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					Public Speaking ----Chapter One---The seven components of the communication process: – 1. A source, presenter or speaker who utters the message – 2. A receiver, audience members, or classmates who listen – 3. A message: your words and ideas adapted to that audience. – 4. A channel, or means of distributing your words – 5. Feedback: responses form the audience – 6. A situation: The context in which the presentation occurs – 7. Noise: Any form of Interference with the message Process of Communication: the dynamic interrelationship of source, receiver, message, channel, feedback, situation, and noise. Communication: A transaction in which speaker and listener simultaneously send, receive, and interpret messages. What topics should you talk about? – Vital topics, current topics, and topics that improve the audience. What should you avoid? – Exhausted topics unless you have a new approach – Avoid illegal items – Avoid insulting your audience – Avoid getting your speech from the Internet Source Credibility: The audience's perception of your effectiveness as a communicator. Common Ground: Pointing out what features you share with your audience. Trustworthiness: The degree to which the audience perceives the presenter as honest and honorable. Competence: A thorough familiarity with your topic. Dynamism: The energy you expend in delivering your message. Hearing: Receiving sound waves. Listening: Interpreting the sounds as a message. Communication Apprehension (CA): An individual's level of fear or anxiety with either real or anticipated communication with another person(s). Reducing Anxiety – Act confidently, know your subject, care about your subject, see your classmates as friends, see yourself as successful, practice for confidence.

----Chapter Two---**The five Canons of Rhetoric** 1. Invention: Finding information for your presentation 2. Disposition: Selecting an appropriate arrangement and structure for a presentation. 3. Style: Using clear and ornamental language. 4. Memory: Being able to recall main ideas and details in your presentation. 5. Delivery: Using effective verbal and nonverbal behaviors to maximize the effectiveness of your message. Concept Maps: Pictures or diagrams that allow you to visualize main and subordinate ideas related to a more general topic. Ornamentation: The creative and artful use of language. Extemporaneous Delivery: A mode of delivery that allows some preparation but does not require the presenter to script out or memorize a presentation. Tips for preparing your first presentation – Gather materials – Carefully review the assignment expectations – Use the invention process to accumulate information – Plan to be organized – Plan to be clear – When selecting details, focus on quality, not quantity – Edit for style – If possible, practice, practice, practice Demonstration Presentation: Teaches audience members how something works or how to perform some task. ----Chapter Three---Brainstorming: When you try to think of as many topics as you can in a limited time. Categorical Brainstorming: You begin with categories that prompt you to think of topics. Personal Inventory: Consider features of your life such as experiences, attitudes, values, beliefs, interests, and skills. Current Topics: Items that you find in the news, on the media, and in the minds of people in your audience. Selecting a Topic – speak about topics you already know, about a topic that interests you, topics that are uniquely your own, about a topic that is important to your local community, topics that your audience finds interesting, topic that the audience embraces, but you do not, speak about a topic that is worth your time and effort and the time of your listeners.

Speech to Inform: seeks to increase the audience's level of understanding or knowledge about a topic. Special Occasion Speech: A presentation that highlights a special event. Thesis Statement: A summary of the speech that typically is established early in the presentation. ----Chapter Four---Audience Analysis: Discovering as much as possible about an audience for the purpose of improving communication with them. Conventional Wisdom: The popular opinions of the time about issues, styles, topics, trends, and social mores, the customary set of understanding of what is true or right. Demographics: Characteristics of people: include gender composition, age, ethnicity, economic status, occupation, and education. Co-Cultures: groups that are similar to the larger culture but are distinguished by background, beliefs, and behaviors. World-view: The common concept of reality shared by a particular group of people. Observation: Watching and listening. Interviews: Inquiries about your audience directed at an audience member. Questionnaires: Surveys of audience opinions Open-ended questions are like those on an essay test that invite an explanation and discourage a yes or no response. Closed or Closed-Ended Questions: Force a decision by inviting only a yes or no response or a brief answer. Degree questions ask to what extent a respondent agrees or disagrees with a statement. Five Factors of analyzing the situation** 1. Size of audience 2. Environment 3. Occasion 4. Time 5. Importance Audience Adaption: making the message appropriate for the particular audience by using analysis and applying its results to message creation. ----Chapter Five---Presentation step process 1. Topic Selection

2. 3. 4. 5.

Organizing ideas Supporting ideas Preparing Introduction and conclusion Practice and delivery

Personal Experience: your own life as a source of information. Evidence: Data on which proof may be based. Reference Librarian: Librarian specifically trained to help find sources of information. Electronic Catalog: Database containing information about books, journals, and other resources in the library. Periodicals: Sources of information that are published at regular intervals. Bibliographic References: Complete citations that appear in the references or works cited section of your speech outline or paper. Internal References: Brief notations of which bibliographic reference contains the details you are using in your speech. Oral Citation: Who the source is, how recent the information is, and the source's qualifications. Supporting Material: Information you can use to substantiate your arguments and clarify your position. Survey: A study in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover opinions on issues. Testimonial Evidence: Written or oral statements of others experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point. Lay Testimony: Statements made by an ordinary person that substantiate or support what you say. Expert Testimony: Statements made by someone who has special knowledge or expertise about an issue or idea. Celebrity Testimony: Statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience. Analogy: Comparison of things in some respects, especially in position or function that are otherwise dissimilar. Definitions: Determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration. ----Chapter Six---How to organize the body of the presentation – Emphasize Main Points

– Limit your main points to 2 to 3 points – express your main points in a parallel manner – Ensure that your main points are nearly equal in importance Parallel Construction: You repeat words and phrases and use the same parts of speech for each item. Time Sequence Pattern: States the order of events as they actually occur. Spatial Relations Pattern: Demonstrates how items are related in space. Cause-Effect Pattern: Describes or explains causes and consequences. Topical Sequence Pattern: Simply Divides up a topic into related parts. Problem-solution pattern: Depicting an issue and a solution. Monroe's Motivated Sequence: Organizational pattern that includes 5 specific components: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. Transitions: Statements or words that bridge previous parts of the presentation to the next part. Signposts: like road signs on a highway, reveal where the speaker is going. Internal Previews: Inform listeners of your next point or points and are more detailed than transitions. Internal Reviews: Remind listeners of your last point or points and are more detailed than transitions. Principle of Subordination: Indicate which material is more important and which is less important through indentation and symbols. Principle of Division: If a point is to be divided, it must have at least two sub-points. Principle of Parallelism: Main points, sub-points, and sub-sub-points must use the same grammatical and syntactical forms. The Preparation Outline: Your initial or tentative conception of your presentation. Formal Sentence Outline: Final outline in complete sentence form. The Key Word Outline: A brief outline with cue words you can use during the delivery of your presentation. Audience Participation: You make your audience active participants in your presentation. Brake Light Function: Warns the audience that you are about to stop. Instant Replay Function: To remind the audience of the thesis of your message.

----Chapter Ten---Principles of Informative Presentations – 1. Relate the presenter to the topic – 2. Relate the topic to the audience – 3. Create Information Hunger – 4. Help the audience understand the information – 5. Help the audience remember the information – 6. Help the audience apply the information Five Principles of Learning Build on the known Use humor and wit Use sensory aid Organize your information for easier understanding Reward your listeners Informative Presentation: One that increases an audience's knowledge about a subject or that helps the audience learn more about an issue or idea. Information Hunger: generate a desire for information. Main Ideas: Generalizations to be remembered. Subordinate Ideas: Details to support the generalizations. Behavioral Response: An overt indication of understanding. Skills for the informative presenter – 1. Defining: revealing the presenter's intended meaning of a term, especially if the term is technical, scientific, controversial, or not commonly used. – 2. Describing: Evokes the meaning of a person, place, object, or experience, by telling about its characteristics. – 3. Explaining: Reveals how something works, why something occurs, or how something should be evaluated. – 4. Demonstrating: Showing the audience an object, person, or place; showing the audience why something works. CHAPTER 7 – Extemporaneous mode: A presenter often delivers a presentation from a key word outline or from brief notes – It is the most versatile mode. – Demands attention to all aspects of public speaking preparation – Invites bodily movement, gestures and rapid nonverbal response – Sounds conversational because the presenter is not reciting scripted words – An outline is easier to use as a quick reference or guide than is a manuscript of a speech

– Memorized Mode: Form of delivery in which a presenter has committed a presentation to memory. – Permits little or no adaption during delivery. – Recovery is more difficult if you make a mistake – Presentation sometimes sounds memorized – Manuscript Mode: When a presenter writes out the complete presentation in advance and then uses that manuscript to deliver the speech but without memorizing it. – Prevents slip of tongue, poor wording, and distortion – Frequently reduces eye contact – Hinders audience adaption – Presenter may make fewer gestures – Vocal variety may be lacking – Pacing might be too quick – Impromptu Mode: Giving a presentation without advance preparation Rate: The speed of delivery Pause: A brief silence for effect Vocalized Pause: A way of delaying with sound Duration: How long something lasts Rhythm: The tempo of a speech Alliteration: The repetition of the initial sounds of words Pitch: The highness or lowness of a speaker's voice, its upward and downward inflection, the melody produced by the voice Volume: The relative loudness or softness of your voice Projection: Adjusting your volume appropriately for the subject, the audience, and the situation Enunciation: The pronunciation and articulation of words Pronunciation: the production of the sounds of the word Articulation is the physiological process of creating the sounds Fluency: The smoothness of delivery Eye Contact: The way a presenter observes the audience while speaking Malapropisms: Mistaking one word for another Gestures: Motions of the hands or body for emphasis or expression

Movement: What you do with your entire body during a presentation. Physical Appearance: Make a difference in public speaking situations within and outside the classroom CHAPTER 8 Symbolic: They represent the concrete and objective reality of objects and things as well as abstract ideas Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Our language determines to some extent how we think about and view the world Abstraction: Simplification standing for a person or thing Semanticists: People who study words and meaning Levels of abstraction: The degree to which words become separated from concrete or sensed reality Abstract Words: General, broad, and distant from what you can perceive through your senses Concrete Words: Specific, narrow, particular, and based on what you can sense Denotative Meaning: The direct, explicit meaning or reference of a word Connotative meaning: The idea suggested by a word other than its explicit meaning. Descriptive Language: Attempts to observe objectively and without judgment Evaluative Language: Full of judgments about the goodness or badness of a person or situation Literal Language: Uses words to reveal facts Figurative Language: Compares one concept to another analogous but different conception Inclusive Language: Language that does not leave out groups of people Stereotype: The misjudging of an individual by assuming that he or she has the characteristics of some group Synonyms: Words that mean more or less the same thing Antonyms: Words that are the opposite in meaning Etymology: Origin of a word Alliteration: Means the repetition of an initial consonant


				
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