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Organisasi Sosial
Materi dari Dosen 2 (Subejo) e-mail: Subejo@lycos.com e-learning:www.elisa.ugm.ac.id (Komunitas:Social_Organization)

Organisasi???

Organisasi Sosial ??

Mengapa orang berorganisasi??? Apa motivasinya???

E-learning for Social Organization
• Materi-materi dalam pembelajaran Organisasi Sosial dapat diakses melalui : www.ugm.ac.id • Nama Komunitas: Social_Organization • E-mail: Subejo@lycos.com/Subajo@ hotmail.com

Outline Materi Pembelajaran Organisasi Sosial
1. Pengertian, Unsur, Asas dan Jenis Organisasi 2. Studi Organisasi, Perilaku dan Efektifitas Organisasi (P1) 3. Bentuk-bentuk Organisasi (P2) 4. Komunikasi dan Budaya Organisasi (P3) 5. Kefeektifan Organisasi (P4) 6. Organisasi Petani di Indonesia (P5) 7. Social Capital: Studi Kasus Organisasi dan Institusi Tradisional di Pedesaan Jawa (P6)

References (1):
• Sutarto, 2002, Dasar-Dasar Organisasi, Gadjah Mada University Press • Robbins, Stephen P, 1994, Teori Organisasi: Struktur, Desain dan Aplikasi, Prentice Hal International dan Arcan. • Iskak, Aswad, 2003, Komunikasi dan Organisasi, UPFE UMY

References (2):
• Munandar, Sinis,……,The Role of Farmers Organization in Agricultural Technology Transfer and Farmers Education and Training in Indonesia • Suzanto, Boy, ….,Studi Organisasi dan Perilaku Organisasi • Subejo, 2005, Custom of Mutual Help in Rural Java: A Case Studi of Gotong Royong Practices in Yogyakarta Province, Proceedings of Seminar, JSPS-DGHE Core University Program in Applied Biosciences

1. Pengertian, Unsur dan Asas dan Jenis Organisasi
A. B. C. D. Pengertian organisasi Unsur-Unsur Organisasi Asas Organisasi Jenis organisasi

A. Pengertian Organisasi (1)
• Money (1974): organisasi adalah bentuk perserikatan manusia untuk mencapai suatu tujuan bersama • Davis (1951): organisasi adalah sesuatu kelompok orang-orang yang sedang bekerja ke arah tujuan bersama di bawah kepemimpinan • Millet (1954): organisasi adalah orang-orang yang bekerjasama dan mengandung ciri-ciri hubungan-hubungan manusia yang timbul dalam aktivitas kelompok.

A. Pengertian Organisasi (2)
• Grifith (1959):organisasi adalah seluruh orangorang yang melaksanakan fungsi-fungsi yang berbeda tetapi saling berhubungan dan dikoordinasikan agar supaya sebuah tugas atau lebih dapat diselesaikan • Massie (1964): organisasi merupakan struktur dan proses kelompok orang yang bekerjasama yang membagi tugas-tugasnya diantara para anggota, menetapkan hubungan, dan menyatukan aktivitasaktivitasnya ke arah tujuan bersama • Note: definisi organisasi lebih lengkap dapat dilihat pada Sutarto, 2002, Dasar-Dasar Organisasi, Gadjah Mada Univ. Press, Hal 22-43.

What does organization mean? (some key words)
• Sekumpulan orang • Berinteraksi/ bekerjasama • Tujuan bersama • Koordinasi

B. Unsur-Unsur Organisasi
1. 2. 3. Organisasi memiliki anggota. Anggota merupakan asset terbesar yang dimiliki oleh suatu organisasi atau institusi. Terdapat pola hubungan. Pola hubungan berupa aturan-aturan, nilai-nilai yang berlaku dalam berinteraksi antara anggota satu dengan lainnya. Organisasi selalu berada dalam kontekas lingkungan. Organisasi akan menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungan sosialnya (termasuk outputnya). Organisasi memiliki tujuan. Tujuan menjadi acuan dalam melakukan aktivitas bersama. Pemanfaatan teknologi. Teknologi merupakan sarana bantu yang dapat mepercepat atau memperlancar berjalannya proses-proses yang berlangsung dalam organisasi

4. 5.

C. Asas-asas Organisasi (1)
1. Tujuan organisasi harus dirumuskan dengan jelas. Tujuan ini yang akan memandu setiap orang dalam organisasi. Semakin jelas tujuan yang akan diraih maka semakin mudah pula organisasi menentukan langkah yang tepat. Departemenisasi. Penyusunan bagian-bagian yang akan menjalankan tugas-tugas sesuai bidang tertentu. Dapat dilakukan dengan mengelompokkan tugas-tugas sejenis. Pembagian kerja. Setelah dilakukan departemenisasi perlu pengisian aktifitas kerja sesuai dengan bidangnya masing-masing Koordinasi. Koordinasi dimaksudkan untuk mencapai keselarasan dalam organisasi.

2.

3.

4.

C. Asas-asas Organisasi (2)
5. Pelimpahan wewenang. Pelimpahan kewenangan dari pejabat yang lebih tinggi ke pejabat yang lebih rendah atau antar pejabat yang setara. Rentang kendali (span of control). Merupakan jumlah bawahan yang dipimpin dengan baik oleh seorang pemimpin di atasnya. Jenjang organisasi/hiraki. Menunjukkan adanya tingkatan-tingkatan yang perlu dilewati dalam menentukan sebuah keputusan. (kasus PTPN 5) Kesatuan perintah. Masing-masing pejabat dalam hirarki yang berlaku hanya bertanggungjawab kepada satu atasan tertentu dan hanya menerima perintah darinya.

6.

7.

8.

C. Asas-asas Organisasi (3)
Fleksibilitas. Organisasi semestinya menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungan sekitarnya. Perubahan tersebut antara lain mencakup revisi tujuan, teknologi, SDM yang spesialis, dll. 10. Berkesinambungan. Organisasi setelah dibentuk diharapkan terus beroperasi dan memenuhi kebutuhan stakeholders-nya. 11. Keseimbangan. Bagian atau satuan dalam organisasi yang memiliki peran yang sama pentingnya harus ditempatkan pada level yang sama pula. • Note: lebih detail dapat dibaca pada Iskak, 2003, Komunikasi dan Organisasi, UPFE UMY, Hal: 17-23 9.

D. Jenis Organisasi
• Menurut Blau dan Scott: (1) organisasi saling menguntungkan, (2)organsiasi perusahaan, (3) organisasi pengabdian, (4) organisasi pemerintah • Herbeert Hicks: (1) Organisasi formal:mempunyai struktur yang dinyatakan dengan baik yang dapat menggambarkan hubungan wewenang, kekuasaan, akuntabilitas dan tanggung jawab, (2) organisasi informal:disusun secara bebas, flexible, tak pasti, dan spontan. • Talcot Parson: (1)organisasi ekonomi, (2) organsasi politik, (3) Organisasi integratif, (4) organisasi pemeliharaan

Jenis Organisasi Menurut Parson
• Organisasi ekonomi: organisasi yang melakukan aktivitas memproduksi dan mendistribusikan barang dan jasa. • Organisasi politik: organisasi yang melakukan aktivitas utama untuk mencapai pembagian kekuasaan dalam masyarakat • Organisasi integratif: organisasi yang melakukan aktivitas guna memberikan pelayanan sosial kepada masyarakat. • Organisasi pemeliharaan: organisasi yang melakukan aktivitas memelihara kebudayaan, pendidikan dan kesenian.

Teori, Perilaku dan Efektifitas Organisasi
e-learning:www.elisa.ugm.ac.id (Komunitas:Social_Organization)

2. Teori, Perilaku dan Efektifitas Organisasi Beberapa Teori Organisasi :
• 4 Prinsip scientific manajemen (Fayol) dalam pengembangan organisasi: (1) penggantian metode pekerjaan secara ilmiah, (2) selekasi dan pelatihan secara ilmiah, (3) kerjasama antara manajemen dan pekerja dilakukan dengan metode ilmiah, (4) pembagian tanggung jawab yang merata • Max Weber : model struktural sebagai alat yang efisien bagi organisasi : adanya pembagian kerja, hirarki wewenang yang jelas, prosedur seleksi formal, peraturan rinci, hubungan formal

• Organisasi modern/contemporary cenderung memakai pendekatan dan metode ilmiah dan penggunaan teknologi • Contoh: banyak corporasi besar yang awalnya dikelola kekeluargaan karena semakin banyak persaingan lalu dikelola secara profesional -- 1)Toyota Company mengganti managing director-nya dengan orang profesional, 2) Bakri Brothers • Organisasi tradisional dengan anggota sedikit masih mungkin dikelola secara tradisional dan ikatan hubungan sosial

Doglas McGregor: Teori X--Teori Y (Manusia perlu dipertahankan pada suatu tingkat keseimbangan)

S1

Teori X
• Pegawai pada dasarnya tidak menyukai pekerjaan/berusaha menghindarinya • Sehingga harus pegawai perlu untuk dikendalikan/dipaksa/ancaman hukuman • Pegawai cenderung mengelak tanggung jawab/mencari pengarahan formal • Pegawai cenderung mencari rasa aman, sedikit ambisi

Slide 21 S1
Subejo, 10/12/2004

bangan)

Doglas McGregor: Teori X--Teori Y Teori Y
• Pegawai melihat pekerjaan seperti hal-hal biasa (beristirahat, bermain) • Menentukan arahnya sendiri, mengendalikan diri dan merasa terikat dengan tujuan • Kreatifitas, kemampuan untuk berinisiatif, mengambil keputusan untuk kemajuan organisasi

Perilaku Organisasi
• Perilaku organisasi: merupakan penelaahaan perilaku, sikap dan prestasi manusia/individu dalam suatu kerangka organisasi • Menggunakan teori, metode, prinisp berbagai disiplin ilmu: psikologi, sosiologi, antropologi budaya, dll • Hal yang dipelajari: persepsi, nilai-nilai, kapasitas belajar, tindakan individu ketika bekerja di dalam kelompok/organisasi

Efektivitas Organisasi
• Organisasi perlu diukur kinerja/performance-nya dengan konsep (1) efisiensi dan (2) efektifitas. • Efisiensi: melakukan pekerjaan dengan benar (doing thing right)/mengacu pada ukuran penggunaan sumberdaya yang langka • Efektifitas: melakukan pekerjaan yang benar (doing the right things) penilaian berkaitan dengan prestasi individu, kelompok dan organisasi. • Tiga macam perspektif kefeketifan organisasi : (1) kefektifan individu, (2) ekefektifan kelompok, dan (3) kefektifan organisasi

• Keefektifan individu: proses evaluasi kinerja individu secara rutin, dijadikan dasar bagi promosi, kenaikan gaji, dll • Keefektifan kel.: kontribusi individu bagi kel. • Keefektifan organisasi: akumulasi individu dan kefektifan kelompok • Sebab keefektifan individu: kemampuan, keahlian, pengetahuan, sikap, motivasi, stress • Sebab keefektifan kel: kepaduan, kepemimpinan, struktur, status, peranan dan norma-norma • Sebab keefektifan organisasi: lingkungan, teknologi, pilihan strategis, struktur, proses, kebudayaan

Kondisi Pertanian Umum Indonesia
• • • • Sumbangan GDP sektor pertanian 35% Jumlah tenaga kerja pertanian: 35 juta Jumlah keluarga tani: 21.605.000 Pemilikan/penguasaan lahan: a. Petani kecil (25 juta) : 142 juta ha b. Perkebunan (2000) : 22 juta ha Rerata kepemilikan lahan per keluarga 0.3-0. ha (Jawa) dan 1-3 ha (luar Jawa)

•

Bentuk-bentuk Organisasi
e-learning:www.elisa.ugm.ac.id (Komunitas:Social_Organization)

Pertanian Rakyat Berdasar Luas “Penguasaan” Tanah (Mubyarto,1995:19) Luas (ha) 0,1-0,49 0,5-0,99 1,0-1,99 2,0-2,99 3,0-3,99 4,0-4,99 >5,00 Jumlah 1973 (%) 45,65 24,73 18,07 5,93 2,34 1,14 2,14 100,00 1983 (%) 40,78 25,03 19,88 7,55 2,93 1,40 2,43 100,00

Rerata “Penguasaan” Lahan Pertanian Berdasar Pulau (Mubyarto,1995:20)
Pulau
Jawa-Madura

Luas/ha (73) 0,67 1,53 2,87 1,59 1,41 2,17 0,98

Luas/ha (83) 0,66 1,65 2,65 1,65 1,31 2,64 0,99

% (73) 60,3 19,8 4,8 7,7 6,6 0,8 100,0

% (83) 58,81 19,95 5,14 7,70 6,67 0,93 0,80 100,0

Sumatra Kalimantan Sulawesi NTT, Bali Maluku Irian Total

“Pemilikan” Tanah Pertanian Rakyat Tahun 1983 (Mubyarto,1995:20) Luas (ha) 0,1-0,49 0,50-0,99 1,00-1,99 > 2,00 Tidak punya lahan % Rumah Tangga 34,80 17,21 14,34 28,86 4,79

Jenis Organisasi Petani di Indonesia
1. Organisasi petani berdasar lembaga tradisional 2. Organisasi petani yang di dukung pemerintah 3. Organisasi petani yang didukung oleh proyek pemerintah 4. Organisasi petani yang dibuat oleh LSM, sektor swasta 5. Organisasi petani yang dibuat atas inisiatif petani diluar lembaga tradisional

• Organisasi tradisional: bertujuan untuk memelihara hub antar petani dan lingkungan (subak, kel. gotong royong, dll) • Organisasi yang dibuat atau dimotori oleh pemerintah (Kelompok Tani, KUD) • Organisasi berdasar keproyekan : Kel PHT, kel. Pemakai air, kel pemasaran • Organisasi yang dibuat LSM, swasta: kel. Tani ternak potong, cabai, dll • Org. atas inisiatif petani: paguyuban petani apel, paguyuban petani PHT, dll

Organisasi Petani Berdasar Tujuan Awal
• Organisasi untuk mendukung informasi teknis dan mengelola sumberdaya nasional (P3A, PHT, Org Hutan Kemasy) • Organisasi untuk mengelola pasca panen, perdagangan dan keuangan/pembiayaan (Koperasi, kel. Pemasaran,) • Organisasi untuk mendukung pembelaan atau penguatan kepentingan petani (HKTI, KTNA, dll) • Organisasi dengan multi tujuan/fungsi

Social Capital: Studi Kasus Organisasi dan
Institusi Tradisional di Pedesaan Jawa

e-learning:www.elisa.ugm.ac.id (Komunitas:Social_Organization)

Social Capital dalam Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa
• Dalam proses pembangunan termasuk di daerah pedesaan, saat ini banyak ahli menaruh perhatian besar pada peranan “social capital” • Pada awal tahap pembangunan, capital sekedar dimaknai sebagai (physical capital) modal tidak bergerak misalnya tanah, gudang, dll. • Selanjutnya muncul “human capital” yang dianggap penting karena dengan kemampuan pengetahuan “human” pelaku kagiatan yang tinggi akan meningkatkan produktivitas

• Satu-dua dekade terakhir muncul paradigma baru bahwa ada jenis capital lain yang sangat penting yaitu “social capital” yang mencakup: individual talents, accumated knowledges of sociaties, society interactions, organization and culture. • Social capital dianggap mempunyai peranan sentral karena memiliki 3 mekanisme : (1) sharing informasi antar anggota, (2) mengurangi oppotunistic behaviors dan (3) memfasilitasi pembuatan keputusan kolektif.

Pengertian dan Elemen dasar Social Capital (Subejo, 2004)
Sumber Coleman (1988) Pengertian dan Elemen Dasar dari Social Capital Social capital consits of some aspects of social structures, and they facilitate certain actions of actors--wheter persons or corporate actors--within the structure Features of social organization, such as trust, norms (or reciprocity), and networks (of civil engagement), that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions The rules, the norms, obligations, reciprocity and trust embedded in social relations, social structure and society’s institutional arrangements which enable members to achieve their individual and community objectives Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions Social capital can be considered as an accumulation of various types of intangible social, psychological, cultural, institutional, and related assets that influence cooperative behavior Shared knowledge, understandings, values, norms, and social networks to ensure the intended results

Putnam et.al (1993)

Narayan (1997)

World Bank (1998)

Uphoff (1999)

Dhesi (2000)

• Social capital mencakup: institutions, relationships, attitudes dan values yang mengarahkan dan menggerakan interkasi-interaksi antar orang dan memberikan kontribusi terhadap pembangunan sosial ekonomi. • Elemen social capital : (1) norms, (2) reciprocity, (3) trust dan (4) network • Social akan tumbuh dan berkembang kalau digunakan bersama dan akan mengalami kepunahan kalau tidak dilembagakan secara bersama. • Pewarisan nilai social capital--- proses adaptasi, pembelajaran, serta pengalaman dalam praktek nyata (bukan pewarisan genetik)

Praktek Social Capital di Daerah Pedesaan • Semangat kerjasama dan saling tolong menolong merupakan manivestasi “social capital” di daerah pedesaan (secara umum tercakup dalam tradisi “gotong royong”). • Tradisi dan praktek gotong royong (1) memiliki aturan yang disepakati bersama (norms), (2) pihak terlibat memberikan kontribusi dan mendapat manfaat (reciprocity), (3) ada nilai saling percaya (trust) dan (4) diikat oleh pertalian hubungan antar pelaku (network).

Gambar 2. Social Stabilizers and the Institutions for Mutual Help
S o c ia l se r v i c e s g rou p

Source: ©Subejo and Iwamoto, 2004

A . F o r p u b l ic p u r p o se s L a b o r i n sti tu ti o n s fo r m u tu a l h e lp

Social Stabilizers

B . F o r p r i v a te p u r p o se s

R o ta tio n a l sa v i n g g rou p T r a d i ti o n a l so c i a l sa fe ty n e t E q u a l iz e d i n h e r i ta n c e sy ste m S h a r e te n a n c y sy ste m

G o v e r n m e n t a ffa i r s

Types of labor institutions
Table 4. Characteristics of labor institutions Type Gerakan Characteristics Joint activities by community members to maintain public facilities such as mosques, meeting rooms, roads, irrigation channels, springs, graveyards and guardhouses. Joint activities by community members to cope with emergencies such as fires, land slides, house destruction, etc. Mutual help for ceremonial activities such as funeral, marriage, and circumcision. Mutual help for house construction/repairing, terrace making, wood bringing, etc. (requsted joint works) Exchange labor among small group members for farming operation and domestic works (yearly cycle) Simplified type of Krubutan (seasonally cycle) Joint sales of labor to get cash income or to make joint assets for the group. Hired labor paid in cash or in kind.

Gugur Gunung

Rewang/Layatan Sambatan Krubutan Gantian Prayaan Hired Labor

Source: Interview in 2002.

Gambar 3. Categorizing of Human Actions (Berg, 1995) Benefit to actor Benefit to recipient

+
+ Mutualism Competition

Altruism Spite

Types of labor institutions
Table 4. Characteristics of labor institutions Type Gerakan Characteristics Joint activities by community members to maintain public facilities such as mosques, meeting rooms, roads, irrigation channels, springs, graveyards and guardhouses. Joint activities by community members to cope with emergencies such as fires, land slides, house destruction, etc. Mutual help for ceremonial activities such as funeral, marriage, and circumcision. Mutual help for house construction/repairing, terrace making, wood bringing, etc. (requsted joint works) Exchange labor among small group members for farming operation and domestic works (yearly cycle) Simplified type of Krubutan (seasonally cycle) Joint sales of labor to get cash income or to make joint assets for the group. Hired labor paid in cash or in kind.

Gugur Gunung

Rewang/Layatan Sambatan Krubutan Gantian Prayaan Hired Labor

Source: Interview in 2002.

Table 5. Types and Continuance of Labor Institutions in the Research Sites

Labor Institutions Gerakan Gugur Gunung Rewang/Layatan Sambatan Krubutan Gantian Prayaan Hired Labor

Research Sites Planggok Somokaton Watugajah + + + + (+) + + + + + (+) + + + + + + + + +

Jati + + + + + + +

Source: Interview in 2002.

Note: + = the continuance of each labor institution (+) = the institution has disapeared

Purpose

Reciprocity

Compensation

Gerakan For Public Purposes

Buruh upahan/ hired labor Cash Stirct

Labor Institutions

Prayaan

For Private Purposes

Non-strict

Krubutan and Gantian Labor

Sambatan Gugur Gunung Rewang & Layatan

Figure 8. Structure of Labor Institutions In Rural Java

3.3. Characteristics of Labor Institutions for Mutual Help 1. Gerakan
• Joint activities of community members for constructing/maintaining public facilities (mosques, meeting rooms, roads, irrigation channels, springs, graveyards and guardhouses) • Initiated by formal leaders in the community, such as hamlet heads and RW/RT chiefs • Means of contribution: flexible either through actual participation in the work or contributing food, construction materials or money • Social sanctions against absent members: strict in hilly areas but relaxed in lowland areas ( high opportunity cost under the expansion of off-farm jobs)

2. Gugur gunung
• Joint activities to cope with emergency needs such as fires, landslides, house destruction, etc • The highest priority in the community • Participation ratio: quite high because of its critical importance

3. Rewang and Layatan
• Mutual help for important ceremonies • Rewang: ceremonial feast for marriages, circumcisions, celebration of pregnancy, etc. • Layatan: funerals • Participants’ contribution: sharing labor/costs for the ceremonies and joys/sadness with the host family • Participants: neighbors and relatives • Simplified in lowland areas

4. Sambatan
• Mutual help given upon a neighbor's request • Commonly requested to neighbors/relatives when a client family wants to build/repair his house or cattle/goat shed • Sambatan can also be called for agricultural operations, wood transportation or terrace construction • Reciprocal aid among neighbors, but upon a flexible (long-term) basis not expected to give immediate return or strictly equal compensation • Asymmetrical help: the poor are not required to equally return • Often users will be criticized by neighbors’ distrust • Replaced by hired labor in lowland areas

5. Krubutan
• Rotational joint work of a small group (five persons) • Strict type of labor exchange based on the rigid reciprocity • Separately organized by gender and organized by neighbors/friends/relatives • Group members work together every day (commonly in the afternoon) and work together for agricultural operations, terrace making, wood bringing, processing of the products, etc. • Replaced by hired labor in lowland areas

Table 6.Number of Krubutan Group (Watugajah and Jati) Responden Number of Group
Watugajah Jati

Percentage
Watugajah Jati

Men 4 22 13.79 Women 3 20 10.34 No. of responden 29 30 100.0 Sources: Sample household survey in 2002

73.33 66.67 100.0

Table 7. Number of Krubutan Group Members (Watugajah and Jati) Watugajah Jati No. of group members Men Women Men Women 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 6 4 5 2 3 14 12 6 1 0 1 0 7 0 0 1 1 8 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 Total 4 3 22 20 Average number 4.8 5 4.9 4.5 of members Sources: Sample household survey in 2002

Table 8. Number of Gantian Group (Watugajah and Jati) Number of Group Percentage Responden Jati Watugajah Jati Watugajah Men 12 41.38 Women 9 31.03 No. of responden 29 100.0 Sources: Sample household survey in 2002

Table 9. Number of Gantian Group Members in Watugajah No. of group Watugajah members Men Women 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 3 3 4 0 0 5 6 4 6 2 1 7 0 0 8 0 0 9 1 1 Total 12 9 Average number 5 4.9 of members Sources: Sample household survey in 2002

A B C D E 1st Day Host: A

A B C D E

5 Day Host: E

st

2nd Day Host: B

A B C D E

4th Day Host: D

A B C D E

A B C D E

3 rd Day Host: C

Note: A,B,C,D and E= group members;

= working rotation/cycle (whole of year)

Figure 9. Mechanism of Work Rotation/Cycle of Krubutan/Gantian

Advantages of krubutan/gantian:
• Theoretically there is little difference in total labor input between the group work and family labor: after one rotation, a member's acceptance of total labor is same as his/her contribution to other members. Respondents, however, emphasize a positive effect of group work to foster the working spirit among members, which would be very important in the area where farming operation must be finished within strict time limits.

•

Disadvantages:
• Negative effects caused by opportunistic behavior of group members installed mechanisms which can reduce such disadvantages: close and continuous relationship among few members is likely to prevent members from conducting opportunistic behavior in pursuing their self-interest Perception of opportunity costs would develop members’ consciousness of the disadvantages

•

7. Prayaan
• Group sale of labor compensated by cash payments • Different from hired labor by its group-oriented characteristics • Different pricing for members (insiders) and non-members (outsiders) • Organized separately by gender • Women's groups are mainly for agricultural operations; men's activities are much broader (agricultural operations, wood and stone collection, terrace making, and plastering works) • Absent members are required to pay penalties in cash • Net income of each group is calculated once a year and divided to members according to their labor contribution • Almost all groups have a rule to separate a certain portion of income for group benefits, such as loan funds to members, kitchenware for leasing, etc. group-oriented characteristics of prayaan

Table 10. Wages of prayaan activity Watugajah Men Women 500-2,000 300-2,500 Unit: Rp/man-day Jati Men Women 2,500-5,000 1,000-4,000

For members For non-members Same RT 1,500-2,000 Same hamlet 5,000 Same village 7,000

1,500-2,000 3,000-5,000 3,000-5,000 3,500-5,000 4,000-7,000 3,000-7,000 7,000 7,000-10,000 7,000

Source: Interview in 2002. Note: A meal is to be given to workers.

Table 11. Rules of Wage Payment for Employing Prayaan Labors Status Member/ Insider Jati Men Women Men Watugajah Women

Wage can be paid Wage can be paid Wage can be paid Wage can be paid before distributing to before distributing during 1 to 7 months during 1 to 7 months the members to the members after using group laborsafter using group labors Wage must be paid after using group labor (in cash) Wage must be paid Wage must be paid after Wage must be paid after after using group using group labor (in using group labor (in labor (in cash) cash) cash)

Source: Sample household survey in 2002

Table 12. Fine or Penalty Systems to Absent members Reason Sickness Jati Men Absent member have to pay the same amount of one member wage Absent member have to pay twice amount of one member wage Women Absent member have to pay the same amount of one member wage Watugajah Men Absent member have to pay the same amount of one member wage Women Absent member have to pay the same amount of one member wage

Other private purposes

Nonmember/ Outsider

Absent member have Absent member have Absent member have to pay twice amount of to pay twice amount of to pay twice amount of one member wage one member wage one member wage

Source: Sample household survey in 2002

3.4. Function of Labor Institutions for Farming Operation
Table 12. Labor Input for Farming Operations in Jati and Watugajah
Land preparation Seeding/Transplanting Fertilizer/Pesticide application Irrigation/Watering Weeding Harvesting/Threshing/Drying Packaging/Transportation Others Total Land preparation Seeding/Transplantation Fertilizer/Pesticide application Irrigation/Watering Weeding Harvesting/Threshing/Drying Packaging/Transportation Others Total Family Krubutan Gantian Sambatan Prayaan 62.8 1.4 15.8 2.0 0.0 54.9 1.3 9.0 1.5 28.6 86.3 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 85.4 1.0 1.7 0.2 4.6 79.0 1.6 3.1 0.0 3.5 90.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 7.6 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 78.6 1.0 4.8 0.5 6.4 46.6 36.0 0.0 0.0 15.3 77.9 13.8 0.0 0.3 6.5 94.8 1.7 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.5 35.9 0.0 0.0 8.1 88.4 5.7 0.0 1.1 3.5 76.2 0.7 0.0 23.2 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 70.7 19.2 0.0 0.8 7.1 Hired 18.0 4.7 12.8 0.0 7.1 12.8 1.3 0.0 8.6 2.1 1.5 0.0 0.0 4.6 1.3 0.0 0.0 2.2 Total 100.0 13.2 100.0 15.9 100.0 4.5 100.0 15.9 100.0 15.4 100.0 29.9 100.0 1.6 100.0 3.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 19.5 100.0 9.8 100.0 3.7 100.0 0.2 100.0 23.6 100.0 40.5 100.0 1.4 100.0 1.3 100.0 100.0

Source: Sample household survey in 2002.

Jati

Watugajah

4. Conclusion
Function of the labor institutions for mutual help
• Social stabilizers in isolated rural communities by : – reducing the necessity of cash expenditure – strengthening the resistance against a sudden change of the outer economy – easing labor constraints of individual peasant

Principles of the mutual help
• Conducted and maintained under a reciprocal principle • Ways of applying the reciprocal principle to actual cases have been quite flexible: narrowlydefined reciprocity within a shorter time frame is required in exchange work like krubutan or gantian, but the time scale for realizing reciprocity is quite long (sometimes throughout generations) for sambatan or slametan • Poor families are not required to return an equivalent amount to whom they owe the support asymmetry between give and take can be accepted with generosity

Factors contributing to the maintenance of the labor institutions (in particular, the strict type)
1. The motivation to reduce the cash economy unfavorable accessibility to markets for labor and agricultural products requires people to reduce cash expenditure as much as possible 2. Hard geographical conditions construction of terraced fields requires continuous investment of communal labor over a long period 3. Need to input large amounts of labor in a short period rain-fed agriculture, farmers have only a narrow timeframe for farming operations advantages of group work outweigh its disadvantages

Mechanisms to prevent opportunistic behavior

1. Limited membership of a group 2. Close daily contact among neighbors 3. Overlapping of kinship and neighborhood relations 4. Penalties on those who violate the rule

Social capital and the sustainable rural development
1. Sustainable rural development in developing countries needs well-organized communities for social stability. 2. The structure of rural communities and the relationship among community members are closely related to the performance and stability of economic/social development. 3. The market economy is likely to weaken the function of rural community as a stabilizer. 4. But the process will be more complicated: people in Jati invented prayaan by combining the principle of market economy with that of non-cash economy. 5. Customs of mutual help in rural Java should be (will be) maintained and can still serve a positive function.