Public Speaking Chapter 11 by moldybagel


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									Chapter Eleven Public Speaking Critical Response: Occurs when the audience focuses on the arguments, the quality of the evidence, and the truth or accuracy of the message Defensive Response: occurs when the audience fends off the persuader's message to protect existing beliefs, attitudes, and values Compliance Response: Occurs when the audience does what is socially acceptable, including pleasing the persuader or pleasing the other listeners Explicit: The extent to which the persuader makes his or her intentions clear in the message Argument: The extent to which the presenter furnishes reasons for the message claims Complete Arguments: Including all the parts, claims, and supporting material, to produce attitude change and improve source credibility Testimonial Evidence: The words of a cited source in support of the presenter's claims Specific Numbers: Percentages, actual numbers, averages, and ranges of numbers 3 Questions Question of Fact: means that the persuasive presentation seeks to uncover the truth based on fact Question of Value: Raises issues about goodness and badness and right and wrong, enlightenment and ignorance Question of Policy: Enters the realm of rules, regulations, and laws. Consistency persuades: Audiences are more likely to change their behavior if the suggested change is consistent with their present beliefs, attitudes, and values Small, Gradual Changes Persuade: Audiences are more likely to alter their behavior if the suggested change will require small, gradual changes rather than major, abrupt changes Boomerang Effect: The audience likes the presenter and the proposal even less after the presentation Cost-Benefit Analysis: Audiences are more likely to change their behavior if the suggested change will benefit them more than it will cost them Hierarchy of needs: A pyramid that builds from basic physiological needs like the need for oxygen all the way up to self-actualization needs, the realization of one's highest potential. Inductive Reasoning: Persuader amasses a series of particular instances to draw an inference Deductive Reasoning: Occurs when the presenter bases her claim on some premise that is generally affirmed by the audience

Fallacy: An error in reasoning that weakens an argument – Name calling – Glittering generality – Bandwagon technique – Circular reasoning – Either/Or – Post Hoc Fallacy Ethics and Persuasive Speaking – Be careful whom you trust – Analyze and evaluate messages for reasonableness, truth, and benefit to you and the community – You and your messages will be more persuasive if you have a long, positive history – Always be respectful of your audience – Avoid Fallacies

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