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					                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


1     SUMMARY OF PRIMARY AIMS AND FINDINGS ................................... 1

2     BRIEF BACKGROUND OF MCP (OLDHAM) .......................................... 2

3 MCP: WHY MIGHT THE COMPANY NEED TO ADOPT A QUALITY
STANDARD?................................................................................................... 3

4     THE BENEFITS OF ADOPTING ISO 9000. ............................................. 5

5     KEY ELEMENTS OF ISO 9000 ................................................................ 6

6     APPLICATION OF ISO 9000 TO SOME MCP PROCESSES. ............... 12

7 DOES ISO 9000 HAVE A POSITIVE AND USEFUL EFFECT FOR THE
ANALYSED PROCESS AND MCP AS A WHOLE? ..................................... 27

8     A FRAMEWORK FOR MCP ACHIEVING ISO 9000 .............................. 29

9     A NEW ISO STANDARD........................................................................ 33

10 CONCLUSION........................................................................................ 34

11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................... 35

12 REFERENCES ....................................................................................... 35
1   Summary of primary aims and findings


The aim of this report is to analyse quality, to look at what quality means and to
assess the difference between quality control and quality assurance. The report will
go on to discuss ISO 9000, the theory behind the international standard and the
sections that are contained within the standard. Mirror Colour Print (Oldham) (MCP
(Oldham)) will then be looked at with respect to ISO 9000 by using a series of case
studies to highlight how ISO 9000 might be applied. Having applied ISO 9000 to
some processes the advantages that ISO 9000 can bring to both the processes and
MCP (Oldham) as a whole will be assessed. The report will go on to assess whether
ISO 9000 is relevant to MCP (Oldham) and provide a framework for implementing
the standard at MCP (Oldham). Finally a new version of the ISO 9000 standard will
be looked at to assess what impact it will have on Quality Assurance.


In this report three processes were analysed that were identified as being particularly
relevant to an investigation of ISO 9000. It was found that there were many areas in
each process that were relevant to ISO 9000 and where it could provide a real
advantage in achieving the desired result from the process. It could be seen that
consistency could be achieved more easily if the standard was applied to these
processes. It was argued that the key to manufacturing was consistency and therefore
ISO 9000 has been proved to be effective. It was decided that despite some problems,
ISO 9000 would be useful at MCP (Oldham). However, it was concluded that the
ISO 9000 accreditation should not just be used as a paperwork or theoretical exercise.
The standard should be used as a guideline to assist starting to develop quality
throughout the organisation.




                                                                                     1
2   Brief background of MCP (Oldham)


Before tackling the issue of quality, it is necessary to first look at the role of Mirror
Colour Print (MCP). In October 1999 Trinity group and Mirror Group Newspapers
(MGN) merged to form Trinity Mirror. The old Trinity group has particular strength
in the local and regional newspaper sector. MGN had particular strength in national
newspapers (owning The Mirror, The Racing Post, The Daily Record and formerly
The Independent), as well as having a strong presence in the new media area with
services such as ic24 (a free internet service provider) and sporting-life.com (an
online comprehensive sports results‟ service). Mirror Colour Print is a wholly owned
subsidiary of Trinity Mirror and is split between two sites: one in Oldham and one in
Watford. The plant in Oldham is the largest printing plant in Northwest England with
nine lines able to produce in excess of fourteen million copies a week employing
around 500 people. MCP (Oldham) is a contract printer for Trinity Mirror, printing
the group‟s core titles every night of the year (except Christmas Eve). There is also
capacity over and above that required by the core titles. This capacity is used for
producing copies for the old Trinity group and also work that is tendered for by MCP
(Oldham) alone. In early 2000, MCP (Oldham) succeeded in securing the printing of
twenty-five local titles from the Guardian Media group. MCP won these contracts on
the basis of having lower costs and a better schedule availability than the other
competitors. Although MCP‟s schedule is now 20% fuller than in 1999, it should be
noted that the old Trinity group has several printing plants in the North of England
which are in direct competition for work with MCP (Oldham).              It is therefore
important to maximise the production performance and the quality so more contracts
may be won in the future and the overall contribution that MCP (Oldham) makes to
the overall group is increased.




                                                                                       2
3     MCP: Why might the company need to adopt a quality
      Standard?


The mission statement of MCP is “To print Mirror titles and contract work from
external customers to a standard of quality and at a cost that creates real and
sustainable advantage for the group.” With this in mind it is surprising to think that
MCP does not have any written down quality standards. It is therefore necessary to
explore what quality is and to go on to look at quality assurance and look at how this
applies to quality standards.



3.1    What is quality?


There are three statements that have been made by eminent management writers about
what quality is:


“Quality is fitness for use” – Joseph Juran


“Quality is defined by the customer” – W Edwards Deming


“Quality is free” – Philip Crosby


Combining the thoughts of Deming and Juran a statement about quality can be
produced:


“Quality is about meeting or preferably, exceeding customer requirements.”



Quality does not happen without a commitment to manage quality.




                                                                                    3
3.2   Effects of poor quality management


There are a number of effects that can be felt through poor quality management.
These include:


      Late, incorrect, short deliveries which can adversely affect the customer‟s
       business
      Failure to address and correct problems quickly and efficiently
      Accepting orders the company cannot complete on time and to the customer‟s
       exact specification
      Allocating tasks to inexperienced staff, which can lead to customer complaints
      Failure to inspect incoming supplies, which can create future problems for both
       company and customer
      Lack of documented internal controls, which can affect the quality of service
       to the customer



3.3   Quality Assurance


Quality Assurance means providing customers with exactly what was ordered every
time goods or services are supplied. It is the implementation of documented controls
at vital stages of the business so that the exact requirements of the customer are met.
Quality Assurance differs from Quality Control in that Quality Control refers only to
finished product whereas Quality Assurance refers to supply and product. A good
quality assurance system can:


 Improve internal efficiency
 Minimise the amount of waste and reduce the amount of errors
 Ensure total customer satisfaction
 Enhance team spirit throughout the business
 Provide a sound basis for developing new business




                                                                                     4
4     The benefits of adopting ISO 9000.


The implementation of ISO 9000 to an organisation can result in an increase in quality
in all areas. ISO 9000 is based on sound theoretical and practical research.



4.1     Background to the ISO 9000 series of Standards


ISO is the International Standardisation Organisation. It is located in Switzerland and
was established in 1947 to develop common international standards in many areas.
ISO first published it quality assurance and quality management standards in 1987
and then republished an updated version in 1994. These quality standards are referred
to as the “ISO 9000 Standards”.        ISO‟s purpose was to facilitate international
commerce by providing a single set of standards that would be recognised worldwide.
Once the quality system has been fully implemented an external auditor visits and
evaluates the system‟s effectiveness. Following a successful audit a certificate is
awarded. Many companies choose to show the “ISO 9002 accredited” logo on their
company banners.

4.2     The Theory of the ISO 9000 series of Standards


The theory of ISO 9000 is based on a number of factors. These all relate to what
factors affect the quality of the product. These are:


     Design
     Training
     Purchasing
     Customers
     Management
     Technologies
     Work Patterns
     Resource Levels


                                                                                     5
     Job Descriptions
     Planning Methods
     Inspection and Testing
     Production Processes
     Reporting Relationships
     Transportation Services
     Policies and Procedures
     Communication Patterns
     Record Keeping Systems
     Service Delivery Practices
     Inventory Control Methods
     Employee Knowledge


Because all these factors influence quality, ISO requires companies to be in control of
these factors.


5     Key Elements of ISO 9000


ISO 9000 consists of twenty areas that need to be looked at in order to achieve the
standard. ISO 9002 is the slight variant of ISO 9000 that specifically deals with
manufacturing processes. Wherever ISO 9000 is mentioned, it applies equally to ISO
9002.

5.1     Management Responsibility


a) Quality Policy, on display signed by Richard Gray
b) Organisation chart with roles not names. Role of Department Heads with regard
      to quality. Redressing non-conformance.
c) Audit. Make sure training up-to-date with ISO and that trained staff perform
      quality audit.
d) QA manager appointed.
e) Hold management reviews probably monthly and minutes recorded.




                                                                                     6
5.2     Quality System


a) A documented quality system to be produced. Information regarding ISO 9000
      and its implementation.
b) Quality system procedures.
c) Quality Planning. Check that we can meet what the customer wants. A written
      plan so that the way in which we control quality is documented.



5.3     Contract Review


a) Check that the supplier can meet the requirements in any contract or order.
b) Review tenders made and orders accepted to check that exact requirements are
      defined and documented, differences between the order or the contract are
      resolved and supplier must ensure it can complete order/contract.
c) Changes to contract must be documented and system for changes devised.
d) Contract reviews are part of the organisation‟s quality records.

5.4     Design Control
NOT APPLICABLE FOR ISO 9002

5.5     Document and Data Control


a) All documents must be recorded in the Document Control register, these are
      documents not only for quality but vital for the business, such as purchase orders
      or pre-run check sheets. External standards and regulations must be included too.
b) All document changes must be agreed with the quality manager.
c) When updating a document, everything must be documented and steps made to
      ensure everybody is using the new document.

5.6     Purchasing


a) Purchased goods must conform to standards.              These standards should be
      documented.
b) Evaluation of subcontractors must happen. This can be done by questionnaire.


                                                                                      7
c) Purchasing data must be exact and unambiguous.
d) Verification of purchased product must be allowed. This means that the company
      can inspect the process of the supplier.

5.7     Control of Customer-Supplied Product


a) Where the customer supplies goods, a documented system to control them must be
      implemented.
b) These should be recorded.
c) Controls should be implemented to prevent loss, damage or deterioration.
d) They should be stored and labelled separately so as not to get mixed up with own
      stock.



5.8     Product Identification and Traceability


a) Purchased goods or services must be traceable to the supplier. This is important
      where products from different suppliers are similar. These components must be
      clearly identified and stored separately.
b) All finished product must be traceable to the customer‟s original requirements.
      Batch numbers should be recorded to aid traceability.



5.9     Process Control


a) All stages of production must be documented and controlled.
b) Work instructions must be issued and all jobs should only be allocated to staff
      with the skill and experience required to complete the work satisfactorily.
c) All production should be planned in advance to ensure compliance with
      customers‟ product delivery criteria.
d) Processing equipment should be fit for purpose and properly maintained.
e) Vital production stages should be identified. These should be documented so that
      any product faults can be identified quickly.




                                                                                    8
5.10 Inspection and Testing


a) All product supplied must be checked before it is used to ensure that meets the
   criteria and specifications set. Tests should be undertaken to ensure compliance.
   Product must not be allowed to enter production cycle without documentary
   evidence that it is compliant.
b) Pre-checking should reflect the amount of checking made at the product source.
c) In-process checks must be documented and carried out.
d) Final checking should happen where possible.
e) All records must be kept for three years.



5.11 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment


a) There must be a Calibration or Plant and Equipment register.
b) All equipment for inspection, measuring or testing must be on this register.
c) This equipment must also be calibrated, controlled and checked at specific and
   predetermined intervals.
d) The best people should do calibration even if this means an external source.
e) Failure should be documented.

5.12 Inspection and Test Status


a) The status of the product must be identified at all stages. This means that if
   something is non-conformant (i.e. an out of round reel) it should be documented
   and labelled so it cannot be used for production.
b) A person needs to be nominated with the authority to release or withhold a
   product.




                                                                                    9
5.13 Control of Non-Conforming Product


a) There must be documentation for non-conforming product so that it is identified,
   segregated from conforming product, prevented from being used in the process
   and disposed of and details recorded.
b) There are several options with regards to dealing with non-conforming product
   these include: Rework to bring up to standard, regrade for alternative use, reject or
   scrap, return to supplier and release as long as customer is made aware.
c) A person should be nominated to deal with non-conforming product.



5.14 Corrective and Preventative Action


a) Identify non-conformance.
b) Find root cause.
c) Initiate corrective action to avoid future problems.
d) Record problem and remedial action on a non-conformance report.
e) Serious problems should be reported on a Corrective Action Report following
   liaison with the department heads and the quality manager.
f) Monitor remedial actions.
g) Remedial actions should be reported at a Management Review.

5.15 Handling, Storage, Packing, Preservation and Delivery


a) Procedures need to be employed to ensure that product is not damaged.
b) Storage conditions must be monitored and recorded to ensure product is being
   stored in a suitable environment.
c) Packing line procedures must be documented.
d) Packaging must be stored in designated areas.
e) Preservation must be suitable once the product is made.
f) Product must be protected in transportation. This applies to third-party hauliers
   too.



                                                                                     10
5.16 Control of Quality Records


a) It is essential for ISO 9000 to have the correct quality records.
b) It is necessary to identify and define the quality information that needs to be
    collated.
c) A record keeping system needs to be developed and procedures need to be
    implemented to maintain and control it. These procedures must be in place for:
   Collecting and recording quality information
   Filing, indexing, storage and maintenance of quality records
   Removal, archiving and destruction of old quality records
   Protection of quality records from unauthorised access.
   Prevention of records being altered without approval
   Safeguarding records from damage or deterioration.


There are a number of documents that are suggested should be used for ISO 9000.
These documents vary according the organisation that they are in.

5.17 Training


a) Maintain Training Records for all staff.
b) Pre-plan future training requirements.
c) Ensure training in QA happens for all.



5.18 Servicing


a) All servicing requirements must be pre-planned and documented.
b) Nature of servicing must be recorded with checks and reporting procedures to
    ensure work is completed to a satisfactory standard.




                                                                                     11
5.19 Statistical Techniques


a) First the techniques that are applicable need to be identified so that they are
      relevant and applicable.
b) Subsequently these can be used to identify non-conformance.                This non-
      conformance can be recorded.


6     Application of ISO 9000 to some MCP processes.


In order to assess the effectiveness of ISO 9000 for MCP it is useful to examine a few
processes that are currently undertaken. Each process will be mapped and the stages
analysed to assess where ISO is applicable. This mapping allows each area of the
process to be broken down and therefore eases the analysis of the process.
When references are made to the ISO 9000 standard, they are made using the
numbers that have been used in section 5 of this document. In the actual ISO 9000
standard, they are referred to by the number 4.x.

6.1     Changing Blankets


In web offset printing, a blanket is used to transfer the image from the printing plate
to the paper. Blankets are relatively easily damaged and need to be changed on a
regular basis. If a blanket is damaged or incorrectly fitted then deterioration in quality
is observed.




                                                                                       12
     6.1.1 Process Map
a)……………………………...             Blankets require replacing

b)……………………………...          Blankets Collected from Stores

c)……………………………...           Pneumatic airgun and torque
                            wrench taken from toolbox

d)……………………………...           Blanket moved until in correct
                                     position

e)……………………………...           Torque wrench used to loosen
                                   safety bars

f)……………………………...           Airgun used to take safety bar
                                    screws off

g)……………………………...           One end of the Blanket Bar is
                                    removed

h)……………………………...           Blanket Rotated and other end
                                     removed

i)……………………………...           Blanket removed and cylinder
                           rotated to check underpacking

j)……………………………...         Put front edge of blanket into gap
                         ensuring the blanket bar matches
                               the bar on the cylinder

k)……………………………...           Take screws from recesses and
                         place in centre holes ensuring they
                               are not over-tightened.

l)……………………………...         Remove screws in safety bar and
                                   set level

m)…………………………….                 Secure the other bars
..
n)……………………………...           Make sure the blanket is fitted
                           correctly and doesn‟t overlap

o)……………………………...          Tighten all screws equally with
                                       airgun

p)……………………………...         Tighten screws fully with torque
                                     wrench

q)……………………………...         Attach safety bar using the airgun
                                and torque wrench

r)……………………………...          Check torque after an hour and       13
                                then another hour
6.1.2 Application of ISO 9000 to Process Map


Having described the process it is now possible to analyse it with reference to the ISO
9000 standard. For the process of Changing Blankets, most of the sections of the
standard can be applied to some part of the process. Some of the sections apply to the
whole process and others apply to specific areas of the procedure. I will deal first
with the sections that apply to the whole procedure.



6.1.2.1 Sections of ISO 9000 that apply to the whole process


Section 5.1 of ISO 9000 deals with Management responsibility. This clearly applies
to the whole of this process and indeed to any processes that are undertaken. This
section covers making sure that the managers demonstrate commitment to quality,
that staff are aware of their contribution to quality and that efficient monitoring
should take place.


Section 5.2 also applies to the whole process. This is the section that states that a
quality system should be in place. This means that there should be general quality
documents in place that defines the quality requirements within the company.


Another section that applies to the whole process is Section 5.18, which deals with
training. Specifically it suggests that training records should be in place to monitor
which staff are trained to do a task. It is also necessary to show the staff how to do
the task and apply the documented procedure to the task.


Finally Section 5.17 deals with auditing to make sure that the procedure is being
correctly followed and that any checks that are made during the procedure are still
being followed and that they remain relevant.




                                                                                    14
6.1.2.2 Sections of ISO 9000 that apply to specific areas of the process
In order to analyse the process with respect to ISO 9000 it is necessary to split the
process into three main areas:


a) The raw materials
b) The equipment
c) The personnel issues

6.1.2.2.1    The raw materials

The raw materials for this process are blankets and the screws that are used to fit the
blanket to the cylinder. The screws whilst performing an important job are integral
part of the press and therefore do not need to considered. The handling, storage,
fitting and use of the blanket comes under several sections of the Standard.


The first stage of the process involves the sourcing of the blankets and regulation of
their usage.


Purchasing (Section 5.6) deals with the need for control when purchasing raw
materials.     The subcontractors should be selected on the basis of a laid down
procedure and records should be kept about them.             The performance of the
subcontractors should be reviewed regularly. Within the company there should be a
named person whose responsibility it is to make sure that the contract is being
fulfilled and that all associated documentation (purchase orders and contracts) are up-
to-date. Contract review (Section 5.3) is also allied to this and aims to make sure that
contracts are reviewed in a consistent manner.


Once the blankets have been purchased several sections of the standard apply to what
is done with them before they are used. It is important that they are handled and
stored in the correct manner (Section 5.15). There should be procedures for storage
and handling of the blankets. It is necessary to investigate what these conditions are
and implement procedures on the basis of research. Section 5.10 also applies as it
says that incoming goods should be inspected and that controls need to be in place to



                                                                                     15
inspect the blankets on entry to the stores and before they are released for fitting on
the presses. Following inspection Section 5.12 deals with inspection and test status
ensuring that inspected blankets can be easily located.       Section 5.13 deals with
making sure that non-conforming blankets do not get mixed up with blankets that are
satisfactory for use.


Product identification and traceability (Section 5.8) is required when dealing with the
blankets. They need to be marked so that they can be traced to a batch from a
manufacturer. This enables any faults to be easily traced back to source. Section 5.9
relates to process control and applies in a similar way to Section 5.8 in that it states
that there should be control of all materials entering into and used in the process. This
section also relates to Section 5.15 as it also defines that procedures should be in
place for the correct storage of raw materials.


Finally Section 5.20 deals with the statistical methods that should be employed. For
blankets this means that there should be data analysis as to the frequency of any
defects and the frequency that blankets need changing.

6.1.2.2.2   The Equipment


Whilst the control of all aspects of utilising the blankets is important, no less
important is making sure that the tools that are used to perform the procedure are
controlled and suitable. The two tools that are used in the fitting of a blanket are an
air gun and a torque wrench.


The most important factor regarding tools is whether the tools work properly for the
job. This is covered in Section 5.9. This section deals with process control and states
that material within the process needs to be controlled and it is necessary that
hardware works properly.


Section 5.10 deals with inspection and testing which states that all tools used must be
inspected before they can be used. Once the tools have been inspected for the first
time they come under Section 5.11. This section states that all equipment used in the
procedure must be calibrated, controlled and checked.          All the equipment and


                                                                                      16
calibration tests must be recorded and detailed information provided regarding the
standards, testing criteria and tolerance against which the equipment is being tested.
The individual authorising and scheduling the test must be identified. All equipment
that fails any test must be subject to a non-conformance report and must not be used
until it again meets the required standards. Following on from this Section 5.12 deals
with making sure that the test status of the equipment is clearly displayed. This
ensures that any piece of the equipment not up to standard will not be used in the
process. There also needs to be documentary evidence stored in a central location
concerning the status of each piece of equipment and the history of its test status.


Section 5.15 applies to the equipment in that it deals with the storage of tools used in
the process. It is necessary that they are stored in a specific location so a track can be
kept of them and so that no non-controlled tools are used.


Finally Section 5.19 deals with the servicing of equipment. This states that it is
necessary to know how to service the tools and that this servicing is effective.

6.1.2.2.3   The personnel issues


There are a couple of areas of ISO 9000 that apply to the people that are performing
the procedure. Although these people come under some of the areas that are listed in
the areas that apply to the whole process (6.1.2.1) there are still specific areas that
apply to specific section of the process. The sections are 5.17 and 5.18. These are
sections that deal with auditing and training. It is important that there are correct
procedures for each stage of the process and that there are methods in place by which
it is ensured that these procedures are being adhered to. In a process such as changing
blankets, it is possible that only certain people are trained to perform the whole
process. They may be assisted by staff who are not fully trained. It is therefore
important to define each area of the process in the training record.




                                                                                       17
6.2   Reel Handling


One of the most important processes that occurs in the printing process at MCP
(Oldham) is the splicing of one reel onto another. So as to maximise the output of the
press, when one reel of paper is finished the press continues running and the next reel
of paper is automatically joined onto the finished reel. The process happens rapidly
and needs a number of factors to be controlled and monitored in order for the process
to work effectively. If the process does not occur correctly, the press stops and a
substantial amount of downtime can occur. This splice sequence depends heavily on
both the performance of the operator preparing the reel (reelhand) and also the status
of the reel of paper.       Reels of paper are particularly susceptible to changes in
environmental conditions so safeguards have to be in place to ensure that these
conditions are regulated.




                                                                                    18
a)……………………………...    Discard the end caps and visually
                      inspect the core for damage

b)……………………………...   Position the reel between the arms      6.2.1 Process Map
                         using the transfer table
c)……………………………...   Ensure the chucks are set to release
                         on both control panels

d)……………………………...    Press the „chuck out‟ button on
                   both panels to retract the chucking
                                   pins

e)……………………………...    Move the reelstand arm into the
                          working position

f)……………………………...     Ensure that the reel is correctly
                      positioned on transfer table
g)……………………………...    Move the paper reel between the
                                arms

h)……………………………...     Check the chucks are centred.
                         Adjust as necessary

i)……………………………...     Move the drive side chuck in so
                   that it goes 50mm into the reel core

j)……………………………...   Move the op side chucks until they
                           reach their limit

k)……………………………...      Use the „chucks in‟ buttons to
                    tighten and turn „chucks tighten‟
                   button until chucks expanded lamp
                                  lights

l)……………………………...     Move reel into correct running
                    position and remove the transfer
                                 station

m)…………………………….     Remove the brown paper from the
..                   reel and inspect for damage
n)……………………………...     Strip back minimal amount of
                      paper to obtain „good paper‟

o)……………………………...    Fold the paper to a straight edge
                              and tear off

p)……………………………...     Place the tape as shown on the
                        diagram (see appendix)

q)……………………………...   Attach the metal foil label, nose tab
                    and side tabs in correct positions
                     and move the reel into position                      19
6.2.2 Application of ISO 9000 to Process Map


The process of reel handling consists of a number of steps that need to be followed to
ensure that the process runs effectively. ISO 9000 can be applied to a number of
these areas and also to the process as a whole. Generally the ISO 9000 areas that
apply to the whole process can be applied to most processes. Therefore for the
discussion of the areas that apply to all processes, see section 6.1.2.1.

6.2.2.1 Sections of ISO 9000 that apply to specific areas of the process


As with the process of changing blankets (6.1), it is necessary to split the process into
three areas:
a) The raw materials
b) The equipment
c) The personnel issues

6.2.2.1.1   The raw materials

The raw materials for reel handling are:
 Paper
 Splicing Material


For the process to work effectively, it is essential that these are both monitored and
controlled. As paper is such an important area of this process I will deal with it
separately to the splicing materials.


The success or failure of the process can depend on the quality of paper that is
supplied. The purchasing, handling and inspection of the paper impinges on several
areas of ISO 9000. The first is Purchasing (5.6). In our organisation purchasing of
paper is not controlled by MCP (Oldham), however in order to get ISO 9000 approval
we would have to look into how the group purchases its paper and make sure that the
correct measures are being taken. The performance of the suppliers needs to be
monitored and a person in place to decide on which suppliers to use, based on data
received.



                                                                                      20
Product identification and traceability (5.8) is important with regards to the paper as
batches of paper made at the same time often show similar characteristics. If there is
a problem with a number of reels of paper from the same batch, it is important that we
are able to quickly locate any other that we may have from the same batch.


Following on from product identification and traceability is the section that deals with
handling, storage, packaging and delivery (5.15). Paper is susceptible to variations in
atmospheric conditions and also to mishandling. It is therefore important that there be
a procedure in place for the handling and storage of paper. It is important that the
humidity is also monitored closely as variations in the water content of paper can
affect its tensile strength and therefore its susceptibility to in-process breakage.


Equally important is inspection and testing (5.10) to make sure that the paper is
monitored throughout the process. Checks need to be made on the reels when they
arrive at the plant and procedures put in place for how inspections should be carried
out.   Section 5.10 relates directly to 5.11, which deals with inspection and test
equipment. It is not just necessary just to say the paper has been inspected and tested
(5.10), it is necessary to make sure that the inspection and test methods and equipment
used to perform the tests provide accurate results. Alongside that there needs to be
sufficient training in their use. In the case of paper, it is quite difficult to test whether
the paper is non-conforming. One of the most common areas that can provide paper-
related problems in the process is that sometimes the reels are not quite circular.
Research needs to be performed to assess the tolerances of the equipment to variations
in this circularity.


Relating to section 5.11 is section 5.12, which deals with the inspection and test
status. It is necessary that the status of each reel can be identified throughout the
process so those reels that are non-conformant can be easily identified. Section 5.13
deals with these non-conforming products and deals with making sure that these reels
are segregated from conforming reels. Where the product was manufactured and the
nature of the non-conformance needs to be recorded so that appropriate action can be
taken. Following this, the section that deals with corrective action (5.14) applies.



                                                                                          21
Reels need to be subjected to corrective action if they don‟t conform to specification.
The most common solution to this would be to return the reel to the supplier.


The final section that applies to the paper is 5.20 that deals with statistical methods.
These are particularly applicable when considering reels, as a large number are used
from different suppliers. It is therefore possible to make various analyses of the
performance of batches/manufacturers/presses in respect of reels. If this data in
managed correctly, useful information can be gleaned that is not obvious without the
use of these statistical methods.


The other materials used in the preparation of reels are the splicing materials.
Splicing is the method by which one reel of paper is „stuck‟ onto a new reel of paper.
The materials that are used are double-sided tape, breakable adhesive tabs and a
silver-metallic label. The double-sided tape is used to adhere the beginning of one
reel to the end of the other. The breakable tabs are used so that the start of the new
reel stay attached to the reel until the splice sequence is in process. At the moment of
splicing these tabs break so that the end of the paper is released to stick to the old reel.
The metallic label is used so that the machine „knows‟ where the beginning of the reel
is and splices at the correct time.


The main section of ISO 9000 that deals with these materials is 5.15. This section
deals with the handling and storage of the materials. Because these materials depend
on their adhesive qualities for their correct functioning it is important to ensure that
this adhesive quality is not compromised. They should therefore be stored in the
correct manner and control of their release for use should be put in place.



6.2.2.1.2   The equipment


There are a number of different pieces of equipment that deal with the handling of the
reels. When the reels arrive at the plant they a taken by mechanical grab to the
delivery bay and stored until they are picked up by robots and delivered to the
reelstands.   The reelstands are where the reels are loaded onto the press.            The
reelstands perform the task of splicing and are controlled by the reelhands. The



                                                                                         22
obvious area of ISO 9000 when dealing with equipment is section 5.19, which deals
with the servicing of the equipment. It is vital that any equipment used that can affect
the quality of the product is serviced on a regular basis by personnel that are trained
how to service it and that the servicing is done in an effective, consistent manner.


Section 5.20 dealing with statistical techniques is also important when looking at the
equipment as the variations in performance may not be noticeable visually, however if
the correct statistical methods are applied trends or variations may become visible.


Finally, testing of the equipment needs to take place on a regular basis (5.10) to
ensure that the equipment is working correctly and not causing increased downtime.

6.2.2.1.3   The personnel issues


Whilst it is relatively straightforward to control the raw materials and equipment used,
it is more difficult to assess and implement the personnel issues surrounding the
process. The most important issue when personnel are involved with a process is
their training (5.18). There needs to be training records in place so that staff that are
trained to do the task are the only ones that perform the task. More importantly
however is to ensure that these training records are meaningful. This means the
personnel need to be shown how to carry out the task, how to apply the various
procedures to the task and how to maintain a sufficient quality standard. Allied to
this, auditing needs to be made as to whether these procedures are being adhered to
(5.17). This will enable quality to be improved and provide an incentive for following
the correct procedures.

6.3   Setting the folder


An element of the press is its folder. The folder is the point in the press where the
paper is folded and cut to size. As the printing process is a rapid one, the setting up of
the folder plays a large part in the success of the run. The folder is quite a complex
piece of machinery therefore there is a margin for error when setting it up. The folder
needs setting every time before the press starts running.




                                                                                       23
6.3.1 Process Map

a)……………………………...            Clutch the Press in

b)……………………………...     Set jaw cylinder to product using
                               feeler gauge

c)……………………………...           Put paper into folder

d)……………………………...      Feed ribbon of paper into rear
                           folder draw rollers

e)……………………………...     Using draw roller adjusters and
                     extra piece of paper, adjust until
                                  tight fit

f)……………………………...       Check for correct knife case

g)……………………………...       Check knife guard is closed

h)……………………………...       Ensure cam timing is set for
                             collect/straight

i)……………………………...    Engage paddle assembly ensuring
                      it is set for collect or straight

j)……………………………...    Check expansion cylinder settings.
                    Expand for small copy, contract for
                                big copy

k)……………………………...    Inch folder round bringing folded
                             copy to the front

l)……………………………...      Check jaw settings using copy

m)…………………………….       Set front trolley rollers checking
..                  they are resting firmly against the
                                    copy

n)……………………………...    Speed the press up and adjust the
                     paddle timing using the vertical
                    adjuster on the front of the paddle
                                 assembly

o)……………………………...     Close folder guard, increase the
                       press speed and adjust the
                     overlap/underlap using adjuster
                         wheels on side of press          24
6.3.2 Application of ISO 9000 to Process Map
The process of setting the folder consists of a number of steps that need to be
followed to ensure that the process runs effectively. ISO 9000 can be applied to a
number of these areas and also to the process as a whole. Generally the ISO 9000
areas that apply to the whole process can be applied to most processes. Therefore for
the discussion of the areas that apply to all processes, see section 6.1.2.1.

6.3.2.1 Sections of ISO 9000 that apply to specific areas of the process


As with the process of changing blankets (6.1), it is necessary to split the process into
three areas:
a) The raw materials
b) The equipment
c) The personnel issues

6.3.2.1.1   The raw materials


Unlike the previous two processes the raw materials only play a minor part in this
process. The only raw material is the paper. The paper is used to check and modify
the settings on the press but it is not necessary to control it in any way.

6.3.2.1.2   The equipment


Whilst the raw materials are not influenced by ISO 9000 in this case, the equipment is
important for the success of this process. The key piece of equipment that needs to be
used for setting the folder is the feeler gauge. This is a calibrated piece of equipment
that if used correctly enables the folder to be set to the correct settings. This feeler
gauge is controlled under the section concerning inspection, measuring and test
equipment (5.11). If a procedure is put in place to ensure that the gauge is calibrated
regularly, it should function in the correct way. Having calibrated the gauge it is
necessary to register what its test status is (5.12). There should be a record of what
the status of the gauges is and also a schedule for their recalibration. It is also
necessary to specify that a particular feeler gauge to be assigned to a press. This is


                                                                                      25
covered under the section about product identification and traceability (5.8). The
tools and equipment used in any process need to be identifiable. This makes it
possible to trace the source of any non-conformance.


The folder itself is also subject to ISO 9000. Process Control (5.9) is particularly
relevant.    It says that all stages of production, installation or servicing must be
documented and controlled. It goes on to say that equipment should be fit for purpose
and properly maintained to ensure minimum downtime and to ensure that products
meet the customers‟ requirements. It is therefore necessary to ensure that there is a
documented system of preventative maintenance for each folder. Allied to the section
on Process Control is a section 5.14 that deals with corrective and preventative action.
Systems need to be in place not only for preventative maintenance, but also to keep a
track of any remedial work that is performed on the equipment.


From these reports it is possible to perform statistical analyses (5.20) to assess
whether the downtime that may be affecting a folder is significant or just attributable
to random variation.

6.3.2.1.3   The personnel issues


Clearly the setting of the folder is labour intensive and a specialised task. It is
therefore important to closely control and monitor the actions of personnel involved in
performing the task. If the folder is not set to the correct standard downtime can be
occurred both through inducing slow-performance for the press               and folder
malfunction causing the press to be unable to produce. Section 5.18 deals with
training. All staff should be adequately trained and „signed-off‟ to do the task before
they perform it. There should be adequate auditing 5.17 of the task so that non-
conformances in the way that it is being performed can be identified. These audits are
performed by designated people on a periodic basis. Staff need also to be trained in
how to use the feeler gauge correctly and encouraged to report any problems with the
procedure.




                                                                                     26
7   Does ISO 9000 have a positive and useful effect for the
    analysed process and MCP as a whole?


Having looked at the three processes above, would it be worthwhile to implement
some of the philosophies of ISO 9000 to these processes or, are there wider positive
implications for the whole of MCP?


In a manufacturing industry such as MCP the key to good output, high quality and
low waste is consistency. Consistency is the ability to produce the same quality and
same output of product, minimising waste repeatedly.              This eliminates the
„rollercoaster‟ effect of having good results sometimes and then having appalling
results other times, without having the information to understand why either situation
has occurred. This philosophy is central to ISO 9000. Taking the three examples of
the processes above, it is clear to see that complying with ISO 9000 demands that
there is conformity and a standard way of performing the task. There are also
common themes that run through the analysis of these processes:


 Processes need to be documented (Sections: 5.2, 5.5, 5.9, 5.13, 5.15, 5.16)
 Equipment needs to be controlled (5.6, 5.8, 5.9, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.14, 5.19)
 Relevant documents need to be created and kept up-to-date (5.2, 5.3, 5.5 5.12,
    5.16, 5.17)
 Adequate servicing needs to take place (5.19)
 Staff need training (5.18, 5.1)
 Statistical methods can be used to help fault finding and improve the process
    (5.20)


Unsurprisingly these are all dealt with in various sections of ISO 9000 and can be
related to all twenty sections of the standard (except 5.4 and 5.7 that don‟t apply to
MCP).


It is therefore possible concluded that it is useful (for the sake of consistency) to use
ISO 9000 for these processes. However, an interesting question arises:




                                                                                        27
“Do we need to use ISO 9000 to improve output, quality and reduce waste?”


It could be argued that it is unnecessary to go through the rigmarole of implementing
ISO 9000 to improve output, quality and reduce waste as most of the ideas that
emanate from ISO 9000 are common sense and can be implemented without the
rigidity that it imparts. It is therefore necessary to look beyond the three analysed
processes and see whether there would be any benefit for MCP.


The principles that have been distilled from the processes above can be applied across
the company.    Again this would provide a conformity which is essential if the
company were to provide better overall quality. There are additional issues regarding
the whole company with respect to the suppliers of paper and ink and also suppliers of
the information for the newspaper. Both of these are outside the control of MCP.
Paper and ink is bought as a group by the parent company (Trinity Mirror) and
therefore MCP has little say in what is supplied and also it takes much longer to get
non-conformities rectified. The negatives (on which the newspaper arrives to MCP)
are supplied by the Mirror offices in Canary Wharf. Many problems have been
occurred in the past as there appears to be variable quality control with respect to
these negatives. As MCP is effectively a contract printer for Trinity Mirror MCP
have to „cope‟ with whatever is supplied by the parent company. This may cause
problems with ISO 9000 as it would be difficult to convince an area such as editorial
of the need for conformity with what they do.


These problems apart, ISO 9000 does have a role to play in MCP. Currently there are
few procedures, the rollercoaster effect happens frequently, there is no real training
database and quality is only given lip service. ISO 9000 does not provide the „magic
cure‟ that is suddenly going to make the organisation an ultra-efficient model of a
newspaper printing plant. It does however provide guidelines on how MCP should
tackle quality and if followed, a sound foundation that MCP can use to improve the
business generally. As well as „kick-starting‟ quality at MCP, once the standard has
been achieved and the ISO 9000 accreditation awarded, it makes the company more
competitive and more likely to attract contract work, which will be the basis of much
of MCP‟s work in the medium to long term.



                                                                                   28
8     A framework for MCP achieving ISO 9000


Having seen the benefits that can be gained from implementing ISO 9000 at MCP, I
believe that it will be useful to suggest a method by which the standard could be
implemented based on the requirements of the standard.


The basis for achieving ISO 9000 is producing two manuals: The Quality Policy
Manual (QPM) and the Operational Procedure Manual (OPM). Clearly there is a lot
of practical work that needs to be done in order to produce these manuals. The point
of ISO 9000 is missed if it is assumed that the only reason you make changes to the
quality systems is in order to be able to create these manuals. These manuals should
be an aid to becoming a better quality organisation.


The quality policy manual is a statement of the company‟s commitment to a quality
assurance policy. The operational procedure manual confirms how the ISO 9000 is
implemented throughout the business. The OPM consists of the twenty sections of
the standard with how each area will be addressed. The QPM has these twenty
sections but also has three additional sections. These are the scope, which deals with
what areas of the company are seeking accreditation, the references, which are the
standards that the company already follows (i.e. COSHH) and definitions, which are
a list of products and any records of tenders and contracts.


In order to see how the standard may be implemented it is useful to examine each of
the twenty section and give examples of what would be contained in the QPM and
OPM. The number system is the one used for section 5 above and corresponds to the
order the elements appear in the standard.


5.1     Management Responsibility
QPM A statement of quality and the fact that designated people will have quality
responsibilities
OPM Training is given to enable staff to understand quality and its implications




                                                                                   29
5.2      Quality System
QPM A documented quality manual consisting of procedures will be produced and
kept up to date
OPM All processes are analysed and documented
5.3      Contract Review
QPM Contracts will be documented and checked in order to fulfil the needs of the
customer
OPM A standard form for contract is produced so that it is clear what is required by
the customer
5.5      Document Control
QPM All documents will be controlled and kept up to date
OPM There is a procedure for dealing with obsolete documents
5.6      Purchasing
QPM The performance of subcontractors will be monitored on a regular basis
OPM Mr XYZ is responsible for purchasing blankets and will deal with all the
purchasing issues regarding them
5.7      Control of Customer Supplied Product
QPM Negatives supplied to us by the Guardian Media group will be kept separately
from those of Trinity Mirror
OPM A time sheet is kept for the monitoring of arrival times and quality of
Guardian Media negatives
5.8      Product Identification and Traceability
QPM Newspapers that we produce will be able to be traced to both line and operator
OPM The plates are identified as to which line they are used on and the event
logging system assigns particular operators to that line
5.9      Process Control
QPM All stages of production and servicing will be documented to minimise error
OPM There are procedures in place for all vital production stages.
5.10     Inspection and Testing
QPM All products supplied will be inspected prior to their use
OPM Any reels entering the plant are measured to see whether they are „out of
round‟
5.11     Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment
QPM There will be an Calibration and a Plant and Equipment Register


                                                                                  30
OPM Whenever part of the press is calibrated this is recorded in the calibration
register
5.12       Inspection and Test Status
QPM The test status of equipment will be recorded and a log kept
OPM There are documents referring to all equipment in the plant that are used as a
record of the equipment‟s past and current test status
5.13       Control of Non-Conforming Product
QPM Any products that don‟t conform to specification will be segregated so they
are unable to be used in the process until the nonconformity is rectified
OPM Non-conforming reels are placed in a special area before their return to the
supplier
5.14       Corrective and Preventative Action
QPM Recurring faults will be analysed to assess whether action needs to be taken to
rectify them
OPM When there are recurring faults with the press, production endeavours to
assign the engineers a larger slot on the press to attempt to rectify the problem
5.15       Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery
QPM Documented procedures will be in place for handling of all materials that are
identified as being vulnerable to mishandling
OPM The humidity within the reel room is monitored regularly and ensured that it
remains within agreed tolerances
5.16       Control of Quality Records
QPM There will be quality records created and kept up to date for all areas of
operation
OPM There is a standard procedure for replying to customer complaints that is used
whenever a complaint is received.
5.17       Internal Quality Audits
QPM Internal quality auditors will be appointed who will audit procedures on a
regular basis
OPM Every procedure is audited at least once a year to ensure compliance and
maintain high quality standard. When major operational changes are undertaken or
new procedures implemented extra audits will be scheduled
5.18       Training
QPM Training records will be created and maintained for all staff


                                                                                    31
OPM Training records are kept that monitor the staff‟s ability to perform certain
tasks. Staff are given refresher lessons for the most important processes on a yearly
basis
5.19    Servicing
QPM The nature of any servicing that is done on equipment will be kept in a register
OPM Whenever servicing is performed on a piece of equipment, a record is kept as
to the nature of the fault and the remedial action performed
5.20    Statistical Techniques
QPM Statistical techniques will be employed to monitor output
OPM Average output per line is monitored so that any less obvious faults on a line
may be identified easier


As can be seen from the list of statements above there are many elements that need to
be addressed to achieve ISO 9000 accreditation. The list above only covers one
element in each of the quality policy manual and the operational policy manual. In
reality these documents will be quite lengthy, particularly the OPM.           In some
organisations the step from their current situation to getting ISO 9000 will be a small
one, however in MCP, there are few quality systems in place so much work is
required to get up to standard.


The method that will need to be employed in order to begin to get the foundation for
accreditation will be to appoint a work group. This group will be lead by the quality
manager given responsibility for the ISO 9000 project. It will be necessary to appoint
the members of the group carefully as it will be difficult to convince some people of
the benefits of a quality system. At first the group needs to agree the way in which
the task will be tackled and the various responsibilities. Once the group agrees what
is going to be done and are fully supportive of the method, the idea needs to be „sold‟
to the staff so that everyone is aware of the aim for accreditation and there is not the
suspicion that surrounds many new projects that are undertaken.


In this way it is expected that within about a year, the company may be ready to call
for the external auditors and attempt to gain accreditation.




                                                                                     32
9   A new ISO standard


In November 2000 the ISO 9000 series of standards is being superseded by a new
standard called ISO 9001:2000. Unlike the previous standard all organisations come
under the new standard. ISO 9002 and 9003 have been amalgamated into this new
standard. The twenty-clause structure of the old ISO standard has been scrapped in
favour of a new structure that is not so rigid. The reorganisation will create a more
logical structure and make it more compatible with ISO 14001 (environmental
management standard) and „Investors in People‟.        There is generally a greater
emphasis on customers in the new standard with particular emphasis giving to
identifying and meeting customer needs and expectations.         It also expects that
communication happens with customers to measure and monitor their satisfaction. In
addition, the standard emphasises the need for improvement. The new requirements
are listed below:


 Communicate with customers
 Identify customer needs and expectations
 Meet customer needs and expectations
 Measure and monitor customer satisfaction
 Meet regulatory requirements
 Meet legal requirements
 Support internal communication
 Provide quality facilities
 Provide a quality work environment
 Evaluate the effectiveness of training
 Measure and monitor realisation process
 Evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of the quality system
 Identify quality management system improvements


The overall process follows a much stronger process approach to quality than the old
ISO standard, which will require that top managers be in complete control of the
organisation‟s processes. This should ensure that if the new standard is followed not




                                                                                  33
only will consistent quality be achieved, but also this quality will be consistently high
and subject to continuous improvements.


10 Conclusion


From the report it can be seen that there are many benefits to be gained by adopting
the ISO 9000 standard. It would bring a consistency that has been lacking within
MCP for many years and enable quality to finally have the recognition that it
deserves. It will not be easy to get the accreditation and there are many hurdles that
need to be overcome. The main hurdles are:


   The fear of change
   Lack of understanding of reasons for quality system
   Lack of senior management buy-in
   Large amount of ground that needs to be covered to achieve accreditation
   Increase in paperwork when the mentality is “Just get the job out!”


Whilst none of these hurdles are trivial, then benefits that have been described seem
to outweigh the costs. MCP cannot continue to be competitive in the 21st Century
without adopting a strong policy on quality, which so many of its competitors have
already successfully adopted. Within the newly merged Trinity Mirror organisation,
the Newcastle Chronicle printers have already achieved ISO 9000 accreditation and
should be used as a model for the implementation of ISO 9000 at MCP (Oldham).
Using Newcastle as the model should provide the basis by which ISO 9000 can be
promoted within the organisation and provide real life examples of the benefits that
can be achieved by following the ISO 9000 ethos.


Having studied the new ISO 9001:2000 standard it is concluded that this provides
more scope for quality improvement than the old standard. However because of the
rigid style of the old standard, it provides a good basis from which to start
implementing a quality system




                                                                                      34
11 Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge Mark Wall (Press Room Support Manager) for
spending several days working through the procedures that were used in the report.


12 References


1. ISO 9000 Made Simple, John Shaw, 1999, 2nd Edition, Management Books 2000
   Ltd, 151pp
2. What is Quality Management?
   http://www.salford.ac.uk/qualman/other/wiqm.html
3. What is quality? http://www.washburn.edu/sobu/tsalinas/minimba/tsld012.htm
4. ISO 9000-2 Guidelines Translated into Plain English,
   http://www.connect.ab.ca/~praxiom
5. Why Implement ISO 9002 if you Don‟t have to?
   http://www.qualitydigest.com/nov99/html/iso.html
6. ISO 9001 2000 vs. ISO 9001 1994, http://praxiom.com/iso-new.htm
7. Brace for Impact, Manufacturing Engineer, Green D.G, June 2000, pp 124-128
8. TNT UK submission for 1998 European Quality Award
9. Trinity Mirror Annual Report 1999




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