path appears in the winrunner window menu 1-Hides the path unload(): We can use this function to unload unwanted functions from RAM. Syntax: unload(“ Path of the Compiled Module “, “ Unwanted Function Name “); Reload(): We can use this function to reload, unloaded functions again. Syntax: reload(“ Path of the compiled Module”, 0/1,0/1) 0-User Defined compiled module 1-system Defined compiled module 0-Path appears in the winrunner window menu 1-Hides the path Predefined Functions: These functions are also known as built in functions or system defined functions. WinRunner provides a facility to search required tsl function in a library, called function generator. To search for a required function in function generator, we can follow below navigation. Create menu, insert function, from function generator, select required category, select required function depends on description, enter arguments, click paste. invoke_application(): WinRunner allows you to open a project automatically.

Page 79 of 131

Software Testing Material invoke_application("Path of .exe", "commands", "working directory" , SW_SHOW / SW_HIDE / SW_MINIMIZE / SW_RESTORE /SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED / SW_SHOWMINIMIZED / SW_SHOWMINNOACTIVE / SW_SHOWNOACTIVE); Commands – Used in X Runner for Unix OS. Working directory – At the time of running the temporary files are stored in this directory. If u didn‟t specify any directory by default it takes c:\windows\temp folder. Executing a Prepared Query: Db_connect(): We can use this function to connect to database using existing DSN or Connection. Syntax: db_connect(“Session Name”, “DSN=*******”); Ex: db_connect("Query1","DSN=Flight32"); Db_execute_query(): We can use this function to execute required “Select” statement on connected database. Syntax: db_execute_query(“Session Name”,”DSN=******”,variable”); Ex: db_execute_query("Query1","select * from orders where order_number <= "&x,rno); Db_write_records(): We can use this function to write query results into specified file. Syntax: db_write_records(“Session Name”, “File Path”, TRUE/FALSE, NO_LIMIT”); Ex: db_write_records("Query1","nrdbc1.xls",TRUE,NO_LIMIT); Extra Functions in WinRunner: Some times test engineers are adding user defined function names to generator to maintain user defined functions for future references. To do this task, we can use below DSN statements. Generator_add_category():- We can use this function to create a new category generator. Syntax: Generator_add_category(“ Category Name “); Ex: Generator_add_category(“ NagaRaju “); Generator_add_function: we can use this function to add your user defined function name to all functions category. Syntax: generator_add_function(“Function Name”, “Description”, arity, “Argument name”, “argument type”, “default value”, - - - - -); Generator_add_function(“ name”, “description”, 5, “a”, “browse()”, “”, “b”, “point_window()”, “”, “c”, “point_object”, “”, “d”, “select_list(0 1 2 3 4 5)”, “”, “e”, “type_edit”, “”);

Page 80 of 131

Software Testing Material Browse() - is for file path Point_window() – is for window message Point_object() is for object types Select_list() is for selecting list of items Type_edit() is for if we no need of all out to select we take this function (by default we use space). Generator_add_function_to_category(): Generator_add_function_to_category(“category name”, “function name”): Note: We can execute above third function after completion of second function execution. We can write above three statements in start up script of WinRunner Select TSL functions for: 1. Prepare TSL to execute below Prepared Query. (select * from orders where order_number <= x and order_number >= y) 2. Change time out without using settings Setval(“time out”, time); System category function. 3. Find parent directory of WinRunner(Where WinRunner installed in your computer) Getenv(“M_HOME”); Getenv(“M_ROOT”); 4. Point SystemDate: Get_time (only time not date) Time_str 5. What is the difference between invoke_application(); and system(); One .exe is enough for invoke_application. To open one application system() means through title of the software. System category there are 8 functions usually in interviews Syntax: 1. dos_system(): To execute DOS commands. 2. time_str(): To capture system date with time. 3. get_time(): To capture system time value. 4. getvar(): To capture system variable values ex: Timeout, delay 5. setvar(): To change sytem variable values 6. getenv(): To capture environment information ex: m_home(), m_root() 7. system(): To open an application using title of the software. 8. invoke_application(): To open an application using .exe path. Built in functions / Predefined Functions: All TSL language functions are available in “Function Generator”. Test engineer select required function depends on requirements (depends on Automation needed) through below navigation.

Page 81 of 131

Software Testing Material Create menu, insert function, from Function Generator, Select Category, Select Function name with arguments, Click Paste. Clip board testing: A tester conduct a test on selected content of an object is called clip board testing. 1.Edit_get_selection(“ obj name”, var) – specified selected objects. Difference between edit_get_selection() and obj_get_text(). Some part of application can be tested ie called as clip board testing and All entire application can be tested is called as general testing. win_exists() we can use this function to find existence of a window. In the desktop in min, max or hidden position. Syn: win_exists(“ window name “, time); Time – is optional. Open Application: WinRunner provides a facility to open your project automatically (System Category Function). invoke_application(): WinRunner allows you to open a project automatically. invoke_application("Path of .exe", "commands", "working directory" , SW_SHOW / SW_HIDE / SW_MINIMIZE / SW_RESTORE /SW_SHOWMAXIMIZED / SW_SHOWMINIMIZED / SW_SHOWMINNOACTIVE / SW_SHOWNOACTIVE); SW- Set Window SW_SHOW – Focus to Window. Commands – Used in X Runner for Unix OS. Working directory – At the time of running the temporary files are stored in this directory. If u didn‟t specify any directory by default it takes c:\windows\temp folder. Executing a Prepared Query: Db_connect(): We can use this function to connect to database using existing DSN or Connection. Syntax: db_connect(“Session Name”, “DSN=*******”); Ex: db_connect("Query1","DSN=Flight32"); Db_execute_query(): We can use this function to execute required “Select” statement on connected database. Syntax: db_execute_query(“Session Name”,”DSN=******”,variable”); Ex: db_execute_query("Query1","select * from orders where order_number <= "&x,rno);

Page 82 of 131

Software Testing Material Db_write_records(): We can use this function to write query results into specified file. Syntax: db_write_records(“Session Name”,”Destination File Path”, TRUE/FALSE”, NO_LIMIT); TRUE – With Header. FALSE – Without Header Ex: db_write_records(“Query1”,”Nr.txt”, TRUE”, NO_LIMIT); Db_disconnect(): We can use this function to remove database connection establishment. Syntax: db_disconnect(“Session Name”); Ex: db_connect("Query1"); 3. win_exists(): 4. open application, execute prepared query(db_disconnect) Learning: In general a test automation process starts with learning. Learning means that recognization of objects and windows in your application by testing tool. WR 7.0 supports auto learning and pre learning. Auto Learning: During recording, WR recognizes objects and windows with respect to tester operations. This type of auto recognization is called as Auto Learning. Steps: Start recording Recognize object Script generation Catch entries Catch objects 1 WinRunner Button_press(“Ok”); Ok 4 5 2 3 Logical Name: Ok { class: Push Button label: Ok } Build

GUI Map

Page 83 of 131

Software Testing Material So before closing the WinRunner we have to do two tasks. Save script Save GUI Map Disadvantage of winrunner is without entries it won‟t works. Note: If GUI Map is empty, our existing test scripts are not able to execute. To maintain these entries longtime along with our test scripts, we can follow two possible administrations. Global GUI MAP File: From the above model test engineer creates a global GUI Map file and maintains explicitly in hard disk. By default WinRunner allows you to create global GUI Map file. Test1 ---Test2 --Test3 ----

GUI Map ---Save Open .gui (HDD) ----

Explicitly (Using File Menu in GUI MAP Editor).

Per Test Mode: It is a new option in WinRunner 7.0. In this mode winrunner implicitly handles entries in GUI MAP. From the above model WR maintains auto process for save and open of entries with respect to test. Due to this reason, WR increase entry redundancy (Repetition) when an object / window participate in more than one test. By default WR follows Global GUI Map. If you want to change to per test mode, we can follow below navigation. Navigation: Settings, general options, environment tab, select the gui map file per test, click apply, click ok.

Page 84 of 131

Software Testing Material Test 1 ---Test 2 --Test 3 ---.gui ---.gui Save Ope n --.gui ----

GUI Map

----

Implicitly

Pre Learning: Sometimes winrunner7.0 testers are also follows pre learning concept, before start recording. Due to this reason, pre learning is only suitable for global GUI Map. Navigation: open project, create menu in winrunner, Rapid Test Script Wizard, click next, show application main window, click next, (Select No Tests), click next, specify sub menu symbols (.., >>, ->), click next, specify learning mode (Express or Comprehensive), learn, (after learning) say yes or no to open project automatically, click next, remember the paths of start up script and gui map file, click ok. In general test engineers are following the auto learning concept in global GUI map file. They are not using auto learning with per test mode and pre learning regularly. Difference between Auto learning and Pre learning: Auto Learning During Recording No need for extra navigation Global GUI Map file or Per Test Mode Pre Learning Before Recording Using RTSW Per Test Mode

Depends on test requirements, winrunner test engineers are performing changes in corresponding objects or windows recognization entries. There are six types of situations to perform changes in GUI map entries. You will change the entries of GUI Map in 6 ways. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wild Card Character Regular Expressions Virtual Object Wizard Mapped to standard class GUI Map Configuration Selective Recording

Page 85 of 131

Software Testing Material Wild Card Character: Sometimes window or object labels are variating with respect to inputs in your application. To create data driven test on this type of windows and objects we can perform changes in corresponding entries in GUI Map. The Wild Card characters can be used to organize entries in WinRunner using !,* Fax Order No. 6 { class: window, label: "Fax Order No.6", MSW_class: "#32770" } Fax Order No. 6 { class: window, label: "!Fax Order No.*", MSW_class: "#32770" } Regular Expressions: Sometimes in your application build objects / windows labels are variating depends on the events. We are changing in logical name. Winrunner at runtime will catches entries it used in logical name with respect to runtime point. Start { class: push_button, label: "![S][t][ao][a-z]*" } for(i=1;i<=5;i++) { set_window ("Personal Web Manager", 3); button_press ("Start"); printf(" Button Pressed is : "&i); } For Number change: Wild card Characters If Toggle Characters: Regular Expression GUI Map Configuration: Sometimes in your application more than one object consists of same physical description with respect to WinRunner defaults (Class and Labels). To recognize this object individually we can perform changes in GUI map configuration. It is used when one object is not recognized by the tool, then in WinRunner it recognizes by using this feature. Navigation: Tools, GUI Map Configuration, Select Object Type, Click Configure, Select distinguishable properties into obligatory and optional (In general Test engineers are maintaining mswid as optional), click ok.

Page 86 of 131

Software Testing Material If class and label are same. We select mswid (Micro Soft Window ID) If applicable properties and obligatory properties are same we use optional (mswid). Command1 { class: push_button, label: Command1, MSW_id: 1 } Note: Here we can maintain MSWID as assistive. Because every two objects consists of different mswids. Mapped to Standard Class: Sometimes test engineers are not getting required properties of an object. This is used when one object is recognized but the required properties are not coming to that object. Then map this object to any of the standard matching object and get the required properties. Navigation: Tools, GUI Map Configuration, Select non testable Object, Click Ok, Click Configure, select mapped to class, click ok. Virtual Object Wizard: To forcibly recognize, non recognized objects we can use this option. Navigation: Tools, Virtual Object Wizard, Click Next, Select expected type depends on nature of the object, click next, mark that non recognized object area, right click to relieve, click next, enter logical name to new entry, say yes/no to create more, click finish. Selective Recording: It is a new concept in WinRunner 7.0. In WinRunner if u have more than one application on the desktop at the time of recording it may record about the unnecessary application details also in the TSL if you didn‟t specify exactly what application u need. For this type of situations in WinRunner we are specifying it explicitly using this path. Settings -> General Options -> Record Tab, click selective recording, select record only on selected application(By default Off), Record on Start Menu and windows explorer, browse required application path, click ok. Note: Selective recording is a new concept in WinRunner7.0. This concept is not applicable to analog mode, because WinRunner records operations with respect to desktop co-ordinates in analog mode. User Interface Testing: WinRunner is a functionality testing tool. But it provides a facility to conduct user interface testing. In this user interface automation testing, WinRunner depends on Micro Soft 6 Rules. Micro Soft 6 Rules: 1. Controls are Init Cap 2. Ok/Cancel existence 3. System menu existence

Page 87 of 131

Software Testing Material 4. Controls are visible 5. Controls are not overlapped 6. Controls are aligned To apply the above six rules in your application build, WinRunner use below TSL functions. Load_os_api(): WinRunner use this function to maintain path between, windows OS system calls and application programming interface to apply that six rules. Syntax: load_os_api() Configure_chkui(): To specify, interest of tester to test required six rules in that six. Syntax: configure_chkui(TRUE/FALSE, TRUE/FALSE, TRUE/FALSE, TRUE/FALSE, TRUE/FALSE, TRUE/FALSE); lbl_chk=TRUE; ok_can_chk=TRUE; sys_chk=TRUE; text_chk=TRUE; overlap_chk=FALSE; align_chk=FALSE; checks capital letter of labels on controls. checks existence of OK/Cancel buttons. checks existence of system menu. checks if all text of controls is visible. checks that controls do not overlap. checks alignment of controls.

Note: Orders of rules is mandatory. Check_ui(): WinRunner use this function to apply configured rules on specified window. Syntax: check_ui(“windowname”); The above three functions are not built in functions. But developed by Mercury Interactive as a system defined compiled module. Compiled module means that a permanent .exe of user defined functions. Navigation: Open application build on desktop, create menu, rapid test script wizard, click next, show application main window, click next, select user interface test, click next, specify sub menu symbols(>>, <<, …), click next, specify learning mode (Express / Comprehensive), click learn, after learning, say yes/no to open your application during winrunner launching, click next, remember paths of startup script and GUI map file, click next, remember the path of UI testing, click ok, specify true for required rules, click run, analyze the results manually. Regression Testing: Receive modified build from development team, GUI regression, Bitmap regression, Real regression to ensure bug fixing and resolving.

Development Team released Modified Build

GUI Regression Bit Map Regression

Find Screen level differences between old and new builds

Regression Test to ensure that modification

Page 88 of 131

Software Testing Material To find screen level changes: GUI Regression, Bitmap Regression. From the above process, test engineer performs GUI regression and bitmap regression before perform functionality level regression. To perform this preliminary level verification we can use WinRunner concepts in RTSW(Rapid Test Script Wizard). GUI Regression Testing: To find objects properties differences between old build and new build, we can use this option in RTSW.

Old

New

GUI Check Points
Navigation: Open old build on the desktop, create menu, Rapid Test Script Wizard, click next, show application main window, click next, select use existing information, click next, select GUI regression test, click next, remember the path of test script, click next, click ok, close old build, open new build, click run, analyze results manually. Bitmap Regression Testing: To find image objects level differences between old build and new build, we can use this option in RTSW.

Old

New

Bitmap Check Points
Navigation: Open old build on the desktop, create menu, Rapid Test Script Wizard, click next, show application main window, click next, select use existing information, click next, select Bitmap regression test, click next, remember the path of test script, click next, click ok, close old build, open new build, click run, analyze results manually. Note: After receiving modified build testing team plans functionality regression after completion of GUI regression and Bitmap regression. In this scenario, GUI regression is mandatory and bitmap regression is optional. Exception Handling: A non-modifiable runtime errors is called exception. To handle testing exceptions WinRunner provides three types of handlers.  TSL Exceptions  Object Exceptions  Pop-up Exceptions TSL Exceptions: These exceptions are raised when specified TSL statement returns specified error code. To create TSL exceptions we can follow below navigations. Tools, exception handling, select exception type as TSL, click new, enter exception name, select expected TSL function, select expected return code, enter handler function name, click

Page 89 of 131

Software Testing Material ok, click paste, click ok after reading suggestion, click close, record required navigation to recover expected situations as function body, make it as compiled module, write load statement in startup script of WinRunner. Public function nagaraju(in rc, in func) { printf(func &” returns “&rc); } Object Exceptions: TSL exceptions depend on corresponding TSL statement and return code. But all negative situations are not suitable to define depends on the TSL statement and return code. Some of the negative situations defined by tester with respect to object properties. Object exceptions raised when specified object property is equal to our expected.

Build
-----

Down

Enabled
----

Test Script

Handler

To create this type of exceptions, we can follow below navigation. Tools, Exception Handling, select exception type as object, click new, enter exception name, select traceable object, select property with expected, enter handler function name, click ok, click paste, click ok after reading suggestion, click close, record recoverable navigation, make it as compiled module, write load statement in startup script of WinRunner. Public function nagaraju (in win, in obj, in attr, in val) { printf(“ Enabled “); } Pop-up Exceptions: These exceptions raised when specified window comes to focus during test execution we can use this type of exceptions to skip unwanted windows during test execution. Navigation: Tools, exception Handling, select exception type as Pop Up, click new, enter exception name, show that unwanted window, specify handler action, click ok. To administrate exceptions WinRunner provides the below TSL functions Exception_off(“ Exception Name ”) ; Exception_off_all() ; Exception_on(“ Exception Name ”) ; Note: When you create exception, by default exception is ON. #checks capital letter of labels on controls. ok_can_chk=TRUE; #checks existence of OK/Cancel buttons. sys_chk=TRUE; #checks existence of system menu. text_chk=TRUE; #checks if all text of controls is visible. overlap_chk=FALSE; #checks that controls do not overlap. align_chk=FALSE; #checks alignment of controls. Page 90 of 131

Software Testing Material

Rational Robot
     Developed by Rational Also known as SQA Robot Functionality testing tool like as WinRunner Supports c/s and web technologies Records our business operations in Rational Basic(RB). RB is like as VB Rational Robot Rational Rational Basic(RB) VB Implicit learning (Recognizes objects based on Mswid) Context Sensitive and Analog Object Orientation and Mode Low Level Recording Record Menu, Turn to other Mode. Note: In Low Level recording Robot records the mouse pointer movements along with time For Single Property Insert, TestCase (Check For Object / Window Point), object properties, For Multiple Objects save check point, select testable object, specify expected for required properties. Robot allows one checkpoint for one object. For Object/Window Insert, TestCase, For Screen Area Window/Region Image. Default, Custom, RunTime Not Applicable Record Checkpoint Get Text Insert, TestCase, Alpha From Object/Window, Numeric ( Textbox / From Screen Area Inbox), Clipboard ( Copy content), Object Data(List, Menu, Table, Data Window and Active X) Win_exists(“Window Name”, time); Insert, TestCase, Window existence, save check point, select testable window, click ok. File_compare(“path of file1”, Insert, Testcase, File Win Runner Mercury Interactive Test Script Language (TSL) C Auto Learning and Pre Learning

1 2 3 4

Developed by Records operations in Recording language like Learning

5

Recording

6

GUI CheckPoint

7 8 9

Bit Map CheckPoint Database CheckPoint Text CheckPoint

10

Window Existence

11

File Comparison

Page 91 of 131

Software Testing Material “path of file3”); 12 File Existence of comparison, save checkpoint, Browse file1 & file2, click ok. File_open(“path of file1”, Insert, Testcase, File Mode); Existence, save checkpoint, Browse Testable file, click ok. tl_step(), printf() Insert, right click to , specify result type (Pass, Fail, Warning, None), click ok. Call “TestName”(); Insert, Call test Call “Path of Test”(); procedure, select required subtest, click ok. Note: Robot doesn't allow parameter passing. Invoke_application(); for .exe Insert, start application, files browse application path, click ok. Wait(), change runtime Delayfor(), No Runtime settings, For Object/Window settings but by default 10 property, For Object / seconds, insert, wait Window Bitmap, for Screen status, testcase, object area properties, For the last two we have Positive / Negative region. No login window One login window Noname1, noname2 … Test1,test2, … file2”,”path

13

User Defined Pass/Fail

14

Batch Testing

15

Open Project

16

Synchronization

17 18

Login Saves Test names with

Silk Test 5.0
      Developed by Segue Also known as SQA Robot Functionality testing tool like as WinRunner, Rational Robot and QTP Supports c/s and web technologies Records our business operations in 4TL(Four Test Language) like as java Follows single thread of process (Learning, Recording, Check points, edit script are not separate. All are done at a time)

Navigation: Start, Programs, Silk test, file menu, click new, click logo, click next, browse manual test path, click next, select new test frame or existing test frame, click next, read suggestions, click next, open window by window manually, click return to wizard, click next, read suggestions for recording, click next, record out business operations, set mouse pointer on required object and click ctrl + Alt to create check point(Property, method, Bitmap), click ok, continue recording, insert checkpoints like as above, click done to stop recording, click next, set application base state, click run test, click close, analyze results manually.

Page 92 of 131

Software Testing Material URL’s testing: Enter Base URL, specify depth to walk, click press, analyze results manually ( Red color not working, black color working)

QTP (Quick Test Professional) Some of the professionals are also calling it as Quick Test Pro. The present version is QTP 6.5. WinRunner does not support the ERP and .Net.     Developed by Mercury Interactive. Derived from WinRunner. Supports Client/Server, Web Applications, ERP and Multimedia Technologies (Maya, Flash … like dynamic images) for functionality testing. Records our business operations in VBScript.

Learning: Automation starts with learning. Like as WinRunner QTP supports auto learning only. During recording QTP creates recognization entries for objects and windows. [In WinRunner every entry is maintained in GUI Map Editor. Every entry consists of logical name and physical description. In WinRunner entries are maintained in two ways. Global GUI Map Editor and Per Test Mode. Global GUI Map Editor: Advantage: Entries can be used in more than one test. Drawback: It won‟t provide auto save and open. Per Test Mode: Disadvantage: The entries can‟t be used in more than one Test. Advantage: It provides auto save and open.] QTP maintains entries in object repository. [Repository is a Folder or Directory and it is created by user and saved by system] This repository maintains auto save and open. Path: Tools -> Object Repository. You will change the entries of GUI Map in 6 ways. 7. Wild Card Character 8. Regular Expressions 9. Virtual Object Wizard 10. Mapped to standard class 11. GUI Map Configuration 12. Selective Recording 1. The Wild Card characters can be used to organize entries in QTP (like WinRunner using !,* ) 2. QTP also supports Regular Expressions like WinRunner

Page 93 of 131

Software Testing Material

3. Virtual Object Wizard: It is used when one object is not recognized by the tool, then in WinRunner it recognizes by using this feature. But in Winrunner to this task it takes more time, where as in QTP also same process but with small navigations. 4. Mapped to Standard Class: This is used when one object is recognized but the required properties are not coming to that object. Then map this object to any of the standard matching object and get the required properties. 5. GUI Map Configuration: Some times two objects may have same logical and physical names also. To differentiate one object from other in WinRunner it internally uses the MSWID. But in QTP we have to follow the given path, Tools -> Object Identification -> select object Type -> Select distinguishable properties into mandatory and assistive -> click Ok. Note: Here we can maintain MSWID as assistive. Because every two objects consists of different mswids. 6. Selective Recording: In WinRunner if u have more than one application on the desktop at the time of recording it may record about the unnecessary application details also in the TSL if u didn‟t specify exactly what application u need. For this type of situations in WinRunner v are specifying it explicitly using this path. Settings -> General Options -> Where as in QTP if u click start recording it asks for whither u want to do Selective recording or not. If u choose selective recording then it displays one window in which u have to choose the application and working directories. Like as WinRunner QTP also supports the static recording. This option appears when u click recording. Recording: QTP records our business operations in VBScript. By default this tool starts recording in general mode. If you want to record mouse pointer movements, v can use Test Menu -> Analog / Low level recording. In Winrunner two modes are available Context sensitive or Analog mode. In QTP three modes are available like General, Analog and Low level. Check points: To conduct functionality testing on different technology applications, QTP provides below check points. 1. Standard checkpoint: To test the behavior and input domains of objects we can use this checkpoint. This checkpoint allows one object at a time. Select position in script -> insert menu -> checkpoint -> standard checkpoint ->select testable object -> click ok after confirmation -> select required properties with expected >click ok.

Page 94 of 131

Software Testing Material In QTP for one property u can give 2 values like constant expected or parameter expected. 2. Bitmap Checkpoint: QTP supports static and dynamic images to compare. The maximum timeout for picture elements is 10 seconds. 3. Database Checkpoint: QTP provides backend testing facility through this checkpoint like as WinRunner default check. insert -> checkpoint ->Database Checkpoint -> specify sql statement -> click create to select DSN -> write select statement -> click finish. 4. Text Checkpoint: To capture object values into variables we can use this option. Vbscript supports variables declaration. 5. TextArea checkpoint: To capture static text from screens we can use this option. Data Driven Testing: Like as WinRunner, QTP also supports retesting with multiple testdata. There are 3 possibilities such as Dynamic Testdata, from FrontEnd Grids and Excel Sheet. 1. Dynamic Testdata: In WinRunner we will be use Create_input_dialog(“Dialog Message : ”) to do same dynamic testdata under data driven testing. But in QTP we use inputbox(“Message”); function to read data from the user. Var = inputbox(“Message”); 2. From FrontEnd Grids: Depends on listbox, menu, activex, table and data window. Test engineer conducts retesting. If u want to search any vbscript functions follow below navigation. insert -> step -> method -> select required object -> click ok after confirmation -> click next -> enter arguments -> click next. 3. Excel Sheet: Create testscript for one input -> insert testdata into excel sheet columns -> tools menu -> data driver -> select position to use or replace excel sheet columns -> click parameterize -> click next -> select required column name -> click finish. Batch Testing: Like as WinRunner QTP also allows batch testing. To form batches QTP supports WinRunner Tests also. Batch Testing can be done in 2 ways

Page 95 of 131

Software Testing Material 1. QTP Test to QTP Test: Insert -> call to action -> browse subtest -> specify parameter data using excel sheet columns -> click ok. 2. QTP Test to WinRunner Test: Insert -> call to WinRunner Test-> browse the path of test -> click ok. Note: QTP supports WinRunner 7.0 and higher versions only because QTP supports auto learning and from WinRunner7.0 onwards auto learning is possible. Synchronization points: To define time mapping between QTP and project we can follow below navigation. insert -> step -> synchronization piont [this is exactly equal to for object/window property in WinRunner]-> select indicator object -> click ok after confirmation -> specify expected property with value -> specify maximum time wait -> click ok. Recovery Scenario Manager: This concept is equal to exception handling in WinRunner. Through this concept, QTP recover from executable scenarios with required handler. Tools -> Recovery Scenario Manager -> Click New -> click next -> Select Trigger type ( pop up, object state, application crash, test run error ) -> define the situation with handler -> click ok. Extra Features in QTP:  Faster than WinRunner to create a test.  Supports .Net, SAP, People Soft, Oracle Applications, Multimedia and XML as extra than WinRunner. It records business operations in vbscript

Test Director 6.0    Developed by Mercury Interactive Test Management Tool Working as Client / Server application

Project Administrator

Test Director

Ms – Access, SQL Server, Oracle

Project Administrator: This part is used by test lead, to create new database areas, to store new projects testing documents and to estimate test status of an on going project.

Page 96 of 131

Software Testing Material Create Database: Start, programs, TD 6.0, Project Administrator, Login by Test Lead, project menu, new project, specify location of database(Private, Common), click create, click ok. For one project data database, test director tool maintains tables and views. Estimate Test Status: start, programs, TD 6.0, project Administrator, login by test lead, select project name in list, select project name in list, click connect, click Extension symbol in front of project name, select required table in list, extend query if required, click Run SQL, analyze the results manually to estimate the test status. Test Director: This part is used by the test engineer to store corresponding test documents into corresponding database, created by Test Lead. Start, programs, TD 6.0, Test Director, Select project Name, Login by Test engineer    Plan Tests Run Tests Track Defects.

Plan Tests: During test cases writing for responsible modules, test engineers use this part to store their testcases into database for future references. Create Subject: Plan Tests, click Folder New, Enter Responsible module name as Test Script, click Ok. Create Sub Subject: Plan test, select subject name, click folder new, enter sub subject name, click ok. Create TestCase: Plan Test, select subject name, select sub subject, click Test New, select Test type, enter Test name, click ok. Details: After completion of testcase creation, test engineer maintains below details for that testcase. TestCase ID, TestSuit ID, Priority, Test Environment, Test Duration, Test Effort, Test Setup and Testcase Pass/Fail Criteria. Design Steps: After typing required details for testcase we can prepare a step by step procedure for that testcase to execute. Design steps, click new, enter step description with expected, click new to create more steps, click close. Test Script: For automation test scripts, test director provides launch button to open WinRunner. Click launch, set application base state for that test, record required navigation, insert required check points, click stop recording, click save.

Page 97 of 131

Software Testing Material Attachments: To maintain extra information for test cases, test engineer use this part. It is optional. Attachment, Click File/Web, Browse required file path to attach, click open.  Run Tests: After receiving a stable build from the development team concentrate on test execution. TD provides a facility to create automated TestLog during testcase execution.

Create Batch: Run Tests, click testset builder, click new, enter suit ID, click ok, select required tests and add into batch, click close. Execute Automated Test: Select automated test in batch, click automated, set application in base state as per that test, click run, tools menu, test results, file menu, open, browse executed test, analyze results manually, close winrunner, change test status to Passed / Failed depends on results analysis. Manual Test Execution: select manual testing batch, click manual, click start run, set application in base state, run every step manually, specify status for every step, click close after execution of last step.  Track Defects.

During test execution, test engineer use this part to report defects to development team. Track defects, click add, fill fields in the defect report, click create, click close, click mail, enter To Mail ID, click ok. Test Director Icons: Filter: To select required tests or defects in existing list we can use filters concept. Navigation: click filter icon, specify filter condition, click ok. Sort: To arrange defects in a specified order in a list, we can use this sort icon. Navigation: Click Sort Icon, select required filed, specify sort direction (Ascending / Descending), click ok. Columns: We can use Icon to select specific columns in display list. Navigation: Click Columns Icon, select required columns into visible list, click ok. Report: To create printouts we can use this icon to create hard copies for defects. Navigation: Click Report Icon, Specify Report Type, info or table, specify printout type, click ok, click print per every page. Test Grid: List of testcases coming in single window, under all subjects and sub subjects. This option provides list of all test cases under all subjects and sub subjects.

Page 98 of 131

Software Testing Material

Quick Test Professional
      Developed by Mercury Interactive Also known as Quick Test Pro Functionality testing tool like as WinRunner Extension of WinRunner Supports c/s and web technologies Supports Client/Server, Web Applications, ERP and Multimedia Technologies (Maya, Flash … like dynamic images) for functionality testing.  Records our business operations in VBScript.  Supports launching of WinRunner to execute TSL scripts Win Runner Mercury Interactive Test Script Language (TSL) Quick Test Professional Mercury Interactive VBScript for expert view. And hierarchical steps in tree view VB QTP supports only Auto learning to recognize the objects and windows in your application Maintains that recognized entries in Object Repository to edit that entries we can follow below navigation Tools, Object Repository Global entries with auto save and auto open into object repository Uses the Wild Card characters (! ,. * )in reorganization entries when that window labels are variating with respect to input Uses the regular expression entries when object labels are variating Tools, object identification, select object type, specify mswid as assistive properties , click ok Tools, Object Identification, Select Object type, specify MSW ID as assistive property, click ok

1 2

Developed by Records operations in

3 4

5

6

7

C WinRunner supports Auto Learning and Pre Learning to recognize the objects and windows in your application Entry Maintenance Maintains that recognized entries in GUI Map to edit Location that entries we can follow below navigation Tools, GUI Map Editor Types of entry Global GUI Map file / Per Test mode to maintain entries maintenance longtime Uses the Wild Card Wild Card Character characters (! ,. * )in reorganization entries when that window labels are variating with respect to input Recording language like Learning Regular Expressions Uses the regular expression entries when object labels are variating Tools , GUI Map configuration, click configure. Tools, GUI Map configuration When more than one object consists of same physical description (MSW ID as optinal)

8

9

GUI Map Configuration

Page 99 of 131

Software Testing Material 10 Mapped to standard class Tools, GUI Map configuration, click add When winrunner does not returns all testable properties to objects (Mapped to standard class) Tools, virtual object wizard Tools, Object Identification, click add Select non testable object, specify environment, click ok.

11

12

13

14

15

Tools, virtual objects, new virtual object. when any object is not When objects are not recognized by WinRunner recognized by QTP Settings, general options, File Menu, New Test, Click Selective Recording record tab, click selective Start Recording, selective recording recording window appears When we want to record our business operations on specific applications Recording allows two types Recording allows three Recording of modes such as Context types of modes such as Sensitive and Analog Mode general, Analog Mode and low level recording Default mode is Context In Low level recording QTP Sensitive and F2 is short key records mouse pointer to change from one mode to movements on desktop other along with time as extra General mode is default and allows below Shortcuts Start Recording: F3 Low level Recording: Ctrl + Shift + F3 Analog Recording: Ctrl + Shift + F4 For Single Property Select position in script -> GUI CheckPoint For Object / Window insert menu -> checkpoint -> For Multiple Objects standard checkpoint ->select testable object -> click ok after confirmation -> select required properties with expected ->click ok. Note: In WinRunaner check points allows constant values are expected. But QTP checkpoints allows constant and parameter values as expected [Ex: Expected values in Excel column] X = create_input_dialog(“xx”); Button_check_info(“OK”,”enabled”,x); Note2: In QTP standard checkpoint allows one object at a time to test For Object/Window Insert, checkpoint, bitmap Bit Map CheckPoint For Screen Area check point, select testable WinRunner supports static image [static of dynamic], images only click ok after confirmation, click select area if required, click ok Virtual Object Wizard Page 100 of 131

Software Testing Material Note1: QTP supports static and dynamic images to compare when you select multimedia option in add-in manager Note2: It supports dynamic images play up to 10 seconds as maximum. Default, Custom, RunTime insert -> checkpoint Database CheckPoint Record Checkpoint >Database Checkpoint [like win runner default checkpoint -> specify sql statement -> click create to select DSN -> write select statement -> click finish Note: QTP supports database testing w r t database content Get Text: insert -> checkpoint ->Text Text CheckPoint From Object/Window, Checkpoint & Text area From Screen Area Check point From Selection Web Web test checkpoint only Object Functions that will be Obj_get_text(“ generated in Text Name”,variable); Checkpoint Obj_get_text(“ Object name ”,variable,x1,y1,x2,y2); Option explicit Dim vnames …. Window(“window name”). Winedit(“Object Name”). GetVname Window(“window name”). Web_obj_get_text(“object Winedit(“Object name”, “#Row no “, Name”,x1,y1,x2,y2). “#Column no”, variable, GetVname “text before”, “text after”, Window(“frame name”). time to create); Winedit(“Object Name”, “text before”,”text after”). Web_frame_get_text(“frame GetVname name”, variable, “text before”, “text after”, time to create); DDT/Retesting in 3 ways: Dynamic test data submission From front end grids (List box) Through excel sheet Option explict Dim vname Vname = inputbox(“ Message”); For I=1 to n step 1 next Through flat files driven testing is applicable

16

17

18

19

Data Driven Methods

20

Dynamic submission

Testing DDT/Retesting in 4 ways: Dynamic test data submission Through flat file (notepad) From front end grids (List box) Through excel sheet test data N = Create_input_dialog(“ Message”); For(I=1;I<=n;I++) { }

21

Through flat file

File_open(); File_getline(); File_compare();

data not

Page 101 of 131

Software Testing Material File_printf(); File_close(); List, menu, active x, label, List, menu, active x, label, From front end grids data window data window Tools, data driver wizard Create testscript for one Through excel sheet input -> insert testdata into excel sheet columns -> tools menu -> data driver -> select position to use or replace excel sheet columns -> click parameterize -> click next > select required column name -> click finish. menu, Function If u want to search any Searching for required Create Generator vbscript functions follow functions below navigation. insert -> step -> method -> select required object -> click ok after confirmation > click next -> enter arguments -> click next. To form batches QTP supports WinRunner Tests also. Batch Testing can be done in 2 ways

22 23

24

25

Batch Testing

Call “TestName”(); Or Call “Path of Test”();

1. QTP Test to QTP Test: Insert -> call to action -> browse subtest -> specify parameter data using excel sheet columns -> click ok. 2. QTP Test to WinRunner Test: Insert -> call to WinRunner Test-> browse the path of test -> click ok. Note: QTP supports WinRunner 7.0 and higher versions only because QTP supports auto learning and from WinRunner7.0 onwards auto learning is possible. User Defined Functions User Defined Functions User Defined Actions Repeatable navigations in Repeatable navigations in application recorded as application recorded as functions. To make it as actions to create one permanent .ext we can use reusable action. compiled module concept We can follow below navigation Insert, new action, enter action name with Page 102 of 131

26

Software Testing Material description, select reusable action, click ok, record repeatable navigation in your application Note: To call that reusable action in required test, we can use insert , call to action Wait insert -> step -> Synchronization point Change runtime settings synchronization piont [this For object/window is exactly equal to for For object/window bitmap object/window property in For screen area WinRunner]-> select indicator object -> click ok after confirmation -> specify expected property with value -> specify maximum time wait -> click ok. TSL Tools -> Recovery Scenario Exception Handling Pop Up Manager -> Click New -> Object click next -> Select Trigger Web for web only type ( pop up, object state, application crash, test run error ) -> define the situation with handler -> browse reusable action for recovery> click finish. Does not supports .Net, QTP supports .Net, XML, Technology Supported XML, SAP, People Soft, SAP, People Soft, Oracle Oracle applications and applications and multimedia multimedia objects for testing objects for testing

27

28

29

Page 103 of 131

Software Testing Material

Quality Assurance 1. They are mainly responsible for prevention of defects 2. Identifying efficient life cycle models, process, methodologies etc… according to quality standards. 3. Review the reports and documents that are prepared by QC team or whole project team. 4. The major concern is on the process being implemented. 5. Are we following the right method for developing or not. 6. Verification

Quality Control 1. For detection of defects 2. Responsible for implementation of the life cycles, methodologies etc… for the testing of the application. 3. Prepare the reports, documents, according to the standards or guidelines given by QA team 4. The major concern is product being developed 5. Product properly done or not. 6. Validation

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) ISO is given for all companies. CMM is given for only software companies. 6-Sigma is for all companies. If you implement the 20 clause (8 sections) then u will get ISO. In the year 1947, non government organizations joined together and formed ISO. There are 145 countries are there in ISO. India is among them. ISO is the Greek word. This is derived from the word ISOCESS. Actually ISOCESS means equal or total. It is equal for all in the world India, USA … ISO 9000 – Guidelines 9001, 9002, 9003, 9004 – Certifications Whenever you want to get certifications first you have to follow certain guidelines. 9001 – For companies design, development, testing and inspection. 9002 – Except design remaining activities. (Companies called as Production) 9003 – Testing and inspection only. 9004 – Continuous improvement.

9001:2000 (Year or Version) For every six years they are releasing the version. Latest version is 2000. And we can expect the next version in 2007. Whither it is a hotel or software company they can get 9001. But by verifying the scope we can confirm what type of company. Now a days there is no 9002 and 9003. They are giving only 9000, 9001 and 9004.

Page 104 of 131

Software Testing Material How to get Certification: BVQI – Beaurea of Verta Quality International (USA based company, branch in Hyd) ICL – International Certification Limited (USA based company, branch in Secunderabad) STQC – Software Testing, Quality Testing If u want to get Certification first approach any one of the above company they will say implement 20 clause. Next they will come to audit and finally certifies. If u don‟t know how to implement 20 clause they are conducting training through company as External Auditor 3 months course. They will conduct this. Internal Auditor for Rs 25,000 and they will conduct with in 4-5 days. Difference between the External or Lead auditor and Internal auditor is the former can work in two or three companies in a day. The later will works in only one company. Format – The structure is studied. They visit all the departments and prepare this. Check list – What are the requirements Procedure – Work based on 20 Clause. Procedure Manual – Prepare procedure and distribute to all departments and inform them to implement it to get the Certification. What ever the work you are doing you have to prepare the documents. Reasons are 1. Future reference 2. Employees may leave organization Generally auditor should have 10+Exp and 5 cycles of implementation.

Procedure Manual Procedure Check List Format

NCR – Non Conformance Report Types of Certifications: 1. External Audit 2. SURVELLANCE Audit 3. Recertification

Page 105 of 131

Software Testing Material

1. External Audit: To renewals for every 3 years 2. SURVELLANCE Audit: Every 6 months they will come and checks. But they informs before coming. They will issues one NCR if u didn‟t follow and they once again audits the same issue after 3 months. They gives 3 or 4 NCRs and finally cancels the certification. 3. Recertification: If they cancels then go for recertification SEI-CMM (Software Engineering Institute – Capability Maturity Model) SEI-CMM levels: This is given to software companies only There are five levels are there in CMM like level 1,2,3,4,5 There are different CMMs are there like SEI-CMM also called as Software CMM, PCMM, CMMI- CMM for Integration. In the year 1987, MIKE PAULK and BILL CURTIS (They are working as faculty in CARNEGIE MELLON University, Pits burgh, USA) formed together. They released CMM version1.0 from the SEI. They have observed the ISO, in ISO software organizations are not getting any special facilities. So they formed SEI and released CMM. In CMM auditors are called as Assessors. Anybody can become as Assessors but you have to attend training classes in Chennai or Mumbai. KPMG etc... Institutes are conducting this course. There are two types of companies Disciplined / Matured Company Indiscipline / immature Company

1. Initial Adhoc

2. Repeatable Project Management

3. Defined Software Change Management

4. Managed Quality Management

5. Optimized Hitech Change

Adhoc

Discipline

Change

Predictable

Hitech

There are five levels of CMM, each level has got number of processes. For example level2 has the process as project management. Each process is called as KPA. If an organization implements all the KPA‟s then based on them it is given a level. Infosys was assessed at level4 in Dec 1997 and at level5 in Dec 1999.

Page 106 of 131

Software Testing Material PCMM: People CMM. It also got 5 levels. This is mainly deals with the HR principles. For selecting and recruiting they are having one structure. That will be given by this. CMMI: CMM for Integration. They use SEI CMM, Systems engineering principles and IPDCMM (Integrated Product Development). Small company can get up to ISO and CMM Level-3, PCMM Level-3 and CMMI. CMMI is the latest technology and most of the companies are trying to get this.

6 σ (Six Sigma)
This is given to all companies. This is derived from Greek letter „σ‟ which means Standard Deviation. 6 σ is a metric which gives various standard deviations The greater the number before „σ‟ the less will be the defect in the process variation, more will be quality and customer satisfaction. ISO, CMM and 6 σ all are for customer satisfaction. If it is 5 σ the error may be 265 in 1 million LOC. If it is 6 σ the error may be 3 in 1 million LOC. PPMQ – Parts for Proper Million. DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. Generally any company first does this DMAIC and next goes for 6 σ. DFSS – Design for Six Sigma. This is for software organizations. In 6 σ you will be given Champion, Major Black Belt, Black Belt, Green Belt, White Belt, Orange Belt. Champion – Owner of the company. Black belt holder will train the Green belt holder. 6 σ companies – Satyam, Motorola, Wipro, TCS etc… But the first company in Hyderabad which got this one is GE. CMM Levels: What is CMM: It defines how software organizations mature or improve in their ability to develop software. This model was developed SEI of Carnegie Mellon University in late 80s. Infosys was addressed at level 4 in Dec 1997 and at level 5 in Dec 1999. Why CMM: CMM is a software specific model. CMM describes how software organizations can take the path of continuing improvement, which is so required in this highly competitive world. Keep improving is CMM Mantra. Level1: initial or Ad-hoc. There are no KPAs in this level. Level2: Repeatable. There are 6 KPAs in this level. KPAs at this level look at project planning and execution.

Page 107 of 131

Software Testing Material Level3: Defined. There are 7 KPAs in this level. Organizational process is the focus area here. Level 4: Managed. There are 2 KPAs in this level. Understanding of data Level 5: Optimizing. There are 3 KPAs in this level. The focus here is continual improvement. As we move from level 1 to 5, the project risk decreases and quality and productivity increases. (KPA can be compared to Clause in ISO standards). Level1: Initial or Ad-hoc. There are no KPAs in this level. Level 1 is immature state. The software process is characterized as adhoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few processes are defined, and success depends on individual effort. Here there is no objective basis for judging product quality or for solving product or process problems. Therefore product quality is difficult to predict. Activities intended to enhance quality such as reviews and testing are often curtailed or eliminated when projects fall behind schedule. Highlights of this level:  The processes with in this level are highly unstable and unpredictable.  The projects are purely person dependent. Ie, when the persons involved leave the project or the company, things come to a halt. Also the performance depends on the capabilities of the individuals rather than the organizational capability. As we move from level1 to level5, the project risk decreases and quality and productivity increases. Level2: Repeatable. There are 6 KPAs in this level. KPAs at this level look at project planning and execution. Repeatable, as the word reveals, means that processes employed in the project are repeatable. Basic project management principles are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier success on projects with similar applications using best practices from past projects. Projects in these organizations have installed basic software management controls. Highlights of this level:  Realistic project commitments are based on the results observed on previous projects and on the requirements of the current project.  The project managers for a project track software costs, schedules, and functionality. The problems meeting commitments are identified when they arise.  The projects process is under the effective control of a project management system, following realistic plans based on the performance of previous projects. Requirements Management: To establish a common understanding between the customer and the project team

Page 108 of 131

Software Testing Material It involves establishing and maintaining an agreement with the customer on the requirements for the software project. Goal: software plans, products, and activities are kept consistent with the system requirements allocated to software. Software Project Planning: This involves establishing reasonable plans for performing the software engineering and for managing the software project. Software project planning involves developing estimates for the work to be performed, establishing the necessary commitments, and defining the plan to perform the work. Goal: software estimates are documented for use in planning and tracking the software project. Software Project Tracking: To provide the adequate visibility into actual progress so that management can take effective actions when the software project‟s performance deviates significantly from the software plans. Software project tracking and oversight involves tracking and reviewing the software accomplishments and results against documented estimates, commitments, and plans and adjusting these plans based on the actual accomplishments and results. Goal: Actual results and performances are tracked against the software plans. A documented (Project Plan) is used for tracking.

Software Subcontract Management: The purpose of software subcontract management is to select qualified software subcontractors and manage them effectively. Software Quality Assurance The purpose of the Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits. Goal: Software Quality Assurance activities are planned. Software Configuration Management: The purpose of the Software Configuration Management is to establish and maintain the integrity of the products of the software project throughout the project‟s software life cycle. A software baseline library is established containing the software baselines as they are developed. Changes to baselines and the release of software products built from the software baseline library are systematically controlled via the change control and configuration auditing functions of Software Configuration Management.

Page 109 of 131

Software Testing Material Goal: Software Configuration Management activities are planned. Selected work products are identified and controlled. Changes to work products are controlled. Level2 is concentrated on project level processes, Level3 looks from the organizational view point. Level3: Defined. The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard SW process for the organization (E.g. Software Configuration Management process). All projects use approved and tailored versions of the organizations standard software process for developing and maintaining software. Data and information from projects is regularly and systematically collected and organized so that the same can be reused by other projects. There are 7 KPAs in this level. Organizational process is the focus area here. Organizational Process Focus: The purpose of the Organizational Process Focus is to establish the organizational responsibility for software process activities that improve the organizations overall software process capability. The important goal of this KPA is software process development and improvement activities are coordinated across the organization. To do an effective job of identifying and using the best practices, organizations must establish a group with that responsibility and build a plan for how the organization will improve its process. Such as a plan should include periodic assessments of the organizations process maturity, leading to plans for improvement in capability. This process engineering is done by SEPG, which looks out for the interest of every project in the organization. Organizational Process Maturity: The purpose of this KPA is to provide a usable set of software processes assets that improve process performance across projects. This involves developing and maintaining the organization‟s standard software process, along with related process assets. Some goals of the KPA are to have a standard software process for the organization. Information related to the use of process by projects is collected and reviewed. Descriptions of software life cycles that are approved for use by the projects are documented and maintained. The organizations software process database is established and maintained. Training Program: The purpose of this KPA is to develop the skills and knowledge if individuals so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Training Program involves first identifying the training needed by the organization, projects, and individuals, then developing or procuring training to address the identified needs. Each software project evaluates its current and future skills needs and determines how these skills will be obtained. Some skills are effectively and efficiently imparted through informal methods, where as other skills need more formal training methods to be effectively and efficiently imparted.

Page 110 of 131

Software Testing Material Integrated Software Management: The purpose of Integrated Software Management is to integrate the software engineering and management activities into a coherent, defined software process that is tailored from the organizations standard software process. Software Product Engineering: The purpose of the Software Product Engineering is to consistently perform a well defined engineering process that integrates all the software engineering activities to produce correct, consistent software products effectively and efficiently. Software Product Engineering involves performing the engineering tasks to build and maintain the software using the projects defined products and appropriate methods and tools.

Level4: Managed. There are 2 KPAs in this level. Understanding of data Level5: Optimizing. There are 3 KPAs in this level. The focus here is continual improvement.

Software Testing 10 Rules 1. Test early and test often. 2. Integrate the application development and testing life cycles. You'll get better results and you won't have to mediate between two armed camps in your IT shop. 3. Formalize a testing methodology; you'll test everything the same way and you'll get uniform results. 4. Develop a comprehensive test plan; it forms the basis for the testing methodology. 5. Use both static and dynamic testing. 6. Define your expected results. 7. Understand the business reason behind the application. You'll write a better application and better testing scripts. 8. Use multiple levels and types of testing (regression, systems, integration, stress and load). 9. Review and inspect the work, it will lower costs. 10. Don't let your programmers check their own work; they'll miss their own errors.

Page 111 of 131

Software Testing Material

Configuration Management
What is configuration management? Our systems are made up of a number of items (or things). Configuration Management is all about effective and efficient management and control of these items. During the lifetime of the system many of the items will change. They will change for a number of reasons; new features, fault fixes, environment changes, etc. We might also have different items for different customers, such as version A contains modules 1,2,3,4 & 5 and version B contains modules 1,2,3,6 & 7. We may need different modules depending on the environments they run under (such as Windows NT and Windows 2000). An indication of a good Configuration Management system is to ask ourselves whether we can go back two releases of our software and perform some specific tests with relative ease. Problems resulting from poor configuration management Often organisations do not appreciate the need for good configuration management until they experience one or more of the problems that can occur without it. Some problems that commonly occur as a result of poor configuration management systems include:  the inability to reproduce a fault reported by a customer;  two programmers have the same module out for update and one overwrites the other‟s change;  unable to match object code with source code;  do not know which fixes belong to which versions of the software;  faults that have been fixed reappear in a later release;  a fault fix to an old version needs testing urgently, but tests have been updated. Definition of configuration management A good definition of configuration management is given in the ANSI/IEEE Standard 7291983, Software Engineering Terminology. This says that configuration management is:  “the process of identifying and defining Configuration Items in a system,  controlling the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle,  recording and reporting the status of configuration items and change requests, and  verifying the completeness and correctness of configuration items.” This definition neatly breaks down configuration management into four key areas:  configuration identification;  configuration control;  configuration status accounting; and  configuration audit. Configuration identification is the process of identifying and defining Configuration Items in a system. Configuration Items are those items that have their own version number such that when an item is changed, a new version is created with a different version number. So configuration identification is about identifying what are to be the configuration items in a system, how these will be structured (where they will be stored in relation to each other) the version numbering system, selection criteria, naming conventions, and baselines. A baseline is a set of different configuration items (one version of each) that has a version number itself. Page 112 of 131

Software Testing Material Thus, if program X comprises modules A and B, we could define a baseline for version 1.1 of program X that comprises version 1.1 of module A and version 1.1 of module B. If module B changes, a new version (say 1.2) of module B is created. We may then have a new version of program X, say baseline 2.0 that comprises version 1.1 of module A and version 1.2 of module B. Configuration control is about the provision and management of a controlled library containing all the configuration items. This will govern how new and updated configuration items can be submitted into and copied out of the library. Configuration control is also determines how fault reporting and change control is handled (since fault fixes usually involve new versions of configuration items being created). Status accounting enables traceability and impact analysis. A database holds all the information relating to the current and past states of all configuration items. For example, this would be able to tell us which configuration items are being updated, who has them and for what purpose. Configuration auditing is the process of ensuring that all configuration management procedures have been followed and of verifying the current state of any and all configuration items is as it is supposed to be. We should be able to ensure that a delivered system is a complete system (i.e. all necessary configuration items have been included and extraneous items have not been included). Configuration management in testing Just about everything used in testing can reasonably be place under the control of a configuration management system. That is not to say that everything should. For example, actual test results may not be though in some industries (e.g. pharmaceutical) it can be a legal requirement to do so.

VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION (V&V) Verification: Are we developing the right product? Validation: Are we developing the product right? Verification and Validation is the difference between 'What and How' Two types of V&V 1. Static V&V 2. Dynamic V & V Static V&V: 1. Technical Review 2. Inspection 3. Code Walk through. We are doing V&V in documents which is in papers. Static Verification corresponds to verification and validation of products, when it is static. This includes all quality Reviews, Page 113 of 131

Software Testing Material composition of the product. eg. Its structure, size and shape etc. That's why it is called as Static V & V Dynamic V&V: In Dynamic V&V we are conducting Testing the application in real time with executables. That's why it is called as Dynamic V&V.

SOFTWARE TESTING Definition 1: Software Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding bugs. Definition 2: Testing is a process of exercising or evaluating a system component, by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies a specified requirement.

The basic goal of the software development process is to produce a software that has no errors. In an effort to detect errors, each phase ends with V & V activity such as Technical review. But most of the V & V (review) is based on human evaluation and can't detect all errors. As testing is the last phase in the SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) before the final software is delivered, it has the enormous responsibility of detecting any type of errors Two basic approaches for software testing: 1.White Box Testing or Structural testing or Glass Box testing. 2. Black Box Testing or Functional testing Combination of white box and block box testing is called as 'Gray box testing'

White Box Testing:
White Box Testing is done by the developers, Developers have to do 1.Path testing 2.Condition testing 3.Data flow testing 4.Loop testing. Software Engineers can derive test cases that 1.Guarantee that all 'independent paths' within a module have been exercised at least once. 2.Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. 3.Execute all loops at their boundaries within their operational bounds. 4.Exercise internal data structures to assure their validity. Page 114 of 131

Software Testing Material

We must go for 'white box testing' when Typographical errors are random, Logical errors and incorrect assumptions are inversely proportional to the probability that a program path will be executed.

Usually all the organizations go for Block Box Testing. Because in block box testing, we are checking the functionality of the application. In block box testing, structure of the program is not considered. For better customer satisfaction, we have to do white box testing first, then conduct block box testing. We will discuss about the BLACK BOX Testing, in a detailed manner.

BLACK BOX TESTING
Block box testing focuses on functional requirements of a software, taking no consideration of detailed processing logic. In Black box testing, testers attempt to find errors in the following categories: 1.Incorrect or missing functions. 2.Interface errors 3.Errors in data structures 4.Performance errors 5.Initialization and termination errors. Levels of Black Box Testing Faults occur during any phases in SDLC. Verification is performed on the output of each phase. But some faults are likely to remain undetected by these methods. Theses faults reflect in the code. Testing is usually relied on to detect these faults, in addition to the faults introduced in coding phase. Due to this, different levels of testing are used in the testing process. Clients Needs | Requirement | Architecture & Design | Coding <---------> Acceptance Testing | <---------> System Testing | Integration Testing | Unit Testing Page 115 of 131

<---------> <--------->

Software Testing Material

From the service providers point of view the following are to be done. 1.Unit Testing 2.Integration Testing 3.System Testing

UNIT TESTING In Unit Testing, Different modules are tested, against the specifications produced during design for the modules. Unit testing is essentially for verification of the code produced during the coding phase and hence the goal is to test the internal logic of the modules. Module interface is tested to ensure that information properly flows into and out of the program unit under test. Unit testing is the lowest level of testing Individual unit of the software are tested in isolation from other parts of a program.

In UNIT TESTING, we have to do the following checks 1.Field level checks. 2.Field level validation 3.User Interface check 4.Functionality check.

Field Level Checks: In Field Level checks, we have to do 7 types of checks. Here we are checking a particular field in a screen or module, to check whether the field accepts 1.Null characters 2.Unique characters 3.Length 4.Number 5.Date 6.Negative values 7.Default values.

Page 116 of 131

Software Testing Material For Example, consider a Course Registration form that contains the following fields.

COURSE REGISTRATION FORM SCREEN

Option (Add/Modify/Delete) Type of Course Registration Number Student Name Address Phone Number Date Time (Part/Full time) Timing (7-9am/9-11am/7pm-9pm) Student ID Batch Code Push Button Push button

Drop down combo box. Drop down combo box. Number Field Text Field Text Field Number Field Date Field Drop down combo box. Drop down combo box. Automatic generation. Automatic generation Save Button Exit Button

Funlty chk. Funlty chk.

Funlty chk. Funlty chk. Funlty chk. Funlty chk. Funlty chk. Funlty chk.

** Funlty chk. – Functionality Check.

Based on the above screen, we have to prepare a internal test plan. Based on the internal test plan, we can prepare test cases.

Internal Test Plan FC --> Functionality Check and we have to test the functionality of the screen. Y --> Have to write Test cases. N --> Not necessary to write test case

Page 117 of 131

Software Testing Material Remarks Null (type of check) Option FC Type of FC course Student Y name Address Y Phone N number Date Y Time FC Timing FC Student FC ID Batch FC code Save FC button Exit FC button Field Name Unique Length Number Date -ve Default

N N N N

Y Y Y Y

Y N Y Y

N N N Y

N N Y Y

N N N N

We have to write test cases only for the 'Y' option, Not necessary to write test cases for the 'N' Option, The above internal test plan is mainly to reduce the number of test cases. For Ex. Student name is text field type. For that, we have unit test cases as indicated below Unit Test case for Student name field Sl no. UTC/001 Test case Expected result Actual result Enter blank space and proceed Should display error message and set focus (Null check) back to student name field. ( because it should not accept blank) Skip the field and proceed Should display error message and set focus (Null check) back to student name field.( because it should not accept the null or blank space) Enter name of 20 characters. Should accept and proceed.( we assume (length check) 20 as the maximum limit of the student Page 118 of 131

UTC/002

UTC/003

Software Testing Material name field) Enter name of 21 characters Should display error message. (Because (length check) the maximum limit is 20 characters) Enter numbers '12345' in the Should display error name field.( number check) message and set focus back to the field.( because text field should not accept numbers)

UTC/004

UTC/005

For 'Student name' field we have to write test case. The above test case is written based on the internal test plan. Test cases is written only for 'Y'. i.e. For applicable one. Not necessary to write Test case for 'N'. --This is to reduce the number of test cases. Field Level Validation: Here we have to check 1. Date range check 2. Boundary value check. In date range check, we have to check whether the application is accepting greater than the system date or not. Date Range check - If we are having a Date field in a screen we have to write test case to check the date field as Date field. Sl no. Test description Test case Expected result UTC/001 Enter blank space or skip the Should display error field ( null check) message and set focus back to the date field. ( because. Date field should not accept blank space) UTC/002 Enter date in DD/MM/YYYY Should accept and format. (date check) proceed UTC/003 Enter date in mm/dd/yyyy Should display error format (date check) message. And set focus back to the field( because. It is of DD/MM/YYYY format. UTC/004 Enter number '1234567' Should display error (number check) message. Because it should not accept just numbers.

Page 119 of 131

Software Testing Material UTC/005 Enter '-23232324' proceed ( -ve check) and Should display error message. Because it should not accept -ve numbers. Enter date greater than the Should display error system date. message.( because it should not accept more than system date)

UTC/006

In boundary value check we have to check a particular field with stand in the boundaries For e.g. If a number field has a range of 0 to 99 we have to check whether the field is accepting -1, 0, 1 i.e. < , =, > to the lower boundary and 98, 99, 100 -- have to check with < , = , > values of upper boundary.

User interface Check
In User Interface check, we have to check 1.Short cut keys 2.Help check 3.Tab movement check 4.Arrow key check 5.Message box check. 6.Readability of controls 7.Tool tip validations 8.Consistency with the user interface across the product. For User Interface Check we have to write test case as Sl no. UTC/001 Test case Tab related checks Expected result Actual result To move across all the field in the screen with a sequence. Press the arrow keys Should move across the fields in a sequence. Press the short cut Should open the keys (Alt + K) corresponding screen Tool tip check To display the tool tip based on the selection. Screen title check Should visible to the user. Dialog box content Should be clear to the user. check Scroll bar checks Should scroll softy.

UTC/002 UTC/003 UTC/004 UTC/005 UTC/006 UTC/007

In User Interface Check we have to check, how the application is User Friendly.

Page 120 of 131

Software Testing Material Functionality checks Here we have to check 1.Screen functionality 2.Functionality of buttons, computation, automatic generated results 3.Field dependencies. 4.Functionality of buttons. In functionality check, we have to check, whether we are able to ADD or MODIFY or DELETE or VIEW and SAVE and EXIT and other main functions in a screen. Here we are checking whether Combo box drop down menu is coming or not While clicking 'save' button after entering details, checking whether it is saving or not. While clicking 'Exit' Button should close the current window... Automatic result generation like, for e.g. When entering date of birth, system should automatically generate age, based on the system date. So we have to do this type of functional checks. Let us see a sample test case for functionality checks.

Sl no. UTC/001

UTC/002

UTC/003

UTC/004

UTC/005

UTC/006

Test case Expected result Actual result Select 'ADD' option of the Should open a new combo box. Registration form, to enter the new student details Select 'Delete' option of the Should delete the combo box current student details. Select 'View' option of the Should display the combo box. selected student details. Select 'Modify' option of the Should allow the user combo box. to do the modification. Click 'Save' and proceed Should save the entered details and update in the date Click 'Exit' and proceed Should close the screen.

Page 121 of 131

Software Testing Material INTEGRATION TESTING Many Unit Tested Modules are combined into subsystems, which are then tested. The goal is to see if the modules can be integrated properly. This testing activity can be considered testing the design. Integration Testing refers to the testing in which the software units of an application are combined and tested for evaluating the interaction bet them. In Integration Testing we have to check the integration between the module Mainly we have to check Data Dependency between the modules Data Transfer between the modules. Types of Approaches for Integration Testing 1.Big Bang approach 2.Top Down approach 3.Bottom Up approach. BIG BANG APPROACH: A Type of Integration Testing, in which software components of an application are combined all at once into a overall system, and tested.  According to this approach, every module is first unit tested in isolation from every module. After each module is tested, all of the modules are integrated together at once. Big bang approach is called as " Non Incremental Approach" Here all modules are combined and integrated in advance. The entire program is tested as a whole. If Set of bugs encountered correction is difficult. If one error is corrected new bug appears and the process continues. Disadvantages: Tracing down of defect is not easy.

TOP DOWN APPROACH Program is merged and tested from top to bottom. Modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy, beginning with the main control module. Module, sub ordinate to the Main Control modules are incorporated into structure in either depth first or breadth first method.  Here we have to create a 'Stub' - this is a dummy routine that simulates a behavior of a subordinate. If a particular module is not completed or not started, we can simulate this module, just by developing a stub.

Page 122 of 131

Software Testing Material Advantage: It is done in a an environment that closely resembles that of reality, so the tested product is more reliable. Stubs are functionally simpler than drivers and therefore, stub can be written with less time and labor.

Disadvantage: Unit testing of lower modules can be complicated by the complexity of upper modules.

BOTTOM UP APPROACH Begins construction & testing with atomic modules (i.e. Modules of lowest levels in the program structure) Program is merged and tested from bottom to top. The terminal module is tested in isolation first, and then the next set of the higher level modules are tested with the previously tested lower level modules. Here we have to write ' Drivers'  Driver is nothing more than a program, that accept the test case data, passes such data to the module (to be tested) and prints the relevant results. Advantage: Unit testing of each module can be done very thoroughly. Disadvantage: Test Drivers have to be generated for modules at all levels, except for top controlling module.

SYSTEM TESTING Here Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Compete software build is made and tested to show, that all requirements are met. TYPES OF SYSTEM TESTING VOLUME TESTING: To find the weakness in the system with respect to its handling of large amount of data, during short time period. ( focus is amount of data) STRESS TESTING: The purpose of stress testing is, to test the system capacity, whether it is handling large number of processing transactions during peak periods. (moment) CONCURRENCY TESTING: It is similar to Stress Testing, here we are checking the system capacity to handle large number of processing transactions in an INSTANT. PERFORMANCE TESTING: System performance can be accomplished in parallel with volume and stress testing, because system performance is assessed under all conditions.

Page 123 of 131

Software Testing Material System performance is generally assessed in terms of response time and throughput rates, under different processing and configuration condition. REGRESSION TESTING: Is the re-execution of same subsets of test cases that have already executed, to ensure that changes(after defect fix) have not propagated unintended side effects. Regression Testing is the activity that helps to ensure that changes do not introduce unintended behavior or additional bugs. SECURITY TESTING: Attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system will infact protect it from improper penetration. System is protected in accordance with importance to organization, with respect to security levels.

RECOVERY TESTING: Forcing the system to fail in different ways and checking how fast it recovers from fail. COMPATIBILITY TESTING: Checking whether the system is functionally consistent across all platforms. SERVER TESTING: Here we have to check Volume, Stress, Performance, data recovery testing, backup and restore testing, error trapping data security, as a whole. Here we have to check the PAIN ( e business concept) PAIN: P-Privacy A- Authentication of parties I- Integrity of transactions N - Non repudiation. WEB TESTING: In web testing we have to do compatibility testing, browser compatibility, video testing (pixel- testing on font and alignment) modem speed, web security testing and directory set up. This is a real time and highly tedious to web testing. Automated tool is a must to do web testing. ACCEPTANCE TESTING: Performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. Testing here focuses on the external behavior of the system. ALPHA TESTING: Alpha testing is conducted at the developers place, by the customer. The software is tested in a natural setting with the developer 'looking over the shoulder' of the user(i.e. customer) and recording errors and usage problems. Alpha test are conducted in a controlled environment. BETA TESTING: Beta Testing is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of the software. Here the developer is not present during testing. Here the client tests the software or system in his place and recording defects and sending his comments to development team. So the above is the detailed description about the System Testing.

Page 124 of 131

Software Testing Material

TEST PLAN: A test plan is a general document for the entire project that defines the scope, approach to be taken, and the schedules of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task and any risks requiring contingency planning. The test planning can be done, well before the actual testing commences and can be done in parallel with the coding and design phase. The inputs for forming test plan are 1.Project plan 2.Requirement specification document 3.Architecture and design document.

Requirements document and Design document are the basic documents used for selecting the test units and deciding the approaches to be used during testing. Test plan should contain Test unit specifications Features to be used Approaches for testing Test deliverables Schedule Personnel allocation Test Unit: Test unit is a set of one or more modules together with associated data, that are from a single computer program and that are the object of testing. Test unit may be a module or few modules or a complete system. Features to be tested: Include all software features and combinations of features that should be tested. A software feature is a software characteristics specified or implied by the requirements or design document.

Approach for Testing: specifies the overall approach to be followed in the current project. The technique that will be used to judge the testing effort should also be specified. Test Deliverables: Should be specified in the test plan before the actual testing begins Deliverables could be Test cases that were used Detailed results of testing Test summary report In general Test case specification report Test summary report and Test Log report. Should be specified as deliverables.

Page 125 of 131

Software Testing Material Test summary Report: It defines the items tested, environment in which testing was done, and any variations from the specification observed during testing. Test Log Report: Provides chronological record of relevant details about the executions of the test cases. Schedule: Specifies the amount of time and effort to be spent on different activities of testing and testing of different units that have been identified. Personnel Allocation: Identifies the persons responsible for performing the different activities. Test Case Execution and Analysis: Steps to be performed to execute the test cases are specified in a separate document called the 'test procedure specification'. This document specifies special req. that exist for setting the test environment and describes the methods and formats for reporting the result of testing. Output of the test case execution is: Test log report, Test summary report, and bug report. Test log: Describes the details of testing Test summary report: Gives total number of test cases executed, the number and nature of bugs found, and summary of any metrics data. Bug Report: Give the summary of all errors found.

DEFECT CATEGORIES Defect Categories: Defects are mainly classified into two categories Defect Category-I: Here in Defect Category - I is again classified in to 1. Defects from specifications: Products built varies from the product specified. 2. Defect in capturing user requirement: Variance is something that user wanted, that is not in the built product. But was also not specified in the product.

Defect Category - II: Here defects are in 3 categories 1. Wrong: i.e. incorrect implementation 2. Missing: i.e. User requirement is not built into the product. 3. Extra: Unwanted requirement built into the product. Techniques to Reduce the Test Cases Writing test cases to all possible checks is irrelevant. So we can reduce the number of test cases by avoid some unwanted checks.

Page 126 of 131

Software Testing Material

To reduce the number of test cases, there are three methods to be followed. 1. Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP) 2. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) 3. Cause Effect Graphing (CEG) Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP): ECP is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of program into classes of data, from which test cases can be derived. It uncovers classes of errors, there by reducing the total number of test cases that must be developed. Group of tests forms equivalence class if, * They all tests the something * If one test finds a defect, the others will * If one test does not find a defect, the others will not. Tests are grouped into one equivalence class when  They affect the same output variables  They result in similar operations in the program  They involve the same input variables Process of finding equivalence classes is * Identify all inputs * Identify all outputs * Identify equivalence classes for each input and output * Ensure that test cases test each input and output equivalence class at least once. Guidelines for finding equivalence class * Look for range numbers * Look for membership in a group * Look for equivalent output events * Look for equivalent operating environment. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA): BVA is a test case design technique that complements equivalence 'partitioning'. BVA leads to selection of test cases that exercises bounding values. Rather than selecting any elements of equivalence, BVA leads to the selection of test case at the 'edges' of the class. Guidelines for BVA: 1. If input condition is a range bounded by values 'a' and 'b'. Test case should be designed with values 'a' and 'b', just above and just below a & b.

Page 127 of 131

Software Testing Material 2. If input condition specifies a number of values, test case should be developed that exercises the minimum and maximum numbers. Values just above and just below the maximum and minimum should be tested. Apply the above guidelines for output conditions also. SOME IMPORTANT TESTING HINTS Testing is the phase where the errors remaining from all the previous phases (i.e. SDLC) must be detected. Hence testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software. Success of testing in revealing errors depends critically on test cases. What is the Difference between Error, Fault Failure and Bug ? Error: It refers to the discrepancy between computed or measured value and theoretically correct value. i.e. Difference between actual output and correct output of the software. Fault: Fault is the basic reason for software malfunction. i.e. Fault is a condition that causes a system to fail in performing its required function. Failure: Is the inability of the system or component to perform a required function according to its specifications. A Software failure occurs if the behavior of the software is different from the specified behavior. Bug: Non Functionality to a functionality Presence of an error implies that a failure must have occurred, and the observance of a failure implies that a fault must be present in the system. During the testing process only failures are observed by which presence of fault is deduced. The actual faults are identified by separate activities commonly referred to us 'debugging'. In other words, for identifying faults after testing has revealed the presence of faults the expensive task of debugging has to be performed. This is the reason 'why testing is expensive.' Reason for Testing System separately( Unit, Integration and System Testing): Reason for testing parts separately is that if a test case detects an error in a large program, it will be extremely difficult to pin point the source of error. It is difficult to construct test cases so that all the modules will be executed. This may increase the change of module's error undetected. What is the need for independent testing/ third party testing:?

Page 128 of 131

Software Testing Material  Sometimes error occurs because the programmer did not understand the specification clearly. Testing of a program by its programmer will not detect such errors, but independent testing may succeed in finding them.  Time concern  If the customer want the third party testing  Non-availability of testing resources  It is not easy for some one to test their own program with proper frame of mind for testing What is the Testing Principles? 1. All the test cases should be traceable to the customer requirements. 2. Testing should be planned long before testing begins. 3. Testing should begin 'in the small' and process towards testing 'in the large' 4. To be most effective, testing should be conducted by an independent third party What is the life time of a bug? Once you find the defect, time spent to fix the defect is called life time of the bug. Attributes of a Good test: 1. A good test has a high probability of finding an error 2. A good test is not redundant. 3. A good test should be 'best of breed' 4. A good test should be neither too simple nor too complex. Why Software has bugs? Due to 1. Software complexity 2. Programming errors 3. Changing in requirement 4. Poorly documented code 5. Miscommunication between the inter group 6. Software development tools or OS may introduce their own bugs. When to Stop Testing? We can Stop Testing when  Full execution of all test cases with internal acceptance and customer acceptance  When Beta or Alpha Testing period ends  Bug rate falls below certain level  Test budget depleted  Test cases completed with certain % passed What is Error Seeding? Once the software is 100% bug free. Just to check the efficiency of Tester, we have to 'insert certain number of bugs' in project in various points and give it to tester to test. Efficient tester will find the 'inserted bugs'. Error seeding is just to check the efficiency of the tester.

Page 129 of 131

Software Testing Material We have to check the efficiency of the tester once the software is 100% bug free. DEFECT CLASSIFICATION As per ANSI/IEEE standard 729 the following are the five level of defect classification are 1. Critical: The defect results in the failure of the complete software system, of a subsystem, or of a software unit (program or module) with the system. 2. Major: The defect results in the failure of the complete software system of a subsystem, or of a software unit (program or module) within the system. There is no way to make the failed components, however, there are acceptable processing alternatives which will yield the desired result. 3. Average: The defect does not result in a failure, but causes the system to produce incorrect, incomplete, or inconsistent results, or the defect impairs the systems usability. 4. Minor: The defect does not cause failure, does not impair usability, and the desired processing results are easily obtained by working around the defect. 5. Cosmetic: The defect is the result of non-conformance to a standard, is related to the aesthetics of the system, or is a request for an enhancement. Defects at this level may be deferred or even ignored. In addition to the defect severity level defined above, defect priority level can be used with severity categories to determine the immediacy of repair. A five repair priority scale has also be used in common testing practice. The levels are: Resolve Immediately: Further development and /or testing cannot occur until the defect has been repaired. The system cannot be used until the repair has been effected Give High Attention: The defect must be resolved as soon as possible because it is impairing development / and or testing activities. System use will be severely affected until the defect is fixed. Normal Queue: The defect should be resolved in the normal course of development activities. It can wait unit a new build or version is created. Low Priority: The defect is an irritant that should be repaired but which can be repaired after more serious defect have been fixed Defer: The defect repair can be put of indefinitely. It can be resolved in a future major system revision or not resolved at all.

Cost of a defect

==

Total effort spent in testing -----------------------Tot. no. of defect.

Page 130 of 131

Software Testing Material

Testing efficiency ==

No. of Test cases ----------------No. of defects.

Defect Closure rate == how much time takes to close the defect No. of defect Defect Density == -------------KLOC/FP KLOC- Kilo Lines Of Code FP - Functional Point analysis. Software Testing Related Web Sites: www.softwareqatest.com www.rstcorp.com www.mmsindia.com www.facilita.co.uk www.autotestco.com www.kaner.com www.badsoftware.com www.model-based-testing.com www.soft.com www.jrothman.com www.webservepro.com www.testworks.com www.ftech.com www.geocities.com www.aptest.com www.testing.com www.stqemagazine.com www.sqe.com www.io.com www.testingstuff.com www.stickyminds.com

Page 131 of 131


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:64718
posted:12/11/2009
language:English
pages:131
Description: This document gives an overview of manual testing concepts . It helps freshers into software testing industry to have a complete idea on how the testing is conducted.