Chapter I – Executive Summary and Overview

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Chapter I – Executive Summary and Overview Powered By Docstoc
					Water for African Cities The initial Project Phase funded by United Nations Foundation

A Forward Looking Assessment Prepared at the Request of UN-HABITAT
March to October 2002

Margaret Catley-Carlson

With On-ground Consultants Addis Ababa: Tekalign Tsige Johannesburg: Hannes Buckle Lusaka: Liseli Bull Kamanga Accra: Collins Annoh Nairobi: Professsor R.A. Obudho Dakar and Abidjan: Mme. Astou Faye Fall (Lac de Guieres, Senegal: Dr Adrien Coly)

Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

1 1.1

Chapter I – Executive Summary and Overview. The Initial Phase of the Water for African Cities (WAC) project has provided excellent value for relatively modest investments. It has amply demonstrated the validity of three interrelated programme concepts to the realization of integrated urban water resource management: water demand management (WDM), the protection of water sources, and the introduction of water into school education. The project has been well conceptualized in virtually all of the cities within which it has operated and delivered successful results, indeed quite remarkable results given the relatively small amounts of funds disbursed. It has leveraged funds within countries, showed the potential to change the attitudes of senior decision makers and has shown that the methods used can yield significant results. This is a very promising project approach which should be extended beyond the pilot phase and to other cities in Africa and beyond. Indeed, it is now being applied in Asia. The importance of the challenge can hardly be underestimated. Today 300 million Africans have no permanent, accessible source of water. Today‟s 140 million urban population in African will rise to 500 million by 2020. These are cities with fragile or non existent tax bases, burgeoning informal settlements and inadequate infrastructure. The situation regarding urban water management is not significantly better in many areas of the developing world which suggests a high potential for this approach. As noted, the WAC project has three broad components. The initial phase has demonstrated that these are valid and sound, can yield important results, and have the capacity to mobilize people, resources, excitement and conviction. The hypotheses underlying the components are:  That a major accessible source of water for African cities can be found within existing water systems through fixing leaks, unaccounted-for-water, and better water consumption habits at the consumer level.  That protecting existing and potential water sources from current and future pollution is essential, and requires community development and mobilization techniques,  That developing a new Water Wisdom from senior decision making to the primary school level is a necessary and vital complement to these two endeavours. As might be expected early in the project, the three project components are at greatly varying levels of impact, completion and achievement. There should be no limit to the successful use of the WAC model in other cities of Africa and around the world. Future phases of this project – in Africa and beyond – should definitely be undertaken, but administrative issues need to addressed and solved. The existing very hardworking headquarter staff resources are stretched with current responsibilities; new delivery modalities are needed. The very success of the conceptualization and start up phases create expectations and momentum and there have been difficulties in getting promised inputs in a timely manner.





Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002


The project could be strengthened by new partnerships – for extending the impact of the concepts, for bringing increasing funds in support of the project, and for providing – under the strong policy direction of Habitat - quicker and more timely administrative response. This report is focused on an assessment of the impact to date of the WAC model, its potential for replication and on forward looking suggestions for changes and adjustments in that model. The specific accomplishments in each city have been detailed in several project report documents and they are used illustratively in this report, not described in detail as is the case elsewhere. There is an itemized accomplishment lists at Annex 1. Nor will this report cover the ground of internal financial management and project control of every project; there are UN systems and procedures in place, including annual external audits by UN Headquarters The initiative for this forward looking assessment was undertaken by Habitat; the principal consultant and the on ground consultants were recruited by Habitat to assess the
 Enhanced institutional capacity for urban water resources management developed through project intervention  Human resources capacity for urban water resource management through project intervention  Improved channels for region wide sharing of information and experience on urban water resource management issues Outcome indicators:  Policy changes in urban water sector, attributable to project intervention  Improved awareness of water conservation issues among user communities and policy makers  Improved access to city managers and sector professionals of management information and information on good practice of urban water resources management  Improved coordination among urban water and environmental sector policy makers in urban water resources management Annex II  Development of new programme components, based on demands from cities  Further development of regional capacity for integrated water resources management  Guidance on improved collaboration with global programmes and other relevant regional initiatives  Expansion of programme activities to other countries/cities  Review and recommendations on the future programme management strategy  Establishing a broad based funding strategy




This evaluation was carried out with the assistance of seven On Ground consultants. They are listed at Annex, together with the methodologies used and the persons met by the Chief Consultant. Without the on ground consultants, and their commitment to this assessment and forward looking strategy, it could not have been written. The cooperation of the Headquarters Habitat staff has been unflagging.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002


Chapter II – The impact of the initial phase of the WAC Project.

“Development effectiveness reflects the extent to which an institution or intervention has brought about targeted change in a country….(it) is influenced by various factors, beginning with the quality of project design”….UNDP Development Effectiveness November 2001 How has this project worked? Seven African Cities – Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Johannesburg, Lusaka, Abidjan, Accra and Dakar – were selected. Work has proceeded in varied and different patterns adapted to the specific circumstances of each city, to implement the three core themes. Pilot or demonstration projects were undertaken, backed by public awareness campaigns. City Managers were appointed as the key officials for the projects. They have met biannually. They have the responsibility for the first two project components, and sometimes have linkage with a different specific group or team named for the third or education component. Activities to carry out the three project themes have been undertaken in all 7 cities. Funding: the demonstration and public awareness/info campaigns were financed by UNFIP, and never exceeded $200,000.00 per city. In total about $2.4m of funding has been channeled through Habitat ($2.1m for demonstration projects, $ .3 m for Public Awareness) from mid 1998 to 2002. This has been buttressed by funds from several other donors. In particular, a Netherlands project beginning at the time of this assessment will address the needs to enhance the capacity of professionals in the water industry. (Approximately $1m US dollars). Sweden has played an important role in financing the Schools Education project.



Overall Project Impact – a judgment 2.3 This report would suggest that as the end of the initial phase of the project nears, very important overall project results have been achieved both within and over and above the individual component results:  There is a good level of national and international consciousness of the WAC project itself  There is increased awareness in the project countries of the importance and potential contribution to improved water management that can be made in particular by Water Demand Management. o To date, results are less for the other two, but there is excitement in particular about the Schools Education component.  Important information exchange has taken place between the African Cities.  An impressive quality and quantity of information and communication material, sector publications, glossies, newsletters and others have been well distributed, and crafted to be appropriate to the occasion


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 Within Africa, there has been an elevation of the concepts in the Programme. A Ministerial Advisory Group has met twice and has endorsed and declared in favour of the project via a Declaration in The Hague.  There has been an elevation in the status, and expansion of the horizon of City Managers themselves.  The project works on the basis of African expertise applied to real world condition in African cities. There has been initiation of dialogue and information sharing among African Cities on a series of topics heretofore little if at all discussed. Impact of the Individual Components Public Awareness: Growing an awareness of water issues. 2.4 The priority given to communication and public awareness has been one of the innovative elements of the WAC project. In city after city, there was evidence that awareness has changed, certainly at the senior levels of government, on WDM in particular, and in many cases on the need for environmental protection of water sources. Enthusiasm for the schools education project is everywhere strong.

2.4.1 Mayors, Councilors, senior and junior officials all displayed a good deal of conviction that these new approaches must be part of the way forward. The school education project elicits great enthusiasm. Many senior officials expressed confidence that their government would move differently in the future. The role of the Habitat project in making these improvements happen is acknowledged by most as having been seminal. . “They make you see deficiencies”, “they help you to see linkages”. The conceptualization of issues and creating alliances to look at issues was seen by many as the strongest element in the overall program. 2.4.2 There were different measures used to promote this increased awareness:  Very good and appreciated publications: regular newsletters with broad outreach, good publications  An excellent pamphlet on “Public Awareness Campaigns for Good Urban Water Governance” was produced.  Surveys of public opinion regarding water services in Nairobi  A water use campaign in Kenya, beginning with a brochure for water staff.  A water week in Addis which boosted both public awareness of water issues and the esteem with which the utility was seen.  A public awareness campaign in schools in Johannesburg. 2.4.3 In the instances where there was no communication element in the program, there was a keen awareness that this was „missing‟ element in Phase I:  Ghana – “Project has had a rather limited impact on perceptions within the general public due to the lack of implementation of the public awareness component of the project.”


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 Dakar – public awareness activities must be done and must accompany the total process of implementation of project components.  Abidjan – without public awareness and communication efforts coupled with publicity for the programmes there will be neither donor awareness or more important, public support.  Lusaka - Public awareness was not considered as a separate component within the programme, yet strong opinions were given in support of this.. Water Demand Management (WDM) 2.5 What is Water Demand Management? In the plainest possible language, effective WDM or water demand management requires that serious budgetary and management attention should be given to what happens to city water after it has been collected, stored and treated, and once it enters the mains and pipes of the city. In short there needs be systems to respond to fix leaks, find unaccounted for water, and to spotlight serious misuse of the systems. Where there are meters, functional billing systems and sufficient costs associated with water service delivery, the consumer will also have an interest in these savings after the meter. Where none of the above applies, as often the case for unmetered water delivery and for public institutions such as hospitals, prisons, and universities, water often runs uselessly from badly functioning taps, continuously functioning urinals, unreported or unfixed leaking pipes etc. If all the above has been successfully done or implemented, the end result will be the delivery of water to the end consumer at the lowest possible price.

2.5.1 The Pilot Projects. The WAC project has approached WDM in variety of ways in different cities. In most, selected activity centered on pilot or demonstration areas with the specific intent that successful activity in this area would provoke the galvanizing activity necessary for political and administrative authorities to promulgate and enforce regulation, increase budgets, adjust policies, create units in order that the success of the pilot unit would ultimately spread across the whole city. There has been a real variety of activity in these pilot programmes:  Addis: retraining within the utility and working on the relationship with major water consumers  Nairobi: WDM strategy development based on a pilot project and a Public awareness survey and campaign  Johannesburg: support to ongoing work on WDM  Lusaka: a pilot project in a police camp and a residential neighbourhood  Abidjan: a concentration on groundwater and on services to the poor  Ghana: a pilot project at Lagon University,  Dakar: a pilot at the University plus retrofitting the water taps and facilities of a publicly managed apartment building This activity has had important impacts


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

2.5.2 The first and most important has probably been impact on decision makers themselves. Across the community of those interviewed it was clear that notable education had taken place on the role of WDM and the very real role it could play in urban water management. Many senior officials expressed confidence that Water demand units would be formed and that the activity would be budgeted for in the future much more so than in the past.  Kenya : a useful role of the project has been to bring to focus the inadequacies of the existing metering system and thus the potential huge quantities of unaccounted for water hitherto assumed metered.  Ghana: Through the project, both senior and junior staff involved in project implementation, “seem to have a better appreciation and a more crystallized approach to water demand management.”  Lusaka – the utility “is now broader in its relevant scope of activities, understanding the relevance of the sector” 2.5.3 The second most important impact has been the imprint left by this project in changed management structures and new managerial arrangements.  In Addis a whole Government strategy has been built around the development and institutionalization of WDM activities, including the establishment of WDM unit within the existing organization structure of AAWSA, and the decentralization of WDM activities to branch offices, and the strengthening GIS and leak detection units  In Ghana a WDM Unit has been established in the utility.  In Johannesburg a conservation and demand management strategy has been developed. 2.5.4 Impact in terms of real water savings. There are important amounts of savings here. Most African cities have UAW in the range of 50%; an international level is 12 – 15% and a „good‟ level is, say, 15-20%. The figures below note savings made in the cities under review water savings through WDM. These are not totally attributable to the WAC project activities alone but they show the potential.  In Dakar, losses of water fell from 31.8% in 1996 to 21.9% in 2001. The reduction due to the leak detection project at the University led to a reduction in losses of 300m3/day which has had a considerable incidence on billing.  In Addis, an annual reduction in unaccounted for water from about 40% to 32%. which was as much as (8%) of total annual production or annually 5,548,000 cu m.  In Johannesburg the saving has allowed delay in the construction of a proposed reservoir (the work went on prior to the onset of the Habitat project) 2.5.5 Impact in terms of money saved or „earned‟ through water savings have also been impressive:  Ghana - additional revenue is now accruing to the Ghana Water Company as a result of the metering exercise to monitor actual consumption at the University of Ghana, Legon. Previous water consumption was based on


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

estimates which amounted to ¢ 74,000,000.00 per month. This figure has increased to about ¢ 345,000,000.00 per month after metering.  Dakar, with the residential properties belonging to the state; even though a financial evaluation has not yet been effected, there is a notable perception of reduced consumption which implies reduced leakage.  In Addis - The total cost saved cannot be attributed to the program alone. The part of cost saving resulted from the program could not be separately estimated. However, the total cost saved as a result of reduction of UAW is approached as follows.  Estimated annual water production 69,350,000 m3  Reduction in UAW (8%) 5,548,000 m3  Average cost of produced water Birr 2.60 Total annual saving from reduction of UAW Birr 14,424,800 (US$ 1,685,140)  In Lusaka, there has been substantial improvement in the collection rate due to the ability of LWSC to disconnect users (February 2000 14%, and November 2001 88%) The Environmental/ Water Source Protection Component. 2.6 This project component seeks ways of protecting the source water for municipalities, usually polluted by settlement patterns, solid waste disposal, faulty or non existent sewage arrangements. Again, it has taken many different forms of interesting and innovative components:  Johannesburg: a river assessment which could lead to a generic catchment management strategy  Addis: the government has now prepared a strategy for environmental monitoring of water resources  Ghana – new approach to river protection  Lusaka – a nascent aquifer protection program.  Kenya rapid assessment environment project:

2.6.1 Measuring impact. Environmental sustainability components are different by a whole order of magnitude from those of water demand management. More than one department is involved, community mobilization techniques are required, many different regulatory regimes and interests are in play. There appears to be general consensus that good and useful work has been done although as yet chosen project components have yet not made a change in the actual water quality of source water. Actual positive action will be much more difficult with jurisdictional issues seeming to be a principal cause. it is also the case that this general area is not necessarily most responsive to Government intervention.  The situation was really fragmented before…..after 2000 ideas really took off” “seeding project for new ideas and good channel for them to be disseminated”…. provoked a “fundamental change of water valuing and use”  South Africa: “The project did impact on awareness of environmental matters through the Klipriver project


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 Lusaka - “it brought stakeholders together. It is a local project with issues involving a cross section of stakeholders, so it is a programme that is in a strong position to call upon them to collaborate.”  In Ivory Coast the Habitat programme remobilized an existing group, helping it to become more operational so that the problems of information exchanges, data collection etc could be overcome. “ Since July 2002 we have tried to meet regularly which has given a lot of new impulsion in important areas related to the environmental impact of the Ebrie lagoon. Most important, under the Habitat project we have elaborated a strategy to attenuate the considerable negative impact on Abijan. It is particularly important to note that this has involved all of the relevant actors.” 2.6.2 Impact in terms of national funds leveraged – it is probably early days to expect such leverage in most places although  In Zambia the Government has undertaken to provide funding for the observation well which will allow monitoring of the pollution levels in the aquifer.  In South Africa there is a high level of political endorsement for the Klipriver water catchment strategy developed by the WAC project; this will very likely lead to funds. 2.6.3 In terms of the impact in terms of changed views and attitudes of decision makers it is possible to find general and enthusiastic endorsement for the project:  “. It “stirred up great interest in catchment generally Kenya” – “new bill will have more emphasis on water management”.  It has been noted by Johannesburg in this regard that especially amongst Councillors and community leaders there has been a dramatic increase in awareness …it set up the groundwork – had a program manager for a year – paid for by Habitat – quite a lot of political will.“. “Although our Catchment Management Policy was already developed, the project did give added impetus to such a policy through short term provision of additional project management capacity. “ 2.6.4 Administrative and managerial issues have had a fairly severe impact on progress in this area, particularly but not uniquely in Ghana. In other areas, the very complexity of working across jurisdictional boundaries appears to be the major stumbling block. Utilities have the major vested interest in finding solutions but may not have the staff resources, political clout or leverage to effect change in this area.

Impact within Africa outside the project area 2.7 Clearly the project has been well presented at a variety of international conferences and meetings. The City Managers express the strong view that the project should be replicated, especially in small and medium size cities. Close relations with the


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Director of WUP, the Water Utility Partnership, has been maintained. There has as yet, however been no emulation of the project components elsewhere in Africa. World Bank officials noted that there are very few traces of this impact outside of the vertical chain of those involved in the project itself… „the project is not yet leaving a footprint‟. This has very important implications for the next stages. Project Administrative and Managerial Issues There are some real problem areas. 2.8 The following comments do not disparage the work of the small team of Habitat officials who conceptualized and manage this project. These individuals are extremely hardworking and accomplish a great deal with few resources. The following comments refer rather to the total impact of the administrative approach of the Habitat Headquarters, indeed perhaps of the UN in Nairobi. It is indisputably the case that difficulties in this area have had a negative impact on the WAC project. This appears to derive from a fundamental mismatch between the needs of the project for funds to be disbursed in a timely manner for project components, and the payment and managerial system within UN Nairobi managerial systems which appear to be complex in the extreme and to be designed with a strong emphasis on control.

2.8.1 This issue was raised with senior managers within Habitat who offered no suggestions as to whether and how this overall framework could or would be improved. (The new Executive Director is a good deal more interested in these problem areas). Project staff spend large amounts of time simply provoking the system to act, or trying to fulfill inordinately bureaucratic requirements. A high percentage of those interviewed – but not all - indicated the need for a lot of improvement in this area, particularly with regard to overall management and financial administration. Instances of problems with delay arose in the majority of conversations.  Ghana consultant – two month delay in payment – he had to pay 45% in interest on borrowing to pay office charges  a stakeholder workshop funds promised in January not coming until June; No signed contract for Pollution control person – supposed to sign in August, not signed in January; “– water saving consultancy – took 8 months to get contract finalized –“  City Manager meetings: The meetings are “getting a little repetitive….our achievement level is low and slow so we keep going over and over same ground – IF money was flowing then activities would have taken place and reports much more interesting.”  Ghana: The Danida financed part of the Densu River environmental project has got going, but we have lost momentum on other part – „ it was important that both parts go forward together and they haven‟t‟  Ghana – momentum totally lost on education component – committee had not met or communicated since no new activities to report.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 From a Donor: I have seen how the Habitat Coordinator in Dakar was struggling to get things ready. it seems that a lot of time is lost in communication between the administration based in Nairobi and the execution agencies (UNDP) in the different countries …. (only) at the last minute every thing is solved. Transfer of money to the city managers on a regular base should be easier. This control should be delegated to a third party if needed making things easier for Habitat.”  From a Johannesburg Councilor:…..administration has been a problem – the program manager story – we could never get it pinned down – reporting arrangements – told one thing, turned out to be another. The whole Partnership “got wobbly” - because of delays  Abidjan – difficulties in implementation caused by delays in getting funds in place…..  Dakar – need to reduce the slowness in actual execution of each project component.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002


Chapter III –Future Project Phases : Looking Forward  Development of new programme components, based on demands from cities  Further development of regional capacity for integrated water resources management  Guidance on improved collaboration with global programmes and other relevant regional initiatives  Expansion of programme activities to other countries/cities  Review and recommendations on the future programme management strategy  Establishing a broad based funding strategy

Programming Instruments and Programme Components 3.1 Programming Instruments. The following are based on recommendations from the existing programs. Most should be relevant for both the extension to African Cities, and to the Asian Cities program.  No real change should be made to the project conceptualization stage, the work done to define the problem, to gather the relevant actors together on the national stage and to get the programmes moving. This is very well seen.  Fact -finding building blocks, the intellectual contribution of the Habitat officers in project design and the approach to the multistakeholder dialogues are also appreciated keys to success.  Study tours – these are undoubtedly expensive but were found to be very useful, almost across the board. This is a community that learns by doing and by seeing. In Nairobi it was suggested that if funds permitted, City Councilors might be included in such visits to spread the messages.  Communication strategies should be an essential part of each city project and of each project component, building on the strengths of the first WAC project. These should initially focus on the internal transformation of the actors within the sector, and then move into the users/communities.  Published communication material o The newsletter, in particular highly appreciated, should appear regularly (a perception that it does not), and it is not recommended to merge this with the Asian Cities newsletter, there being little enough produced in Africa, about African solutions to African issues. o The Website is virtually not used by the City Managers. A brief canvas should be done to confirm that this is the case (people are generally shy about saying they do not use websites, but in this case they appear not to) and the results incorporated into the design, ie if the website is a great deal more relevant for visitors and scholars, it should be so focused.  The City Manager meetings, appreciated as a time for networking and capacity building, need to be managed differently, especially as regards the conduct of meetings. o The format and time allocation should encourage more discussion. o There should be much more scrupulous attention to agenda, timing


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

o Meetings should be organized around discussion topics –progress reports are needed from time but should comprise less of the agenda. o Agenda should be grouped around short presentations focused on addressing real problems with question period following. o Use existing experiences for in depth “how-to” presentations. Some examples that might be useful (for illustration)  Addis Ababa – how communication was improved within AAWSA  South Africa : as part of the legislation – the development and experience with Water Services Development Plans


Programme Components.

3.2.1 Public Awareness Communication and Water Advocacy. Existing program assessors reported unanimously that this was the single most important program element to be added into each subcomponent and each city plan.  Start each program with a public awareness campaign. Conduct the program on regular and continuous basis  Partnerships could be formed before public soundings are taken with groups accustomed to social mobilization movements.  Professional publicists rather than project staff should be used where at all possible to take the step of making the info available. This has some funding implications but seems essential. 3.2.2 Water Demand Management. Although it strikes those familiar with the concept as an odd suggestion, serious consideration should be given to changing the name of this component. It is difficult to interest people in a concept as described by this title. This is a phrase used by water experts. Outside of this group, the initial impression is almost always negative. What is being targeted is water waste, what comes across is water availability - “Why should African families have to cut back on their water use?” Many Ministers and Councilors mentioned this. Some suggestions: Reducing water wastage RWW Water: Increasing System Productivity (WISP) Upgrading System Efficiency (USE), i.e, the water USE program.  (Under whatever name) the WDM process is the essential foundation stone of the WAC program. A 5-10 year continuing but modest scope program should be envisaged in each city  Start each program with a public awareness campaign. Establish water education program at enterprise level. Get the WDM ideas into the water management mainstream. .  Establish water week program for each organization/enterprise  Establish that there will be interest in/willingness to support City-wide WDM plan if pilot phase shows satisfactory results. (in city budgets or in requests to donors for example)  Form leakage control patrol, publicize results.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 It would be very useful to collect and disseminate information on reliable low cost producers (if such exist) of taps and fittings for retrofitting campaigns.  University level course components across Africa based on Cities experience 3.2.3 The project should take on Water pricing and try to become a thoughtful, helpful and astute source for Ministerial and Mayoral decision making regarding better pricing policies in the African context. Billing losses inclusive of revenue collection is seen as a “number one problem –“with proper billing we could pay for all of the needs of the service”  Some ideas: put together a fairly quick pan African national pricing and billing survey (possible funding: Netherlands).  Have these presented in a discussion framework first at AMCOW, then at BOAD and ADB meeting and finally UA Ministerial meetings?? ie, move up beyond the Water Ministers to overall policy level. 3.2.4 Environmental Protection of Water Sources. This is a key sector. WAC should work with the existing City Managers to analyze whether and how it will be possible to move beyond the stage of problem analysis. WAC should promote the idea and the „how-to‟ of consultation with NGOs and community groups, especially environmental NGOs which have a positive record of mobilizing community action to obtain their suggestions. This might constitute the core subject for a City Managers meeting. (The cross over with the work with Asian Cities is clear). New alliances may well be needed here. 3.2.5 Sanitation – carpe diem The Johannesburg Summit momentum has and should continue to be seized to accelerate the work of Habitat and the 7 Cities. (see Grand Alliance, below). If such an approach is not adopted, increased financing can still be sought for enhancement of existing project elements.  Vacutug – this could be a good time to try to get new financing for this?  Regional seminars on wastewater re-use  Low cost techniques of sewage- workshops, professionalisation  Autonomous sewage techniques.- workshops, seminars. ……Two issue areas from the Asian Cities Programme 3.2.6 Introduce demand responsive strategies to give more influence to those currently deprived of water and sanitation. This involves helping utilities from the top down on the how to, and why to consult communities on the drinking water and sanitation facilities they can afford; and how to form alliances with community groups. 3.2.7 Pro poor investments in urban water supply:  how to create innovative public-private-NGO partnerships, again based on consultation, technology choice and new partnerships.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 Gender impact – building on the gender paper produced in March 2002, and on the fact that there are many women in positions of authority in water utilities, pro-poor, pro community components such as have been incorporated in the community outreach objectives adopted by the Asian Cities, can integrate a number of gender specific preoccupations. 3.2.8 Rainwater Harvesting – although there appears to be relatively little demand for this technique in Africa, greater experience gained in the Asian cities should translate at some point into good learning opportunities for Africa. 3.2.9 Private sector participation. Many cities are very interested in having information about the process of negotiating with and managing private sector contracts. While the WAC programme may not have a comparative advantage in this area, it could play a very useful role getting existing information conceptualized and presented in a fashion relevant to city officials. (There is a real issue here in that worldwide, water service delivery is delegated to cities, with neither the financial wherewithal or legal/negotiation experience, which stays at national level. WAC but could work with others to put on seminars and workshops to help build knowledge and capacity in this area.) This could include seminars on various aspects of Private Public Partnerships, how they are organized, contracts

The Regional Program Extension - Time for A Grand Alliance? The success of this program should be built upon and a long term programme which institutionalizes these elements should now be created for other African cities. In particular, the Water Demand Management aspects of this project show sufficiently successful results in an area where the challenge is so immediate and important that far reaching strategic and alliance building work should now take place. The other two elements can certainly be added in, depending on interest but the WDM is the main selling point. 3.3.1 Among the existing city programs, there is a fairly strong view that the project ought to be extended to other African cities, especially into medium size cities where it is felt there is a strong potential to make a major difference. One possibility would be to design a program extension that mimics the current program in size and scope. An in house planning session with the most senior Habitat officials should take place to see whether there is interest in trying to conclude a major strategic alliance to create a successful African continent wide program among countries willing to accord this activity some increased priority. Donors will be needed; new staff including senior staff might have to be taken on to organize such a campaign. Administrative and managerial issues must first be addressed; new forms are needed. A survey (not in depth and in tandem with other activities) should be commissioned to see if the potential for water saving is high in medium sized cities, and whether there is enough potential support/interest at the City Council



Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

level. This will backstop the appeals to others but should be done as quickly as possible. The support of Ministers will be needed: efforts could start with the High-level (Ministerial) Advisory Group that has already support the WAC. Will they be willing to support the extension of the initiative to other African Countries? Would they support it in AMCOW? In the Council of African Ministers? WAC has already been specifically mentioned in the NEPAD initiative and this will need to be followed. Strategies to get this concept inscribed within the list of African water priorities should be designed for all of the above levels: AMCOW, NEPAD, AfDB Governors. 3.3.2 A first approach would be to the African Development Bank and to the World Bank, sometimes perceived not interested in this type of investment. What support would they be prepared to lend to a continent wide initiative to improve sustainable water management in African Cities based on a model that works? Under what conditions? Could the project attract GEF funding? 3.3.3 The European Union has announced a major initiative which could extend to 1.4 b Euros; the USA has announced a major programme for Africa. Discussion – again at a very senior level - should take place to assess the potential for a multiyear program of support in this area. The EU are holding planning sessions now. 3.3.4 Support for the concept should be sought within countries: There is a role for community funding or big customers‟ role to support the program. If a decentralized approach is adopted then big customers can support the program by financing their own activities. 3.4 Improved collaboration with global programmes and other relevant regional initiatives. There are a great number opportunities, but time and resources are always involved. Some are sketched out in the section of Grand Alliance, others are mentioned in the Community outreach section. Expansion to new Countries and Cities. (for Africa see above) . This process is in fact now well begun. In April 2002, a meeting held in Delhi with city managers from some 15 Asian cities confirmed the interest and willingness of the city managers to establish a comparable network in Asia. The major issue areas signaled for in depth work both paralleled and differed from those which are the focus in Africa, specifically  Urban water demand management  Pro poor governance  Income generation for poor linked to water supply and sanitation  Integrated urban environmental sanitation  The project was given important impetus at the Johannesburg Earth Summit with a major input of financial resources from the Asian Development Bank.



Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002


Future programme management strategy Project Administration and Management must be accorded the most important attention since the continuing obstacles experienced by hardworking staff in this area threaten the successes of the current project and will accelerate as the programme expands into other cities of Africa and to Asia. New administrative/managerial arrangements should be explored that would allow the Habitat resources to be able to manage the totality of the projects underway: Water for African Cities, Water for African Cities (extension) Water for Asian Cities. Staff rotation in the countries, changing policy environments and priorities, and a weak administrative base in many countries have and will continue to complicate project administration. The task is to find mechanisms that can work around these difficulties, to the extent possible. It cannot be expected that the Habitat staff will simply „work harder‟ A more significant change in the managerial capacity at the Habitat end is needed for this project to complete its successes in this phase and to go forward in other cities of Africa and around the world. Specific suggestions re overall project administration:  Once the work of project conceptualization, project design, project accountabilities etc is finished, delegation of the ongoing administration, and payments disbursements to a third party  Establish with this third party project management rules and regulations which envisage bottlenecks as a result of different institutional responsibilities and, therefore, set up purpose built and efficient project management structures more likely to achieve the common project aims. (this is very difficult within the structured UN administrative frameworks)

3.6.1 Alternatively – but less desirably from the standpoint of liberating staff for project conceptualization work - it may be possible to explore the possibility of setting up a local project accounts to be administered by the City Manager or by a designated official. Once monthly expenditures are decided upon against project goals, these could be disbursed and accounted for on the ground. Signatories to the account may include the financial controller-WRC and any two of the three Task Managers. The task managers can give the signals for payment (what is being attempted here is not the removal of authority but the acceleration of administrative action once signals are given). 3.6.2 Current staff need more administrative back up and tools for their tasks. The current system is not fair to existing staff and is and will be even less so in the future an impediment to program efficiency  More administrative staff back up appears to be required.  The phone arrangements do not result in actual uptake. (The telephone numbers on publications were phoned several times over a several week period – nothing other than a answering machine loop was ever received)  The Staff need traveling computers – they travel constantly. This is not a luxury


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

3.6.3 National project leaders should be appointed: these can be part time responsibilities of consultants or existing officials. It would seem natural that that country manager be someone already senior in utility. This should include a little formalization of the City Manager responsibilities :as part of the contract of understanding‟ with Senior Managers, which need be only a very informal document or letter but should include  the relationship with other project elements, particularly the Education Component. It would seem a good thing, for example, for the education component to be used to bring the utilities and relevant parts of the departments of education closer together  whether a task management team will be appointed within each country. There needs to be clear lines of authority on the relationship of the project components within countries – are city managers „responsible‟ for keeping momentum going on education projects?  new financial and management responsibilities if these are decided upon.  obligations regarding at least a modest public awareness work plan per country to raise the political profile of WDR with specific calls on Ministers, Mayors, Chancellors (Habitat could ensure that this is seen as part of initial negotiation with country to facilitate such access for City Managers.)  a firm understanding regarding internal communication responsibilities of City Managers within their own utilities and governments. Results of Country Manager meetings should be circulated to the team at home and to relevant officials. 3.7 Establishing a broad based funding strategy. Fundraising to date has been energetic and quite successful, although it appears to take place only at the overall project level. The project enjoys a good reputation and this can be capitalized upon. For this project to go to scale, considerably greater efforts will be needed. The project could usefully put together a pragmatic and not too time consuming fundraising strategy, which could include the following elements.  The possibility of a Grand Alliance for African Cities – see above.  Routine Briefing of on the ground donors. The development programs within countries generally fund according to established targets and criteria. It would however be quite worthwhile for the 7 cities – and any expansion cities EACH to have a „donor day briefing‟ once a year to talk about their own accomplishments and plans and needs. Seeds thus planted often create their own growth; there are also small project funds which are sometimes available for workshops, publications, outreach activities etc.  Donor Governments  The Swedish Government has said that they will be interested in supporting the extension into Asia and the extension of the work to further cities in Africa.  The Dutch Government has given support for Asia, and the case should be made for their strong support for expanding the current WAC to new cities in Africa. They can be appealed to at an earlier stage than other donors as they are willing to fund the development of concepts.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

 The Canadian Government has a new interest in water in Africa; initial contacts have been made.  Special fundraising for Public Awareness should be investigated with Foundations that specialize in this type of activity. The Swiss in the past have been interested in this type of activity).


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

The overall programme strategy is to follow a step-by-step approach in developing and implementing a demonstration project for WDM and aquifer management in Zambia as part of a national programme. The following steps were envisaged: Within the national framework for Urban Water Demand Management, develop an implementation plan for a demonstration project covering (i) water demand management, and (ii) mitigating the environmental impact of urbanisation on the aquifer for Lusaka and aquatic ecosystems. Implementing the demonstration project according to agreed implementation plan. Documenting and sharing the findings of the demonstration project. Promoting the replication of lessons learned throughout Zambia as part of its national programme on Urban Water Demand Management.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The linkages of the programme into the context of Lusaka have been slow but it is clear that they form an appropriate basis for consolidation, follow on activities and progression into the wider national aspects of concern. PROGRAMME ISSUES SOUGHT         A number of achievements have been made with regard to enhanced institutional capacity which have had a positive impact on the institutions involved Training opportunities are now available There are improved channels for region wide sharing through the Regional Outreach Programme, and lessons learnt are nearly ready to be disseminated more widely The plan is for WDM programming to influence policy, service deliver and attitude Consideration is being given to an effective communication strategy to focus on internal transformation of actors and the users Pilot projects are still in process, lessons are still being gathered, and then they will be disseminated Consideration is being given to a permanent coordinating forum within MLGH There is strong commitment to the ‘water education’ component

PROGRAMME OUTPUTS  Water Demand Management - LWSC WDM Draft Strategy - WDMU within LWSC - WDM pilot project activities Environmental Impact Assessment (Pollution Control) - Promotion of monitoring and early warning systems for aquifers - Implementation Strategy for a Community Based Aquifer Management Demonstration Project


Liseli Bull Kamanga, Urban INSAKA, CARE International Zambia P.O. Box 36238, Lusaka, Zambia


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002
Nairobi, Kenya Article I. Table 1: Checklist of Project Components Article II. Project Commencement Pilot Study Areas (a) Water Demand June, 2001  Area bound by Kangundo Road, Outering Road, Kayole Management Spine Road and Ngong River.  Other pilot area selected - University of Nairobi as institution - Kampala Road Deport as an institution - UN- Gigiri Complex - Kenya Breweries Ltd as an Industry (b) Pollution Control September, 2001  Ngong River from the Show Ground Bridge to the confluence of Ngong River at Ruai and includes the Nairobi Dam. Table 2: Check of Project Subcomponents Project 1. Water Demand Management in Residential Areas. (area between Outering road, Kangundo road, Ngong River, Spine Road and an arbitrary line from Spine Road to Ngong River. The area covers various estates which include Umoja 1 and 11, Umoja Inner Core, Tena, Doonholms, Savannah, Sun-Rise and Greenfields.

Commencement Date June 26th, 2001

State of Completion 4


3. 4.

Water Demand Management in Government Institutions University of Nairobi City Hall- (Kampala Road Depot) - (Old City Hall and City Annex) Water Demand Management at the UNON Water Demand Management Approaches for Industry (based on pay-back periods for investment in water saving technologies). - Kenya Breweries Ltd Pollution Control (abatement) (Community –based interventions to protect water resources in urban areas  Ngong river from the Show Ground bridge to the confluence of Ngong River at Njiru and includes the Nairobi Dam Public Awareness. Sensitization brochure for NCC Staff- not distributed  Yet to be officially launched in a stakeholders workshop -

August, 28, 2001 June 26, 2001


June, 26, 2001

4 1


October, 2001






NB: For numerical assessment of state of completion refer to: 1-Not begun 5-Complete 3 4 5


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Addis Ababa
WDM Component A) In relation to preparation of strategy Activities Fully Completed (5/5):  Collect information & carry out situation analysis  Hold workshop for a “top team” of experts and stakeholders  Develop a detailed strategy with business plan  Hold a second workshop to review and consolidate the strategy  Document & formalize the strategy  Present the strategy and obtain political acceptance & commitment  Hold public participation workshop  Review comments & finalize. B) In relation to establishment of WDM Unit Activities Fully Completed (5/5):  Secure an agreement of all stakeholders to establish & locate the unit  Develop structure & related staffing plan for the unit  Secure the necessary budgetary allocation for the unit Activities Partially Completed (4/5):  Develop procedure of creating WDM unit in AAWSA. C) In relation to capacity building in GIS Activities Fully Completed (5/5):  Identify GIS training needs Activities Partially Completed (4/5):  Execute GIS development based on established procedures  Monitor & evaluate progress in GIS development Activities in Progress (3/5):  Conduct GIS training for key staff C) In relation to capacity building in leak detection Activities Partially Completed (4/5):  Identify training needs  Institutionalize leak detection units in branch offices as part of WDM unit  Conduct leak detection activities according to established action plan. Activities in Progress (3/5):  Conduct training  Monitor & evaluate the reduction of UAW D) In relation to Promoting WDM in Water projects Activities in Progress (3/5):  Develop strategy to incorporate WDM in existing & planned water supply projects  Incorporate WDM in the preparation of TOR for projects  Develop EC funded water supply projects as a test case for linking water supply & water demand management. Activities not yet started (1/5):  Monitoring & evaluating progress through WDM unit A) Pollution Control Component In relation to preparation of strategy Activities Fully Completed (5/5):  Review of studies & monitoring initiatives  Develop a draft strategy  Conduct a workshop to present & discuss the strategy Activities in Progress (3/5):  Commence implementation of environmental monitoring according to agreed & finalized strategy. Activities Beginning (2/5):  Institutionalize environmental monitoring of water in AAWSA’s structure. Activities not yet started (1/5):  Share findings and lessons learned on environmental monitoring initiative. B) In relation to development of groundwater management plan Activities Fully Completed (5/5):  Develop environmental monitoring and management plan and strategy Activities Partially Completed (4/5):  Prepare & formulate ground water simulation model and pollution transport model. Activities in Progress (3/5):  Review all studies conducted in Akaki well field. Activities not yet started (1/5):  Conduct stakeholders meeting.  Prepare workshop for demonstration and training on the model & technology.  Share findings with other cities. C) In relation to promotion of community-based pollution control Activities not yet started (1/5):  Provide Vacutug and drawing to AAWSA.  Carry out field trail on Vacutug in different parts of the densely populated areas.  Assess the performance & adjust Vacutug to meet conditions.  Produce Vacutug locally. Public Awareness Campaign Component Activity Fully Completed (5/5):  Develop a strategy & action plan. Activity Partially Completed (4/5):  Implement strategy and action plan. Activity in Progress (3/5):  Monitor & evaluate the success of the campaign.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Water for African Cities Evaluation Report – Ghana 1. Tasks Accomplished
Water Demand Management Output Current Water Use Patterns and assessment of WMD potential Strategy development in consultation with stakeholders Score (1 –5) 4 3 Comment

Establishment of WDM Unit in ATMA


Development of a pilot project in a selected area in ATMA Environmental Management Output Development of Action Plan in consultation with stakeholders Development of basin wide baseline information Developing strategies for assessing impacts of pollutants on quality of the Densu River Development of strategies for dissemination of findings and enhancing capacity


Draft strategy document was prepared by external consultant & did not provide for establishment of the WMU. Document was never finalized. In the medium term, GWC propose to use the Leakage Detection Unit for the purpose. Retrofitting to enable lessons to be learnt yet to be done.

Score (1 – 5) 5 4 2 1


Currently being carried out by the Water Resources Commission UN Habitat is yet to provide the needed financial resources. Delayed for over a year.

Enhancing Information Flow and Best Practices Score (1 – 5) 4

Output Participate in the establishment of on line network for information sharing Develop a Public awareness campaign


Comment Senior policy makers and city manager hardly use the network as intended Bids have been received by WRC and forwarded to the UN Habitat for evaluation to select a consultant for the launch of the campaign.

Ensure participation in region wide conference for dissemination of project experiences and sustaining capacity


Mr. Collins Annoh Colan Consult, Accra, Ghana


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Tasks Accomplished – Dakar
Gestion de la demande en eau /Pose matériel Retrofitting La pose de matériel à économie d‟eau (robinet poussoir et chasse d‟eau) a été effectuée au niveau de 3 sites pilotes :  Immeuble Brière de Lisle. (5/5 ) depuis 1 mois  Immeuble Pasteur (5/5)  Université: (4/5) ( depuis 1 mois) Un 4 eme site pilote a été ciblé où une sensibilisation a été effectuée mais il y a eu une certaine réticence pour la pose du matériel retrofitting du fait que l‟immeuble appartient à un privé  Immeuble privé des Allumettes (2/5) sensibilisation mais pas de pose de matériel retrofitting  Détection des fuites dans les réseaux intérieurs à l’Université (4/5)  Succès du programme à l‟Université mais programme non complet car toujours des fuites signalés car le réseau est vétuste et mal connu.  Une stratégie de gestion de la demande en eau a été développée mais il n‟y a pas eu création d’un service de gestion de la demande en eau au niveau de la SONES et de la SDE  Volet Assainissement (3/5)  Evaluation technique et promotion d‟une technologie appropriée pour le recyclage des eaux usées (expérience de ENDA) non encore réalisée par l‟ONAS pour pouvoir développer un code de pratique  Mais les éléments de l‟expérience de Rufisque pourraient servir d‟imput pour le PLT.  Lac de Guiers: ( A. Coly )
 Produits entièrement achevés (5/5) o Reconnaissance et prise de contact o Vérification et remise en état du dispositif de suivi limnimétrique o Suivi de la qualité des eaux Activités entièrement réalisées (5/5),Prélèvement et analyse d’échantillons pour la détermination de la qualité des eaux à différentes stations, Choix du maître d’œuvre pour les ouvrages d’assainissement , Choix du cabinet IEC/mobilisation sociale pour la sensibilisation Activités partiellement réalisées (4/5)           Plaidoyer du projet auprès du Comité de gestion du lac Plaidoyer du projet auprès des personnes influentes, personnalités et autorités Sensibilisation des populations sur la protection des eaux du lac de Guiers Formation des populations Précision des groupes cibles par le village et information détaillée sur les interventions Proposition des sites de latrines Implantation et réalisation des latrines Définition de l’organisation et de la responsabilisation des populations bénéficiaires des ouvrages Programmes scolaires Valorisation de la végétation aquatique



 Sensibilisation du public / Campagne d’information (2/5) Le programme de sensibilisation du public doit comporter :  des spots publicitaires affichés sur des panneaux publicitaires et dans les différents journaux de la place,  des campagnes de communication au niveau des quartiers et réseaux sociaux,  des émissions radiophoniques interactives  Tache non encore effectuée (1/5)  Néanmoins, prise de conscience au niveau des sites pilotes où le projet n‟est visible qu‟à ce niveau  Suggestion : sensibilisation doit être faite en amont et doit accompagner le processus sur tout son parcours  projet doit appuyer la SONES dans le domaine de sensibilisation et de stratégies de communication M. Astou Faye Fall / Senegal; Dr Adrien Coly - Lac de Guieres, Senegale


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Démarrage effectif du projet par un atelier de lancement depuis Janvier 2002 Les termes de référence ont été élaborés pour l‟ensemble des volets les rapports d‟orientation ont été fait pour les volets suivants :  gestion de la demande en eau (à remettre le 24 Juin 2002)  l‟évaluation de l‟impact de l‟occupation des sols sur la qualité des eaux  évaluation des potentialités des nappes souterraines  les appels à la concurrence effectués pour les autres volets et les consultants choisis le 24 juin 2002  Evaluation de ressources alternatives en cas de pollution  Volet communication qui comporte deux sous composantes A / Gestion de la demande en eau /Pose matériel à économie d’eau Le taches réalisées sont : Inventaire du matériel à économie d‟eau au niveau de commerçants d‟Abidjan Détection des fuites à l‟observation pendant 72 heures des compteurs (aux heures de pause où normalement il n‟y a pas de consommation) – ce moyen de détection a permis de constater que des fuites s‟opéraient au niveau du réseau, mais la SODECI ne dispose pas de moyens techniques de détection et surtout n‟a pas proposé de solutions techniques  Rapport d‟orientation fait et sera présenté le 24 Juin 2002. B / Etude d’impact sur les ressources en eau en relation avec les rejets Activités réalisées  Acquisition des données de base du SIG et de suivi de la nappe malgré les difficultés pour sa réalisation à cause du retard sur la mise en place des fonds – mais au niveau de certains organismes il y une certaine réticence de fournir les données nécessaires pour le projet  Mais une adhésion parfaite aux objectifs du programme a été notée  Inventaire de études réalisées – diagnostic documentaire  Carte d‟occupation des sols confectionnée mais la liaison occupation de sols et degré de pollution des nappes n‟a pas encore été établie  Rapport d‟orientation déjà remis C / Evaluation des potentialités des nappes souterraines  Activités réalisées  Acquisition des données sur la qualité des eaux  Estimation des prélèvements  Rapport d‟orientation remis où un diagnostic documentaire a été fait  Beaucoup de constat sur les termes du bilan – mais bilan en tant que tel n‟a pas encore été établi---  

  

Taches accomplies Abidjan

Mme. Astou Faye Fall / Senegal


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Johannesburg – Activity Report
Article III. Area/Activity 1. WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT 1.1.Developing water conservation and demand management strategy for GJMC Article IV. Partners Article V. Resource Inputs

UNCHS/UNEP GJMC/Water with DWAF (IA) Gauteng

Section 5.01 Section 5.02

UNCHS/UNEP US $ 15.000 GJMC R150 000

1.2. Monitoring and evaluating retrofitting under UAW projects in GJ, documenting and defining methodology 1.3. Reviewing existing MIS in GJ and pilottesting MIS in a demonstration area for replication in GJMC These funds were utilised for two manuals – the one on Water Demand Management Best Practice in 5 Cities/Towns in Southern Africa and the other on a manual (“cookbook”) on water loss intervention. This will be a document depicting the how‟s. why‟s and why not‟s of how to tackle water losses. It will also be written in a manner that will be easily read by managers not necessarily in the water field.


UNCHS/UNEP RW with GJMC/Water (IA) DWAF, Gauteng UNCHS/UNEP RW with GJMC/Water (IA) DWAF, Gauteng

100 % COMPLETED UNCHS/UNEP US $ 25.000 RW R 2 million (retro projects) GJMC/3 contractors R 5 million 100% COMPLETED UNCHS/UNEP US $ 40.000 RW R GJMC R 150 000

The Water Demand manual on best practice has been completed March 2001 and the “cookbook” is 90% completed.

Article VI. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 2.1. Developing a water catchment strategy for UNCHS/UNEP the Klipriver GJMC/Environment with DWAF (IA) & RW CMA, Gauteng DANCED, Norad 2.2. Monitoring, early warning and scenario UNCHS/UNEP simulations GJMC/Environment and RW (IA) DWAF, Gauteng

2.3. Community river management including waste water reuse for IGAs



UNCHS/UNEP US $ 15.000 GJMC R 500.000 (DANCED) GJMC R 500.000 RW R 100.000 70% COMPLETED UNCHS/UNEP US $ 30.000 RW R 240.000 GJMC R 1.075.000 This formed part of the rapid assessment report, completed last year 100%) UNCHS/UNEP US $ 40.000 GJMC R ICLEI US $ 90.000

Article VII. 3. INFORMATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS 3.1. Information exchange (internet) UNCHS/UNEP GJMC with DWAF (IA) SADC, WSSCC, GWP 3.2. Public awareness campaign (schools) UNCHS/UNEP GJMC and RW (IA) DWAF DWAF – Department of Water Affairs and Forestry GJMC - Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council RW – Rand Water IA – Implementing Agency MIS – Scrapped and funds diverted in consultation with DWAF


Hannes Buckle.


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Annex II – Persons met with and consulted Nairobi, UN 1. UNEP/Habitat Nairobi – 2. Farouk Tebbal, Chief Shelter Branch 3. Nick You – Best Practices and indicators Programme 4. Halifa Dramheh – UNEP Water Focal Point 5. Daniel Biau – Deputy Director, UN Habitat 6. Most Habitat staff In Addis Ababa 7. Ali Abdo – Chairman, Council of Region 8. Deresse Beyerie - Head, Public Relations, AAWSA 9. Assegedech Kumkachew – System Operation and WDM Division 10. Fikre Tekeste – Branch Manager AAWSA 11. Ajep Asnarec – Design and Standards Division, AAWSA 12. Teshome AmbaYE – Head, Leakage Control Section 13. Nigel Osmaston, Mott McDonald, (EU) Technical Advisor to AWSA 14. Getahun Worku – Head Sewerage Services Dept AAWSA Nairobi, Kenya 15. Mr. Mark Bor, Permanent Secretary , Ministry of Local Authorities 16. F. Muli – Deputy Director of Urban Development, Ministry of Loal Authorities, 17. Godffrey Mate – Town Clerk, Nairobi 18. Eng. L. Musyoka – General Manager WSD, 19. Eng Kimani – Deputy General Manager 20. Engineer Jackson Nzainga – Project Coordinator, City Manager

Senegal 21. MFall, Mattar – World Bank Office, Dakar, Sones 22. Permanent Secretary of Water Resources, Senegal 23. SONES 24. SONES Senior Representative Ghana 25. The Honourable Minister for Works and Housing 26. The Deputy Managing Director of GWCL and Chair of the Steering Committee 27. Mr Fosu and Mr Boakye Frimpong of Accra & Tema Metropolitan Assembly (ATMA) 28. Mr. John Pwamang Environment Protection Agency (EPA) 29. Nii Boi Ayibotele, Consultant Environmental Mitigation 30. Emmanuel V. Quansah, Consultant University of Ghana - Legon Pilot Project 31. Daniel Adom, City Manager 27

Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

South Africa 32. Councillor Amos Masondo, The Executive Mayor, Johannesburg 33. Councillor Tau and Flora Makgohloa 34. Councillor Brian Hlongwa, Member of the Mayoral Committee, Johannesburg 35. Mr. Anthony Still, Executive Director, Johannesburg Water, 36. Mr. Wallace Mayne, General Manager, Capital Investment,Johannesburg Water, 37. Mr. Mark Lautre, Support Operations Manager, Johannesburg Water, 38. Mr. Jameel Chand, General Manager, Communications and Marketing, 39. Flora Mokgohloa,Director Environmental Planning and Management 40. Jane Eagle,Manager, Environmental Management, Planning Department 41. Councillor Tau, Metropolitan Centre, Johannesburg 42. Mrr. Michael Singh, Director Water Conservation, Department of Water and Forests, Pretoria 43. George Constantinides, and Hailey Radkin.

New York and Washington 44. Kemble, Melinda, United Nations Foundation, Washington 45. Jean Claude Faby – United Nations Foundation, Washington 46. Bilgis Bassini 47. Bill Kennedy – Program Manager 48. Shaul Arolosov – former consultant to Habitat Donors 49. Bert Diphoorn, Netherlands Development Assistance 50. Marteen Blockland, Caroline IHE 51. David Grey – IBRD The On Ground Consultants. 1. Addis Abeba, Ethiopia Tekalign Tsige, Consultant, Advisor

2. Johannesburg, South Africa Hannes Buckle, Water Management Strategist Specialist Unit, Sales and Customer Service Division Rand Water e - mail: 3. Lusaka, Zambia – Liseli Bull Kamanga Urban INSAKA, CARE International Zambia 28

Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

P.O. Box 36238, Lusaka, Zambia 4. Ghana, Accra

Mr. Collins Annoh Colan Consult, Accra, Ghana

5. Nairobi, Kenya Professsor R.A. Obudho Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Nairobi

6. Dakar and Abijan a. Mme. Astou Faye Fall / Senegal or
b. Dr Adrien Coly - Lac de Guieres, Senegale Email :


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Annex V– Methodology 1. Time frame: 1.1. January 29th – New York – meet with UNFIP staff 1.2. March 25th – 28th – meeting with City Managers March 28th-29th – visit to Senegal program. 1.3. April 2 or 3rd- meet with UN Foundation and World Bank Staff 1.4. April 8-12th – visits to Nairobi and Addis Ababa 1.5. May 8-10th – meetings as needed in Europe 1.6. June 10-11th – MCC visit Johannesburg; 1.7. June 12th – visit Ghana 1.8. July-August – receipt of reports; Johannesburg Conference 1.9. October – submission of First Final report to City Managers, reactions 2. Several different levels of review were performed: 2.1. Senior level discussions with decision makers and project managers- interviews were done and notes taken (source of quotations) MCC 2.2. Interviews with 3 City Managers – MCC 2.3. Collection of Project reports and literature – on ground consultants 2.4. Donor questionnaire and interviews – MCC/on ground consultants 2.5. Questionnaire based interviews of water professionals by on ground consultants 2.6. Questionnaire based interviews with affected communities by on ground professionals. 2.7. Attendance at initial launch session of Water for Asian Cities initiative 3. Tasks of On Ground consultants 3.1. Engage in dialog with all relevant stakeholders at city and national level; 3.2. Carry out a participatory assessment (e.g. through a stakeholder workshop) of 3.3. the impact of the project, taking into account output and outcome indicators of the programme given in Annex 1; 3.4. Recommend the possible future direction of the Programme in specific cities; 3.5. Develop a timetable/programme for the evaluation mission for the lead consultant; 3.6. Prepare a report on the assessment based on a format provided by the lead consultant; and 3.7. Participate in meetings, as require


Water for Africa Cities: A Forward Looking Assessment Margaret Catley-Carlson, October 2002

Water for African Cities: Forward Looking Assessment Sources and Bibliography 1. Habitat Publications, Newsletters, internal memoranda 2. 8 reports from On Ground Consultants. 3. Bibliography 3.1. W.K Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook 3.2. UNDP Development Effectiveness November 2001 3.3. UN - United Nations End of Project Procedures, memo of 16th January 2001 3.4. IDRC – Lusthaus, Adrien, Anderson, Carden, Enhancing Organizational Performance, IDRC 1999; 3.5. DAC Evaluation Criteria OECD 1991 4. Interviews with 5 of 7 City Managers 5. Completed questionnaires from 4 City Managers


Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
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