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Tracking An Emerging Movement: A Report on Expanded Time Schools in America

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Tracking An Emerging Movement: A Report on Expanded Time Schools in America Tracking An Emerging Movement: A Report on Expanded Time Schools in America Today the National Center on Time & Learning is proud to announce the release of a groundbreaking report documenting the state of expanded-time schools in America. The report draws from our new national database of schools that have broken from the conventional school calendar in order to improve educational outcomes. The database and report represent the most comprehensive attempt to define and describe this growing and much watched field. Our report comes at a time of great momentum for the issue of expanded time nationally. Both President Obama and Education Secretary Arne Duncan have consistently called for expanded learning time as part of their ambitious effort to reform the nation’s schools. The guidelines for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), including the highly competitive Race to the Top grant, highlight lengthening the school day and year as a key strategy for improving low-performing schools. With support from the Hewlett Foundation, the report, Tracking an Emerging Movement: A Report on Expanded-Time Schools in America, draws from our database of the 655 schools we identified across 36 states serving more than 300,000 students. The report analyzes the schools’ key characteristics, as well as survey data on a subset of 245 schools on how the added time is utilized and funded. We also report the findings of our exploratory analysis on student outcomes. Notable findings include: •On average these schools offer about 25 percent more time than the national norm of 180 six-hour days; •While a majority of the schools included are public charter schools, more than one-quarter of the schools identified are standard district public schools; •Compared with national averages, schools with expanded time serve a more heavily minority and poorer student population; and •Data suggest that mo

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									                Tracking An
                Emerging
                Movement:
                A Report on
                Expanded-Time
                Schools
                in America
                by
                David A. Farbman, Ph.D.
DECEMBER 2009
        Executive Summary




  F
        ifteen years ago, the National Education                  feature an expanded day and/or year, this
        Commission on Time and Learning explained                 report describes the various trends emerging
        that the American school calendar of 180                  among these schools, including issues related
  six-hour days stands as the “design flaw” of our                to costs, time use and student outcomes. The
  education system, for schools could not be expected             searchable database is available on our website,
  to enable children to achieve high standards within             www.timeandlearning.org.
  the confines of the antiquated schedule. Today, a
                                                                  Though the findings
  small but growing number of schools have begun to
  overcome this “flaw” by operating with school days
                                                                  included below cannot        Over the coming years, NCTL expects
                                                                  be considered conclusive researchers, educators and policymakers
  substantially longer than the six-hour norm and, in
                                                                  — the field of expanded-
  many cases, a calendar that exceeds the standard
                                                                  time schools is too          to focus more intently on expanded-
  180 days.
                                                                  new and decentralized        time schools and the promise they may
  The National Center on Time & Learning (NCTL),                  to be confident that         hold for raising the achievement
  with the support of the William and Flora Hewlett               the database is fully
                                                                                               of students.
  Foundation, has produced this groundbreaking                    representative of the
  report on the state of what can be called “expanded-            population — they
  time schools.” Through this effort, NCTL has helped             do highlight the relatively widespread use and
  to define and bring together this previously                    potential benefits of expanded time. Over the
  unidentified category of schools, while still recog-            coming years, NCTL expects researchers, educators
  nizing the considerable diversity among this group.             and policymakers to focus more intently on
  Extracting and analyzing information from NCTL’s                expanded-time schools and the promise they may
  newly created database of over 650 schools that                 hold for raising the acheivement of students.




  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F E X PA N D E D - T I M E ( E T ) S C H O O L S

 Time                                                             about one-quarter of the student population.
  While the range of time added is quite broad for                Additionally, two-thirds of the school children
  ET schools, on average, the schools in the data-                served in these schools (66%) are poor.

                                                                Type of Schools
  base offer about 25 percent more time than the
  national norm. The broad range of times indi-
                                                                  ET schools serve a broad range of students at
  cates that there is no single model for expanding
                                                                  all grade levels, with grades served skewed toward
  time. It is more typical for ET schools to extend
                                                                  younger grades, even as a substantial number
  the length of the day than to add days to the
                                                                  of schools serve high school grades.
  school year.

 Number of Students and Location of Schools
                                                                  Charter schools constitute almost three-quarters
                                                                  (74%) of the schools in the database. Charter
 Based on available enrollment data, the 655 schools              schools are more likely to have longer years than
 in the database serve approximately 300,000                      district schools, but not necessarily longer days.

                                                      Age of ET Schools
 students in 36 states and the District of Columbia,
 with most schools located in large cities.

 Student Population Served
                                                      Among database schools responding to the NCTL
                                                      survey, almost half (47%) have begun in just the
 When compared to national averages, ET schools       last three years. A vast majority of “converted
 serve a much more heavily minority and               schools” (80%) have expanded their day and/or year
 poorer student population. African-American          in the last three years, while only 36 percent of
 students represent 45 percent of the total, with     “startup schools” emerged in the last three years.
 Hispanic and White students each representing
  Thus, growth is being fed primarily by existing       startup schools do so. Among those schools
  schools that are converting to a longer day           that pay their teachers more for the additional time
  and/or year.                                          worked, schools reported a mean 13.6 percent

 Staffing Costs of ET Schools
                                                        increase in pay.

  Of the converted schools, three-quarters (75%) pay
  their teachers more, while only 44 percent of


  TR EN DS I N TEAC H ER AN D STU DENT TIME

 Student Time                                          90 minutes (or more) time spent in any one
  Elementary and middle-grade students spend over      academic subject.

                                                       Teacher Time
  1,500 minutes per week in core academic classes,
  equivalent to five hours per day. Within that time
                                                       Teachers at different grade levels spend their time
  frame, elementary students spend roughly double
                                                       differently, with elementary teachers spending
  the amount of time in English language arts (ELA)
                                                       about three-quarters of their time (73%) teaching
  as they do in math, while middle-grade students
                                                       and middle and high school teachers spending
  spend time more evenly across the four core aca-
                                                       proportionally less time teaching (63%). In contrast,
  demic subjects. High school students spend less
                                                       middle and high school teachers spend more time
  time overall in core academics (about 1,175 minutes
                                                       in common planning and other activities than
  per week) than their younger peers, with the
                                                       do elementary teachers.
  amount of enrichment time for high school
  students (430 minutes per week) exceeding by



  TIME AN D STU DENT AC H I EVEMENT

 Perceptions of the Value of Expanded Time              (r=.29 and r=.41, respectively) and ELA (r=.31 and
  A vast majority of schools (90%) rank expanded        r=.43, respectively). An analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  time as very important to meeting their educa-        on the most robust data set available (7th grade)
  tional goals (either a “4” or “5” on an ascending     identified significant differences (p<.05) in both
  five-point scale).                                    math and ELA performance, with students in

 Relationship Between Time and Performance
                                                        schools with longer days outperforming their peers
                                                        in schools with shorter days. Although the data
  A correlational analysis found a statistically        available for these analyses were limited, they do
  significant (p<.01) moderate association between      suggest a positive relationship between student
  the number of minutes per day and student             performance and daily time.1
  performance for Grades 7 and 10 in both math




  RECOMMEN DED FU RTH ER RESEARCH

• Student and Teacher Use of Time                      • Differences Between Types of Schools
  Gather schedule data from more schools, and            Explore how different types and structures
  compare and contrast data from expanded-time           of schools (e.g., charter vs. non-charter, startup
  schools with schools that have more conventional       vs. converted, etc.) implement an expanded
  schedules.                                             schedule and how these different structures
                                                         might impact outcomes.
• Financial Analysis
  Execute a more careful study of some variety         • Expansion of Database
  of schools — charters and non-charters, original       Continue to expand both the number of schools
  and converted, urban and rural, elementary and         in the database and the scope of information
  secondary, etc. — to determine how schools             collected, including more teacher and student
  manage and pay for expanded time.                      schedule data, as well as qualitative data on
                                                         expanded-time implementation.
• Student Performance
  Conduct a much more rigorous analysis of the
  relationship between expanded time and student
  performance using individual student perform-
  ance scores, including controls for demographics
  and past performance and appropriate compari-
  son groups.


                                                                                                              3
        I. Introduction




O
          ver the last two decades, the nation has      their doors with this expanded schedule in place
          made great strides in raising expectations    (usually as charter schools), and some have
          related to learning and in holding students   converted from a conventional calendar to a longer
and schools accountable for reaching the standards      day and/or year. Some are high schools, some are
set. Every state now has, to one degree or another,     elementary schools and some span many grades.
a set of learning standards for students and a series   Some feature a longer year; more feature a longer
of tests designed to measure students’ knowledge        day. Some pay their teachers more, some do
and skills in those areas. Compared to a generation     not. The expanded-time schools we have identified
ago, students in the United States today are ex-        exist mostly in urban areas, but there are some
pected to know and do more by the time they leave       expanded-time schools in rural communities,
high school.                                            as well. Some add a range of enrichment activities,
                                                        while in others, the focus is mostly on academics.
Yet, even as states have improved standards and         It appears no dominant model has taken hold.
increased accountability, they have done little to
give students more time to reach these standards.       Likewise, there is no single policy to support
The conventional school calendar of about 180           expanded-time schools, and they have continued
six- to six-and-a-half–hour days still remains firmly   to spread in a decentralized and erratic manner.
in place. Indeed, as new standards and policies to      Most expanded-time schools we identified are
hold schools accountable have emerged rapidly,          charters, schools that, by design, exist outside many
regulations about school time have remained             state or local regulations, yet there are also a
remarkably constant.1 It is as if today’s schools are   sizeable number of
asking students to run a 10-mile race in the same       district schools that have
time in which their parents ran a five-mile one.        been able to establish         These educators do not merely recognize
                                                        schedules that diverge         that the standard calendar is inade-
But the problem is not just limited to the challenge    from that of their district quate to enable all their students to achieve
for individual students; many believe lack of ade-      peers. Some of these
quate learning time has profound implications for       district schools manage
                                                                                       proficiency, they have taken it upon
our collective future. As President Obama explained     to break from the con-         themselves to change it.
in his first major education address in March 2009,     ventional on their own.
“We can no longer afford an academic calendar           A handful of districts have targeted certain under-
designed when America was a nation of farmers . . .     performing schools and provide more resources to
That calendar may have once made sense, but             those schools to expand their schedules. Right now,
today, it puts us at a competitive disadvantage.”       Massachusetts holds the distinction of being the
                                                        only state with an active policy of expanding time
Beneath the apparent uniform adherence to the
                                                        in district schools, but this trend is likely to grow
antiquated school calendar, however, a small but
                                                        as federal policymakers begin to allot resources for
growing number of public schools have broken
                                                        further innovation in this area. For example, the
from the norm. These educators do not merely
                                                        recent guidelines for the American Reinvestment
recognize that the standard calendar is inadequate
                                                        and Recovery Act’s “Race to the Top” fund identify
to enable all their students to achieve proficiency,
                                                        “added time” as one of the key innovations states
they have taken it upon themselves to change
                                                        can undertake to qualify for funding.
it. They have added hours to the day or days to the
year (or both) for the express purpose of strength-     Among this diversity of practice and policy, no
ening teaching and learning. These educators            governmental authority has been in place to track
are declaring their belief that more time in school     and assess expanded-time schools. Meanwhile, as
is better for their students.                           a growing number of policymakers and educators
                                                        across the nation consider the feasibility and
Even with this singularity of purpose, the field
                                                        value of expanding school time, developing a better
of what we have dubbed “expanded-time schools”
                                                        understanding of how schools are currently
is quite diverse. Many of these schools have opened
                                                        innovating with time is more important than ever.


4
                        Creating a National Database                         • For schools converting to a longer day and/or
                        To fill this notable absence of information about      year, the schedule is measured relative to the
                        the movement toward longer-day and longer-year         pre-conversion schedule, not an absolute number
                        schools, the National Center on Time & Learning        of minutes per day or days per year
                        (NCTL) has created a national database to catalogue • For new schools, the expanded time is measured
                        and track the field of expanded-time schools as        relative to other surrounding public schools,
                        defined below. The database, supported by the          not an absolute number of minutes per day or
                        William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, exists as        days per year
                        an online resource for researchers, policy makers
                        and practitioners and was created for three          • In both cases, the longer day and/or year sched-
                        central reasons:                                       ule is intended to improve academic achieve-
                                                                               ment and not to address logistical challenges
                      • To determine the extent and scope of expanded-
                        time schools in order to situate future efforts      • Because the intent of the added time is to
                        within a larger context of educational practices;      improve achievement, it is presumed that the
                                                                               relatively longer time would be a meaningful
                      • To determine how schools expand and spend              amount (i.e., more than a few minutes per day
                        time (including the types, practices and costs         or one or two days per year).
                        of expanded-time schools) in order to inform
                        policy development that seeks to expand school         Building the Database
                        time to improve learning outcomes; and                 From Winter 2008 through Spring 2009 NCTL
                                                                               conducted an extensive search for schools that
                      • To collect baseline data for research on the
                                                                               might meet these criteria and began the develop-
                        effectiveness of various expanded-time models.
                                                                               ment of a database that includes as many of
                        The database was launched in November 2009             these schools for which we could obtain informa-
                        and is accessible through the NCTL website,            tion as possible. The process of identifying schools
                        www.timeandlearning.org. It is searchable by           that met this definition relied on two strategies.
                                                     a number of key           First, knowing that charter schools typically have
                                                     characteristics, such     the resources and legal flexibility to break from
...the National Center on Time & Learning as location and low-                 the standard school schedule, NCTL targeted this
(NCTL) has created a national data-                  income population.        group of schools as most likely to have expanded
base to catalogue and track the field                Downloads of the          their schedule. Second, NCTL presumed that had
                                                     full database contents    districts or individual district schools expanded
of expanded-time schools...                                                    their schedules, national education organizations
                                                     (or portions of it) are
                                                     also available for        and/or local or national media would be aware
                        researchers who wish to conduct more in-depth          of or report on such an occurrence. NCTL, thus,
                        explorations of its contents. NCTL will continue       tapped a network of national education organiza-
                        to update and expand the data contained in             tions and media sources to gather the names
                        the database.                                          of district schools that had — either through their
                                                                               own volition or by policy mandate — expanded
                        Defining the Field                                     their schedules to better meet the needs of their
                        The initial challenge in developing a database         students. Using these strategies, NCTL identified
                        of schools that have not previously been considered    655 schools meeting the specified criteria. (See
                        part of a coherent and distinct group is to figure     Appendix A for a more complete description of the
                        out a means to define the group by their common        methodology.)
                        characteristic. Toward this end, NCTL developed the
                        following definition of an expanded-time school:       In addition to containing basic information about
                                                                               each school name, location, grades served, etc. —
                        “An expanded-time school is any public                 the database also includes data related to the
                         school that has deliberately added more time          school schedule (minutes per day and days per
                         to the school day and/or days to the school           year) and draws from two other national databases
                         year for all enrolled students (or has been           (U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core
                         founded with a deliberately longer day and/or         of Data and Standard & Poor’s School Matters) to
                         year than surrounding public schools) for             include demographic and outcomes data, respec-
                         the express purpose of improving student              tively. Finally, a subset of the schools in the
                         outcomes.”                                            database (n=245) responded to a survey designed
                                                                               to gather some more information related to
                        This definition achieves the following criteria        management, staffing and scheduling for school
                        and limitations:                                       year 2008–09.
                         • The school is public                                  Still, the database is not exhaustive. There are likely
                         • The school is intentional in the development          to be more expanded-time schools in existence
                           of its schedule                                       that are not yet included in the database. But since



                                                                                                                                       5
there is no systematic national effort to identify        the 21st century, expanded-time schools will likely
expanded-time public schools, we are unsure how           become more commonplace over the coming years.
many of the 97,000 U.S. elementary and secondary          Understanding how they operate and how teaching
public schools may be operating on an expanded-           and learning might be optimized within them
time schedule. Thus, the extent to which our efforts      is a charge that education researchers must take
yielded a representative sample or a population           seriously. Their discoveries will help to drive and
of expanded-time schools is unknown. Rather, the          direct education reform moving forward.
NCTL database represents a best effort to capture as
broad a population as possible of a type of school        The report is divided into three sections. The first
that, until now, has been unidentified. For purposes      provides some basic descriptive information on the
of this report, we refer to the 655 schools in the        655 database schools, including geographic location,
database as expanded-time schools or ET schools.          populations served, schedule information and
                                                          type (charter/non-charter, grades served, etc.). The
Given the limitations of the database (i.e., its          analysis paints a rough portrait of the field of ET
representativeness is unknown), the analysis that         schools as of Spring 2009. The second section
follows is primarily descriptive and is intended          entails a deeper examination of a subset of these
to be exploratory in nature. We can learn a great         schools (245 schools, or about 35 percent of the total)
deal about some of the trends and common                  that responded to an online survey. Although
practices of ET schools, but the findings are far         some non-response bias was found in the respon-
from definitive. Rather, the analyses that follow are     dent sample, the survey data still enable us to look
suggestive of the contours of this newly defined          in greater detail at how students and teachers
field. NCTL is committed to growing the database          spend their time during the week, how schools pay
and scope of the information about ET schools over        for the expanded schedule and what other educa-
time in order that future analyses can offer a more       tion reforms or practices are taking place at
rigorous and complete assessment of the field.            these schools. (For more details on the differences
                                                          between respondents and non-respondents,
Summary Report                                            see Appendix A.) The final section reports on some
The descriptive analyses that follow represent the        exploratory analyses of student outcome data in
first-ever attempt to understand and summarize            order to identify any possible associations between
the trends that are taking place within the universe      school schedules and student achievement.
of expanded-time schools. This summary report,
which draws from data compiled by NCTL, intends           The report concludes by recommending areas for
to inform practitioners and policymakers about            further research and suggests some key questions
the many types of ET schools that have emerged            that research could help us answer, not only about
and to examine key characteristics of this loosely        expanded-time schools, but also about the nature
affiliated group of schools. They demonstrate that        of schooling more generally.
expanded-time is not only possible, but thriving in
                                                          We have also included some brief profiles of a
many different places and in many different forms.
                                                          handful of ET schools — included as sidebars
In addition, this report also seeks to excite among       within the following pages — to give a small flavor
researchers the possibilities for further study of this   of what these schools look like up close and what
group of schools. Given the priorities of the presi-      motivates them to expand school time.
dent and U.S. secretary of education, not to mention
the growing urgency to close achievement gaps
and better prepare students for careers and life in




6
II. The Field of
    Expanded-Time Schools




                T
                      he following analyses are based on extant                    percent of ET schools have a day that falls within
                      data for the 655 database schools, although                  the national norm, 42 percent of the ET schools
                      data were not available for every school for                 have a school year that is equal to or less than the
                each area examined.                                                national norm of 180 days.

                How Much Time Do Expanded-Time Schools Offer?                      In addition, the diversity of strategies that schools
                Table 1 below summarizes the average time and                      employ to add time is apparent. Consider the wide
                the range of time offered by the database schools                  range of time across all three metrics. Some schools,
                using three different metrics: length of the day                   for instance, expand the number of minutes per
                (number of minutes per day), length of the year                    day substantially but operate on even fewer days
                (days per year), and overall time added across both                per year than the national norm. For this reason
                measures (hours per year). To serve as comparison                  the lower end range of the database schools is lower
                points, column C includes the national norm for                    than national norms, especially in days per year.
                school calendars. While the range of time added                    Yet, the schools that occupy the lower end of these
                is quite broad for schools across the database,                    ranges are still considered expanded-time schools
                on average, the schools in the database offer about                because their daily schedule (or yearly calendar)
                25 percent more time than the national norm.2                      is, in most cases, well above the national norm. The
                                                                                   school that runs only 144 days/year, for example,
                Figures 1 and 2 (following page) indicate that ex-                 operates on a daily schedule of 8.1 hours, for a total
                tending the length of the day is more common than                  of 1,166 annual hours.
                adding full days to the school year. While only four




                TAB LE 1                                           Expanded Time Basics


                                                             (A)                            (B)                               (C)
                        Metric                n        Database Schools               Database Schools                  National Norms
                                                           (Mean)                         (Range)                           (Range)

                  Daily Minutes             643                 466.9                        330-645                          340-400


                  Days/Year                 423                 185.1                        144-220                          175-180


                  Annual Hours              415                1,390.0                     1,036-2,100                       1,080-1,170

                Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009); C. Gewertz, “Consensus on Learning Time Builds,”
                September 24, 2008, Education Week




                                                                                                                                           7
     FIGURE 1                                                                    FIGURE 2
             Number of Database Schools By Minutes                                          Number of Database Schools By Days
                                  n=643                                                                   n=423




                                                     330-400 minutes                                                          Fewer Than 180 days

                                                     401-450 minutes                                                          180 days

                                                     451-500 minutes                                                          181-190 days

                                                     501+ minutes                                                             191+ days




    Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)                     Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)




How Much Time Do Different Types of                            charters in the database exceed non-charters. The
Expanded-Time Schools Have?                                    absolute differences are relatively small (and not
The above analysis looks at the group of expanded-             statistically significant) in both daily minutes and days
time schools in aggregate, but there are differences           per year, but the result of being in session more
in how the two types of schools (charter vs. non-              minutes per day and more days per year yields an
charter) and in schools serving different grade levels         annual hours average where charters in the database
(elementary, secondary and mixed elementary/                   operate for an average of 58 more hours per year
secondary) implement an expanded-time schedule.                (the equivalent of roughly two additional weeks of
                                                               school), a statistically significant difference (p<.05).
Charter and Non-Charter Schools
                                                               Figure 3 demonstrates that a greater percentage of
Charter schools constitute almost three-quarters (74%)
                                                               non-charters (30%) feature a day of more than 500
of the schools in the database. We examined the
                                                               minutes as compared with charter schools (22%). Still,
differences between charter schools and non-charter
                                                               the real difference between charters and non-charters
schools to identify differences in how an expanded
                                                               is evident in the days-per-year category, (see Figure 4)
schedule is implemented in these two distinct school
                                                               where a much larger percentage of non-charter
types. Columns A and B in Table 2 (see page 10)
                                                               schools (61%) is in session for no more than the tradi-
detail the differences.
                                                               tional 180 days per year, while only a minority of
In all three time metrics (minutes, days, annual hours)        charter schools (36%) adhere to the traditional year.



     FIGURE 3                                  Minutes Per Day: Charter vs. Non-Charter
                                               (Percentages in Parentheses Following*)
                                                              By Groups


                                                                                                                      501+ Minutes

                                                                                                                      451-500 Minutes

                                                                                                                      401-450 Minutes

                                                                                                                      360-400 Minutes



                                                 Charter                      Non-Charter
                                                 (n=471)                        (n=173)
                                                                                                * Because of rounding, percentages may not add to 100.
                                                                                                  Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)



8
        FIGURE 4                        Days Per Year: Charter vs. Non-Charter
                                       (Percentages in Parentheses Following*)
                                                      By Groups



                                                                                                          191 Days

                                                                                                          181-190 Days

                                                                                                          180 Days

                                                                                                          < 180 Days


                                         Charter                      Non-Charter
                                         (n=309)                        (n=114)       * Because of rounding, percentages may not add to 100.
                                                                                        Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)




                            Elementary and Secondary Schools                        indicating only slight differentials in the three
                            In addition to examining the differences between        time metric categories.3 Of note is that the schools
                            charter and non-charter schools in the database,        that featured the longest days and years (and,
                            we also examined differences between elementary         in turn, annual hours) was the group of schools that
                            schools (i.e., serving any grades between PK            spanned both elementary and secondary grade cat-
                            through 5th) and secondary schools (i.e., serving       egories (e.g., K–8, K–12 or 5–8 schools) (Column E).
                            any grades between 6th and 12th). Columns C–E
                            of Table 2 (following page) detail these differences,




QU ICK FACTS                Profile: Using Expanded Time as Part of a District Turnaround

School Name:                Weil Technology Institute is one of Pittsburgh          identify areas for additional skill building. With
Weil Technology Institute   Public School’s eight Accelerated Learning              an emphasis on skill development, benchmark
                            Academies (ALAs), an initiative to turn around          assessments enable teachers to differentiate
Location:                   underperforming district schools. Established           instruction to help students master various skills.
Pittsburgh, PA              in 2006 by Superintendent Mark Roosevelt, the
                            ALAs aim to help students within a school               The expanded schedule also supports teacher
Grades Served:                                                                      development by adding five additional professional
                            reach high levels of achievement, regardless
K-8                                                                                 development days to the school year and creating
                            of where they started. Modeled after standards-
                            and research-based educational practices, the           more time for common planning and weekly staff
School Type:
                            ALAs provide students with a rigorous, supportive       development meetings. Weil has also instituted
District, Converted
                            and innovative learning environment.                    a leadership team consisting of teachers from each
Expanded Time Since:                                                                grade level or content area, literacy and math
2006                        As part of implementing a school reform model,          coaches and the school’s principal to assess student
                            Weil Technology Institute, like the district’s seven    needs and match these needs with resources
Schedule:                   other ALA schools, was required to expand learning      and instructional practices to help every student
7.16 hours/day;             time by 45 minutes a day and eight days per school      succeed.
188 days/year               year. The additional 45 minutes are used to lengthen
                            instructional time in literacy, math and science        In its third year of implementation, data from state
Demographics:               classes. With this expanded schedule, students now      achievement tests show students making consider-
97% African-American;       spend seven hours and 10 minutes a day in school.       able gains. Among 8th graders, for example, reading
75% low-income                                                                      and math proficiency rates more than doubled
                            To monitor student performance, the school              from 2007 to 2008.
                            conducts benchmark testing four times a year and
                            teachers use end-of-unit tests in core classes to



                                                                                                                                                   9
 TAB LE 2                                               Daily Minutes, Days/Year and Annual Hours
                                      By School Type (Charter and Non-Charter; Elementary, Secondary, and Elem./Sec.)


                                     (A)                           (B)                           (C)                            (D)                   (E)
      Metric                   Charter Schools                Non-Charter                    Elementary                      Secondary        Elementary/Secondary
                                   (n=482)                  Schools (n=173)                    (n=103)                        (n=226)               (n=328)

                             Number             %          Number             %         Number             %        Number              %      Number           %
                               of                            of                           of                          of                         of
                             Schools                       Schools                      Schools                     Schools                    Schools

   Average Daily                       468                            463                         456                          459                     476
   Minutes
      < 360                       1            0.2              0             0             0              0             0              0         1            0.3
      360-400                    15            3.1             10            5.8            9             8.7           10             4.4        5            1.5
      401-450                   226           46.9             74           42.8            52            50.5          118            52.2      131           39.9
      451-500                   125            25.9            38            22             27            26.2          47             20.8      89            27.1
      501+                      104            21.5            51            29.5           15            14.6          48             21.2      93            28.4
      Data N/A                   11            2.3              0             0             0              0             3             1.3        9            2.7

   Average Days                        185.9                         182.8                        185.5                        182.6                   186.6
   Per Year
   < 180                         63            13.0            18            10.4           15            14.6          28             12.4      38            11.6
      180                        47            9.7             52            30.1           18            17.5          44             19.5       37           11.3
      181-190                   118            24.5            36           20.8            26            25.2          57             25.2       71           21.6
      191+                       81            16.8             8            4.6            15            14.6           13            5.8        61           18.6
      Data N/A                  173            35.8            59            34.1           29            28.2          84             37.2      121           36.9

   Average Annual                     1,406                          1,348                       1,369                         1,347                   1,428
   Hours*
      1000-1250                  49            10.2            23            13.3           13            12.6          34             15.0       25           7.6
      1251-1400                 123            25.5            58            33.5           33            32.0          69             30.5      79            24.1
      1401-1550                  80            16.6            25            14.5           23            22.3           21            9.3        61           18.6
      1551+                      49            10.2             8            4.6             5            4.9           16             7.1       36            11.0
      Data N/A                  181            37.6            59            34.1           29            28.2          86             38.1      127           38.7

  Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)
* Difference in average annual hours between charters (1,406) and non-charters (1,348) is statistically significant to p<.05




 What is the Demographic Profile                                         Hispanic and White students each representing
 of Expanded-Time Schools?                                               about one-quarter of the student population,
 An analysis of the demographic composition of the                       far different than national averages in each of these
 schools in the database finds that expanded-time                        demographic categories (Figure 5). The proportion
 schools serve a more heavily minority (especially                       of African-American students and poor students
 African-American) and low-income student popula-                        in the schools increases in tandem with increases
 tion than the national averages in these categories                     in annual hours (Figure 6).
 (Figure 5).

 African-American students represent 45 percent
 of the student body attending ET schools, with




 10
FIGURE 5                                                 Demographic Composition of Database Schools (in Percentages)
                                                                       Compared to National Averages
                                                                         By Demographic Category



         Mean of
         Database Schools

         National Mean




                                                            White            African-         Hispanic          Asian      Free/Reduced
                                                                            American                                           Lunch
Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009); NCES, Digest of Education Statistics, 2008




FIGURE 6                                                            Percent African American and Low-Income Students
                                                                                    in Database Schools
                                                                                  by Annual Hours Group



               Free/Reduced
               Lunch


               African-
               American



                                                1,000-1,250 Hours           1,251-1,400 Hours          1,401-1,550 Hours      1,551+ Hours

Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)




                             What Grades Do Expanded-Time Schools Serve?                          this analysis does count many schools more than
                             To determine the frequency of grades served by                       once. For example, a K–8 school would count as
                             ET schools, we divided the grades into three basic                   a school serving elementary grades and as a school
                             categories — elementary (PK–5), middle (6–8)                         serving middle school grades. As a result, the total
                             and high school (9–12). Figure 7 (next page) depicts                 percentages for each category far exceed 100 per-
                             how the ET schools fall across these three grade                     cent, as there are many schools that occupy two or
                             groupings, with a larger proportion serving                          three of the three school levels.
                             elementary and middle grades, but a still sizeable
                             number serving high school students. Note that




                                                                                                                                                     11
     FIGURE 7                                        Grades Served By Database Schools
                                                By Elementary, Middle and High School Levels




                                  Elementary (PK-5)             Middle (6-8)                   High (9-12)


     Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Database (July 2009)




Where are the Database Schools Located?                          Ohio and California), but there are also considerable
Expanded-time schools are not limited to a small                 numbers of ET schools in smaller states, including
number of states or regions. As seen in Figure 8,                Louisiana, Colorado and Massachusetts. Also, a
NCTL was able to uncover the existence of ex-                    large majority of schools are located in major cities,
panded-time schools in 36 states and the District                including Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
of Columbia. A large percentage of these schools                 and Pittsburgh. (For a complete list of schools
are located in more populous states (e.g., Illinois,             and their location, see Appendix C.)




     FIGURE 8                                         Location and Number of Expanded-Time Schools
                                                                     By State / n=655




                                                                     1
                          1                                                       8                                                             77
                                        1                            3                         1                            34
                                                                                                         11                                 6
                                                                                      1                                28              37
                              4                                                                               31                      6
                                                                                                   74   14                            2
                                                           69                                                          2         18
                    101                                                                   8
                                                                                                                       7
                                                                                                         3
                                            8                                 5           2                        1
                                                       1
                                                                                                               6

                                                                         23               56

                                                                                                                   3
                                    1




                                                                                  1



12
 III. A Closer Look at
      Expanded-Time Schools




                           T
                                  he analyses that follow examine results for        either through their own volition or through a
                                  schools that completed an online survey            policy imposed by the district or state. The second
                                  during 2008–09 school year and reported            type of expanded-time schools did not convert to
                           data for that current year. A total of 245 of the 655     an alternative schedule from one they had before,
                           database schools (37.3%) completed the survey.            but, instead, were established from the beginning
                           A non-response bias analysis revealed that respon-        with a schedule that was deliberately longer than
                           dents were significantly more likely to feature           surrounding public schools.4 We call this type
                           more annual hours and to serve a poorer student           of school a startup ET school. (Note that it is not
                           population than the non-respondents in the data-          possible to determine among the non-respondent
                           base. In addition, in the states represented, there       group which type each school falls into, as the
                           was a fair degree of variation between respondents        characterization is based on self-reporting.)
                           and the non-respondent sample. Details on the             Figure 9 shows that of the 245 schools, about one-
                           rationale for requesting particular data, the data        quarter are converted schools, and the rest are
                           collection methods and the response bias are              startup ET schools.
                           provided in Appendix A. The survey is included
                                                                                     Similar to the characteristics of the full set of data-
                           as Appendix B.
                                                                                     base schools, charter schools represent the majority
                           The Two Types of ET Schools                               of survey schools (62%) (Figure 10). Figure 11
                                                                                     (following page) depicts how the converted and
                           Before describing details of expanded-time schools
                                                                                     startup schools are distributed across charter and
                           as reported by the respondent schools, it is impor-
                                                                                     non-charter schools. Slightly more than half of the
                           tant to recognize that there are two basic types
                                                                                     non-charter schools (51%) are startup expanded-
                           of expanded-time schools. The first are what we
                                                                                     time schools, while almost all of the charter schools
                           call converted schools. These are schools that at one
                                                                                     (91%) opened their doors as expanded-time schools.
                           time operated on a more conventional calendar
                           but have transitioned to an expanded schedule,




FIGURE 9                                                                 FIGURE 10
         Surveyed Schools: Converted vs. Startup                                   Surveyed Schools: Charter vs. Non-Charter




                                                      Converted                                                                Non-Charter

                                                      Startup                                                                  Charter




Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part I               Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part I




                                                                                                                                             13
         FIGURE 11
         Expanded-Time Type Schools
         By Charter vs. Non Charter

                                        Converted

                                        Startup

                                                                  Charter (n=151)               Non-Charter (n=94)

         Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part I




    How Much More Time Do Expanded Time                               day compare with surrounding public schools.
    Schools Have?                                                     Table 3 reports the data for all responding schools
    The longer day and/or year of ET schools are, by                  (column A) and for both converted vs. startup
    definition, longer in relation to surrounding                     schools (columns B and C) and charters vs. non-
    schools; there are no absolute time quantities. To                charters (columns D and E).
    determine how ET schools’ daily minutes and                       Similar to the full set of schools in the database,
    annual days compare to surrounding schools, the                   there is a greater tendency of charter schools
    survey queried how much more time they featured.                  to feature a longer year than non-charter schools.
    For converted schools, the survey asked how                       Given the large degree of overlap between the
    many minutes per day and how many days per                        charters and startup schools, a similar differential is
    year the school added (compared with their                        apparent between converted and original
    previous schedule); for startup schools, the survey               schools.
    asked how their days per year and minutes per




QU ICK FACTS                         Profile: Staggering Staff Schedules to Enable Expanded Time

School Name:                         In 2007, the nonprofit Generation Schools Network,            program. College Career courses are staffed by
Brooklyn Generation                  based in Brooklyn, New York, opened its first school,         instructors hired by the Network to lead students
School                               Brooklyn Generation School. Dedicated to providing            through this intensive track. Staggering staff
                                     urban students with access to a high-quality                  schedules also helps to eliminate the costs associ-
Location:                            education, the Network’s public school was refined            ated with compensating teachers to teach on
Brooklyn, NY                         over time in collaboration with key thought part-             an expanded-time schedule.
                                     ners including the NYC Department of Education,
Grades Served:                                                                                     The daily schedule is structured so that students
                                     United Federation of Teachers and the Center
9-12                                                                                               attend two Foundation Courses in the mornings.
                                     for Educational Innovation. The model is built on
                                     six strategies that are comprehensive, proactive,             These courses run 90 minutes and are taught
School Type:
                                     nimble, sustainable, scalable and mission driven.             by a team of teachers, each providing instruction
District, Original
                                                                                                   to a small group of 10 to 15 students. With a
Expanded Time Since:                 The founders wanted to put an expanded year                   focus on English, math, science and social studies,
2007                                 in place, but knew that arranging for teachers to             Foundation Courses provide students with a
                                     work more days would be a logistical and resource             college-ready curriculum. In addition to these aca-
Schedule:                            challenge. In order to expand the school year for             demic courses, each student also participates in
6.83 hours/day;                      students, Brooklyn Generation employs a unique                daily Studio courses such as the arts or foreign
200 days/year                        staffing schedule by spreading and staggering                 language, in order to provide them with a more
                                     teacher’s “summer” vacation throughout the school             well-rounded education.
Demographics:
                                     year. So, while students attend school on an ex-
85% African-American;                                                                              Although the school is still young, there is early
                                     panded schedule of 200 days, each teacher in the
85 % low-income                                                                                    evidence of success. Brooklyn Generation students
                                     school works no more than a typical New York City
                                     school teacher. For example, when the 9th grade               have outperformed all of the schools in their peer
                                     teacher is on vacation, students participate in               group on the state’s standardized math exams.
                                     the Generation Schools Network College Career



    14
TAB LE 3                      How Much Time Added To Previous Schedule or Time More than Surrounding Schools
                                     By Aggregate, Converted vs. Startup, and Charter vs. Non-Charter


                                     (A)                      (B)                           (C)                          (D)                     (E)
    Metric                      All Schools                Converted                 Startup Schools               Charter Schools          Non-Charter
                                  (n=245)                Schools (n=60)                   (n=185)                      (n=151)              Schools (n=94)

                               n             %              n            %              n             %              n            %          n            %


   Average Daily                     68.4                        64.5                         69.7                        72.8                    61.4
   Minutes Added
    0-30                       63           25.7           20           33.3           43            23.2           29           19.2       34           36.2
    31-60                      85           34.7            15          25.0           70            37.8           60           39.7       25           26.6
    61-90                      39           15.9            6           10.0           33            17.8           31           20.5        8            8.5
    91-120                     35           14.3            17          28.3           18            9.7            13            8.6       22           23.4
    121-150                    14            5.7            1            1.7           13             7.0            11           7.3        3            3.2
    180+                       9             3.7            1            1.7            8             4.3            7           4.6         2            2.1

   Average Days                       9.2                         2.7                         11.3                        11.4                    5.6
   Added Per Year
    0 (or less)*              88            35.9           45           75.0           43            23.2           32           28.5       56           59.6
    1-5                        18            7.3            7           11.7           11             5.9            9            7.3        9           9.6
    6-10                       57           23.3            4           6.7            53            28.6           45           35.1        12          12.8
    11+                       80            32.7            4           6.7            76            41.1           64           50.3        16          17.0
    N/A                        2            0.8             0           0.0             2             1.1            1            1.3        1            1.1
 Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part II, Questions 1 and 2
*Two schools acknowledge a shorter year than surrounding schools, but feature a longer day.


                                    How Long Have ET Schools Been Around?                                   the result of existing schools converting to a longer
                                    Figure 12 (following page) shows that almost half                       day and/or year, rather than new schools starting
                                    of the ET schools (46%) are relatively new, having                      out with an expanded schedule.
                                    begun in just the last three years. As Figure 13                        Of the converted schools, fewer than four in 10
                                    (following page) shows, however, a vast majority                        (38%) reported that they changed their schedule
                                    of converted schools (80%) lengthened their day                         specifically because they were mandated to do
                                    and/or year in the last three years, while only                         so (Figure 14, following page).
                                    35 percent of startup schools emerged in that same
                                    time frame. Thus, it appears that in the past three
                                    years, the establishment of ET schools is primarily




                                                                                                                                                                15
     FIGURE 12                                                                        FIGURE 13
                     Age of Expanded-Time Schools                                                   Age of Expanded-Time Schools
                                n=245                                                            Percentages in Parentheses Following
                                                                                                        By Expanded-Time Type

                                                    1-3 Years (2005-08)

                                                    4-8 Years (2000-04)

                                                    9 to 14 Years (1994-99)

                                                    15+ Years
                                                    (1993 or earlier)




     Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part II, Question 3



     FIGURE 14
      Converted Schools: Mandated to Expand School Time




                                                           Yes

                                                           No
                                                                                                Converted (n=60)                  Startup (n=185)



                                                                                            1-3 Years       4-8 Years       9 to 14 Years       15+ Years


     Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part II, Question 4          Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part II, Question 3




How Do Expanded-Time Schools Staff                                 prevalent among startup schools. In almost three-
and Pay for the Extra Time?                                        quarters of startup schools (74%), all teachers work
Though the brief survey could not touch on every                   the full day; the comparable figure for converted
element of a school’s staffing and financial struc-                schools is just over half (52%). Charters vs. non-char-
tures, we get some important clues as to how                       ters show a similar split, though the differential is
expanded-time schools tend to organize their longer                not quite as large (74% and 61%, respectively).
days and years and, importantly, how they pay                      The survey also queried schools about whether the
for them.                                                          additional time worked by teachers was covered
Staffing                                                           under a collective bargaining agreement (CBA).
                                                                   Overall, more than one-third (35%) of teachers were
The survey asked what percentage of certificated                   covered by a CBA, though the CBA structure fell into
teachers were contracted to work the entire day and,               a predictable differential between charter and
additionally, if the school employed staggered staff               non-charter schools. (Seventy-three percent of non-
schedules. Table 4 shows that most schools (83%)                   charters operate under a CBA; only 10.6 percent
do not operate on staggered teacher schedules and                  of charters do.)
nearly seven in 10 schools (69%) have all of the
faculty working the entire day. With the mean per-                 To get a sense of whether expanded-time schools
centage of teachers working the full day standing                  may rely on outside partners or non-traditional
at 90.2 percent, the norm for these schools seems                  teachers to aid with coverage of the longer day,
to be that when teachers commit to working in an                   schools were asked whether they employed any
expanded-time school, they commit to being there                   “non-certificated staff” to teach any formal classes
the whole time. This full-day practice is especially               within the school. Nearly two-thirds (64%) did not.



16
TAB LE 4                                                          Staffing Issues
                                       By Aggregate, Charter vs. Non-Charter, and Converted vs. Startup


                                       (A)                     (B)                    (C)                    (D)                    (E)
  Metric                           All Schools              Converted           Startup Schools         Charter Schools          Non-Charter
                                    (n=245)               Schools (n=60)            (n=185)                (n=151)              Schools (n=94)

                                  n            %            n             %      n            %           n            %        n            %

  Staggered Schedules?
    Yes                          42           17.1         14            23.3   28           15.1        19           12.6     23           24.5
    No                          203           82.9         46            76.7   157          84.9        132          87.4     71           75.5
  Average Percentage
  of Teachers                          90.2                       81.7                92.9                     94.3                  83.6
  Working Full Day
    0-75                         29           11.8         14            23.3   43            8.1        10            6.6     19           20.2
    76-90                        17            6.9          4            6.7    11            7.0         12           7.9      5            5.3
    90-99                        31           12.7          11           18.3   53           10.8         18          11.9     13           13.8
    100                          168          68.6          31           51.7   76           74.1        111          73.5     57           60.6
  Collective Bargaining
  Agreement in Place?
    Yes                          85           34.7         42            70.0   43           23.2        16           10.6     69           73.4
    No                          160           65.3         18            30.0   11           76.8        135          89.4     25           26.6
  Non-Certificated
  Teachers
  Teaching in School?
    Yes                          88           36.0         23            38.3   43           35.1        53           35.1     35           37.2
    No                           157          64.0         37            61.7   11           64.9        98           64.9     59           62.8
Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part IV, Questions 3-6



                                 Teacher Compensation and Financing                            yielded a meaningful differential in responses
                                 One of the chief questions most policymakers                  between converted and startup schools.5 Of the con-
                                 have when considering what it takes to create and             verted schools, three-quarters (75%) pay their teach-
                                 sustain expanded-time schools is how much they                ers more; only a minority of startup schools (44%)
                                 cost. While a survey could not capture comprehen-             do so (Figure 15, following page).
                                 sively the cost of an ET school, several survey               Of those that responded that they pay teachers
                                 questions addressed the compensation of teachers,             more, respondents were asked how much more (as
                                 since instructional costs tend to account for the             a percentage of comparable base salary) they paid
                                 largest share of school expenditures.                         staff. Schools reported that on average they paid
                                 First, the survey asked whether teachers were, in             13.6 percent more, with converted schools paying
                                 fact, paid more for teaching for more time (either            more on average and startup schools a bit less
                                 compared with their previous contract, if they                (15.2% and 12.5%, respectively). The maximum addi-
                                 school had converted, or compared with surround-              tional compensation paid either by converted or
                                 ing public schools, if the school was original).              startup schools is reported at 30 percent.
                                 Responding schools were evenly split in their an-
                                 swers, with close to the same percentage answering
                                 that teachers received additional compensation
                                 as did not. As with the time categories, the question




                                                                                                                                                   17
         FIGURE 15                                                                Additional Compensation for Teachers
                                                                                         By Converted vs. Startup




                                  No Additional
                                  Compensation
                                  Additional
                                  Compensation




                                                                            Converted (n=44)             Startup (n=131)

         Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part V, Question 1




QU ICK FACTS                         Profile: Focusing on Social-Emotional Learning

School Name:                         Urban Prep Charter Academy is Chicago’s only                   of solidarity and companionship among students.
Urban Prep Charter                   all-boys public high school and one of the city’s              The last 30 minutes of the day are spent in small
Academy                              76 Renaissance 2010 schools, an initiative to shift            groups to talk about social and emotional issues.
                                     control away from the central office and give                  There is also a dedicated period of 20 minutes in
Location:                            schools more autonomy to implement their own                   the middle of the day for silent, sustained reading.
Chicago, IL                          educational vision. In its third year of operation,
                                     the school serves more than 300 students and                   With the combination of academic classes,
Grades Served:                                                                                      enrichments taught by teachers and the advisory
                                     boasts a simple, but ambitious, mission: enabling
9-12                                                                                                period at the end of the day, teachers have a good
                                     students to attend — and graduate from —
                                     four-year colleges.                                            deal of time to interact with students and in several
School Type:
                                                                                                    different contexts. These opportunities to build
Charter, Original
                                     Urban Prep Charter Academy features an eight-                  strong relationships also help to engage students
Expanded Time Since:                 hour school day. The daily schedule is fairly                  in school and learning.
2007                                 conventional for a high school. All periods are
                                     45 minutes long, except for the English language               Formative tests indicate marked academic progress
Schedule:                            arts class, which is a double period and lasts                 for most students, advancing to near grade-level
Four 8-hour days,                    90 minutes. In addition to the academic schedule,              performance, after lagging behind by as much as
one 6-hour day/week;                 students are required to participate in at least two           three grades when entering the school. The school’s
180 days/year                        extracurricular activities after school, such                  teachers are mission driven and have proven to be
                                     as athletics, yearbook, or debate team.                        quite successful at moving quickly through curricu-
Demographics:                                                                                       lum and, more importantly, enabling their students
97% African-American;                The real distinguishing feature of the schedule                to make progress and keep pace. Teachers and
83% low-income                       is its intense focus on social-emotional learning.             administrators credit the time taken to address
                                     The school day opens with a 30-minute all-school               social and emotional issues and focus on discipline
                                     gathering to hear announcements, celebrate                     for enabling productive learning to take place.
                                     student and school successes, and develop a sense




    18
                            What Else is Taking Place in Expanded-Time                among expanded-time schools. Their responses
                            Schools (Besides More Time)?                              (Figure 16) revealed that the most common prac-
                            Figuring out what “makes a school tick” through           tices in expanded-time schools are: site-based
                            a brief survey is impossible. Certainly, an expanded-     professional development (72%), data-driven in-
                            time school — or any school, for that matter — is         struction (70%) and formative assessments (56%).
                            much more than a school schedule. Administrators          In addition, intensive reading intervention and
                            and faculty engage in a number of educational             integrated technology, while practiced by less than
                            practices all aimed at helping their students to          half of schools (44% for each), are substantial.6
                            achieve. And schools are also subject to or partici-      Interestingly, more obviously time-oriented
                            pate in various district or state policies and            practices are somewhat less common, with block
                            practices that shape the whole picture of what            scheduling the most common, with about four
                            a school can and does do.                                 in 10 schools (39%) having the practice in place.
                            In an effort to capture at least a slice of this larger   There are also differentials noted between school
                            picture, the survey asked respondents to indicate         levels, though most items show similar imple-
                            if the school practiced certain common educational        mentation patterns.
                            and organizational strategies so we could better
                            understand if there were certain patterns prevalent




FIGURE 16                                  Number of Respondents Saying “Yes” to Having the Practice or Condition
                                                                 By School Level/(n=245)


Ongoing site-based professional development

       Data-driven instructional improvement

               Periodic formative assessments

                         Integrated technology

                Intensive reading intervention

                               Block scheduling

                      New principal leadership

                   Intensive math intervention

                                        Looping

                              Direct instruction

                           Year-round schedule

                 Virtual learning/online classes                                                     Elementary (n=57)

           Weighted student funding formula                                                          Elementary/Secondary (n=79)

               Comprehensive school redesign                                                         Secondary (n=57)



Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part VI, Question 1




                                                                                                                                          19
How Do Students Spend Their Time in School?                           A comparison across grades is depicted in Figure 17.
Survey respondents were asked to provide data                         Data show that elementary students spend roughly
on the number of minutes per week in various                          double the amount of time in ELA as they do in
classes and activities: the four core academic sub-                   math. Meanwhile, middle and high school students’
jects (English, math, social studies and science),                    time is more evenly divided across the four core
foreign language, enrichment (any formal non-                         academic subjects. The amount of enrichment time
academic class like music, apprenticeships or                         for high school students exceeds time spent in any
electives) and activities or times without formal                     one academic subject. The total time spent on
structure (ranging from lunch to study hall to                        the four core academic subjects for high schoolers
passing between classes). To facilitate data collec-                  is about 400 minutes less per week compared with
tion and provide some normalization across                            3rd and 7th graders (1,177 minutes for high school
schools, elementary schools were asked to provide                     sophomores vs. 1,578 for 3rd graders and 1,534 for 7th
data on the 3rd grade schedule. Secondary schools                     graders). Elementary and middle school students
were asked to report on the 7th grade schedule;                       in ET schools spend over five hours per day on core
if they did not serve 7th graders, then they reported                 academics.
on 10th grade.




      FIGURE 17                                                            Student Schedule Times, Grades 3, 7 and 10
                                                                                     by Subject and Other




                 Grade 10 (n=15)




                  Grade 7 (n=72)




                  Grade 3 (n=41)




                                                                                     Weekly Minutes


                                                          ELA                              Math                     Social Studies

                                                          Science                          Foreign Language         Enrichment

                                                          Non-structured time
                                                          (lunch, recess, etc.)

     Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part III, Questions 4-6




20
                              How Do Teachers Spend Their Time in School?                  common planning, and middle school teachers
                              To collect data on teacher schedules, the survey             were at approximately the midpoint of the other
                              queried respondents on the total weekly minutes              two groups.
                              teachers spent in three areas: teaching, profes-             Data from seventh grade teachers were sufficiently
                              sional development/common planning and other                 robust to be able to disaggregate by total daily time.
                              (e.g., individual planning, lunch duty, etc.). Schools       This analysis (Figure 19, following page) indicates
                              responded for the same grade level of teachers               that as time during the day increases, teaching time
                              as they did for students (Figure 18).                        increases only slightly and then actually falls
                              Elementary teachers spend proportionally more of             for the group of schools with the longest days.
                              their time teaching than either middle or high               Meanwhile, common planning time increases in
                              school teachers, with high school teachers spending          proportion to the daily minute increases, as
                              about one-quarter of their time in common plan-              does the “other” category (personal planning time,
                              ning or professional development. Elementary                 supervisory duties and lunch).
                              teachers spend less than one-fifth of their time in




 FIGURE 18                                                        Teacher Schedule Times, Grades 3, 7 and 10
                                                                            by Type of Time Spent




             Grade 10 (n=15)




              Grade 7 (n=72)




              Grade 3 (n=41)




                                                                              Weekly Minutes


                                                          Teaching            Common Planning/P.D.               Other



Source: NCTL, Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part IV, Question 2




                                                                                                                                               21
     FIGURE 19                                                                               Teacher Schedule Times, Grade 7
                                                                                                  By Daily Time Cohorts

                                                                         3000




                                                   Total Weekly Time
                                                                                                                                       546
         Other                                                           2500
                                                                                                            347
                                                                                 373
         Common Planning                                                 2000                                511                       736
                                                                                 434

         Teaching                                                        1500
                                                                                1645                        1671                      1623
                                                                         1000

                                                                       401-450 Mins./Day            451-500 Mins./Day               501+ Mins./Day
                                                                           (n=24)                         (n=23)                         (n=23)


     Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part III, Question 2; Part IV, Question 2




How Important Is More Time to ET Schools?                                       self-selection bias at play — those in ET schools
Respondent schools ranked (on an ascending five-                                might be predisposed to look favorably on an
point scale) how much they value their expanded                                 expanded schedule — Figure 20 shows that a vast
schedule for achieving their educational goals.                                 majority (90%) ranked expanded time as either
The results suggest that respondents do not take                                a “4” or a “5.”
expanded time lightly. While there may be some




     FIGURE 20
     Survey Responses on Importance
     of Expanded Time                                                                                              1, 2 or 3
     By Ranking (1-5 Scale)
                                                                                                                   4

                                                                                                                   5




     Source: NCTL, 2008-09 Expanded-Time Schools Survey, Part VI, Question 2




22
          IV. Student Performance in
              Expanded-Time Schools




                          G
                                   iven that the respondents believe over-         actual classrooms determined that time proved
                                   whelmingly that more time for students          to be one of the most powerful correlates to out-
                                   does help the school to reach its educational   comes, accounting for about 10 percent of the
                          goals, it is fair to ask whether outcomes data bear      variance in test scores.8 In the other set of research,
                          out this opinion. Is more time associated with more      scholars have probed high-performing schools
                          learning, at least as measured by performance            to identify those factors that contribute to success.
                          on state exams? In fact, there is a considerable body    Invariably, they have singled out time as one of
                          of research that strongly suggests that more time        those key elements.9
                          is associated with more learning.
                                                                                   We performed some exploratory analyses of the
                          Existing research falls into two camps. In one,          relationship between time and performance from
                          researchers have attempted to quantify the link          among the ET schools in the database. To probe this
                          between time spent learning and academic                 relationship, we collected existing data on student
                          outcomes more precisely, both in experimental and        performance (i.e., percentage of students scoring
                          real-world settings. A variety of experiments have       proficient on state exams) in both math and ELA for
                          demonstrated that student retention and mastery          as many schools and grades in the database as
                          is mediated by time.7 Meanwhile, those examining




QU ICK FACTS              Profile: A Stand-Alone District School Adds Time

School Name:              Grove Patterson has both a longer school day and         To reach these goals students at Grove Patterson
Grove Patterson           longer school year than most public schools in           begin the day with an uninterrupted reading
Academy Elementary        the Toledo City School District or the state of Ohio.    block that runs for approximately 90 minutes. In
                          The school calendar is 192 eight-hour school days.       addition, each grade works with a math specialist
Location:                 The conversion to an expanded school schedule            for two hours each week. The school’s schedule
Toledo, OH                resulted from the collaboration between the school,      also provides students with time to study the arts,
                          the School Board, the Toledo Federation of Teachers,     participate in physical fitness and learn either
Grades Served:
                          and the president of the administrators’ union.          Spanish or German.
K-8
                          Once they agreed that students needed more time,
                          they hammered out a contract to pay teachers             The school’s longer schedule provides teachers
School Type:
                          more to work the longer day and year.                    with more planning time and opportunities to
District, Converted
                                                                                   work collaboratively. For example, Grove Patterson
Expanded Time Since:      Funding for the additional compensation comes            teachers meet weekly for a three-hour period to
1999                      from general revenue, as well as from a higher           collaborate across grade levels on student perform-
                          per-pupil allotment for out-of-district students.        ance and curriculum, developing themes and
Schedule:                 (Because students are admitted through the use of        topics for instruction while working to meet state
8.0 hours/day;            a lottery system, students from outside the district     standards and follow curriculum guidelines.
192 days/year             can be selected for admission, bringing with them
                          additional funding.) Grove Patterson implemented         The school’s use of expanded learning time has
Demographics:                                                                      greatly contributed to Grove Patterson’s success.
                          expanded learning time for three reasons: (a) to
50% African-American,                                                              Students consistently meet annual academic
                          provide teachers the time to be creative with the
37% White,                                                                         targets, and as a result, the school has made
                          students and to enrich and remediate; (b) to
13% Latino;                                                                        Adequate Yearly Progress every year for the last
                          help students reach proficiency and excel academi-
40% low-income                                                                     seven years.
                          cally, and (c) to provide students the opportunity
                          to take a foreign language, which can help with
                          English language development and enable students
                          to develop a competitive skill.


                                                                                                                                        23
possible using Standard & Poor’s “School Matters”            to value high achievement.) Neither is there a way
database (total grade-level data collected for both          to examine “pre-treatment” for these students.
subjects: n=1,547). Comparable data were collected           The proficiency data represent a snapshot in time.
for the whole district in which each school is               NCTL anticipates that in the future more rigorous
located. The metric employed to indicate each                research, including some longitudinal studies, will
school’s performance was to calculate the differ-            be conducted.
ence between a school’s performance (at each
grade level) and that of the district. So, for example,      How Does Performance of Expanded-Time
if 60 percent of 4th graders in School A were                Students Compare to District Peers?
proficient in math, and 50 percent were proficient           The exploratory performance analysis was
across that school’s district, then 4th graders in           undertaken to understand how the expanded-time
School A essentially outperformed their district             schools, as a group, compare to students in their
peers by 10 percentage points.10                             surrounding public schools. Figure 21 depicts the
                                                             average point differential between students in
The analysis that follows is based on this metric            expanded-time schools and the district by grade
and is intended to be exploratory in nature given            and by subject (math and ELA). As can be seen,
the limited availability of existing performance             the elementary grades (with the exception of
data. The database is not designed at this stage to          Grade 4 English) post, on average, small deficits
conduct a rigorous impact or outcomes analysis.              compared to the district, while higher grades,
Keep in mind that there is no way to control for             on average, show a modestly higher performance
selection bias among students. (The large portion            level than the district, with a peak differential
of charter schools in the sample means that many             of 8.1 points in Grade 8 math.
students may have actively chosen the schools
they attend, and active choosers may be more apt




     FIGURE 21                                       Mean Difference in Percent of Students Scoring Proficient:
                                                         ET Schools versus District (in Percentage Points)
                                                                       By Grade and Subject




                                         Grade 3 Math

                                            Grade 3 ELA

                                         Grade 4 Math

                                            Grade 4 ELA

                                         Grade 5 Math

                                            Grade 5 ELA

                                         Grade 6 Math

                                           Grade 6 ELA

                                         Grade 7 Math

                                            Grade 7 ELA

                                         Grade 8 Math

                                            Grade 8 ELA

                                        Grade 10 Math

                                          Grade 10 ELA

     Source: Schoolmatters.org (2008 test data)



24
                            Does Performance Relate to Time?                             These analyses must be accompanied with the
                            To determine if academic performance may be                  following caveats:
                            related to time, we performed two types of analy-          • Analyses do not suggest a causal relationship
                            ses. The first explored the question of whether as           and do not control for any other school- or
                            time increases, performance increases. (Perfor-              student-related factors (e.g., demographics). Time
                            mance, again, measured as the difference between             is only one of many school characteristics
                            each school’s proficiency scores and that of each            that can be associated with improved student
                            school’s surrounding district.) Using the number             achievement.
                            of daily minutes metric as the time indicator,             • Test scores are only one way to measure a
                            we determined a statistically significant (p<.01)            school’s success. A full analysis of school success
                            moderate correlation for Grades 7 and 10 in both             should be accompanied by a review of other data.
                            math (r=.29 and r=.41, respectively) and ELA
                            (r=.31 and r=.43, respectively). No significant differ-    • The test scores reviewed examine only one year
                            ences were found for other grades.                           of data. Growth over time is the best measure for
                                                                                         determining the ability of a school to enable
                            A second analysis examined whether there were                student success over time.
                            differences in mean student performance when          • The test scores are from state exams, not a
                            schools are grouped by the number of daily minutes      nationally normed test. Though comparison to
                            using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We considered       district was used to control for wide variation
                            the mean of schools’ performance within four            in test content and quality across states, the
                            time-related categories of schools and compared         metric used — difference between school and
                            them to one another. The most robust data set           district — is, at best, a broad approximation
                            available was from seventh grade and we found           of school success.
                            statistically significant differences (p<.05) in both
                            math and ELA (Figures 22 and 23). Although the
                            data available for these analyses were limited, they
                            do suggest a positive relationship between student
                            performance and daily time.




FIGURE 11                                                                    FIGURE 23
   Mean Performance (vs. District) for ELA Grade 7                             Mean Performance (vs. District) for Math Grade 7
            By Daily Minute Categories                                                   By Daily Minute Categories




      360-400          401-450           451-500         501+
       Mins.            Mins.             Mins.          Mins.                        360-400       401-450            451-500    501+
                                                                                        Mins.        Mins.              Mins.     Mins.
        (n=7)           (n=80)               (n=51)     (n=44)
                                                                                       (n=7)         (n=83)            (n=52)    (n=44)


Source: Schoolmatters.org (2008 test data)                                Source: Schoolmatters.org (2008 test data)




                                                                                                                                               25
          V. Areas for Further Research




   L
        ike any good research study, the collection of      student schedules so that respondent reports can
        data about expanded-time schools and the            be verified. In addition:
        analyses performed raise as many questions as
                                                            • Data from expanded-time schools should be
    the project answers. Listed below are some of the
                                                              compared and contrasted to schools with more
    key areas where additional research can and should
                                                              conventional schedules.11
    be conducted in order to determine with greater
    precision how expanded-time schools are using           • Classroom data on actual use of time within
    time and to what effect.                                  classes (not only how much time is allotted
                                                              to various subjects) can be conducted on a subset
  • Student and Teacher Use of Time                           of schools.
   Determining how students spend their time in             • Develop a deeper understanding of the classi-
   school is easier said than done. Subsequent surveys        fication and use of enrichment, especially at the
   of expanded-time schools should probably be                high school level.
   accompanied by an independent analysis of actual




QU ICK FACTS                  Profile: Using a State Grant to Expand School Time

School Name:                   The Jacob Hiatt Magnet School is one of 22 schools        enrichment program referred to as a module. Staff
Jacob Hiatt Magnet             funded by the Massachusetts Department of Elemen-         from local partner organizations join Hiatt teachers
School                         tary and Secondary Education’s Expanded Learning          once a week for 8 to 10 weeks to lead enrichment
                               Time grant program, the first-in-the-nation statewide     activities embedded in core classes, which comple-
Location:                      initiative to expand school time. Each participating      ment and enhance the curriculum. Some projects
Worcester, MA                  school receives an allotment of $1,300 per student        include: Art and Geometry, Native American poetry,
                               to expand the school year by 300 hours. Schools are       European Mosaics, Birds of Prey Projects, and Meta-
Grades Served:
                               required to increase time for academics, enrichment       morphosis: Frogs and Butterflies and many others.
K-6
                               and teacher collaboration, but have few other restric-
                               tions on how the 300 additional hours can be spent.       A longer school day also benefits teachers who now
School Type:
                                                                                         have more time for common planning and profes-
District, Converted
                               When it first began its expanded day in 2007, the         sional development. It was during this collaborative
Expanded Time Since:           Hiatt School focused much of its additional time on       time that teachers engaged in the kind of continuous
2007                           literacy and math. Students received — and continue       improvement thinking that led them to institute
                               to receive — at least 10 hours of literacy instruction    the new math support groups and a teaching method
Schedule:                      per week, with every day featuring a two-hour unin-       designed to help students better respond to open-
7.7 hours/day;                 terrupted block of literacy instruction. The school       response questions on the state achievement tests.
180 days/year                  provides seven and a half hours of math instruction
                               weekly. The added time enables teachers to differen-      With state funding to support the expansion of
Demographics:                                                                            learning time, and community partnerships and
                               tiate instruction, provide project-based learning
46% Latino,                                                                              collaboration, Jacob Hiatt Magnet School students are
                               opportunities to students, and engage students in
19% African-American,                                                                    showing academic gains in the areas of English
                               hands-on activities. Over this past academic year,
30% White;                                                                               language arts, math, and science, with district forma-
                               the school added two periods a week for students in
60% low-income                                                                           tive assessments showing the school outpacing its
                               grades 2 through 6 to receive additional support in
                               math that is tailored to their specific academic needs.   district peers.

                               Rather than offer a broad array of random enrich-
                               ment activities, Hiatt has developed a formalized



    26
• Financial Analysis                                         • Differences Between Types of Schools
 In an online survey, it was not feasible or appropri-        One of the themes of the findings enumerated in
 ate to delve too deeply into financial issues, but           this report is that there are differences in the ways
 the lack of data in this area should be addressed            that different types of schools implement an
 with a more careful study of some variety of                 expanded schedule. How these differences play out
 schools — charters and non-charters, original and            (e.g., charter vs. non-charter, grade levels, original
 converted, urban and rural, elementary and                   vs. converted, etc.) and the impact they might have
 secondary, etc.                                              deserves further study.

• Student Performance                                        • More Data Collection
 A much more rigorous analysis of performance                 For any research project on expanded-time schools,
 scores, with controls for demographics and past              there is no doubt that more data of all types are
 performance, should be conducted for all grades to           needed — from teacher and student schedule data
 understand whether the findings reported above               to more information about each school to qualita-
 hold true. Outcomes analysis should be then linked           tive data on expanded-time implementation.
 to a more in-depth analysis of the implementation            All are needed in order to have greater confidence
 practices and student and teacher use of time to             in the findings outlined in this report.
 understand how time is being spent and leveraged.




     T
            here is certainly much more information to        They have done so by establishing new schools
            collect and much more research to be done,        and by converting traditional schools. And, impor-
            but, even so, the basic facts are known.          tantly, they claim to have done so in service to
     There are hundreds of schools in the country that        their educational mission of helping all children
     have been able to break from what often seems            succeed.
     like an immutable feature of schooling in Amer-
                                                              Over the coming years, we are sure to learn more
     ica: the calendar of 180 six-hour days. They have
                                                              about what expanded-time schools can do and in
     done so by expanding the day and expanding the
                                                              what contexts their successes (and failures) seem
     school year. They have done so with substantially
                                                              to take root, but one thing is clear: expanded-time
     poor and minority populations. They have done
                                                              schools represent a serious effort at changing the
     so in a majority of states and in cities and in rural
                                                              way in which this country educates the next gen-
     areas. They have done so by paying teachers more
                                                              eration. For that reason alone, we need to stand
     and by not paying teachers more, with collective
                                                              up and take notice.
     bargaining agreements in place and without.




 Notes
 EXECUTIVE S UMMARY                                           FU LL R EPORT
 1                                                            1
  All these analyses must be accompanied with the              In June 2008, the Education Commission of the
 following caveats: (a) Test scores are only one way          States conducted a 50-state review of all laws related
 to measure a school’s success. A full analysis of school     to length of the school year
 success should be accompanied by a review of other           (http://www.ecs.org/html/Document.asp?chouseid=7824)
 data. (b) The test scores reviewed examine only one          2
                                                               The figure of 25% is derived by comparing the
 year of data. Growth over time is the best measure for       database schools’ mean in the three time categories
 determining the ability of a school to enable student        in Table 1 (Column A) to the midpoint of the range
 success over time. (c) The test scores are from state        indicated in Column C.
 exams, not a nationally normed test (d) Analyses
 do not suggest a causal relationship and do not control      3
                                                               Note that definitions of elementary, secondary and
 for any other school- or student-related factors. Time       elementary/secondary schools follow U.S. Department
 is only one of many school characteristics that can be       of Education convention with elementary serving
 associated with improved student achievement.                within a range of grades K – 5, secondary serving
 Though comparison to district was used to control for        within a range of grades 6 – 12 and elementary/sec-
 wide variation in test content and quality across            ondary including any schools that serve grades
 states, the metric used – difference between school and      from among those two ranges.)
 district – is, at best, a broad approximation of school
 success.                                                     4
                                                               Recognizing that these two types of schools would
                                                              need to answer slightly different questions than
                                                              the other, NCTL prepared two different surveys, one
                                                              each to accommodate the two types.




                                                                                                                    27
5                                                             8
 Because of the difference in implementing increased           For a cogent summary of this research see Berliner,
pay for teachers difference between converted and             D. (1990.) What’s all the fuss about instructional time?
startup schools, the former were asked whether teach-         in The Nature of Time in Schools: Theoretical Concepts,
ers were paid more than they were before time was             Practitioner Perceptions. New York: Teacher
added and the latter were asked whether that school’s         College Press.
teachers were paid more specifically because they
                                                              9
worked more hours than teachers in surrounding                  Hoxby, C. M., Murarka, S. and Kang, J. (2009,
public schools.                                               September). How New York City’s charter schools affect
                                                              achievement, August 2009 Report. Second report in
6
  While on the face of it, each of these practices may        series. Cambridge, MA: New York City Charter Schools
seem unrelated to the core of what expanded-time              Evaluation Project; Fryer, R. and Dobbie, W. (2009,
schools are about – more instructional time – they are,       April). Are high-quality schools enough to close the
in fact, closely connected to more time. Field research       achievement gap? Evidence from a bold social
indicates that teachers and administrators cite ex-           experiment in Harlem. Unpublished manuscript; and
panded-time as essential to enabling teachers to meet         Merseth, K., et al (2009). Inside urban charter schools:
regularly, hone instructional practices and engage            Promising practices and strategies in five high-
in continuous improvement based on data analysis              performing schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
of student performance. Of course, the conducting
                                                              10
of formative assessments themselves takes time and              Comparisons to district were employed so as to
schools with more time in class, have more time to            account for substantial differences across state exams
conduct tests without sacrificing the ability to still        and, broadly speaking, to compare the expanded-time
cover all the material. This same argument applies for        schools to a similar demographic cohort of students.
certain instructional practices like integrating technol-     The comparison is less than perfect as student bodies
ogy and intensive reading interventions; having more          can vary considerably from one school to another
time may make it easier to implement these practices.         within the same district, and individual schools can
                                                              vary considerably from the district means; the com-
7
  Experimenters and theorists in this area include:           parison is intended as a standard approximation.
Gettinger, M. (1985). Time allocated and time spent
                                                              11
relative to time needed for learning as determinants            Such data may be available through the U.S. Depart-
of achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology,            ment of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey
77(1), 3-11; Clark, D. and Linn, M.C. (2003). Designing for   (2008).
knowledge integration: The impact of instructional
time. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 12(4): 451-493;
Carroll, J. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers
College Record, 64: 723-733; Karweit, N. and Slavin,
R.E. (1981). Measurement and modeling choices in
studies of time and learning. American Educational
Research Journal, 18 (2): 157-171.




28
APPENDIX A                                      Methodology Discussion




             T
                    he chief challenge presented in developing        than the general school population. Their
                    this database of expanded-time schools was        expanded-time status would be confirmed either
                    one of category creation. Unlike charter or       through responses to the survey or by follow-up
             magnet schools (or even elementary or high               data collection.
             schools), there has not existed – until now – a gener-
                                                                      Designing and Distributing Survey
             ally accepted definition of an expanded-time
             school. Even more fundamentally, there existed           To populate the database with relevant information
             no sense among practitioners that such a category        about expanded-time schools, NCTL set about to
             of school should even be recognized as a discrete        develop a survey instrument whereby schools that
             type of school, any more than they would expect a        met the criteria for inclusion in the database
             distinct category for schools that opened before         would provide additional details about their use of
             Labor Day or those that required classes in public       time and other organizational aspects of the school
             speaking. In turn, because expanded-time schools         (staffing, financing, etc.).
             were not recognized as a distinct category, the
             information needed to identify these schools as          In developing the survey, NCTL sought to balance
             such (i.e., daily start and stop times and number of     the urge to collect as much information about
             days in session) was not always readily available.       these schools as possible with the need to limit the
                                                                      burden on respondents taking the survey (in
             Initial School Identification                            order to insure a higher return rate). The informa-
                                                                      tion we sought to collect included the following:
             To identify those schools for inclusion in the data-
             base NCTL adopted a two-tiered strategy. First, we       •Educational      •Staffing             •Costs
             focused our attention on gathering information            content
             from charter schools around the country. Knowing
                                                                      •School design    •Instructional        •Funding
             that charters typically have the resource and legal                         practices             source(s)
             flexibility to break from the standard school sched-
             ule, NCTL targeted this group of schools as most         •Schedule         •Professional         •Labor
                                                                       organization      development           agreements
             likely to have expanded their schedule. NCTL is also
             aware that many charters run by charter manage-          •Student          •Relevant district/
             ment organizations (CMOs) boast of their expanded         demographics      state policy
             schedule (e.g., KIPP, Achievement First, etc.).
                                                                      In service to the second need of a high response rate
             The second tactic involved using a network of            from schools, the survey was designed to take no
             contacts and media sources to gather the names           more than seven to eight minutes and collect only
             of district schools that had – either through their      the most readily available information. The result-
             own volition or by policy mandate – expanded             ing survey (with one version for converted schools
             their schedules to better meet the needs of their        and one for original expanded-time schools) ap-
             students. Often these schools were identified            pears in Appendix B. The survey was developed in
             in news items or were known about by national            consultation with two researchers with a great deal
             education reform organizations aware of their            of experience surveying schools for similar types of
             work. Organizations consulted included the Center        information as the database required (Dr. Jason
             for American Progress, the Education Trust, Center       Snipes, Research Director of the Council of Great
             on Education Policy, Public Education Network            City Schools, and Dr. Karen Hawley Miles, President
             and the Council of Great City Schools. In addition,      of Education Resource Strategies).
             NCTL included schools that had been previously
             identified as having an expanded-time schedule           Once the survey was developed, the survey was
             by the Center for American Progress and the Center       converted to an electronic format where data would
             for Education Reform.                                    be stored automatically in the administrative (and
                                                                      password-protected) section of NCTL’s website.
             It should be noted that at this point in the search
             process an expanded schedule was not confirmed           The survey was distributed in two ways. First it
             for many of these schools. Rather, this initial list     was sent directly to all those schools within the
             of schools was intended as prospects — schools that      aforementioned prospects list with a valid e-mail
             were more likely to have an expanded schedule            contact. Second, we partnered with a number of



                                                                                                                           29
 national organizations and CMOs to distribute the            245 schools (about 35%) had responded to the
 survey to their members or affiliates. Employing             electronic survey.
 this strategy, the survey was distributed to roughly
 650 schools via e-mail directly from an NCTL                 Non-Response Bias
 mailing and approximately 50 national or regional            The following tables indicate the differences
 educational organizations, many of which, in                 along various metrics (time-oriented, demographic,
 turn, e-mailed the survey to their own affiliates            grades served, and geographic) of the survey
 or schools.                                                  respondents and non-respondents. As indicated
                                                              below in Table A and Table B, non-response bias
 Once the e-mail requests were distributed, NCTL              was identified found in two areas. Respondents
 engaged in significant follow up telephone and               were determined to be significantly more likely
 e-mail contacts with each of the targeted schools            to feature more annual hours and to serve a poorer
 during Spring 2008. Even with this follow-up,                student population than the non-respondents
 response rate was quite low and, thus, in Fall 2008          in the database.
 NCTL contracted with a professional survey firm
 (Survey Research Management, Inc. of Boulder, CO)
 to manage contacts with schools. By March 2009,




 TAB LE A                                                  Expanded Time by Category
                                                      Respondent vs. Non-Respondent Schools


                 Metric                                 Respondent Schools                             Non-Respondent Sample
                                                   (n=245)                                           (n=410)

                                                     n                       %                         n                   %

      Avg. Daily Minutes                                       465                                                 468

       Less than 360                                 0                        0                        1                   0.2
       360-400                                       14                       5.7                     10                   2.4
       401-450                                      104                      42.4                     196                  47.8
       501+                                          47                      19.2                     108                  26.3
       Data N/A                                      0                        0                       12                   2.9

      Avg. Days per Year                                       187                                                 182

       Less than 180                                 0                        0                       54                   13.2
       180                                           92                      37.6                     35                   8.5
       181-190                                       80                      32.7                     72                   17.6
       191+                                          67                      27.3                     23                   5.6
       Data N/A                                      6                       2.4                      226                  55.1

      Avg. Annual Hours*                                      1,407                                                1,359

       1000-1250                                     40                      16.3                     33                   8.0
       1251-1400                                     87                      35.5                     93                   22.7
       1401-1550                                     71                      29.0                     33                   8.0
       1551+                                         41                      16.7                     17                   4.1
       Data N/A                                      6                       2.4                      234                  57.1

*Difference between means is significant (p<.05)




 30
TAB LE B                                                           Demographic Profile
                                                           Respondent vs. Non-Respondent Schools


                                                                      Mean Percentages                                              School Size
     Category                        n         White         African       Hispanic           Asian          Free/Red            Mean       Median
                                                (n)         American          (n)              (n)             Lunch
                                                               (n)                                              (n)*

     Respondent Schools             245       19.5 (192)    45.9 (192)     28.8 (192)        3.6 (192)        72.3 (181)         482.5        379

     Non-Respondent                 410      26.6 (271)     44.7 (271)     24.0 (271)        2.7 (271)    60.5 (235)             456.8        330
     Schools

     ALL SCHOOLS                    655      23.8 (463)     45.0 (463)     25.9 (463)        3.1 (463)    65.6 (416)             467.4        344
*Difference between means is significant (p<.05)




TAB LE C                                                              Grades Served
                                                           Respondent vs. Non-Respondent Schools


     Category                         n                  Elementary                          Secondary                         Elementary/
                                                                                                                                Secondary

                                                    n                 %                 n                %                 n                 %

     Respondent Schools             245             57                23                79               32                109               45

     Non-Respondent                 410            46                 11              147                36                219               53
     Schools

     ALL SCHOOLS                    655            103                16            226                  35                328               50




                                                                                                                                                     31
TAB LE D                          Location of Schools (by State)
                              Respondent vs. Non-Respondent Schools


           State                          Respondent     Non-Respondent   TOTAL
                                           Schools          Schools

           Alaska                             0                1            1
           Arkansas                           0                2            2
           Arizona                            1                7            8
           California                        48               53           101
           Colorado                           7               62           69
           Connecticut                        6               0            6
           District of Columbia               6               12           18
           Delaware                           4                2           6
           Florida                            0                3            3
           Georgia                            1                5           6
           Hawaii                             1               0             1
           Iowa                               1               0             1
           Idaho                              0                1            1
           Illinois                           50              24           74
           Indiana                            8               6            14
           Louisiana                          1               55           56
           Massachusetts                      27              50           77
           Maryland                           0               2             2
           Michigan                           6               5            11
           Minnesota                          1               7             8
           Missouri                           5               3             8
           North Carolina                     4               3             7
           North Dakota                       1               0             1
           New Jersey                         18              19           37
           New Mexico                         1               0             1
           Nevada                             4               0            4
           New York                           16              18           34
           Ohio                               12              19           31
           Oklahoma                           2                3            5
           Oregon                             0                1            1
           Pennsylvania                       2               26           28
           South Carolina                     0                1            1
           South Dakota                       3               0             3
           Tennessee                          1                2            3
           Texas                              6               17           23
           Virginia                           1                1            2
           Wisconsin                          1               0             1
           TOTAL                             245             410           655



32
Finalizing the Database Contents                        Second, NCTL accessed the School Matters database
In preparation for the launch of the database,          (www.schoolmatters.com, managed by Standard &
NCTL collected school schedule information              Poor’s) to obtain outcomes data for each school.
(daily start/end time, days/year) on the prospective    Outcomes include rates of proficiency for every
schools that did not respond to the survey via          grade served by the school in reading and math for
internet searches and, in certain cases, through        which data are available. (Data are not available
intermediary organizations (e.g., the Colorado          for all schools and not all grades within schools and
Association of Charter Schools) that provided the       these data cells are left blank.) Comparative data
information on their association members. In            for district and state are also included. Note that
addition, NCTL located a few dozen more schools         many charter schools do draw students from more
which had not been sent the electronic survey,          than one district, but the district data for the
but did, nonetheless, fit NCTL’s definition of an ex-   district in which the school resides were used as a
panded-time school. Meanwhile, NCTL eliminated          proxy for comparison purposes. (Data from School
from the database those schools that were found         Matters are for tests reported in Spring 2008.)
not to fit the definition. After the winnowing          Analysis
process was complete, the database stood at its
current total of 655 schools.                           Analysis of the database schools which are reported
                                                        in this summary report was conducted in Summer
Note that NCTL was not able to confirm all infor-       2009. In addition to conducting basic analysis, NCTL
mation for many of the schools. In particular, school   contracted with Dr. Lisa Famularo, Research Direc-
contact information and days per year were not          tor of the Rennie Center for Education Research and
always easily accessible and, thus, are not included    Policy in Cambridge, MA, to conduct the analysis
in the dataset.                                         of variance and correlational analyses.

Collecting Additional Data                              Researchers can download the complete dataset
In order to provide a more valuable resource for        contained in the database into an Excel spreadsheet
users, NCTL also drew information from two other        directly from the website,
existing databases to include other information         www.timeandlearning.org/database.
about these 655 schools. Specifically, NCTL first
accessed the U.S. Department of Education’s Com-
mon Core of Data (http://nces.ed.gov/ccd) to obtain
charter status, demographic and enrollment data
for each of the schools. (Data from the CCD are for
the 2006 – 07 school year.) Many of the schools
in the database – particularly those that were estab-
lished in the last two or three years — lacked an
official school identification number and, in turn,
demographic data. These data cells are left blank.




                                                                                                           33
        APPENDIX B                                               Online Survey




Part I: Basic Information

To identify your school from the most recent Common Core database,
enter the school’s 5-digit zip code:


School Name:

Address:

City, State ZIP:

NCES School ID Number:


What grades does your school serve? (check all that apply)

H Pre-Kindergarten:          H Grade 4:           H Grade 9:
H Kindergarten:              H Grade 5:           H Grade 10:
H Grade 1:                   H Grade 6:           H Grade 11:
H Grade 2:                   H Grade 7:           H Grade 12:
H Grade 3:                   H Grade 8:


An “expanded-time school” is defined as a school where the mandatory schedule for all enrolled minutes
is deliberately more minutes per day and/or more days per year than surrounding public schools.
Please check which ONE of the following which best describes your school.

H My school does not operate on an expanded-time schedule.

H My school previously operated on a more conventional schedule, but has expanded school time and
     now operates with a deliberately longer schedule than surrounding public schools.

H My school was established with a deliberately longer schedule than surrounding public schools.


Part II: Expanded-Time Format, Converted Schools

1) Approximately how many minutes per day did you add?
             Minutes (please enter a whole number greater than 0)


2) How many days per year did you add?
             Days (please enter a whole number)


3)           In what school year did you convert to an expanded-time schedule?

4) Was the time added to your schedule mandated or part of a reform
   strategy imposed by your district or state?

     H Yes

     H No



34
Online Survey   Part II: Expanded-Time Format, startup schools

                1) Approximately how many more minutes longer is your school day than surrounding public schools?
                          Minutes (please enter a whole number greater than 0)

                2) Approximately how many days longer is your school than surrounding public schools?
                          Days (please enter a whole number)

                3)            In what school year was your school established?


                Part III: Student Time Requirements
                You have reported that your school serves 3rd/7th/10th grade students. To answer the questions on this page, please
                envision a single 3rd/7th/10th grade student in your school who is representative of the typical student in terms
                of SES, achievement and course-taking pattern, and answer accordingly. If schedules vary within a particular grade,
                answers should be for a prototypical student or for a schedule that is common throughout the grade. It may be
                helpful to have a sample student schedule in front of you as you the answer the following questions.
                Unless otherwise specified, this survey asks for time estimates in minutes per week.

                1) How many days is the length of the student school year?
                              days (please enter a whole number greater than 0)

                2) What is the start and end time for the student school day?
                     START TIME:             a.m.
                     END TIME:               p.m.

                3) Does your school have a schedule that features a weekly early release day for students?
                     H Yes
                     H No

                     What is the start and end time of your early release day?
                     Start:                  a.m.
                     End:                    a.m. / p.m.

                4) For the following subjects, please estimate how many minutes per a week a
                   3rd/7th/10th grade student is required to be in the following classes.
                     (If there is no time spent in a particular subject, please enter 0. If you don’t have
                     any of this information, check “Don’t Know”)

                     H Don’t Know

                     a. English Language Arts/Reading/Literacy:                  Minutes
                     b. Mathematics:                                             Minutes
                     c. History/Social Studies:                                  Minutes
                     d. Science (general or specialized):                        Minutes
                     e. Foreign Language:                                        Minutes

                5) Please estimate how many minutes per week 3rd/7th/10th grade students
                   participate in enrichment activities or classes.
                     (Please enter a whole number greater than 0, or check “Don’t Know”)

                     H Don’t Know

                              Minutes




                                                                                                                                35
6) Approximately how many minutes per week do 3rd/7th/10th grade students spend                      Online Survey
   outside of formal classes or activities (e.g. lunch, recess, transition between classes, etc.)?
     (Please enter a whole number greater than 0, or check “Don’t Know”)
     H Don’t Know
             Minutes


Part IV: Staffing

1) What is the typical start and end time of the school day for teachers?

     START TIME:           a.m.

     END TIME:             p.m.

2) Approximately how many minutes per week, on average, do 3rd/7th/10th grade
   teachers engage in the following?
     (Please enter a number greater than zero. If you don’t have any of this
     information, select “Don’t Know”)

     H Don’t Know

     a. Classroom Teaching:                                             Minutes

     b. Teacher professional time: (eg. Individual or common
        planning time, professional development, meetings)              Minutes

     c. Other: (eg. Lunch, breaks, supervisory duties, etc.)            Minutes

3) Approximately what percentage of certificated teachers are contracted to work
   the entire (expanded) school day?

             percent (please enter a whole number between 0 and 100)

4) Does your school employ staggered schedules of certificated teachers?
     H Yes
     H No

5) Does your school use non-certificated staff to lead any activities or classes
   during the (expanded) school day?
     H Yes
     H No

6) Are certificated teachers covered by a collective bargaining agreement?
     H Yes
     H No


Part V: Financing an Expanded Day

1) Do teachers receive specific additional compensation to work a longer school
   schedule than surrounding public schools?
     H Yes
     H No
     H Don’t Know

     If yes, please estimate the percentage teachers earn more than teachers in
     surrounding public schools. (please enter a whole number between 0 and 100)

             Percent




36
Online Survey   2) Does your school receive any public grant(s) (local, state or federal) and/or
                   private grant(s) to pay for the additional time?
                   H Yes
                   H No
                   H Don’t Know

                   If yes, please check all that apply and indicate the dollar amount.
                   H Public     Dollar Amount: $
                   H Private    Dollar Amount: $

                   Does these grants cover the full costs of the expanded time schedule?
                   H Yes
                   H No


                Part VI: Miscellaneous

                1) We are interested in learning what other significant educational reforms or strategies your school employs
                   other than expanded time. Please check all of the following currently in place at your school.

                   H Comprehensive School Re-Design:                       H Weighted student funding formula:

                   H Year-round school schedule:                           H The Direct Instruction program:

                   H Block scheduling:                                     H Integrated technology:

                   H Looping:                                              H Intensive math intervention (e.g. TERC):

                   H Periodic formative assessments:                       H Intensive reading intervention (e.g. Success for All):

                   H Data-driven instructional improvement:                H Virtual learning/online classes:

                   H Ongoing site-based professional development:          H Other:

                   H New principal leadership:                             H Other:

                2) On a scale of 1 to 5, how important do you think it is to operate on an expanded schedule
                   to achieve your educational goals?

                   Lowest importance H 1        H2      H3      H4       H 5 Highest importance

                3) Feel free to comment below:




                4) What is your email address, so we might be back in touch with you, if necessary, to verify data?
                   Your email address is exclusively for internal use and will not be shared either online
                   or in published documents.

                   Email Address:                                                        @




                                                                                                                                 37
      APPENDIX C                                List of Schools in Database
                                                Schools Arranged Alphabetically by State and City




 School Name                                     City                State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                        Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Academics Plus Charter School                    Maumelle           AK      Yes        3        12        480
 KIPP Delta College Preparatory School            Helena             AR      Yes        5        8         570
 KIPP Delta Collegiate                            Helena             AR      Yes        9        12        570
 Challenge Charter School                         Glendale           AZ      Yes        K        6         420
 Riverbend Prep                                   Laveen             AZ      Yes        K        6         450
 Sequoia Charter Elementary School                Mesa               AZ      Yes        K        6         420
 Sequoia Charter School                           Mesa               AZ      Yes        7        12        420
 Ahwatukee Foothills Prep                         Phoenix            AZ      Yes        K        6         450
 Phoenix Advantage School                         Phoenix            AZ      Yes        K        8         450
 Beginning Academy                                Tucson             AZ      Yes        K        5         410
 Southgate Academy                                Tucson             AZ      Yes        K        12        420
 California College Preparatory Academy           Berkeley           CA      Yes        7        10        465
 East Palo Alto Charter School (Epacs)            East Palo Alto     CA      Yes        K        8         450
 East Palo Alto Phoenix Academy                   East Palo Alto     CA      No         9        11        430
 Epacs Secondary                                  East Palo Alto     CA      Yes        9        11        480
 Literacy First Charter School (El Cajon, Ca)     El Cajon           CA      Yes        K        8         435
 Fame Public Charter School @ Fremont             Fremont            CA      Yes        K        12        435
 KIPP Academy Fresno                              Fresno             CA      Yes        5        8         575
 West Fresno Elementary                           Fresno             CA      No         PK       8         495
 West Fresno Middle                               Fresno             CA      No         6        8         495
 Impact Academy Of Arts And Technology            Hayward            CA      Yes        9        12        425
 Leadership Public Schools - Hayward              Hayward            CA      Yes        9        12        455
 LPS Hayward, Room C-6                            Hayward            CA      Yes        9        12        455
 Amla - St. Martha’s                              Huntington Park    CA      Yes        K        K         450
 Antonio Maria Lugo Academy                       Huntington Park    CA      Yes        K        5         420
 Centennial College Preparatory Academy           Huntington Park    CA      Yes        6        8         435
 Clarendon Site Academy                           Huntington Park    CA      No         K        5         450
 Huntington Park College-Ready Academy            Huntington Park    CA      Yes        K        4         480
 Animo Inglewood Charter High                     Inglewood          CA      Yes        9        12        420
 Animo Leadership Charter High School             Inglewood          CA      Yes        9        12        480
 The Preuss School UCSD                           La Jolla           CA      Yes        6        12        425
 Helix Charter High School                        La Messa           CA      Yes        9        12        570
 Community Charter Early College High             Lakeview Terrace   CA      Yes        9        12        450
 Community Charter Middle School                  Lakeview Terrace   CA      Yes        6        8         420
 Lakeview Charter School                          Lakeview Terrace   CA      Yes        6        7         450




38
School Name                                 City          State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                             Grade    Grade     Minutes

Alain Leroy Locke High School               Los Angeles   CA      No         9        12        420

Animo Film And Theatre Arts Charter High    Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        435

Animo Justice Charter High School           Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        440

Animo Locke #2                              Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        9         420

Animo Locke Tech Charter High School        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        420

Animo Ralph Bunche Charter High School      Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        435

Animo South Los Angeles Charter High        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        430

Ánimo Venice Charter High School            Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        440

Animo Watts 2 Charter High School           Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        420

Cals Charter Middle School                  Los Angeles   CA      Yes        6        8         415

Cals Early College High School              Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        450

Camino Nuevo Charter - Burlington           Los Angeles   CA      Yes        K        8         420

Camino Nuevo Charter Academy High           Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        585

College Ready Academy High School #5        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        465

College Ready Academy High School #6        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        11        465

College Ready Academy High School #7        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        465

College-Ready Academy High School #4        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        465

Excel Charter Academy                       Los Angeles   CA      Yes        6        8         510

Frederick Douglas Academy Middle School     Los Angeles   CA      No         6        8         480

Gertz-Ressler High School                   Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        465

Heritage College-Ready Academy High         Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        465

Jack H. Skirball Middle School              Los Angeles   CA      No         6        7         480

KIPP Academy Of Opportunity                 Los Angeles   CA      Yes        5        8         600

KIPP Los Angeles College Preparatory        Los Angeles   CA      Yes        5        8         570

KIPP Raíces Academy                         Los Angeles   CA      Yes        K        1         510

Lou Dantzler Charter Middle & High School   Los Angeles   CA      Yes        6        9         420

Marc And Eva Stern Math & Science School    Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        10        465

Milagro Charter School                      Los Angeles   CA      Yes        K        5         400

Oscar De La Hoya Animo Charter High         Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        420

Richard Merkin Middle School                Los Angeles   CA      Yes        6        8         453

Stella Middle Charter Academy               Los Angeles   CA      Yes        5        8         540

Thomas Jefferson Senior High                Los Angeles   CA      No         9        12        408

Thurgood Marshall Charter High Schools      Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        9         405

View Park Preparatory Accelerated Charter   Los Angeles   CA      Yes        9        12        450

Summit Charter Academy                      Modesto       CA      Yes        K        8         n/a

University Charter                          Modesto       CA      Yes        K        5         420

James Jordan Middle School                  Northridge    CA      Yes        6        8         430

Berkley Maynard Academy                     Oakland       CA      Yes        K        5         420




                                                                                                          39
 School Name                                 City              State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                  Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Education For Change Achieve Academy        Oakland           CA      Yes        4        5         390

 Education For Change At Cox Elementary      Oakland           CA      Yes        K        5         480

 Education For Change World Academy          Oakland           CA      Yes        K        3         390

 Envision Academy Of Arts And Technology     Oakland           CA      No         9        12        405

 KIPP Bridge Charter School                  Oakland           CA      Yes        5        8         570

 Lionel Wilson College Preparatory Academy   Oakland           CA      Yes        6        12        455

 LPS College Park                            Oakland           CA      Yes        9        12        420

 Millsmont Academy                           Oakland           CA      Yes        K        5         575

 Monarch Academy                             Oakland           CA      Yes        K        5         435

 Oakland Aviation High School                Oakland           CA      Yes        9        12        425

 Summit Preparatory Charter High School      Redwood City      CA      Yes        9        12        415

 LPS Richmond                                Richmond          CA      Yes        9        12        445

 Capitol Heights Academy                     Sacramento        CA      Yes        K        8         420

 Ps7 Elementary School                       Sacramento        CA      Yes        K        5         495

 Sacramento High School Campus               Sacramento        CA      Yes        9        12        470

 Gompers Charter MS                          San Diego         CA      Yes        6        9         475

 KIPP Adelante Preparatory Academy           San Diego         CA      Yes        5        8         540

 Los Penasquitos Elementary                  San Diego         Ca      No         K        5         480

 Triumph Charter Academy                     San Fernando      CA      Yes        6        8         510

 Vaughn Next Century Learning Center         San Fernando      CA      Yes        2        5         400

 KIPP Bayview Academy                        San Francisco     CA      Yes        5        8         555

 KIPP San Francisco Bay Academy              San Francisco     CA      Yes        5        8         570

 Metropolitan Arts And Technology High       San Francisco     CA      No         9        12        475

 Downtown College Prep                       San Jose          CA      Yes        9        12        435

 KIPP Heartwood Academy                      San Jose          CA      Yes        5        8         585

 KIPP San Jose Collegiate 2008               San Jose          CA      Yes        9        12        585

 LPS San Jose                                San Jose          CA      Yes        9        12        450

 Fame Public Charter School @ San Leandro    San Leandro       CA      Yes        K        8         435

 KIPP King Collegiate High School            San Lorenzo       CA      Yes        9        12        585

 KIPP Summit Academy                         San Lorenzo       CA      Yes        5        8         575

 San Marcos Senior High                      Santa Barbara     CA      No         9        12        424

 Aspire Port City Academy                    Stockton          CA      No         K        5         440

 Benjamin Holt College Prep Academy          Stockton          CA      Yes        6        12        420

 Langston Hughes Academy                     Stockton          Ca      No         6        8         450

 River Oaks Charter                          Stockton          CA      Yes        K        5         425

 Rosa Parks Academy                          Stockton          CA      Yes        K        5         420

 University Public                           Stockton          CA      Yes        K        5         420

 San Jose-Edison Academy                     West Covina       CA      Yes        K        8         450

 West Sacramento Early College Prep          West Sacramento   CA      No         6        12        420

 Axl Academy                                 Aurora            CO      Yes        K        5         480



40
School Name                                   City               State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                    Grade    Grade     Minutes
Stone Creek Charter School                    Avon               CO      Yes        K        8         433

Boulder Preparatory High School               Boulder            CO      Yes        9        12        360

Summit Middle School                          Boulder            CO      Yes        6        8         425

Brighton Collegiate High School               Brighton           CO      Yes        9        12        435

Bromley East Charter School                   Brighton           CO      Yes        K        8         420

Carbondale Community School                   Carbondale         CO      Yes        K        8         480

Atlas Preparatory School                      Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        5        8         540

Banning Lewis Ranch Academy                   Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        8         450

Cesar Chavez Academy - Central                Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        8         465

Cesar Chavez Academy - North                  Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        8         465

Colorado Springs Charter Academy              Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        8         440

Colorado Springs Early Colleges               Colorado Springs   CO      No         9        12        430

Community Perparatory School                  Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        9        12        427

Pikes Peak Prep                               Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        12        360

Rocky Mountain Classical Academy (Pony)       Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        6        10        480

Rocky Mountain Classical Academy (Prios)      Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        5         450

Space Technology And Arts (Star) Academy      Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        5         450

Space Technology And Arts Academy (Star)      Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        6         420

The Classical Academy                         Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        6         435

The Classical Academy High School             Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        9        12        435

The Classical Academy Middle School           Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        7        8         435

Thomas Maclaren School                        Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        6        12        465

The Vanguard School                           Colorado Springs   CO      Yes        K        11        435

Community Leadership Academy                  Commerce City      CO      Yes        K        8         480

Southwest Open School                         Cortez             CO      Yes        6        12        480

Ace Community Challenge School                Denver             CO      Yes        7        10        480

Cesar Chavez Academy - Denver                 Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         465

Colorado High School Charter                  Denver             CO      Yes        10       12        420

Denver Arts & Technology Academy              Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         450

Highline Academy Charter School               Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         460

KIPP Sunshine Peak Academy                    Denver             CO      Yes        5        8         575

Omar D. Blair School                          Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         450

P.S. 1 Charter School                         Denver             CO      Yes        6        12        455

Southwest Early College                       Denver             CO      Yes        9        12        435

Vanguard Classical School                     Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         445

West Denver Preparatory Charter School        Denver             CO      Yes        6        8         485

Wyatt-Edison Charter School                   Denver             CO      Yes        K        8         440

Cherry Creek Academy                          Englewood          CO      Yes        K        8         440

Pikes Peak School Of Expeditionary Learning   Falcon             CO      Yes        PK       8         460

The Pinnacle Carter School - Elementary       Federal Heights    CO      Yes        K        5         450



                                                                                                                 41
 School Name                                City              State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                 Grade    Grade     Minutes
 The Pinnacle Carter School - High          Federal Heights   CO      Yes        9        12        465

 The Pinnacle Carter School - Middle        Federal Heights   CO      Yes        6        8         450

 No. Colorado Acad. Of Arts And Knowledge   Fort Collins      CO      Yes        K        6         450

 T.R. Paul Academy For Arts And Knowledge   Fort Collins      CO      Yes        K        8         450

 Carbon Valley Academy                      Frederick         CO      Yes        K        8         420

 Compass Montessori Golden Campus           Golden            CO      Yes        K        12        420

 Caprock Academy                            Grand Junction    CO      Yes        K        7         435

 Union Colony Preparatory School            Greeley           CO      Yes        7        12        436

 University Schools                         Greeley           CO      Yes        K        12        455

 Belle Creek Charter School                 Henderson         CO      Yes        K        8         425

 Platte River Academy                       Highlands Ranch   CO      Yes        K        8         455

 Cardinal Community Academy                 Keenesburg        CO      Yes        K        6         480

 Peak To Peak Charter School                Lafayette         CO      Yes        K        12        430

 Lake George Charter School                 Lake George       CO      Yes        PK       6         485

 Alta Vista Charter School                  Lamar             CO      Yes        K        6         460

 Collegiate Academy Of Colorado             Littleton         CO      Yes        K        12        435

 American Academy                           Lone Tree         CO      Yes        K        8         420

 Westgate Community School                  Northglenn        CO      Yes        K        6         435

 Challenge To Excellence Charter School     Parker            CO      Yes        K        8         450

 Parker Core Knowledge Charter School       Parker            CO      Yes        K        8         435

 Cesar Chavez Academy                       Pueblo            CO      Yes        K        8         465

 Youth And Family Academy                   Pueblo            CO      Yes        7        12        380

 Swallows Charter Academy                   Pueblo West       CO      Yes        K        12        430

 Ricardo Flores Magón Academy               Westminster       CO      Yes        K        8         510

 Woodrow Wilson Academy                     Westminster       CO      Yes        PK       8         425

 Compass Montessori Wheat Ridge Campus      Wheat Ridge       CO      Yes        PK       6         440

 Windsor Charter Academy                    Windsor           CO      Yes        K        8         430

 Aspen Community School                     Woody Creek       CO      Yes        K        8         420

 Achievement First Bridgeport Academy       Bridgeport        CT      Yes        5        8         510

 Amistad Academy                            New Haven         CT      Yes        5        8         585

 Amistad Academy Elementary School          New Haven         CT      Yes        K        2         510

 Amistad Academy High School                New Haven         CT      No         9        11        525

 Elm City College Prep. Elementary School   New Haven         CT      Yes        K        4         510

 Elm City College Preparatory Middle Scho   New Haven         CT      No         5        8         540

 Southeast Elementary Academy               Washihngton       DC      No         PK       6         510

 “Amos 3 “ Campus                           Washington        DC      Yes        PK       5         465

 Amos Elementary Campus                     Washington        DC      Yes        PK       5         465

 Blow Pierce Junior Academy                 Washington        DC      No         4        8         540

 Butler Elementary Campus                   Washington        DC      Yes        PK       3         465

 Chamberlain Elementary                     Washington        DC      Yes        K        12        540



42
School Name                                          City             State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                         Grade    Grade     Minutes
Collegiate Academy                                   Washington       DC      Yes        9        12        480

DC Prep Edgewood Elementary                          Washington       DC      Yes        PK       3         480

DC Preparatory Academy Benning Elementary            Washington       DC      Yes        PK       PK        480

Friendship Charter Public School                     Washington       DC      Yes        4        8         480

Howard Road Academy                                  Washington       DC      Yes        K        7         465

KIPP DC: Key Academy                                 Washington       DC      Yes        5        8         540

KIPP DC: Leap Academy                                Washington       DC      Yes        PK       K         540

Potomac Lighthouse Public Charter School             Washington       DC      Yes        PK       6         480

Community Academy Public Charter School              Washington       DC      Yes        PK       8         465

The Seed School Of Washington, D.C.                  Washington       DC      Yes        7        12        455

Wm. E. Doar, Jr. Charter For The Perf. Arts          Washington       DC      Yes        PK       8         495

Woodridge Elementary And Middle                      Washington       DC      No         PK       8         480

Academy Of Dover Charter School                      Dover            DE      Yes        K        4         435

Frankford Elementary School                          Frankford        DE      No         PK       5         425

East Millsboro Elementary School                     Millsboro        DE      No         PK       5         420

Family Foundations Academy                           New Castle       DE      Yes        1        4         450

East Side Charter                                    Wilmington       DE      Yes        K        8         n/a

Thomas A. Edison Charter School                      Wilmington       DE      Yes        K        8         465

Bonita Springs Prep. And Fitness Academy             Bonita Springs   FL      Yes        K        5         480

Fort Myers Prep. And Fitness Academy                 Ft. Myers        FL      Yes        K        6         480

P.A.C.E. High School                                 Pace             FL      No         9        12        423

Atlanta Preparatory Academy                          Atlanta          GA      Yes        K        4         450

Charles R. Drew Charter School                       Atlanta          GA      Yes        PK       8         495

KIPP South Fulton Academy                            Atlanta          GA      Yes        5        8         570

KIPP Ways Academy                                    Atlanta          GA      Yes        5        8         570

South Atlanta High School                            Atlanta          GA      No         9        12        420

Imagine Int’l Academy Of Mableton                    Mableton         GA      Yes        K        8         450

Waianae High School                                  Waianae          HI      No         9        12        410

Jefferson-Edison Elementary School                   Davenport        IA      No         K        5         420

Anser Charter School                                 Boise            ID      Yes        K        8         420

Fort Bowman Academy                                  Cahokia          IL      Yes        K        12        420

Academy Of Commerce & Technology Charter HS          Chicago          IL      Yes        7        12        425

Ace Technical Charter High School                    Chicago          IL      Yes        9        12        410

Aspira Charter School (At Haugan)                    Chicago          IL      Yes        6        8         420

Austin Business And Entrepreneurship Acad.           Chicago          IL      No         9        11        465

B. A. Sizemore Acad. Of Shabazz Int’l Charter        Chicago          IL      Yes        K        5         435

Bronzeville Lighthouse Elementary Charter            Chicago          IL      Yes        K        7         480

Bronzeville Scholastic Hs                            Chicago          IL      No         9        12        415

Catalyst Charter School-Howland                      Chicago          IL      Yes        K        7         460

Chicago International Charter - Avalon/South Shore   Chicago          IL      Yes        K        7         450



                                                                                                                      43
 School Name                                          City      State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                   Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Chicago International Charter - Bucktown Campus      Chicago   IL      Yes        K        8         450

 Chicago International Charter – Irving Park Campus   Chicago   IL      Yes        K        5         450

 Chicago International Charter - Longwood Campus      Chicago   IL      Yes        3        12        460

 Chicago International Charter - Northtown Campus     Chicago   IL      Yes        9        12        450

 Chicago International Charter - Prairie Campus       Chicago   IL      Yes        K        8         460

 Chicago International Charter - Ralph Ellison        Chicago   IL      Yes        9        11        448

 Chicago International Charter - Washington Park      Chicago   IL      Yes        K        3         450

 Chicago International Charter - West Belden Campus   Chicago   IL      Yes        K        8         450

 Chicago International Charter -Wrightwood Campus     Chicago   IL      Yes        K        8         450

 Chicago International Charter -Basil Campus          Chicago   IL      Yes        PK       8         450

 Chicago Math & Science Elementary School             Chicago   IL      Yes        6        12        417

 Chicago Mathematics & Science Academy                Chicago   IL      Yes        6        12        417

 Collins Academy High School                          Chicago   IL      No         9        12        460

 Williams Prep. School Of Medicine (Dusable)          Chicago   IL      No         7        12        415

 Dusable Acad. Of Shabazz Int’l Charter               Chicago   IL      No         9        12        450

 Erie Elementary Charter School                       Chicago   IL      Yes        K        3         420

 Frazier International Magnet School                  Chicago   IL      No         PK       6         450

 Frederick Douglass Academy High School               Chicago   IL      No         9        12        417

 Galapagos Elementary Charter School                  Chicago   IL      Yes        K        7         455

 KIPP Ascend Academy Charter School                   Chicago   IL      Yes        5        8         575

 Learn Charter School                                 Chicago   IL      Yes        K        2         450

 Learn Elem Charter School                            Chicago   IL      Yes        PK       8         450

 Legacy Charter School                                Chicago   IL      Yes        PK       5         420

 Namaste Charter School                               Chicago   IL      Yes        K        5         450

 Noble Street Charter School - College Prep           Chicago   IL      Yes        9        12        445

 Noble Street– Golder College Prep                    Chicago   IL      Yes        9        12        445

 Noble Street– Rowe-Clark Math & Science Acad.        Chicago   IL      Yes        9        12        445

 North Lawndale College Prep.                         Chicago   IL      Yes        9        10        450

 Passages Charter School                              Chicago   Il      Yes        PK       5         400

 Perspective Charter School/High School               Chicago   IL      Yes        9        11        450

 Perspectives Charter High School                     Chicago   IL      Yes        6        12        450

 Perspectives Charter School – Calumet                Chicago   IL      Yes        6        8         450

 Perspectives Charter– Calumet Hs Of Technology       Chicago   IL      Yes        9        12        450

 Polaris Charter Academy (At Morse)                   Chicago   IL      Yes        K        4         490

 Pritzker College Prep                                Chicago   Il      No         9        12        445

 Providence Englewood Charter - Bunche Campus         Chicago   IL      Yes        1        7         425

 Rauner College Prep                                  Chicago   IL      No         9        11        450

 Rickover Naval Academy High (At Senn)                Chicago   IL      No         9        10        435

 Rowe Clark Math And Science Academy                  Chicago   IL      No         9        10        450

 School Of Social Justice (At Little Village)         Chicago   IL      No         9        12        420



44
School Name                                              City           State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                           Grade    Grade     Minutes

Shabazz International Chart Elem                         Chicago        IL      Yes        K        8         435

Tarkington Elem School                                   Chicago        IL      No         PK       8         365

Univ Of Chicago Charter School                           Chicago        IL      Yes        6        11        555

University Of Chicago -Carter G. Woodson                 Chicago        IL      Yes        6        8         398

University Of Chicago Charter School - Donoghue Campus   Chicago        IL      Yes        PK       5         405

University Of Chicago Charter School -
                                                         Chicago        IL      Yes        PK       5         400
North Kenwood/Oakland Campus
University Of Chicago Charter School –
                                                         Chicago        IL      Yes        6        11        555
Woodlawn High School Campus
Uno Charter High School                                  Chicago        IL      Yes        9        12        540

Uno Charter School - Archer Heights Elem                 Chicago        IL      Yes        K        7         435

Uno Charter School - Bartolomé De Las Casas Campus       Chicago        IL      Yes        K        8         510

Uno Charter School - Officer Donald Marq                 Chicago        il      Yes        K        8         420

Uno Charter School-Archer Heights 2                      Chicago        IL      Yes        K        8         450

Uno Charter School-Octavio Paz Campus                    Chicago        IL      Yes        K        5         420

Uplift Community High School                             Chicago        IL      No         6        12        396

Urban Prep Charter Academy For Young Men                 Chicago        Il      Yes        9        11        480

World Language High School (At Little Village)           Chicago        IL      No         9        12        432

Young Womens Leadership Chrtr Sch                        Chicago        IL      Yes        7        12        420

Youth Connections Charter Hs                             Chicago        IL      Yes        9        12        420

Prairie Crossing Charter School                          Grayslake      IL      Yes        K        8         465

Franklin-Edison School                                   Peoria         IL      No         PK       5         450

Loucks Edison Junior Academy                             Peoria         IL      No         5        8         390

Northmoor-Edison School                                  Peoria         IL      No         K        4         435

Rolling Acres Edison Jr Academy                          Peoria         IL      No         5        8         435

Springfield Ball Charter School                          Springfield    IL      Yes        PK       8         390

East Chicago Lighthouse Charter School                   Gary           IN      Yes        K        6         480

Gary Lighthouse Charter School                           Gary           IN      Yes        K        8         480

KIPP Lead College Prep Charter School                    Gary           IN      Yes        5        7         540

West Gary Lighthouse Charter School                      Gary           in      Yes        K        7         480

Christel House Academy                                   Indianapolis   IN      Yes        K        8         470

Jeremiah Gray-Edison Elementary School                   Indianapolis   IN      No         K        5         480

Rosa Parks-Edison Elementary School                      Indianapolis   IN      No         K        5         475

Emma Donnan Middle School                                Indianapolis   IN      No         7        8         420

Indianapolis Lighthouse Charter School                   Indianapolis   IN      Yes        PK       9         480

John Marshall                                            Indianapolis   IN      No         6        8         420

KIPP Indianapolis College Preparatory                    Indianapolis   IN      Yes        5        8         570

Monument Lighthouse Charter School                       Indianapolis   IN      Yes        K        7         455

Riverside School 44                                      Indianapolis   IN      No         K        6         385

Rural Community Academy                                  Sullivan       IN      Yes        K        8         435



                                                                                                                        45
 School Name                               City          State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                            Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Dalton Elementary School                  Baton Rouge   LA      No         K        5         450

 East Baton Rouge Lab Academy              Baton Rouge   LA      No         9        10        510

 Glen Oaks Middle School                   Baton Rouge   LA      No         6        8         450

 Lanier Elementary School                  Baton Rouge   LA      No         K        5         450

 Prescott Middle School                    Baton Rouge   LA      No         6        8         450

 Pointe Coupee Central High School         Morganza      LA      No         6        12        480

 A.P. Tureaud Technology Academy           New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        6         510

 Abramson Science And Technology Charter   New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        10        480

 Agnes Bauduit Elementary School           New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Akili Academy Of New Orleans              New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        2         525

 Albert Wicker Elementary School           New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Benjamin Banneker Elementary School       New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Benjamin Franklin Senior High School      New Orleans   LA      Yes        9        12        435

 Booker T. Washington Transition School    New Orleans   LA      No         6        8         510

 Charles R. Drew Elementary School         New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Edgar P. Harney Elementary School         New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Edward Hynes Elementary Charter School    New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        8         420

 Einstein Charter School                   New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        8         420

 Fannie C. Williams Elementary School      New Orleans   LA      No         K        6         510

 Francis Gregory Elementary School         New Orleans   LA      No         4        8         510

 Frederick Douglass High School            New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

 Gentilly Terrace Elementary               New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 George Washington Carver Elementary       New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 George Washington Carver High School      New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

 Henry Schaumburg Elementary School        New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 James M. Singleton Charter School         New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        8         510

 James W. Johnson School                   New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 John Dibert Elementary School             New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 John McDonogh Senior High School          New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

 Joseph A. Craig Elementary School         New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Joseph S. Clark Senior High School        New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

 Julian Leadership Academy                 New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 KIPP Believe College Prep                 New Orleans   LA      Yes        5        8         575

 KIPP Central City Academy                 New Orleans   LA      Yes        5        8         555

 KIPP Central City Primary 2008            New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        4         490

 KIPP McDonogh 15                          New Orleans   LA      Yes        PK       8         n/a

 L.E. Rabouin Career Magnet High School    New Orleans   LA      No         10       12        510

 Langston Hughes Academy Charter School    New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        6         540

 Laurel Elementary School                  New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

 Live Oak Elementary School                New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510



46
School Name                                  City          State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                              Grade    Grade     Minutes
Livingston Elementary                        New Orleans   LA      No         6        8         510

Mary D. Coghill Elementary School            New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

Medard Nelson - Uno Charter School           New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        8         510

Miller-Mccoy Academy For Math & Business     New Orleans   LA      Yes        6        12        540

Murray Henderson Elementary School           New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

New Orleans Charter Science & Math Academy   New Orleans   LA      No         9        10        510

New Orleans College Prep                     New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        6         570

Paul B. Habans Elementary                    New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

Pierre A. Capdau - Uno Charter Elementary    New Orleans   LA      Yes        K        8         510

Sarah T. Reed Elementary School              New Orleans   LA      No         K        8         510

Sarah T. Reed Senior High School             New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

Schwarz Alternative School                   New Orleans   LA      No         6        12        510

Sylvanie Williams Elementary School          New Orleans   LA      No         K        5         510

Thurgood Marshall Early College High         New Orleans   LA      No         9        11        510

Thurgood Marshall Middle School              New Orleans   LA      No         7        8         510

Walter L. Cohen High School                  New Orleans   LA      No         9        12        510

Berkshire Arts And Technology Charter        Adams         MA      Yes        6        12        450

Boston Arts Academy                          Boston        MA      No         9        12        480

Boston Rennaissance Charter School           Boston        MA      Yes        K        6         435

Fenway High School                           Boston        MA      No         9        12        410

Health Careers Academy                       Boston        MA      Yes        9        12        425

Match Charter Public School                  Boston        MA      Yes        6        12        510

Smith Leadership Academy Charter School      Boston        MA      Yes        6        8         480

Uphams Corner Charter School                 Boston        MA      Yes        5        12        410

Baldwin Early Learning Center                Brighton      MA      No         PK       1         570

Boston Community Leadership Academy          Brighton      MA      No         9        12        435

Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School      Cambridge     MA      Yes        K        8         420

Community Charter School Of Cambridge        Cambridge     MA      Yes        7        12        430

Fletcher/Maynard Academy                     Cambridge     MA      No         PK       8         480

Martin Luther King Jr.                       Cambridge     MA      No         PK       8         480

Clarence R Edwards Middle                    Charlestown   MA      No         6        8         520

Joseph A. Browne School                      Chelsea       MA      No         5        8         480

Phoenix Charter Academy                      Chelsea       MA      Yes        14       21        480

Bowe                                         Chicopee      MA      No         PK       5         459

Francis W. Parker Charter Essential School   Devens        MA      Yes        7        12        420

Boston Collegiate Charter School             Dorchester    MA      Yes        5        12        405

Codman Academy Charter Public School         Dorchester    MA      Yes        9        12        390

Harbor School                                Dorchester    MA      No         6        8         450

John Winthrop                                Dorchester    MA      No         PK       5         420

Neighborhood House                           Dorchester    MA      Yes        PK       8         460



                                                                                                           47
 School Name                                 City            State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Techboston Academy                          Dorchester      MA      No         9        12        435

 Excel Academy                               E. Boston       MA      Yes        5        8         460

 Mario Umana Middle School Academy           East Boston     MA      No         6        8         530

 Pioneer Charter School Of Science           Everett         MA      Yes        7        9         445

 Atlantis Charter School                     Fall River      MA      Yes        K        8         450

 Matthew J Kuss Middle                       Fall River      MA      No         6        8         492

 North End Elementary                        Fall River      MA      No         PK       5         480

 Academy Middle School                       Fitchburg       MA      No         5        8         480

 B F Brown Arts Vision School                Fitchburg       MA      No         5        8         465

 Foxborough Regional                         Foxboro         MA      Yes        K        12        420

 Brophy                                      Framingham      MA      No         K        5         480

 Cameron Middle School                       Framingham      MA      No         6        8         480

 Christa Mcauliffe Regional Public Charter   Framingham      MA      Yes        6        8         420

 Four Rivers                                 Greenfield      MA      Yes        7        12        425

 Greenfield Middle                           Greenfield      MA      No         5        8         480

 Newton School                               Greenfield      MA      No         K        3         480

 Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter    Hadley          MA      Yes        K        8         465

 Hill View Montessori                        Haverhill       MA      Yes        K        8         n/a

 Holyoke Community Charter School            Holyoke         MA      Yes        K        8         455

 Academy Of The Pacific Rim                  Hyde Park       MA      Yes        6        12        440

 Boston Preparatory Charter Public School    Hyde Park       MA      Yes        6        12        495

 Young Achievers Science And Math Pilot      Jamaica Plain   MA      No         K        8         420

 Community Day Charter Public School         Lawrence        MA      Yes        K        8         480

 Lowell Community                            Lowell          MA      Yes        K        6         480

 Lowell Middlesex Academy                    Lowell          MA      Yes        9        12        390

 KIPP Academy Lynn                           Lynn            MA      Yes        5        8         580

 Ferryway                                    Malden          MA      No         K        8         460

 Mystic Valley Regional                      Malden          MA      Yes        K        12        450

 Salemwood                                   Malden          MA      No         K        8         450

 Marblehead Community                        Marblehead      MA      Yes        4        8         470

 Advanced Math And Science Academy           Marlborough     MA      Yes        6        12        435

 South Shore Charter Public                  Norwell         MA      Yes        K        12        405

 AC Whelan                                   Revere          MA      No         PK       5         480

 Garfield Middle School                      Revere          MA      No         6        8         522

 Edward Brooke School                        Roslindale      MA      Yes        K        8         480

 City On A Hill Charter Public School        Roxbury         MA      Yes        9        12        450

 James P Timilty Middle                      Roxbury         MA      No         6        8         520

 Mission Hill School                         Roxbury         MA      No         K        8         420

 Roxbury Preparatory                         Roxbury         MA      Yes        6        8         525

 The Saltonstall School                      Salem           MA      No         K        7         420



48
School Name                                   City                   State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                        Grade    Grade     Minutes
Prospect Hill Academy                         Somerville/Cambridge   MA      Yes        K        12        420

Mary E Wells Jr High                          Southbridge            MA      No         6        8         515

West Street                                   Southbridge            MA      No         4        5         490

Martin Luther King Jr. School Of Excellence   Springfield            MA      Yes        K        5         465

New Leadership Charter School                 Springfield            MA      Yes        6        12        n/a

Sabis International Charter School            Springfield            MA      Yes        K        12        n/a

Innovation Academy Charter School             Tyngsborough,          MA      Yes        5        8         460

Martha’s Vineyard Public Charter School       West Tisbury           MA      Yes        K        12        420

Abby Kelley Foster Charter Public School      Worcester              MA      Yes        K        12        425

Chandler Elementary Community                 Worcester              MA      No         PK       6         465

City View                                     Worcester              MA      No         PK       6         470

Jacob Hiatt Magnet                            Worcester              MA      No         PK       6         465

Seven Hills                                   Worcester              MA      Yes        K        8         n/a

KIPP Ujima Village Academy                    Baltimore              MD      Yes        5        8         570

The Seed School Of Maryland                   Baltimore              MD      Yes        6        12        455

Bingham Academy                               Alpena                 MI      Yes        PK       6         480

Bay County Public School Academy              Bay City               MI      Yes        K        12        465

Advanced Technology Academy—ES                Dearborn               MI      Yes        K        5         440

Advanced Technology Academy—MS                Dearborn               MI      Yes        6        8         460

Richfield Arts & Technology Academy           Flint                  MI      Yes        PK       8         450

Grand Blanc Academy                           Grand Blanc            MI      Yes        K        8         450

Best Public School Academy                    Highland Park          MI      No         K        8         450

Discovery Arts And Technology PSA             Inkster                MI      Yes        K        7         450

Jackson Arts & Technology Academy             Jackson                MI      Yes        K        6         450

Capital Area Academy                          Lansing                MI      Yes        PK       8         450

Arts And Technology Academy Of Pontiac        Pontiac                MI      Yes        PK       8         450

Treknorth Junior And Senior High School       Bemidji                MN      Yes        7        12        400

Kenwood-Edison Charter School                 Duluth                 MN      Yes        K        5         450

Raleigh-Edison Academy                        Duluth                 MN      Yes        K        5         450

Washburn-Edison Junior Academy                Duluth                 MN      Yes        6        8         439

Hiawatha Leadership Academ                    Minneapolis            Mn      Yes        K        2         515

KIPP Stand Academy 2008                       Minneapolis            MN      Yes        5        8         570

Lighthouse Academy Of Nations                 Minneapolis            MN      Yes        8        12        450

Academia Cesar Chavez                         Saint Paul             MN      Yes        K        6         425

Allen-Edison Village School                   Kansas City            MO      Yes        K        8         480

Brookside Charter School                      Kansas City            MO      Yes        K        6         420

Brookside Frontier Math And Science           Kansas City            MO      Yes        K        K         420

Derrick Thomas Academy                        Kansas City            MO      Yes        K        8         480

KIPP Endeavor Academy                         Kansas City            MO      Yes        5        6         540

Cool Valley Elem.                             Saint Louis            MO      No         PK       6         520



                                                                                                                 49
 School Name                                       City            State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                      Grade    Grade     Minutes
 Confluence Acacemy - Walnut Park Campus           St. Louis       MO      No         K        8         540

 Confluence Academy – Old North Campus             St. Louis       MO      No         K        8         555

 KIPP Academy Charlotte                            Charlotte       NC      Yes        5        8         585

 KIPP Gaston College Preparatory                   Gaston          NC      Yes        5        11        565

 KIPP Pride High School                            Gaston          NC      Yes        9        12        n/a

 Brooks Global                                     Greensboro      NC      No         K        5         400

 Johnson Street Elementary                         High Point      NC      No         K        8         405

 Johnson St. Global Studies Extended-Year Magnet   High Point      NC      No         K        8         410

 Wallace-Rose Hill High                            Teachey         NC      No         9        12        430

 Central Campus School                             Minot           ND      No         9        10        407

 Hope Academy CS                                   Asbury Park     NJ      Yes        K        8         425

 Oceanside Charter School                          Atlantic City   NJ      Yes        PK       8         450

 Camden’s Promise                                  Camden          NJ      Yes        5        8         480

 D.U.E. Season Charter School                      Camden          NJ      Yes        K        8         420

 Freedom Academy Charter School                    Camden          NJ      Yes        5        8         585

 Leap Academy University Charter Sch               Camden          NJ      Yes        K        12        480

 Classical Academy Charter School                  Clifton         NJ      Yes        6        8         420

 East Orange Community Charter School              East Orange     NJ      Yes        K        4         465

 Galloway Community Charter School                 Galloway        NJ      Yes        K        8         405

 Pace Charter School Of Hamilton                   Hamilton Twp    NJ      Yes        K        3         420

 Create Charter School                             Jersey City     NJ      Yes        6        12        401

 Jersey City Golden Door C. S.                     Jersey City     NJ      Yes        K        8         450

 Liberty Academy                                   Jersey City     NJ      Yes        K        8         420

 University Academy Charter High School            Jersey City     NJ      Yes        9        12        n/a

 Academy Charter Hs                                Lake Como       NJ      Yes        9        12        425

 Gray CS                                           Newark          NJ      Yes        K        8         540

 Greater Newark Academy Charter Sch                Newark          NJ      Yes        5        8         475

 Lady Liberty                                      Newark          NJ      Yes        K        8         450

 Maria Varisco Rogers Charter                      Newark          nj      Yes        3        8         450

 Marion P. Thomas Charter School                   Newark          NJ      Yes        K        8         465

 New Horizons Community Charter Scho               Newark          NJ      Yes        K        5         450

 Newark Collegiate Academy                         Newark          NJ      Yes        9        12        575

 North Star Academy Charter School                 Newark          NJ      Yes        K        12        480

 Robert Treat Academy Charter School               Newark          NJ      Yes        K        8         420

 Team Academy                                      Newark          NJ      Yes        5        8         570

 University Heights Charter School                 Newark          NJ      Yes        K        5         480

 Paterson CS For Science And Tech                  Paterson        NJ      Yes        6        12        420

 Central Jersey Arts Charter School                Plainfield      NJ      Yes        K        5         420

 Queen City Academy Charter School                 Plainfield      NJ      Yes        K        8         480

 Union County Teams                                Plainfield      NJ      Yes        K        12        450



50
School Name                                          City              State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                          Grade    Grade     Minutes
Princeton Charter School                             Princeton         NJ      Yes        K        8         435

Red Bank Charter School                              Red Bank          NJ      Yes        K        8         480

Central Jersey College Prep. Charter School          Somerset          NJ      Yes        7        12        442

Emily Fisher Charter School Of Adv. Studies          Trenton           NJ      Yes        5        12        405

Foundation Academy Charter School                    Trenton           NJ      Yes        5        8         530

Trenton Community                                    Trenton           NJ      Yes        K        8         430

Village                                              Trenton           NJ      Yes        K        8         420

Wingate High School                                  Fort Wingate      NM      No         9        12        465

Andre Agassi College Prepatory Academy               Las Vegas         NV      Yes        PK       12        480

Wendell P. Williams Elementary School                Las Vegas         NV      No         PK       5         395

Lund High School                                     Lund              NV      No         K        12        486

C. V. T. Gilbert Magnet School                       North Las Vegas   NV      No         K        5         390

KIPP Tech Valley                                     Albany            NY      Yes        5        8         580

Emerson Community School At Queens High              Bellrose          NY      No         9        12        409

Freire Small Learning Community At Queens High       Bellrose          NY      No         9        12        410
Montessori School At Queens High School
                                                     Bellrose          NY      No         9        12        420
For Teaching, Liberal Arts & Sciences
Green Dot New York Charter School                    Bronx             NY      Yes        9        9         480

KIPP Academy New York                                Bronx             NY      Yes        5        8         575

Achievement First - Bushwick Elementary              Brooklyn          NY      Yes        K        3         525

Achievement First Crown Heights Charter              Brooklyn          NY      Yes        K        8         525

Achievement First East New York Charter              Brooklyn          NY      Yes        K        2         585

Achievement First Endeavor Charter School            Brooklyn          NY      Yes        5        7         520

Bedford Academy High School                          Brooklyn          NY      No         9        12        410

Brooklyn Generations School                          Brooklyn          NY      No         6        12        410

Brooklyn Preparatory High School                     Brooklyn          NY      No         9        12        390

Excellence Charter School Of Bedford Stuyvesant      Brooklyn          NY      Yes        K        8         510

Foundations Academy, Brooklyn                        Brooklyn          NY      No         9        12        410

Kings Collegiate Charter School                      Brooklyn          NY      Yes        5        12        510

KIPP Amp Charter School                              Brooklyn          NY      Yes        5        8         575

Leadership Preparatory Charter School                Brooklyn          NY      Yes        K        3         510

Victory Collegiate High School                       Brooklyn          NY      No         9        12        460

Williamsburg Collegiate Charter School               Brooklyn          NY      Yes        5        8         525

Buffalo Academy Of Science Charter School            Buffalo           NY      Yes        7        11        440

South Park High School                               Buffalo           NY      No         9        12        458

Riverhead Charter School                             Calverton         NY      Yes        K        6         480

Hempstead High School                                Hempstead         NY      No         9        12        398

Bayard Rustin Educational Complex (Forme             New York          NY      No         9        12        396

KIPP Infinity Charter School                         New York          NY      Yes        5        8         575

KIPP Success Teamwork Achievement & Responsibility   New York          NY      Yes        5        8         575



                                                                                                                       51
 School Name                                       City                  State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                                            Grade    Grade     Minutes
 The Promise Academy                               New York              NY      Yes        K        8         600

 Ossining High School                              Ossining              NY      No         9        12        435

 Queens High School For Teaching                   Queens                NY      No         9        12        420

 Eugenio Maria De Hostos Charter School            Rochester             NY      Yes        K        6         n/a

 True North Rochester Preparatory Charter School   Rochester             NY      Yes        5        7         545

 Long Island City High School, Queens              Springfield Gardens   NY      No         9        12        550

 Ark Community Charter School                      Troy                  NY      Yes        K        6         435

 Mt. Healthy Preparatory And Fitness Academy       Cincinnati            OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Arts And Science Prep. Academy                    Cleveland             OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Cleveland Arts & Social Sciences Academy          Cleveland             OH      No         K        6         450

 Cleveland Lighthouse Ccommunity School            Cleveland             OH      Yes        K        4         480

 Cleveland Lighthouse Charter Comm’y School West   Cleveland             OH      Yes        5        7         480

 Columbus Arts & Technology Academy                Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         450

 Columbus Humanities Arts & Tech. Academy          Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         450

 Columbus Preparatory Academy                      Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         450

 Columbus Preparatory And Fitness Academy          Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Eastland Performance Academy                      Columbus              OH      Yes        K        6         480

 KIPP Journey Academy 2008                         Columbus              OH      Yes        5        6         570

 Northland Preparatory And Fitness Academy         Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Whitehall Preparatory And Fitness Academy         Columbus              OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Dayton View Academy                               Dayton                OH      Yes        K        8         470

 Life Skills Center Of Dayton                      Dayton                OH      Yes        9        12        510

 The Dayton Academy                                Dayton                OH      Yes        K        8         470

 Academy Of Arts And Sciences                      Lorain                OH      Yes        K        3         450

 Lorain Preparatory Academy                        Lorian                OH      Yes        3        8         450

 Foundation Academy Of Mansfield                   Mansfield             OH      Yes        K        5         450

 Preparing Academic Leaders Academy                Maple Heights         OH      Yes        K        8         450

 Middletown Preparatory And Fitness Academy        Middletown            OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Springfield Preparatory And Fitness Academy       Springfield           OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Bridge Academy Of Ohio                            Toledo                OH      Yes        K        3         420

 Central Academy Of Ohio                           Toledo                OH      Yes        4        8         420

 Grove Patterson Academy                           Toledo                OH      No         K        8         480

 Paul L. Dunbar Academy                            Toledo                OH      Yes        K        8         420

 Toledo Preparatory And Fitness Academy            Toledo                OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Trotwood Preparatory And Fitness Academy          Trotwood              OH      Yes        K        8         480

 Arts And Sciences Academy                         Warren                OH      Yes        K        12        450

 Cornerstone Academy                               Westerville           OH      No         K        6         450

 Youngstown Academy Of Excellence                  Youngstown            OH      Yes        K        8         440

 Dover HS                                          Dover                 OK      No         PK       12        410

 Shady Grove ES                                    Hulbert               OK      No         PK       8         415



52
School Name                                City            State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                              Grade    Grade     Minutes
KIPP Reach College Preparatory             Oklahoma City   OK      Yes        5        8         605

Western Village Academy                    Oklahoma City   OK      Yes        PK       5         420

KIPP Tulsa College Preparatory             Tulsa           OK      No         5        8         570

Three Rivers Charter School                West Linn       OR      Yes        3        8         420

Lehigh Valley Academy Regional Charter     Bethlehem       PA      Yes        K        10        450

Sylvan Heights Science Charter School      Harrisburg      PA      Yes        K        4         480

Propel Homestead                           Homestead       PA      Yes        K        8         420

Propel Mckeesport CS                       Mckeesport      PA      Yes        K        8         420

Propel Andrew Street High School           Munhall         PA      Yes        9        10        450

Boys’ Latin Of Philadelphia                Philadelphia    PA      Yes        9        12        540

Christopher Columbus Charter School        Philadelphia    PA      Yes        K        8         420

KIPP Philadelphia Charter School           Philadelphia    PA      Yes        5        8         570

Leadership Learning Partners Charter       Philadelphia    PA      Yes        K        8         480

Mastery Charter Schools – Lenfest Campus   Philadelphia    PA      Yes        6        12        540

Mastery Charter Schools – Pickett Campus   Philadelphia    PA      Yes        6        12        540

Mastery Charter Schools – Shoemaker        Philadelphia    PA      Yes        6        12        540

Mastery Charter Schools – Thomas Campus    Philadelphia    PA      Yes        6        12        540

Renaissance Advantage Charter School       Philadelphia    PA      Yes        K        8         435

Southwest Leadership Academy               Philadelphia    PA      No         K        8         480

The Renaissance Academy – Edison Charter   Phoenixville    PA      Yes        K        12        450

Pittsburgh Arlington                       Pittsburgh      PA      No         PK       8         430

Pittsburgh Colfax                          Pittsburgh      PA      No         K        8         430

Pittsburgh Fort Pitt                       Pittsburgh      PA      No         PK       5         430

Pittsburgh King                            Pittsburgh      PA      No         K        8         430

Pittsburgh Murray                          Pittsburgh      PA      No         PK       8         430

Pittsburgh Northview                       Pittsburgh      PA      No         PK       5         430

Pittsburgh Rooney                          Pittsburgh      PA      No         6        8         430

Pittsburgh Weil                            Pittsburgh      PA      No         PK       8         430

Propel Montour                             Pittsburgh      PA      Yes        K        8         450

Fell Charter School                        Simpson         PA      Yes        K        8         465

Propel East                                Turtle Creek    PA      Yes        K        5         420

New Hope Academy Charter School            York            PA      Yes        7        12        470

Brashier Middle College Charter            Simpsonville    SC      Yes        9        12        430

Hawthorne Elem                             Sioux Falls     SD      No         PK       5         435

Laura B Anderson                           Sioux Falls     SD      No         PK       5         405

Lowell Elem                                Sioux Falls     SD      No         K        5         435

KIPP Diamond Academy                       Memphis         TN      Yes        5        8         570

KIPP Academy Nashville                     Nashville       TN      Yes        5        8         330

Alex Green Elementary School               Whites Creek    TN      No         PK       4         465

KIPP Austin College Prep                   Austin          TX      Yes        5        8         570



                                                                                                           53
 School Name                                 City           State   Charter?   Lowest   Highest   Daily
                                                                               Grade    Grade     Minutes

 St. Mary’s Academy Charter School           Beeville       TX      Yes        K        6         450

 KIPP Truth Academy                          Dallas         TX      Yes        5        8         570

 Idea Quest College Prep                     Edinburg       TX      Yes        6        12        510

 Briarmeadow Charter School                  Houston        TX      Yes        PK       5         440

 KIPP 3d Academy                             Houston        TX      Yes        5        8         525

 KIPP Academy Middle School                  Houston        TX      Yes        5        8         525

 KIPP Dream Prep                             Houston        TX      Yes        PK       1         525

 KIPP Houston High School                    Houston        TX      Yes        9        12        460

 KIPP Intrepid Preparatory School 2008       Houston        TX      Yes        5        6         n/a

 KIPP Liberation College Prep                Houston        TX      Yes        5        8         575

 KIPP Polaris Academy                        Houston        TX      Yes        5        7         580

 KIPP Sharpstown College Prep                Houston        TX      Yes        5        7         n/a

 KIPP Sharpstown College Prep Lower School   Houston        TX      Yes        PK       4         555

 KIPP Shine Prep                             Houston        TX      Yes        PK       4         540

 KIPP Spirit College Prep                    Houston        TX      Yes        5        8         575

 Ser-Ninos Charter School                    Houston        TX      Yes        PK       8         465

 Yes College Preparatory                     Houston        TX      Yes        6        11        540

 Yes Prep - Southeast                        Houston        TX      Yes        6        12        520

 Yes Prep Lee                                Houston        TX      Yes        6        7         540

 Yes Prep. - Southwest                       Houston        TX      Yes        6        10        540

 KIPP Aspire Academy                         San Antonio    TX      Yes        5        8         570

 Katherine Anne Porter School                Wimberley      TX      Yes        9        12        445

 An Achievable Dream Academy                 Newport News   VA      Yes        K        5         480

 An Achievable Dream Middle & High School    Newport News   VA      No         6        12        540

 Business & Economics Academy Of Milwaukee   Milwaukee      WI      No         K        8         450




54
   N AT I O N A L C E N T E R O N T I M E & L E A R N I N G
   The National Center on Time & Learning is dedicated to expanding learning time to
   improve student achievement and enable a well-rounded education for children. Through
   research, public policy and technical assistance, we support national, state and local
   initiatives that add significantly more school time for academic and enrichment oppor-
   tunities to help children meet the demands of the 21st century.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Center on Time & Learning (NCTL)                       Dr. Karen Hawley Miles,
gratefully acknowledges the support of the William                  President, Education Resource Strategies
and Flora Hewlett Foundation for supporting the                     Karen Baroody,
creation of the national database of expanded-time                  Managing Director, Education Resource Strategies
schools and for the production of this report.
                                                                    Dr. Naomi Calvo,
NCTL thanks the staff of the Rennie Center for Edu-                 Principal Associate, Education Resource Strategies
cation Research & Policy in Cambridge, Massachu-                    Dr. Stephen Frank,
setts for their assistance throughout the                           Director, Education Resource Strategies
development of this project, including: Dr. Celine                  Dr. Lauren Sue Scher,
Coggins, former research director; Jill Norton, exec-               Principal, Concentric Research & Evaluation
utive director; Marissa Cole, assistant director; and               Dr. Jason Snipes,
Dr. Lisa Famularo, research director.                               Research Director, Council of Great City Schools
We are grateful to the following individuals for                    Additional thanks to Myriad, Inc. for the production
their guidance and insights, both in developing                     of the report and Neptune Web and Yuki Kimura for
the database and in the drafting of this report:                    their technical support in the creation of the online
                                                                    database and search tools.


N AT I O N A L C E N T E R O N T I M E & L E A R N I N G S TA F F

Chris Gabrieli, Chairman                   Sarah Gallagher,                            Ben Lummis, Vice President
Jennifer Davis,                            Program Associate                           Sheila Murphy, Vice President,
President and CEO                          Meghan Hennessy,                            Finance and Operations
                                           Office Manager                              Fran O’Reilly,
Crystal Bish,                              Leigh Hopkins,                              Vice President of Research
Special Assistant to the Chairman          National Network Director                   Emily Raine, Manager,
Megan Britt, Manager of Policy             Claire Kaplan,                              Massachusetts Expanded
& Communications                           Vice President of Strategy                  Learning Time Initiative
David Farbman,                             George Mastoras,                            Joe Rull, Senior Advisor
Senior Researcher                          Program Associate
                                                                                       Lev Avery-Peck, Intern


N AT I O N A L C E N T E R O N T I M E & L E A R N I N G A D V I S O R Y B O A R D

Paul Reville,                              Christopher T. Cross,                       Roy Romer, College Board
Advisory Board Chairman                    Cross & Joftus, LLC                         Marc Tucker,
& Massachusetts Secretary                  Milton Goldberg,                            National Center on Education
of Education                               Educational Consultant                      and the Economy
Cindy Brown,                               John F. (Jack) Jennings,
Center for American Progress               Center on Education Policy
Michael Cohen, Achieve, Inc.               Wendy D. Puriefoy,
                                           Public Education Network


             Electronic copies of both the full report and the Summary and Key Findings are
             available at: www.timeandlearning.org. Printed copies of the Summary and Key
             Findings can be obtained by calling (617) 378-3940.
One Beacon Street, 34th Floor
Boston MA 02108

phone: 617.378.3940
fax: 617.723.6746
www. timeandlearning.org




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