RTi – Overview by hcj


									                    Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                           -Notes on Salient Points-
                                 April 10, 2007

   IDEA 2004 revisions incorporated the focus of NCLB encouraging schools to
    focus on student performance outcomes and accountability § 614(b)(6)(A). RtI is
    presented as an option not as a requirement. (Origin of Rti: (1) With over 20 years
    of chronic misdiagnosis of students having LD RTi is being as a method/practice
    to differentiate between individual pathology and common place problems
    (developmental delay or lack of environmental support). (2) Studies indicate that
    “…providing all students an equal opportunity to succeed requires more than
    [setting] higher standards and greater accountability for instruction, better
    teaching, increased discipline…it also requires addressing barriers to
    learning.”(Adelman & Taylor, 2006)

   The ACT adds language for use in defining the criteria used to determine specific
    learning disability. LEA‘s may use student response to research-based
    intervention (RtI) as part of the evaluation process. Discrepancy model
    (significant difference between assessed ability and student performance-
    Performance v. verbal scores) may continue to be used.

   Schools are encouraged to implement the RtI model within initiatives of broader
    school reform that address student learning and preemptively prevent academic
    failure. Two salient features of RtI are: identifying students not achieving at the
    same rate as their peers, and providing appropriate interventions. In doing so,
    schools also satisfy the requirements of NCLB, IDEA, and Least Restrictive
    Environment (LRE). PDE has developed tools to assist school entities to
    develop/implement RtI – School Intervention Model… School-Wide Positive
    Behavior Support (SWPBS), data analysis, and intervention strategies.

                                                             Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   1
                   Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                          -Notes on Salient Points-
                                April 10, 2007

   Research indicates: When schools raise student achievement levels-problem
    behavior decreases, when schools work to decrease student maladaptive behavior
    academic performance increases.

   PDE/PaTTAN developed training tools to assist schools:
       o Universal Screening
       o Explicit Instructional Strategies
       o Team strategies for use in data driven analysis and decision-making
       o Progress Monitoring
       o Using RtI in making determination of Special Education Eligibility
       o Training for school administrators

   What are the „Big-Ideas‟ in RtI??
       o RtI has been ‗on the scene‘ for at least 20 years…simply stated, it is a…
                  Logical structure to efficiently allocate resources
                  Commitment to use best findings to plan, design, implement guide
                  Commitment to use logical, decision-making to guide instruction
                  Paradigm shift intent on prevention and intervention before
                   students fail.
       o Core Characteristics—
                  ALL students receive high quality, researched-based, differentiated
                   instruction in general education core curriculum
                  ALL staff assume an active role in student assessment and in
                   instruction in the core program. Specialists deliver intense support
                  ALL students receive progressively (public health model) intense
                   levels of targeted researched-based interventions dependant upon
                   student need.

                                                            Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   2
                   Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                          -Notes on Salient Points-
                                April 10, 2007

                  Data drives instructional decisions and the student‘s movement
                   through the tiers.
                  Student movement through the tiers is bi-directional and
                   determined by student response to instruction.
                  Supports are provided through categorical and non-categorical
                   delivery models.

   PA Multi-tiered RtI Model (primary, secondary, tertiary- aligned with
    SWPBS/Resiliency Model- Academic and Behavioral Systems of Support)

       o Tier 1: Benchmark and School-wide interventions for Students at
           Benchmark and ALL students:

                  ALL students receive differentiated instruction in researched-based
                   core program (reading, math, behavior)
                  ALL staff support instruction in the core curriculum
                  ALL students are screened for academic and behavioral concerns
                   minimum of 3 ax‘s per year
                  Grade-level data analysis teams set annual grade level goals and
                   grade-wide interventions for students to achieve benchmarks.
                  Students identified through screening or progress monitoring as
                   academically or behaviorally ‗at-risk‘ are referred to Tier 2 for
                   more intense support.

   Tier 2: Strategic and Targeted Interventions for Students at Risk of Academic
    Failure and/or Behavioral issues.

                  Tier 1 supports are IN ADDITION TO all Tier 1

                                                            Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   3
                   Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                          -Notes on Salient Points-
                                April 10, 2007

                 Students provided more intense targeted instruction in area of
                 Interventions are researched-based, provided on basis of
                  assessment and delivered with fidelity.
                 Specialists in homogeneous, small groups, based upon student
                  need, may deliver instruction.
                 Student progress is monitored frequently, minimum 2x‘s/year.
                 When data indicates student has/or will satisfy required benchmark
                  return to Tier 1 support occurs.
                 When data indicates student is not making adequate progress
                  toward benchmark, movement to Tier 3 support occurs.

   Tier 3: Intensive Intervention for Low Performing Students.

                 Tier 3 interventions are IN ADDITION to Tier 1 supports.

                 Tier 3 interventions are more intense (+time, +frequency,
                  +duration, individual/small group, direct and explicit).

                 Interventions are: researched-based, assessment driven, done with

                 Student progress is monitored weekly.

                 Students responding to interventions may return to Tier 2 or 1 but
                  may require progress monitoring.

                 Students not responding to interventions at Tier 3 may be referred
                  for evaluation for special education eligibility.

                                                            Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   4
                    Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                           -Notes on Salient Points-
                                 April 10, 2007

   Pros for RtI:

                   Focus is on student outcomes

                   Increases accountability for ALL students

                   Promotes collaboration and shared responsibility among general
                    educators, related service providers, administrators, and parents.

                   Earlier identification- eliminates ―wait to fail‖ method of
                   Reduction in volume of students referred for Special Education
                    services. (Reduction in stigma attachment!)
                   Reduction in over identification of minority students.

                   Instructionally relevant data drives decision-making.

   Cons for RtI:

                   RtI that places emphasis on student deficits while ignoring
                    environmental influences or the transactional interplay between
                    both (reciprocal determinism) will result in misguided efforts.

                   RTi emphasis is on direct instruction (National Reading Panel
                    sponsored) with emphasis on teaching specific skills using very
                    specifically directed lesson plans and reading programs with

                                                             Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   5
                   Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                          -Notes on Salient Points-
                                April 10, 2007

                  ongoing assessment. Critics argue that research on direct-
                  instruction is limited and does not promote confidence in reading
                  outcomes. They argue the NRP was overloaded with proponents of
                  direct instruction who used correlational data to infer causation.

                 RtI may be prone to error with identification of LD among high
                  ability students.

                 RtI may be prone to error with identification of ED among students
                  with emotional stressors demonstrating low motivation.

                 Research is not available on large scale to determine efficacy of

   Implementation Issues:

                 Accepting Change
                         Moving from 2 systems in education (regular education v.
                          special education) to 1 system for all students.
                         Recognizing RtI is a regular education process to be
                          support by special education.

                 Translating RtI theory into classroom-based practices

                 Selection of Structure and Components
                         Resources can dictate the model selected
                         Common models (Public Health model) v. atypical models
                         Personnel, decision-making process will be impacted by
                          resources and model selected.

                                                           Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   6
    Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
           -Notes on Salient Points-
                 April 10, 2007

   Balancing Rigid tiers v. flexible models
          Stable frameworks promote consistent application –
           promote research and model replication.
          Flexible models reduce research and replication options.
          Flexible models can be more responsive to student needs
           and maximize problem-solving opportunities.

    Movement within and between Tiers
          Little agreement on criteria for Tier shift
          Research-based data may limit use of beginning reading,
           math, & written expression choices…few scientific studies
           exist at the elementary and secondary level.

   Resources needed
          Time/Space/Materials
          Documentation- increased paperwork (progress
          Financial Support – little comparison data available RtI v.
           Traditional practices.
          Technical Assistance – short term and long term vision and
                  Inter school collaboration opportunities
                   (Communities of Practice)
                  Opportunities to ask questions-get answers
                  Community participation - Students, Families,
                   Business, Government

                                               Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   7
                           Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
                                  -Notes on Salient Points-
                                        April 10, 2007

                                 Professional development
                                        School leaders, teachers, support staff
                                        Illumination of Research-based practices
                                        Connecting researched-based practices to pre-
                                         identification instructional strategies
                                        Articulating researched-based practices
                                         instructional strategies in a manner unique to
                                         individual students.

RtI - Information links:
www.pattan.net (professional development)
http:/ /smhp.psych.ucla.edu
www.nrcld.org/presentations/CEC April 2005.ppt

The School Leaders Guide to Student Learning Supports. Adelman, H.S., & Taylor, L.(2006).
California, Corwin Press
Response to Intervention: An Overview, What is it? Why Do It? Is It Worth It? Tilly II, D.(2006)
The Special Edge, 19, 1-16.

                                                                   Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   8
Response to Intervention – RtI: Overview
       -Notes on Salient Points-
             April 10, 2007

                                    Chuck Haley- PDE/BSE – 4/2007   9

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