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					SUB-COMMITTEE ON                                                                       COMSAR 9/7
RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS AND                                                              29 October 2004
SEARCH AND RESCUE                                                                Original: ENGLISH
9th session
Agenda item 7


MATTERS CONCERNING SEARCH AND RESCUE, INCLUDING THOSE RELATED
TO THE 1979 SAR CONFERENCE AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GMDSS

 Report of the eleventh session of the ICAO/IMO Joint Working Group on Harmonization
                     of Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue

                                                Note by the Secretariat



                                                        SUMMARY
 Executive summary:               The Eleventh Meeting of the International Civil Aviation
                                  Organization/International Maritime Organization (ICAO/IMO) Joint
                                  Working Group (JWG) on the Harmonization of Aeronautical and
                                  Maritime Search and Rescue was held on board the Bahamas flag
                                  passenger ship Adventure of the Seas owned by Royal Caribbean
                                  International, sailing from and returning to San Juan, Puerto Rico,
                                  United States, from 19 to 26 September 2004


 Action to be taken:              The Sub-Committee is invited to consider the aforementioned report,
                                  note its recommendations and take action as appropriate


 Related documents:               The IAMSAR Manual and MSC 78/26, paragraph 16.13




                                                              ***




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                                                           ANNEX


              ELEVENTH ICAO/IMO JOINT WORKING GROUP ON SAR (2004)

                                       On board MV Adventure of the Seas
                                            19 to 26 September 2004

REPORT OF THE ELEVENTH SESSION OF THE ICAO/IMO JOINT WORKING GROUP ON
   HARMONIZATION OF AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE

0        GENERAL

0.1     As approved by MSC 78 and endorsed by C 92, the eleventh meeting of the International
Civil Aviation Organization/International Maritime Organization (ICAO/IMO) Joint Working
Group (JWG) on the Harmonization of Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue was held
on board the Bahamas flag passenger ship Adventure of the Seas owned by Royal Caribbean
International, sailing from and returning to San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States, from 19 to
26 September 2004.

0.2    Following his appointment to the Chairmanship of the COMSAR Sub-Committee in
January 2004, Mr. Urban Hallberg decided to relinquish the Chairmanship of the Joint Working
Group, due to the potential for conflict of responsibility. Following nomination by Sweden,
Mr. Ron Miller (Canada) was unanimously elected by the group to assume the Chairmanship.
The group expressed its sincere appreciation to Mr. Hallberg for his dedication and valuable
contribution as Chair of the group since its inception and wished him well in his new role. The
Vice-Chairman, Colonel Scott Morgan (United States) was not present and the group agreed not
to appoint a temporary Vice-Chairman at this session.

0.3      The experts who participated in the JWG 11 meeting are listed in Appendix A.

0.4   The JWG welcomed and accepted the kind offer by Sweden to host the next meeting of
the JWG, which was tentatively scheduled to take place in Stockholm in
August/September 2005, pending approval from the Maritime Safety Committee.

1        Adoption of the agenda

1.1      The group adopted the draft agenda given in Appendix B.

2        Consideration of terms of reference

2.01     The terms of reference are contained in Appendix C.

2.1      Outcome of COMSAR 8, MSC 78, C 92 and TC 54




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2.1.1 The IMO Secretariat representative (Mr. Graham Mapplebeck) introduced ICAO/IMO
JWG WP 11/1 providing information on the outcome of COMSAR 8, MSC 78, C 92 and TC 54
with respect to SAR matters relevant to the group. The major items were the adoption of
proposed amendments to the SOLAS and SAR Conventions concerning the treatment of persons
rescued at sea and associated guidelines, large passenger ship safety, amendments to the
IAMSAR Manual and others. He also briefed the group on the latest developments in relation to
the UN Inter-agency group on the treatment of persons rescued at sea.

2.1.2 MSC 78 had adopted resolution MSC. 153(78), Amendments to Chapter V of the 1974
SOLAS Convention; resolution MSC. 155(78), Amendments to the 1979 SAR Convention with
amendments to Chapter 2 (Organization and Co-ordination), Chapter 3 (Co-operation between
States) and Chapter 4 (Operating procedures); and associated Guidelines on the treatment of
persons rescued at sea (resolution MSC. 167(78)). If accepted by member States under the tacit
amendment procedure, the convention amendments will enter into force on 1 July 2006.

2.1.3 Following MSC 78 and the adoption of amendments to the SOLAS and SAR
Conventions and associated guidelines for the treatment of persons rescued at sea, a second
meeting of the United Nations inter-agency initiative was held at IMO Headquarters on Monday,
12 July 2004.

2.1.4 In considering whether further guidance was necessary to shipmasters and other relevant
parties when the persons were rescued at sea in accordance with the provisions of the
amendments to the SOLAS and SAR Conventions, the inter-agency meeting reaffirmed that in
order to protect the integrity of the SAR system, the master was not competent, and should not
be required, to decide upon the legal status of the persons rescued; whether they are asylum
seekers, refugees, undocumented migrants, etc. However, in all probability, the master will be
called upon by shore authorities to seek information from those rescued in order to facilitate their
disembarkation. Accordingly, the meeting also agreed that, in general, guidance was required in
such instances for the post-rescue phase to assist the master and ship-owners and Contracting
Governments.

2.1.5 Such guidance will be drafted by the inter-agency group, as a whole, as soon as possible
and comprise a brief guide as to which organizations to contact, their respective major
responsibilities and other relevant general advice. This brief guide would be intended to further
assist the master, ship-owners, insurance companies, and other interested parties to disembark
the persons rescued with the least disruption. The IMO Secretariat agreed to provide the
co-ordinating role in the drafting of this guidance, however, the meeting agreed that the major
part of the guidance would in fact be drafted by, and was more properly the responsibility of
other agencies, e.g. UNHCR, as it applied to any asylum implications of the post-rescue phase.
A paper has been submitted to MSC 79 informing them of the outcome of this meeting.
(MSC 79/22/6)




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3        PROVISION OF CONVENTIONS,                                PLANS,   MANUALS   AND   OTHER
         DOCUMENTS AFFECTING SAR

3.1      Status of the Maritime SAR Convention

3.1.1 Mr. Mapplebeck (IMO Secretariat) informed the meeting that as of 31 July 2004, there
were 82 member States who are parties to the SAR Convention, representing 51.59% of the
world tonnage.

3.2   Progress report on the possible alignment of the IMO Area SAR Plans, the GMDSS
Master Plan and ICAO Regional Air Navigation Plans

3.2.1 No paper was submitted on this subject.

3.3   Progress report on work by Air Navigation Commission in reviewing ICAO Annex
12 amendment proposals for closer aeronautical maritime harmonization

3.3.1 The ICAO Secretariat representative (Mr. Brian Day) introduced document ICAO/IMO
JWG WP11/2 and summarised that on 23 February 2004, the ICAO Council adopted extensive
amendments to Annex 12 —Search and Rescue, which became effective on 12 July 2004.
Many SAR actions require close cooperation of effort between air and sea craft and the
coordinating staff who task them. Interoperability of equipment and compatibility of procedures
were vital when lives are endangered and time is of the essence. Achieving this end result is
possible only if the separate organizations administering aeronautical and maritime SAR, ICAO
and IMO respectively, aligned their high level documents to the extent practicable and ensured
that all underlying policies and practices were in keeping.

3.3.2 IMO closely aligned its SAR Convention with ICAO Annex 12 — Search and Rescue. In
its final form however, the IMO SAR Convention contained several changes in keeping with
contemporary realities and evolving best practice that were not reflected in the seventh edition of
Annex 12. Accordingly the Joint Working Group, at its 8th meeting, drafted proposed
amendments to Annex 12 with a view to harmonizing Annex 12 with the IMO SAR Convention
to the extent practicable.

3.3.3 Mr. Day reported that after further wide consultation and input from many sources, a
final amendment proposal was processed through the ICAO Air Navigation Commission and
Council. The group welcomed the adoption of the amendments to Annex 12, the first time that
the Annex has been so comprehensively amended and considered it to be a significant
achievement towards the harmonization of the ICAO and IMO procedures. The group expressed
its appreciation to Mr. Day for his extensive work on the amendments.

3.4    Further work on the IAMSAR Manual, availability for training institutions, priority items
for amendments




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3.4.1 MSC 78 noted that the ICAO/IMO Joint Working Group on Harmonization of
Aeronautical and Maritime SAR, at its tenth session held in Torquay, United Kingdom, from 15
to 19 September 2003, had prepared draft amendments to the IAMSAR Manual which were
subsequently endorsed by COMSAR 8.

3.4.2 In accordance with the procedures prescribed in the Annex to resolution A.894(21) and,
being advised that ICAO had already approved the proposed draft amendments, MSC 78 adopted
the proposed draft amendments to the IAMSAR Manual for dissemination by means of
MSC/Circ.1124, having decided that the amendments so adopted should enter into force on 1
July 2005.

3.4.3 The group noted the instruction by COMSAR 8 to further consider the proposal by Italy
(COMSAR 8/11/1) to include information on their ship reporting system ARES in the IAMSAR
Manual Volume III, and also noted the concerns expressed by the SAR working group at
COMSAR 8 that this would set a precedent and as a result, the IAMSAR Manual could become
bulky and potentially confusing if all national authorities wished to incorporate their ship
reporting systems into the Manual.

3.4.4 The group discussed the matter and concurred with the view of the SAR working group,
not to include individual nation‘s ship reporting systems into Volume III. Several factors were
involved in this, including the long lead time between updates of the Manual and the risk of the
Manual becoming overly bulky. Information on different ship reporting systems are contained in
the IAMSAR Manual Vol. II Annex O, and could be obtained from an RCC.

3.4.5 The group was of the opinion that potentially frequently changing information such as
telephone numbers, addresses and similar, should not be listed in the manuals due to the potential
for being out of date, but that the manual should give advice where such additional information
may be obtained, for example at an RCC.

Recommendation 11/1 – Views on frequently changing information in the IAMSAR
Manual

That ICAO and IMO may wish to note the views of the JWG on frequently changing
information in the IAMSAR Manual.

3.4.6 The group discussed this further and recommended that such dynamic information and
additional information not yet in the manuals (recommendations and changes adopted by
IMO/ICAO) should be made available both on an IMO and ICAO dedicated SAR Web site.

3.4.7 IMO have established a new web-database regarding information related to the
International Ship and Port facility Security Code (ISPS Code). In that, it was understood that
each State could update their own information. A similar, or the same database, could be used to
facilitate the needs of the SAR community.




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3.4.8 Mr. Urban Hallberg (Sweden) introduced document ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/14 on the
proposed amendments to the IAMSAR Manual. He explained that in the process of assisting
countries to implement or more closely to develop their SAR services in compliance with
existing conventions, resolutions, circulars and other guiding principles, a particular problem
seemed to be the legal background or the extent to which the legislation supports SAR operations
in accordance with the present guiding philosophy.

3.4.9 To assist in this regard, Mr Hallberg proposed several amendments to the IAMSAR
Manual which were considered by the group. The group discussed some of the proposals and
decided that the amendments would significantly affect the traditional role of the SAR Mission
Co-ordinator in particular and the operations of the RCC. It was considered that the IAMSAR
Manual needed to be flexible in order to allow for differing types of RCC being established
around the world ranging from the well-developed RCC equipped with state of the art
technology to the very basic needs of an RCC. The Group agreed that COMSAR 9 should be
informed of the proposals in the paper, so that it can be further considered by the SAR working
group. This paper is at Appendix E.

3.4.10 As instructed by COMSAR 8 the JWG in considering new amendments to the IAMSAR
Manual considered paragraphs 5.3 and 5.4 of the annex to document COMSAR 8/8/1 in regard
to the difficulties in recovering persons in distress at sea. The Group proposed the amendments
given at Appendix D for the consideration of the Sub Committee.

Recommendation 11/2 – proposed amendments to the IAMSAR Manual

That ICAO and IMO may wish to consider the proposals contained at Appendix E and the
proposed amendments on the recovery of persons at sea at Appendix D for inclusion in the
IAMSAR Manual.

3.5      List of references and electronic index to the IAMSAR Manual

3.5.1 No paper was submitted on this subject. The group was advised that the electronic index,
which was prepared with a view to updating the index of the IAMSAR Manual and also to
introduce hyperlinks to the electronic version of the Manual, had now been completed by the
United States Air Force and submitted to ICAO for use on the web site.

4        SAR OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES, PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES

4.1      Submarine SAR

4.1.1 Mr. Kevin Grieve (Canada) presented document ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/4 which
introduced an overview of submarine Search and Rescue as requested by the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) to be considered for inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual.




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4.1.2 He explained that globally, many States operate military, commercial tourist, commercial
salvage or scientific submarines, with the numbers of such vessels known to be considerable.
These craft are highly reliable, but accidents do occur in which a submarine comes to rest on the
seabed with survivors trapped in an intact compartment. Additionally, there is every possibility
that survivors may be found on the sea surface.

4.1.3 Submarine Search and Rescue, or SUBSAR is a highly specialized activity reliant on
specific assets and for which timely response, always important in SAR scenarios, is absolutely
essential. Likewise, the medical requirements for survivors of a submarine accident are also
extremely specialized and the survivors generally require urgent, specialized attention.

4.1.4 The group noted that, although the SAR Convention tasks MRCCs with the rescue of
persons at sea, there is no omnibus international body with overarching global responsibility for
the technical capabilities required of SUBSAR. However, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) submarine-operating States have for many years paid close attention to the operational,
technical and medical aspects of SUBSAR. Publications specific to NATO have been developed
and are regularly updated. More recently, an increasing number of non-NATO States have also
been involved in the standardization of SUBSAR procedures, generally under the aegis of
activity already undertaken by NATO.

4.1.5 In all events if a military or non-military unit or organization has reason to suspect that a
submarine accident has occurred, every effort should be made to contact the nearest Rescue Co-
ordination Centre in accordance with procedures identified elsewhere in the IAMSAR Manual.
Vessels suspecting such an accident, or believing themselves to have been involved in a collision
with a submarine, should anticipate a requirement to provide life-saving assistance.

4.1.6 The Group agreed with the proposal to add relevant text to the appropriate places in the
IAMSAR Manual but deleted the telephone numbers and web addresses as, as above, it was
thought that these may not be easily kept up to date. The group was concerned that there might
be duplication of authority with an organization already responsible for SUBSAR.

Recommendation 11/3 – proposed amendments to the IAMSAR Manual

That ICAO and IMO may wish to consider the proposed amendments on Submarine SAR
at Appendix D for inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual.

4.2      Updated search planning support software and improving search planning on land

4.2.1 Mr. Jack Frost (United States) presented documents ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/7 and
ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/9 which contained information about the development of updated
search planning support software (SAROPS) and about developments aimed at improving search
planning on land.




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4.2.2 In introducing WP 11/9, he explained that over the last several years, the United States
has been searching for methods and data that could improve the search planning process. The
survey of potential methods and data that could contribute to more efficient and more effective
search plans included the following:

         .1        Re-examination of computer-based search planning support tools used by the
                   United States Coast Guard.

         .2        Examination of other computer-based search planning support tools in use around
                   the world.

         .3        Examination of improvements in the digital environmental data products available
                   to support the search planning process.

         .4        Examination of advances made in search theory and optimal effort allocation
                   algorithms.

4.2.3 This survey led to the conclusion that the best option was to develop new software based
on the experiences with and lessons learned from all of the above items. The result has been a
decision to develop the Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System (SAROPS). SAROPS is
being designed and developed as a new-generation search planning tool with an open
architecture that will allow it to be adapted for use in any region and to operate within a
geographic information system (GIS) framework. The specific framework that was chosen is the
Commercial/Joint Mapping Tool Kit (C/JMTK), a United States government initiative to provide
enhanced functionality to support Command and Control system development. SAROPS is also
being designed with to allow economical and efficient future enhancements and modifications.
It should be possible to run it on any MS-Windows computer with an ArcMap Framework
installed.

4.2.4 In introducing ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/7, Mr. Frost explained that over the past several
years, the United States has been searching for methods and data that could improve the search
planning process on land. He presented the outcome of extensive field research into establishing
a more scientific base for determining search parameters on land rather than the ad hoc methods
presently used by many land SAR authorities.

4.2.5 The group discussed and noted with interest the development of SAROPS and the
research into upgrading land search methods.

4.3      Implementation of levels for airborne SAR units

4.3.1 Ms. Annika Wallengren Lejon (Sweden) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/13 which
invited the JWG to discuss implementation of levels for airborne SAR units (SRU). SAR duties
that need to be performed by airborne SRUs largely depend on operational environment, aircraft
performance and equipment, education and experience of the crew. The proposal contained a
method for categorising SRUs better in order to facilitate onward planning, particularly if units


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are to be deployed into neighbouring SAR regions. The group saw value with the concept but
considered that it needed further work, including the application to the maritime field. A small
correspondence group, under the co-ordination of Ms. Wallengren Lejon was set up to progress
the work and to re-submit to JWG 12.

4.4      Safety of large passenger ships

4.4.1 As instructed by MSC 78 (see paragraph 10 of ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/2), the group
discussed the outcome of COMSAR 8 and MSC 78 and in particular the fitment of marine radio
to aircraft SAR units. The group agreed that this has been an ongoing problem and discussed
various methods by which this could be overcome. ICAO explained the difficulty in mandating
carriage of such equipment on aircraft not normally covered by the ICAO provisions.

4.4.2 In regard to large passenger ships the group, many of whom are participants in the Safety
of Large Passenger Ship working groups at either Sub-Committee and Committee level,
expressed the view that by having this meeting on such a passenger ship, in this case, the 137276
ton Adventure of the Seas, which on this voyage had 3501 passengers and 1170 crew on board,
had provided them with invaluable experience and first hand knowledge of the operation of such
ships which undoubtedly will enable them to contribute much more to the issues on large
passenger ships safety.

4.4.3 The willingness of the ships officers and crew to demonstrate to the group various drills,
such as fire fighting, lifeboat launching, and several operational facilities on board, such as the
environmental handling and recycling facilities, was well appreciated and of immeasurable value
to the group, in terms of experiencing such operations at first hand. In a presentation given by
the Staff Captain, which was also much appreciated, the group had the opportunity to question
him at length about the ability of the ship to participate in SAR if required, and his views on
various operational aspects, such as for instance mass rescue operations, crowd control, mass
evacuation and the potential problems associated with the embarkation and disembarkation of
large numbers of people of varying demographics into lifeboats, as presently required.

4.4.4 The group noted information from the Staff Captain, that the ship was designed and
operated on the principle of ―the ship being its own best lifeboat,‖ which is one of the objectives
of the MSC working group on Large passenger ship safety. He stated further that the emphasis
was on the prevention of an incident happening in the first place and then the containment and
mitigation of any incident which took place, thus reducing the potential for abandonment which
would only be undertaken as a last resort. In this context, the potential dangers involved in the
launching of lifeboats was also noted.

4.4.5 The group also visited the bridge, engine room and medical facilities and was given an
extensive briefing on the facilities available, including the communication and navigational
equipment available and the ability of the ship to respond to an emergency involving another
ship was also discussed. In an unfortunate coincidence the group was also able to observe a real-
life helicopter evacuation at sea when the ship had to divert for a medical emergency for a
passenger during the voyage.


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4.4.6 Mr. Hallberg (Sweden) advised the group that he understood that the World Maritime
University was willing to explore the possibility of taking a role in co-ordinating research
projects in SAR as requested by MSC 78 (MSC 78/26 paragraph 4.36.) which he considered
could greatly assist the Organization in its work on large passenger ship safety. He also
understood that a formal reply to IMO in this respect would be provided in due course.

4.5      Mass rescue operations

4.5.1 Mr. Dan Lemon (United States) presented document ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/4 on the
information on selected United States mass rescue initiatives, and recommended that the material
in COMSAR /Circ.31 be adapted for inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual.

4.5.2 In introducing the document he explained that a mass rescue operation (MRO) is one that
involves the need for immediate assistance to large numbers of persons in distress such that
capabilities normally available to search and rescue (SAR) authorities are inadequate. Such
situations might include maritime incidents, as well as air, rail, mass migration, and large
population centers.

4.5.3 The United States National Search and Rescue Committee has a Mass Rescue Working
Group that typically meets three or four times each year to address MROs and related national
readiness.

4.5.4 At its ninth session, the JWG prepared guidance for MROs that was subsequently
accepted by ICAO and adopted by IMO as COMSAR/Circ.31. This Circular had been used as
one of the primary references in the U.S. for its MRO initiatives.

4.5.5 As the new United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) develops, it is
including MRO scenarios in national level exercises. In addition, the U.S.C.G. is working with
the passenger ship industry to plan major exercises that include MRO exercises.

4.5.6 As proven by on-going terrorism and natural disasters, it is more imperative than ever
that all levels of government work together in planning for and responding to mass rescue events.

4.5.7 The Mass Rescue Working Group is taking into account increasing man-made threats and
the need for ever closer cooperation and mutual-support among local, State, and Federal partners.
The group is committed to increasing awareness of MROs, developing response standards, and
expanding its membership to include industry partners and other non-government organizations
that may be potentially involved in or affected by response efforts.

4.5.8 The JWG discussed the issues of mass rescue operations and recommended that the
IAMSAR Manual should contain the text as given by the United States, especially when the
potential for mass rescue operations is becoming more commonplace. The text is at Appendix D.




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Recommendation 11/4 – proposed amendments to IAMSAR Manual

That ICAO and IMO may wish to consider the proposed amendments on Mass Rescue
Operations at Appendix D for inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual

4.6      Medical assistance in SAR services

4.6.1 Mr. Wakabayashi (Japan) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG IP 11/5 which provided
information on the Japanese Medical Rescue Service which was inaugurated in 1985 under the
initiative of the Japan Coast Guard, with the close co-operation of concerned organizations both
public and private. The JWG noted the information. The Japanese representative was invited to
suggest to his medical colleagues that they may wish to consider possible liaison and cooperation
with the French TMAS, in accordance with MSC Circular 960.

4.7      Effects of measures to enhance maritime and aeronautical security on SAR services

4.7.1 Mr. Kevin Grieve (Canada) presented document ICAO/IMO JWG 11/4/4 introducing an
overview of maritime security issues as experienced by Canada. In his introduction he stated
that a number of issues have arisen with respect to the Ship Security Alert System and the
interplay between security and Search and Rescue, such as:

         -        A maritime security incident results in, or occurs in conjunction with, a maritime
                  Search and Rescue (SAR) incident with persons at sea in danger or distress; and,
                  the involvement of a State‘s Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre (MRCC) in the
                  reception of Ship Security Alert System (SSAS) alerts; or

         -        A Ship Security Alert (SSA) is received by a State or at an MRCC. Many of the
                  issues identified in the paper are thought to be issues in other jurisdictions as well.

4.7.2 The Joint Working Group considered the information presented and while agreeing that
the scenarios were indeed a potential problem, decided that with maritime security issues being
in a somewhat embryo stage at the moment that the situation should be monitored so that
ongoing solutions can be found in the light of experience.

Recommendation 11/5 – Potential for confusion in the interface between maritime security
and SAR

That COMSAR 9 may wish to note the views of the JWG on the potential for confusion
between maritime security alerts and SAR alerts




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4.8      Development of procedural strategies for the practical provision of SAR services

4.8.1 Mr. Day (ICAO) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/10 on preventive SAR. He
explained that the paper lists various aspects of regulation that could serve as a safety defence in
civil aviation operations, minimise the incidence of SAR and improve the chances of successful
SAR operations when required. It introduced definitions for ―preventive SAR‖ and ―mitigation‖.

4.8.2 The group discussed the paper in detail, as well as the related aspects of training and
education and public awareness. The group agreed that there many measures that could be taken
to reduce the potential for SAR services. ICAO was encouraged to further develop the paper and
re-submit to JWG 12.

5        SAR    SYSTEM    ADMINISTRATION,                          ORGANIZATION               AND
         IMPLEMENTATION METHODS

5.1      Regional SAR databases i.e. SDP, facilities

5.1.1 No paper was submitted on this subject.

5.2      Development of guidelines for subregional arrangements

5.2.1 Mr. Dave Cole (Australia) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG IP 11/1 on the responsibilities of
states. The aim of the paper was to state in simple terms the benefits of having an effective SAR
system, to outline the national responsibilities of States under the ‗Chicago‘ and other
International Conventions, and to show how these obligations establish a framework for regional
co-operation when responding to a major aviation or maritime disaster.

5.2.2 The paper provided a template that may be useful for other countries to use when
fostering support for SAR principles especially with audiences that are not fully aware of the
international dimensions of this important topic. The group noted the paper and considered that
it could be a useful document for its purpose and should be prepared as a possible amendment to
the IAMSAR Manual at JWG12.

5.2.3 Mr. Brian Day (ICAO) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/12 concerning ICAO
protocols of SAR system Evaluation. This paper itemized the current list of protocols published
in the IAMSAR Manual and presented a comparative list of protocols established in support of
the ICAO/AFCAC SAR development being conducted in Africa and concluded with an
aggregated list for inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual. The group noted the considerable value
of the National Self Assessment questionnaire in the IAMSAR Manual, Volume 1, Appendix H
and decided to invite COMSAR 9 to consider any additional topics that should be covered by
that Appendix and also to invite Mr. Day to propose a revised Appendix H to JWG 12, taking
into account the work of ICAO and any additional input from COMSAR 9.

Recommendation 11/6 – IAMSAR Manual, Volume 1, Appendix H



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That COMSAR 9 may wish to consider any additional topics that should be covered by
Appendix H

5.2.4 Mr. Dave Cole (Australia) in introducing ICAO/IMO JWG IP 11/16 explained that
Australia had been operating a joint aviation and maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre (JRCC)
for seven years and the relationship for handling aircraft emergency situations (which is based on
the ‗Chicago‘ Convention Annexes) between this centre and Airservices Australia, the national
air traffic services provider, may be of interest to other countries contemplating a division
between these functions in the future. The paper presented a model agreement based on the
current Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that currently exists in Australia. The MOU had
as its basis the Annexes of the ‗Chicago‘ Convention as its basic building blocks.

5.2.5 The group agreed that this was useful material, but that there was additional information
such as the liaison with air traffic control that also could be usefully inserted. Accordingly
Australia was asked to revise the text for possible inclusion in the IAMSAR Manual and to re-
submit the paper to JWG 12.

5.3      Quality/improvement, needs assessment, risk management, (subregional) and
         resource allocation

5.3.1 Mr. Urban Hallberg and Mr. Christer Waldegren (Sweden) presented document
ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/14 which summarized the way the Swedish Maritime SAR service has
obtained a certificate of quality in accordance with ISO 9001:2000. The group discussed the
benefits of applying quality system procedures to SAR and agreed that there was considerable
benefit in doing so, indeed several other countries were in the process of finalising or had
finalised such procedures.

5.3.2 Mr. Dave Cole (Australia) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/15 which examines how a
risk management methodology could be applied to improve SAR system performance with the
aim of promoting a general philosophy that could be applied to any country's SAR system
regardless of its political system or organization structure. The group agreed that such a
methodology would be useful and should be included in the IAMSAR Manual in a shortened
form. Australia was asked to re-submit a shortened version of the paper to JWG 12.

5.4      Implementation and operation of the "International SAR fund"

5.4.1 Referring to paragraphs 16 to 18 of document ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/2,
Mr. Mapplebeck (IMO) briefed the group on the establishment of the SAR Fund. The IMO
Council at its 92nd session, endorsed a proposal by the Maritime Safety Committee, as concurred
with by the Technical Co-operation Committee, calling for the establishment of an International
SAR (ISAR) Fund.

5.4.2 MSC 78, having expressed appreciation to African countries for taking proactive
measures to provide SAR facilities and services in their waters, fully supported the need for the
establishment of an ISAR Fund, which should be used for promoting and expediting such


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important humanitarian activities. Once established, such a fund would assist countries which do
not have the resources to put in place an adequate SAR infrastructure, while filling, at the same
time, a gap in IMO's efforts to establish the Global SAR Plan on a realistic, efficient and
effective basis. The aim should be to ensure that the basic communications infrastructure and
trained personnel were available to co-ordinate any search and rescue operation and to assist
persons in distress at sea, initially in the waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans adjacent to the
African coast.

5.4.3 In addition to the establishment of the MRCCs and MRSCs, the ISAR Fund would
provide for the continued maintenance of an effective global system for the distribution of
distress alert data and appropriate operational information via publicly accessible or dedicated
communications networks; databases for the operation of the GMDSS and SAR professional and
technical training resources; and other resources deemed necessary for the effective
implementation of the Global SAR Plan.

5.4.4 Pursuant to the Council‘s decision, the ISAR Fund was established as a multi-donor trust
fund, under the auspices of the Secretary-General, to be maintained separately from all other
funds established by the Organization, envisaging that its resources may include contributions by
Governments, international organizations, institutions, companies and individuals. The fund had
already received a donation of $10,000 from the Cruise Industry Charitable Foundation and
several pledges from other organizations both in funds and in kind.

5.5      Evaluate the effect of various “Technical co-operation projects” in co-operation
         with relevant Governments, organizations and agencies with a view to assess their
         impact on implementing and maintaining SAR services

5.5.1 No paper was submitted on this subject. Mr. Gregory Lievre (ICAO) gave a presentation
on the results of an evaluation by ICAO of the civil aviation SAR systems of eighteen
Contracting States in Africa in respect of their compliance with ICAO/IMO SAR Standards and
Recommended Practices. The protocols used for these evaluations addressed seven main topics:

         1.     National legislation and regulatory framework
         2.     International SAR agreements and Conventions
         3.     Operational procedures
         4.     Funding
         5.     Equipment
         6.     Human Resources
         7.     Exercises / quality control

The group agreed with Mr. Lievre that the trends evident from an analysis of the evaluations
were worrying with respect to a number of States. In restating its support for the project and its
interest in continuing to monitor its results and achievements, the group encouraged ICAO and
the African States actively participating in this programme to continue their SAR rehabilitation
efforts.


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6        RCC/RSC EQUIPMENT AND FACILITY DESIGNATIONS AND STANDARDS

6.1      Establishment of RCCs and in particular JRCCs

6.1.1 No paper was submitted on this subject.

6.2      Status of AIS and related systems in aeronautical and maritime SAR

6.2.1 No paper was submitted on this subject. Mr. Urban Hallberg (Sweden) gave a
presentation on the use of AIS on ships and in conjunction with SAR operations. The group
noted the usefulness of such equipment in SAR operations in the monitoring and tracking of
SAR units and SOLAS ships and the effective coverage of search areas.

7        SAR COMMUNICATIONS

7.1      Alerting and locating capabilities for aircraft

7.1.1 Mr. Dan Lemon (United States) introduced document ICAO/IMO JWG 11/7 which
provided information about a project designed to develop alerting and locating capabilities for
aircraft that crash on or near airports. He explained that accident records of the U.S. and other
countries show that a number of aircraft have been involved in accidents on or near airports
during periods of severely limited visibility when air traffic control (ATC) personnel had not
been able to verify the fate of the aircraft. ATC may have been unable to establish voice
communication with the aircrew and, for a variety of reasons, may have lost track of the aircraft.
In these circumstances, ATC may not be able to relay precise location information to emergency
response teams. Without advice of crash location, response teams must search for the accident,
perhaps in dense fog, heavy rain, blowing snow, or any combination of visibility-limiting factors
that slow vehicle movement. This may delay the rendition of assistance to victims who may, in
the meantime, be exposed to fire and smoke, or need to endure life-threatening injuries. In
addition, response teams could be put at risk as they transit, perhaps unnecessarily, over
hazardous terrain to locate the accident.

7.1.2 Looking for a solution to this problem, the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)
approached the United States National Search and Rescue Committee (NSARC) Research and
Development (R&D) Working Group for assistance. The Working Group is using personnel
with knowledge of search and rescue, communications, air traffic control and airport operations
(including crash response) to consider possible solutions to the problem.

7.1.3 The objective is to determine the availability of a system or combination of systems that
will swiftly alert airport officials that an accident has occurred and accurately provide its location
during periods of low visibility. The Group is examining aircraft-installed sensors and
transmitters, independent airport based systems, and a combination of both to meet this objective
without aircrew participation.



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7.1.4 The NSARC Working Group is preparing an Advisory Circular with the findings of the
project for publication by the FAA. The Circular will include information for the aviation
community on design, installation approval, and maintenance of these systems.

7.1.5 After discussing some of the issues involved, the JWG noted the information presented
and requested the United States to keep the group informed of developments in these areas.

7.2      Status of the GMDSS

7.2.1 Mr. Vladislav Studenov (COSPAS-SARSAT) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG IP 11/3
which provided a status report on the COSPAS-SARSAT System, including operational
overview, space and ground segments status, beacon population, lower-cost 406MHz beacons,
false alert statistics, interference in the 406.0 - 406.1 MHz frequency band, international
406MHz registration database and MEOSAR systems.

7.2.2 Thirty-seven countries and organisations actively participated in the management and
operation of the COSPAS-SARSAT System, which assisted in the rescue of 1,414 persons in 366
SAR incidents during 2003. The geographical distribution of all reported 406 MHz and 121.5
MHz SAR events that used COSPAS-SARSAT data is shown at Figure 1. Of these SAR events,
269 were maritime incidents (1,235 persons rescued). Further categorizing the maritime
incidents, 56% involved the use of 406 MHz beacons and 44% involved the use of 121.5 MHz
beacons.

7.2.3 Two system tests have been undertaken and the results of the tests indicated that the
COSPAS-SARSAT System is capable of supporting Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)
processing. One 406 MHz SSAS beacon has been type-approved and another one is expected to
be type-approved soon.

7.2.4 The group discussed in detail the false alert statistics presented by COSPAS-SARSAT
and in particular expressed concern at the large number of false alerts, including the reported
1630 caused by mishandling and an additional 480 caused by beacon malfunction. The group
also expressed concern that some of these could well be the result of a design fault.
Mr. Studenov was of the opinion that Member States should be taking action on these statistics.

Recommendation 11/7 – COSPAS-SARSAT false alerts

That ICAO and IMO may wish to consider the statistics on manufacturers or models
consistently causing malfunctions and consider inviting COSPAS-SARSAT to publish
details of those models or manufacturers which are found to be causing these malfunctions

7.2.5 The group expressed concern about the status of the LEOSAR Space Segment noting that
only three SARSAT payloads appear to be fully functional with one other SARSAT payload
providing 406 MHz and 121.5 MHz SAR repeater functionality only. One COSPAS payload
provides 121.5 MHz coverage only whilst the other COSPAS payload is not in continuous
operation and has limited operation in the Southern hemisphere.


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7.2.6 The group also noted information provided by the COSPAS-SARSAT representative that
the COSPAS-SARSAT 406 MHz geostationary coverage had been enhanced with the addition of
the MSG satellite, and a third GOES spacecraft over the Western Pacific region. Nevertheless,
the group encouraged COSPAS-SARSAT to evaluate ways to maximize LEOSAR coverage.
COSPAS-SARSAT informed the group on the tentative launch schedule of the new LEOSAR
satellites.

7.3      Status of aeronautical communications systems for distress and SAR

7.3.1 No paper was submitted on this subject.

7.4      Future trends in SAR communications

7.4.1 Mr. Andy Fuller (IMSO) advised the group that Inmarsat is conducting a review of the
capabilities of its systems and their relevance to GMDSS. Also they are considering the updating
and evolution of Inmarsat C which, while remaining a core service in the GMDSS, is based on
old technological specifications. IMSO are working closely with Inmarsat to ensure that the
future plans of Inmarsat include the GMDSS public service obligations.

7.4.2 Mr. Fuller also advised the group that Inmarsat Ltd had recently made a decision to
withdraw the Inmarsat E-EPIRB service as from 1 December 2006 due to very low take up rates
of the equipment (only 94 SOLAS ships in total were presently fitted with the EPIRB) and
expensive reinvestment needed for ageing ground infrastructure. Inmarsat would be replacing all
the E-EPIRBS in service with an equivalent COSPAS-SARSAT 406 MHz unit free of charge so
the overall coverage of the GMDSS would not be affected. MSC 79 is being informed by a
paper submitted by IMSO. (MSC 79/22/7). ICAO would also be formally informed.

7.5      Minimum communications needs for RCCs

7.5.1 Mr. Vladislav Studenov (COSPAS-SARSAT) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/7
explaining that COMSAR/Circ.18 ―Guidance on minimum communication needs of maritime
rescue co-ordination centres (MRCCs)‖ was issued by IMO some six years ago, and is now not
up to date.

7.5.2 Following a proposal by France, COMSAR 7 agreed that the detailed review of
COMSAR/Circ.18 should be undertaken by JWG 10, since it had been incorporated in the
IAMSAR Manual, Volume I, which accordingly needed to be updated in harmony with the
revision of the circular and the expertise of the aeronautical side would be needed in that process.

7.5.3 JWG 10 reviewed proposed updates to COMSAR/Circ.18 in respect of information on
the COSPAS-SARSAT system, as prepared by the COSPAS-SARSAT Secretariat. At this
session, COSPAS-SARSAT had made some further amendments to the circular, and these are
contained at Appendix F.



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Recommendation 11/8 –

That COMSAR 9 may wish to review the proposed amendments to COMSAR/Circ.18
“Guidance on minimum communication needs of maritime rescue co-ordination centres
(MRCCs)” contained in Appendix F, with a view to issuing an updated version following
the proposed withdrawal of the Inmarsat-E system

8        SAR PERSONNEL STAFFING AND TRAINING

8.1      Development of RCC Staff Certificates

8.1.1 No paper was submitted on this subject.

8.2      Development of joint SAR courses based on the IAMSAR Manual

8.2.1 No paper was submitted on this subject. Mr. Day gave details of a SAR Standardised
Training Package (STP) to be developed jointly by the Singapore Aviation Academy (SAA) and
the ICAO Secretariat that will include reference to contemporary operational and management
practices. It is intended that the STP will be produced in modular form and be suitable for
further development by maritime SAR experts as a package suitable for joint maritime / aviation
use. The SAA is making a considerable additional financial investment in the production of the
package, thereby giving further evidence of its strong support for global SAR services. Canada
will submit a paper on this topic to COMSAR 9 or to the next JWG.

9        ANY OTHER BUSINESS

9.1      Appreciation

9.1.1 The group expressed its sincere appreciation and it's heartfelt thanks to Royal Caribbean
International and to Captain Remo, to Staff Captain Claveau and to the crew of the Adventure of
the Seas, who had taken considerable pains to make the meeting worthwhile and given their
considerable time to explain the safety operations and facilities of the ship. The group also
expressed its deep appreciation to the International Council of Cruise Lines (ICCL) and in
particular to Mr. Stanford Deno and Ms. Judy Woods who had made considerable efforts in
making all the arrangements for the meeting on board, and provided valuable support during the
meeting. The group also expressed its appreciation for the support from IMO and ICAO.

9.2      Handbook of Regulations on 406 MHz and 121.5 MHz Beacons

9.2.1 Mr. Vladislav Studenov (COSPAS-SARSAT) introduced ICAO/IMO JWG IP 11/4
describing the recently revised ―Handbook of Regulations on 406 MHz and 121.5 MHz
Beacons‖ (C/S S.007) which provided a summary of regulations issued by COSPAS-SARSAT
participants regarding the carriage of 406 MHz and 121.5 MHz beacons. It also included
practical information on coding and registration requirements for 406 MHz beacons in each
country, where such information was made available to the COSPAS-SARSAT Secretariat.


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9.2.2 The new issue of document C/S S.007 dated September 2004 included:

         -      beacon regulations from 31 COSPAS-SARSAT participants;
         -      EPIRB coding methods information for 54 countries/territories;
         -      ELT coding information methods for 14 countries/territories;
         -      information on 406 MHz beacon models approved for use;
         -      COSPAS-SARSAT examples of beacon registration forms for
                21 countries/territories;
         -      points of contact on beacon matters for 80 countries/territories;
         -      updated information for six approved 406 MHz beacon test facilities; and
         -      recent ICAO, IMO and ITU beacon regulations of interest to COSPAS-SARSAT.

9.3      Vice Chairman

9.3.1 Mr. Day (ICAO) advised the group that the present Vice-Chairman, Colonel Scott
Morgan (United States) would be retiring shortly from the United States Air Force and would not
be attending any more JWG meetings. A new Vice-Chairman therefore needed to be appointed
at the next meeting, from the aviation representatives. Subsequently, Mr. Dave Cole (Australia)
registered his interest in assuming the function and was duly accepted into the position by the
group.

9.4      Well wishes

9.4.1 The group noted the pending retirements of Colonel Scott Morgan and Mr. Francois
Escaffre and expressed its best wishes to each of them for a long and happy retirement.




                                            ——————————




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                                                      APPENDIX A

                                           JWG/11 - List of Participants

AUSTRALIA

         Mr. Dave Cole
         RCC Australia

         E-mail:             dave.cole@amsa.gov.au
         Tel.:               +61 2 6279 5720

CANADA

         Capt. Ron Miller
         Manager, Search and Rescue
         Canadian Coast Guard

         E-mail:             MillerR@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
         Tel.:               +1-613-990-3119
         Fax:                +1-613-996-8902

         Mr. Kevin Grieve
         Canadian Air Force

         E-mail:             grieve.kg@forces.gc.ca
         Tel.:               +1-613 945 7455

FRANCE

         Mr. Francois Escaffre
         National Maritime SAR Coordination France

         E-mail:             francois.escaffre@sgmer.pm.gouv.fr
         Tel.:               +331 5363 5159

HONG KONG, CHINA

         Mr. Summy Chu
         MRCC Hong Kong, China

         E-mail:             summychu@mardep.gov.hk




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ITALY

         Mr. Nicola Carlone
         Italian Coast Guard

         E-mail:             nicola.carlone@infrastrutturetrasporti.it

JAPAN

         Cdr. Kuniyoshi Wakabayashi
         Japan Coast Guard

         E-mail:             waka55@hotmail.com

NETHERLANDS

         Mrs. Anja Nachtegaal
         Netherlands Coastguard

         E-mail:             anja.nachtegaal@kustwacht.nl
         Tel.:               +31 223 658309

NIGERIA

         Capt. A S Olopoenia
         National Maritime Authority Nigeria

         E-mail:             aolopoenia@yahoo.co.uk
         Tel.:               +2341 545 2349

         Mr. Maduekwe Hyacinth Chidozie
         Principal Maritime Safety Officer
         Search and Rescue(SAR),
         National Maritime Authority
         Apapa-Lagos

         E-mail:             hymaduc@yahoo.ca

         Mr. A. AbdulMalik

         E-mail:
         Tel.:               08033109425




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NORWAY

         Mr. Stein Solberg
         Norwegian Rescue Service

         E-mail:             stein.solberg@jrcc-stavanger.no
         Tel:                +47 5164 6002, 47 98252270
         Fax:                + 47 5165 652 334

SINGAPORE

         Mr. Raymond Seah
         CAA Singapore

         E-mail: Raymond_seah@caas.gov.sg

         Mr. Tai Kit
         CAA Singapore

         E-mail:             Tai_Kit@caas.gov.sg

SPAIN

         Capt. Esteban Pacha
         Embassy of Spain London

         E-mail:             epacha.imospain@btinternet.com

SWEDEN

         Mr. Urban Hallberg
         Swedish Maritime Administration

         E-mail:             urban.hallberg@sjofartsverket.se
         Tel.:               + 46 11 191 117

         Mr. Christer Waldegren
         Swedish Maritime Administration

         E-mail:             christer.waldegren@sjofartsverket.se
         Tel.:               +46 31 647786




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         Ms. Annika Wallengren Lejon
         Manager Search and rescue
         Swedish Civil Aviation Administration

         E-mail:             annika.wallengren.lejon@lfv.se
         Tel.:               +46 31 64 8002

UNITED KINGDOM

         Mr. Peter Dymond
         UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency

         E-mail:             peter.dymond@mcga.gov.uk
         Tel.:               +44 2380 329 419
         Fax:                +44 2380 329488

         Mr. Guy Beale
         UK Hydrographic Office

         E-mail:             Guy.beale@ukho.gov.uk
         Tel.:               +44 1823 337 900 ext 3641

         Wg. Cdr. Paul Readfern
         Royal Air Force (UK)

         Tel.:               01637 857174
         Fax:                01637 857177

UNITED STATES

         Mr. Dan Lemon
         US Coast Guard

         E-mail:             dlemon@comdt.uscg.mil
         Tel.:               +1 202 267 1582

         Mr. Jack Frost
         US Coast Guard

         E-mail:             jfrost@comdt.uscg.mil




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INTERNATIONAL                    SATELLITE              SYSTEM    FOR   SEARCH   AND   RESCUE
(COSPAS-SARSAT)

         Mr. Vladislav Studenov
         Cospas-Sarsat Secretariat

         E-mail:             vladislav_studenov@imso.org
         Website:            www.cospas-sarsat.org

         Tel.:               +44 20 7728 1391
         Fax:                +44 20 7728 1170

INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SATELLITE ORGANIZATION

         Mr. Andy Fuller
         Head of Technical Services

         E-mail:             andy_fuller@imso.org
         Tel.                +44 (0)20 7728 1378
         Fax:                +44 (0) 207728 1172

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF CRUISE LINES (ICCL)

         Mr. Stanford Deno
         Director of Operations

         E-mail:             sdeno@iccl.org
         Tel.:               +(703) 522 8463 – Mobile: (202) 262 2695
         Fax:                +(703) 522 3811

INTERNATIONAL LIFEBOAT FEDERATION (ILF)

         Mr. Gerry Keeling

         E-mail: gkeeling@rnli.org.uk

EMS TECHNOLOGIES

         Mr. Gordon Johnston

         E-mail:             Johnston.g@emssatcom.com

         Mr. Steven R. Edgett

         E-mail:             edgett.s@emssatcom.com


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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)

         Mr. Brian Day
         Technical Officer
         Air Traffic Management Section
         Air Navigation Bureau
         International Civil Aviation Organization

         Tel.:               (514) 954 8219 ext 5872
         Fax:                (514) 954 6759
         Email:              bday@icao.int

         Mr. Grégory Lièvre
         Technical Officer
         Air Traffic Management Section
         Air Navigation Bureau
         International Civil Aviation Organization

         Tel.:               (514) 954 8219 ext 7808
         Fax:                (514) 954 6759

         E-mail:             glievre@icao.int

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO)

         Mr. Graham Mapplebeck
         Head Operational Safety Section
         Maritime Safety Division

         E-mail:gmapplebeck@imo.org




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                                                       APPENDIX B

              AGENDA FOR THE ELEVENTH SESSION OF THE JWG ICAO/IMO


1        Adoption of the agenda

2        Consideration of terms of reference - future work of the Joint Working Group and
         priorities:

         .1        briefing on the outcome of COMSAR 8 and MSC 78

         .2        briefing on outcome of ICAO activities related to the JWG work

         .3        JWG role in facilitating improved subregional co-operation

3        Provisions of conventions, plans, manuals and other documents affecting SAR:

         .1        status of the Maritime SAR Convention

         .2        progress report on the possible alignment of the IMO Area SAR Plans, GMDSS
                   Master Plan and ICAO Regional Air Navigation Plans

         .3        progress report on work by the Air Navigation Commission in reviewing ICAO
                   Annex 12 amendment proposals for closer aeronautical maritime harmonization

         .4        further work on the IAMSAR Manual, availability for training – institutions,
                   priority items for amendments

         .5        list of references and electronic index to the IAMSAR Manual

4        SAR operational principles, procedures and techniques:

         .1        safety of large passenger ships

         .2        mass rescue operations, taking account of experiences from the major disasters

         .3        medical assistance in SAR services

         .4        effects of measures to enhance maritime and aeronautical security on SAR
                   services

         .5        development of procedural strategies for the practical provision of SAR services

5        SAR system administration, organization and implementation methods:


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         .1        regional SAR databases i.e. SDP, facilities

         .2        development of guidelines for subregional arrangements

         .3        quality/improvement, needs assessment, risk management, (subregional) and
                   resource allocation

         .4        implementation and operation of the "International SAR fund"

         .5        evaluate the effect of various ―Technical co-operation projects‖ in co-operation
                   with relevant Governments, organizations and agencies with a view to assess their
                   impact on implementing and maintaining SAR services

6        RCC/RSC equipment and facility designations and standards:

         .1        establishment of RCCs and in particular JRCCs

         .2        status of AIS and related systems in aeronautical and maritime SAR

7        SAR communications:

         .1        status of the GMDSS

         .2        status of aeronautical communications systems for distress and SAR

         .3        future trends in SAR communications

         .4        minimum communications needs for RCCs

8        SAR personnel staffing and training:

         .1        development of RCC Staff Certificates

         .2        development of joint SAR courses based on the IAMSAR Manual

9        Any other business

10       Report to ICAO and the COMSAR Sub-Committee




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                                                      APPENDIX C

                                                   Terms of Reference


1.      This Joint Working Group (JWG) is established to develop recommendations and
information to support the IMO Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and rescue
and/or ICAO, as appropriate, on any matters pertinent to harmonization of international maritime
and aeronautical SAR.

2.     The JWG will meet as necessary, subject to approval of the IMO Maritime Safety
Committee and ICAO, with meetings hosted and supported by IMO and ICAO on an alternating
basis.

3.     Invitations to participate in the JWG will be submitted to respective Member States by
both IMO and ICAO.

4.       Language services will not be provided during JWG meetings.

5.    JWG meetings will generally take place annually about midway between meetings of the
IMO Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue.

6.     The JWG will provide an active interface between IMO and ICAO for harmonization of
maritime and aeronautical SAR plans and procedures in accordance with the 1985 MOU
between IMO and ICAO, and with resolution 1 of the 1979 International Conference on
Maritime Search and Rescue.

7.     The JWG will review and develop proposals relating to harmonization in various matters
including:

         a)        provisions of conventions, plans, manuals and other documents affecting SAR;

         b)        SAR operational principles, procedures and techniques;

         c)        SAR system administration, organization and implementation methods;

         d)        RCC/RSC equipment and facility designations and standards;

         e)        SAR communications; and

         f)        SAR personnel staffing and training.

8.      Need for JWG continuation will be reviewed by IMO and ICAO on an ongoing basis; the
JWG will be discontinued when either organization concludes the work is no longer cost
effective, and formally informs the other of its decision to discontinue.



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                                                      APPENDIX D

                         PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE IAMSAR MANUAL


Rescue by Maritime Facilities

Recovery of survivors by large assisting vessels

To effect a rescue, many large ships will have difficulties in maneuvering close to survivors in
the water, or in survival craft. Rescue operations will be even more difficult on vessels of high
freeboard. The following may be useful –

        Use of throwing rockets to pass lines to survivors;
        Streaming a long length of rope, with lifebuoys or other floatation attached, to help pull
         the craft to the ship, or to provide survivors in the water something to grasp and hold;
        Rigging ladders or nets for climbing;
        On the lowest weather deck, fitting pilot ladders and manropes to assist survivors
         boarding the vessel.
        Deploying ship‘s liferafts or lifeboats, secured to the ship for persons to hold onto, or
         climb into.
        If fitted, a gantry crane can be used for hoisting a cargo net for recovery of survivors.
        Running a line from bow to stern at the water‘s edge on both sides for boats and craft to
         secure alongside.
        Floodlights set in appropriate locations, if recovery at night.

Survivors who have spent even a short period in water or survival craft may be incapable of
assisting in rescue of themselves or others. In such cases, the following methods may help rescue
personnel –

        Launching one of the ship‘s rescue boats [or lifeboats];
        Securing liferafts alongside low-level ship‘s side doors to provide an intermediate low
         freeboard access platform.

In certain circumstances, the risks involved in conducting an immediate recovery operation may
outweigh the risks of leaving the survivors in life saving appliances. In these circumstances, the
following actions may be appropriate –

        Using the ship to provide a lee for the survivors.
        Maintaining visual and communications contact with the survivors
        Monitoring the on-going condition of the casualties and updating the coordinating
         authority
        Transferring essential survival and medical supplies, if possible




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Ocean incident

Care of survivors

Immediate Care of Survivors

        Once on board, medical care and welfare of the survivors should be attended to, to the
         extent that on-board conditions allow;

        The master should be aware that having survivors on board could affect health and safety
         of the ship and over tax available resources;

        Depending on the circumstances, the possible need for security measures should be
         discussed with the appropriate authorities;

        If there is concern about the possibility of infectious diseases, persons assisted should be
         isolated, monitored;

        Medical advice should be sought if there is any doubt about what to do.

Text As before from .

        After a rescue, ……..


    Treatment given to survivors.


Insert heading

Recording information on Survivors

        Survivor information




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                                                SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS
Original text in Volume III, Section 1                      NEW text.

                                                                      Ship Reporting Systems
                                                                          Ship reporting systems have been established
                                                                             by several States.
                                                                          Ships at sea may be the only craft near the
                                                                             scene of a distressed aircraft or vessel.
                                                                          A ship reporting system enables the SMC to
                                                                             quickly:
                                                                                 o identify vessels in the vicinity of a
                                                                                      distress situation, along with
                                                                                 o their positions, courses, and speeds
                                                                                 o be aware of other information about
                                                                                      the vessels which may be valuable
                                                                                      (whether a doctor is aboard, etc.)
                                                                                 o know how to contact the vessels.
                                                                                 o Improved likelihood of rapid aid
                                                                                      during emergencies
                                                                                 o reduced number of calls for assistance
                                                                                      to vessels unfavourably located to
                                                                                      respond
                                                                                 o reduced response time to provide
                                                                                      assistance
                                                                          Masters of vessels are urged or mandated to
                                                                             send regular reports to the authority operating
                                                                             a ship reporting system for SAR and other
                                                                             safety related services.
                                                                          Additional information on operators of ship
                                                                             reporting systems may be obtained from
                                                                             RCCs.

                                                                      Amver

                                                                      Amver is one of many ship reporting systems. It is a
                                                                      world-wide system operated exclusively to support
                                                                      SAR and make information available to all RCCs.

                                                                             There is no charge for vessels to participate in,
                                                                              nor for RCCs to use, Amver
                                                                             Many land-based providers of communications
                                                                              services worldwide relay ship reports to
                                                                              AMVER free of charge.
                                                                             Any merchant vessel of 1000 gross tons or
                                                                              more on any voyage of greater than 24 hours is
                                                                              welcome to participate.
                                                                             Information voluntarily provided by vessels to



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                                                                  AMVER is protected by the US Coast Guard
                                                                  as commercial proprietary data and made
                                                                  available only to SAR authorities or others
                                                                  specifically authorized by the ship involved.




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                                  UNDERWATER SEARCH AND RESCUE

                INSERT THE FOLLOWING TEXT IN IAMSAR VOLUME 2 AND
                   AMEND THE TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROPRIATELY

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Add the following:
"NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
SUBSAR submarine search and rescue"

Renumber section 6.14 to 6.15 and insert the following new section as 6.14.

"6.14 Underwater search and rescue

6.14.1 Many different underwater operations occur within SRRs, such as diving operations or
the operation of military or civilian submarines. When accidents occur, survivors may be either
on the surface or entrapped in a submarine resting on the seabed. Military submarines trapped
under the surface may use international distress signals or specific military pyrotechnics, dye
markers or beacons. In addition, submarines may pump out fuel, lubricating oil or release air
bubbles to indicate its position.

6.14.2 Submarine SAR, (SUBSAR), is a highly specialized and time-critical activity reliant
on specific capabilities and training. Medical care requirements for survivors of a submarine
accident may also be specialized.

6.14.3 Military submarine-operating States have developed standard SUBSAR procedures,
capabilities and training, generally under sponsorship of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) for the recovery and care of submarine accidents. RCCs may request support of these
resources should the need arise. Relevant information may be obtained from the NATO
International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office.

6.14.4 RCCs should be aware if specialized navy or commercial recovery or treatment
facilities (such as the ones with decompression chambers) exist within or near their SRRs and
arrange in advance for their use at any time on a 24-hour basis. Similarly, RCCs should liaise
with the military to determine mutual assistance that could be provided in the event of military
submarine accidents.

6.14.5 Most SAR personnel are poorly prepared to understand or handle medical problems
peculiar to underwater activities, such as decompression sickness, air embolism, and nitrogen
narcosis. However, they should be trained to recognize the symptoms and know how to obtain
competent medical advice. They should also be trained in handling and transporting victims of
such problems without worsening their situations. If possible to aid in the treatment of the



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victim, obtain information such as time underwater, depth, time at the surface, time of the onset
of symptoms, and the symptoms currently being experienced.

6.14.6       Medical advice should be sought before air transport of submarine accident victims.




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                INSERT THE FOLLOWING TEXT IN IAMSAR VOLUME 3 AND
                   AMEND THE TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROPRIATELY

Insert the following text in IAMSAR Volume 3 and amend the table of contents appropriately.
Insert the following section after the section on Aircraft Reporting System (pages 1-5) in
Section 1.

"Underwater search and rescue

       In the event a mobile facility has reason to suspect that an underwater accident has
occurred, every effort should be made to contact the nearest Rescue Co-ordination Centre. When
accidents occur, survivors may be either on the surface or entrapped in a submarine resting on
the seabed. Generally, medical care requirements for survivors of an underwater or submarine
accident is specialized and competent medical advice is required.

        Vessels believing they have collided with a submarine, as with a collision with another
vessel, should anticipate a requirement to provide SAR assistance. Further information on
Submarine SAR and its parallel activity, Submarine Escape and Rescue may be found at the
website maintained by the International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office:

                                         MASS RESCUE OPERATIONS

Proposed Amendments to the IAMSAR Manual on Mass Rescue Operations

Changes for Volume 1
New Glossary Entry for Volume 1:

Mass Rescue Operation (MRO): search and rescue services characterized by the need for
immediate response to large numbers of persons in distress, such that the capabilities normally
available to search and rescue authorities are inadequate

New Acronym Entry for Volume 1:                            MRO…mass rescue operation

Insert a new Section 6.5 as follows and renumber existing Sections 6.5 and 6.6

6.5      Mass Rescue Operations

6.5.1 A mass rescue operation (MRO) is one that involves need for immediate assistance to
large numbers of persons in distress such that capabilities normally available to SAR authorities
are inadequate.

6.5.2 MROs are required less frequently than typical rescue efforts, but have high potential
consequences. Flooding, earthquakes, terrorism, and large passenger aircraft or ship disasters are



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examples of scenarios that may involve the need for MROs. Extensive preparations and
resources are required to conduct MROs successfully.

6.5.3 Such incidents might involve hundreds or thousands of persons in distress in remote and
hostile environments. A large passenger ship collision, for example, could call for rescue of
thousands of passengers and crew in poor weather and sea conditions, with many of the
survivors having little ability to help themselves. Preparedness to mount a large and rapid
response would be critical to preventing large-scale loss of lives.

6.5.4 MRO plans and exercises are challenging and relatively complex. Effective arrangements
for use of national and often international resources beyond those normally used for SAR are
essential. Preparations require substantial commitments and partnerships among SAR
authorities, regulatory authorities, transportation companies, sources military and commercial
assistance and others.

6.5.5 MROs often need to be carried out and coordinated within a broader emergency response
context that may involve hazards mitigation, damage control and salvage operations, pollution
control, complex traffic management, large-scale logistics, medical and coroner functions,
accident-incident investigation, and intense public and political attention, etc. Efforts must often
start immediately at an intense level and be sustainable for days or weeks.

6.5.6 SAR authorities should coordinate MRO plans with companies that operate aircraft and
ships designed to carry large numbers of persons. Such companies should share in preparations
to prevent MROs and to help ensure success if they become necessary.

6.5.7 What the media reports may matter more than what SAR services do for shaping of
public opinion about MROs. There should be no unwarranted delays in providing information to
the media. Information must be readily available, and freely exchanged among emergency
service providers and shipping, airline or other primary companies involved.

6.5.8 Since opportunities to handle actual incidents involving mass rescues are rare and
challenging, exercising MRO plans is particularly important.

Changes for Volume 2
New Glossary Entry for Volume 2:

Mass Rescue Operation (MRO): search and rescue services characterized by the need for
immediate response to large numbers of persons in distress, such that the capabilities normally
available to search and rescue authorities are inadequate

New Acronym Entry for Volume 2:                            MRO…mass rescue operation

Insert a new sentence following the first sentence of 1.10.5 as follows:




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         "…many nationalities. Such an incident may result in the need for mass rescue operations
         (MROs), which are discussed Chapter 6. In this case, …"

Insert a new paragraph 1.8.11 as follows, and re-number the remaining paragraphs in section 1.8:

         1.8.11 Additional information on planning and conducting exercises is provided in
         Chapter 6 with regard to mass rescue operations.

Insert an additional paragraph 1.10.8 as follows:

         1.10.8 Additional information on planning and public and media relations is provided in
         Chapter 6 with regard to mass rescue operations.

Insert an additional paragraph 1.12.2 as follows:

         1.12.2 Additional information on incident management on ICS is provided in Chapter 6
         with regard to mass rescue operations.

All of the following will replace the existing three sentences in Section 6.14 of Volume 2. These
sections also replace a short sample plan of operation for mass casualty incidents and short mass
casualty checklist in Appendix C of Volume 2 referred to by the sentences being replaced.

6.14 Mass Rescue Operations

MRO Overview

6.14.1 A mass rescue operation (MRO) is one that involves need for immediate assistance to
large numbers of persons in distress such that capabilities normally available to SAR authorities
are inadequate.

6.14.2 MROs are relatively rare low-probability, high-consequence events compared to normal
SAR operations, but major incidents leading to the need for MROs have not been infrequent on a
world-wide basis, and can occur anywhere at any time. The nature of such operations may be
poorly understood due to limited chances to gain experience with major incidents involving
MROs.

6.14.3 Flooding, earthquakes, terrorism, casualties in the offshore oil industry, accidents
involving releases of hazardous materials and major aircraft or ship incidents are examples
which, because of their magnitude, may need to use the same resources as would be needed to
carry out mass maritime or aeronautical rescue operations.

6.14.4 The sequence of priority in major multi-mission incidents must be lifesaving first,
generally followed by environmental protection, and then protection of property. Moral and legal
obligations and public and political expectations require preparedness to carry out MROs safely
and effectively should they become necessary. Since the need for MROs is relatively rare, it is


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difficult to gain practical experience to help deal with them. Types of potential MRO scenarios
vary, but there are certain general principles that can be followed based on lessons of history.

6.14.5 Effective response to such major incidents requires immediate, well-planned and closely
co-ordinated large-scale actions and use of resources from multiple organizations. The following
are typical MRO demands:

           -       Intense and sustained high priority lifesaving efforts may need to be carried out at
                   the same time and place as major efforts to save the environment and property;
           -       Huge amounts of information will need to be readily available at the right times
                   and places to support the response efforts and meet the needs of the media, public
                   and families of the persons in distress, which may number in the hundreds or
                   thousands;
           -       Many means of communications will need to be available and interlinked
                   amongst organizations at various levels to handle huge amounts of information
                   reliably for the duration of the response;
           -       A surge in the numbers of competent staffing in all key organizations must be
                   available immediately and be sustainable for up to weeks at a time;
           -       Equipment and logistics demands will jump to unprecedented levels;
           -       Successful MROs depend on the advance provision of flexible and all-level
                   contingency plans; and
           -       Intense integrated planning and operational efforts must also be carried out in real
                   time throughout actual rescue efforts.

6.14.6 All involved in the overall multi-agency, multi-jurisdiction, multi-mission and possibly
international response to a major incidents must clearly understand who is in charge, how to
work with who is in charge, the respective roles of all involved, and how to interact with each
other. SAR authorities may be responsible for all or part of the MRO responsibilities, and must
be able to co-ordinate their efforts seamlessly with other responders under overall direction of
another authority within or outside their agency.

6.14.7 The broader response environment may involve activities such as:

                   hazards mitigation;
                   damage control and salvage operations;
                   pollution control;
                   complex traffic management;
                   large-scale logistics efforts;
                   medical and coroner functions;
                   accident-incident investigation; and
                   intense public and political attention

6.14.8 MRO plans need to be part of and compatible with overall response plans for major
incidents. Plans must typically allow for command, control and communications structures that
can accommodate simultaneous air, sea and land operations.


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6.14.9 Potential disastrous consequences of poor preparations for MROs in terms of loss of life
and other adverse results are enormous. Major incidents may involve hundreds or thousands of
persons in distress in remote and hostile environments. A large passenger ship collision, a
downed aircraft, or a terrorist incident could, for example, call for the immediate rescue of large
numbers of passengers and crew in poor environmental conditions, with many of the survivors
having little ability to help themselves.

6.14.10 Preparedness to mount an extraordinarily large and rapid response is critical to
preventing large-scale loss of lives. Such preparedness often depends on strong and visionary
leadership and unusual levels of co-operation to achieve.

6.14.11 There will often be resistance to paying the high price in terms of time, effort and
funding that preparedness for major incidents entails, particularly as they are rare events. The
required levels of co-operation, co-ordination, planning, resources and exercises, required for
preparedness are challenging and do not happen without the requisite commitment of SAR
authorities, regulatory authorities, transportation companies, sources of military and commercial
assistance and others.

6.14.12 MRO planning, preparations and exercises are essential since opportunities to handle
actual incidents involving mass rescues are rare. Therefore the exercising of MRO plans is
particularly important.

6.14.13 Appendix [--] provides guidance on MRO exercise planning.

General guidance for MROs

6.14.14 For a situation involving large numbers or persons in distress, on scene responsibilities
for the safety of passengers and crew will be shared by the OSC and the aircraft pilot in
command or ship master, with the pilot or master assuming as much of this responsibility as
possible before or after the aircraft or ship is abandoned.

6.14.15 Pilots and masters are responsible for maneuvering the aircraft or ship as feasible and
appropriate, and also have overall responsibility for safety, medical care, communications, fire
and damage control, maintaining order and providing general direction.

6.14.16 Unless a ship appears to be in imminent danger of sinking, it is usually advisable for
passengers and crew to remain on board as long as it is safe to do so.

6.14.17 In the case of a downed aircraft, whether passengers would be safer on board should be
assessed for each situation. Usually they should promptly evacuate the aircraft at sea. On land
this decision must account for the conditions of the aircraft and the environment, expected time
to rescue or aircraft repair, and whether required passenger care can be best provided inside the
aircraft.



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6.14.18 The OSC will normally be designated by an SMC. An OSC may be able to handle
certain communications on scene and with appropriate remote authorities to help free the pilot or
master to retain the integrity of his or her craft. However, these persons are themselves in need of
assistance, and anything the OSC can do to help them should be considered, bearing in mind that
the OSC‘s main duty is co-ordinating SAR facilities and rescue efforts under the SMC‘s general
direction.

6.14.19 Unnecessary communications with the master of a ship or pilot in command of an
aircraft in distress must be minimized, and this should be taken into account in advance planning.

6.14.20 Exchanges of information during joint planning by use of SAR Plans of Co-operation
for passenger ships and other means will reduce the need to ask the pilot or master for this
information one or more times during a crisis. Persons or organizations that want this
information should be directed to a source ashore or on the ground that is prepared to handle
many potential requests.

6.14.21 High priority should be given to tracking and accounting for all persons on board and
all lifeboats and rafts, and efforts to keep them together will help in this regard. Availability of
accurate manifests and accounting is critical.

6.14.22 The need to relocate survival craft and check for persons in them can waste valuable
resources. One option is to sink survival craft once the persons in them have been rescued;
however, the potential that other survivors may find and need the craft should be considered.

6.14.23 Navy ships and large passenger ships are often better equipped than other vessels for
retrieving people who have abandoned a ship or aircraft; use of any such ships should be
considered.

6.14.24 Helicopter capabilities should be used if available, especially for retrieval of weak or
immobile survivors. Lifeboat crews should be trained in helicopter hoist operations. Lowering a
rescue person from the helicopter to assist survivors may be viable.

6.14.25 Ship companies should be encouraged to equip large passenger ships and possibly
other types of vessels with helicopter landing areas, clearly marked hoist-winch areas, and
onboard helicopters to facilitate more direct transfers of numerous persons.

6.14.26 If a ship with a large freeboard cannot safely retrieve survivors from the water or
survival craft, it may be possible to first retrieve them onto small vessels, and then transfer them
to progressively larger ones.

6.14.27 Depending on the circumstances, it may be safer to tow survival craft to shore without
removing the occupants at sea. Lifeboats could be designed to support passengers for longer
periods of time, and to be able to reach shore on their own from longer distances offshore.




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6.14.28 To the extent practicable, MROs should be co-ordinated by an SMC in an RCC.
However, depending on the magnitude, nature and complexity of an incident, the rescue efforts
may be better co-ordinated by an appropriate operations centre higher within the SAR agency or
a government. Considerations in this decision might include, among others:

             -     extensive rescue support by organizations other than those commonly used for
                   SAR;
             -     need for heavy international diplomatic support; and
             -     serious problems in addition to potential loss of lives, such as environmental
                   threats, terrorist actions, or national security issues.

6.14.29 The following factors should be considered in MRO planning:

             -     use the Incident Command System (ICS) discussed below, or other effective
                   means of handling multiagency, multi-jurisdiction, multi-mission scenarios;
             -     identify situations within the SRR that could potentially lead to the need for
                   MROs, including scenarios that might involve cascading casualties or outages;
             -     mobilisation and co-ordination of necessary SAR facilities, including those not
                   normally available for SAR services;
             -     ability to activate plans immediately;
             -     call up procedures for needed personnel;
             -     need for supplemental communications capabilities, possibly including the need
                   for interpreters; dispatching of liaison officers;
             -     activation of additional staff to augment, replace or sustain needed staffing levels;
             -     recovery and transport of large numbers of survivors (and bodies, if necessary),
                   accounting for survivors potentially having injuries and lack of training, age
                   limitation, hypothermia, etc.;
             -     a means of reliably accounting for everyone involved, including responders,
                   survivors, crew, etc.;
             -     care, assistance and further transfer of survivors once delivered to a place of
                   safety, and further transfer of bodies beyond their initial delivery point;
             -     activation of plans for notifying, managing and assisting the media and families in
                   large numbers;
             -     control of access to the RCC and other sensitive facilities and locations;
             -     RCC backup and relocation plans, as appropriate; and
             -     ready availability to all potential users of plans, checklists and flowcharts.

6.14.30 The ability of an RCC to continue to effectively co-ordinate the MRO and still handle
its other SAR responsibilities may become overwhelmed, and another RCC or a higher authority
may need to assume responsibility for the MRO.

6.14.31 With these possibilities in mind, MRO plans should provide for various degrees of
response, along with criteria for determining which amount of response will be implemented. For
example, as local SAR resources are exhausted (or from the outset), SAR resources may need to
be obtained from distant national or international sources.


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6.14.32 Experiences in responding to major incidents have resulted in the following practical
guidance:

             -     plan and exercise how any agency receiving notification of an actual or potential
                   mass rescue event can immediately alert and conference call other authorities that
                   will potentially be involved, brief them, and enable immediate actions to be taken
                   by all concerned (this will require identification of entities in each agency that can
                   be contacted on a 24-hour basis, and that have authority to immediately initiate
                   actions and commit resources);
             -     co-ordinate all rescue operations effectively from the very beginning;
             -     begin quickly with a high level of effort stand down as appropriate rather than
                   begin too late with too little effort;
             -     use capable resources like cruise ships for taking large numbers of survivors on
                   board;
             -     ensure that MRO emergency plans address communications interoperability or
                   interlinking;
             -     retrieve and protect debris as evidence for follow on investigation;
             -     put security plans in place to limit access to the RCC;
             -     arrange in advance to involve the Red Cross, chaplains, critical incident stress
                   experts and other such support for human needs;
             -     identify senior agency spokespersons to protect the time of workers directly
                   involved in the response and designated a senior official to provide information to
                   families;
             -     clearly identify the point at which the SAR response (lifesaving) has ended, and
                   the focus shifts to investigation and recovery;
             -     be prepared to use an ICS when appropriate;
             -     ensure that air traffic and air space can be and is controlled on scene;
             -     the SMC can often benefit from assigning additional liaison personnel on scene;
             -     anticipate development and needs and act early;
             -     ensure that the scopes of SAR plans and other emergency or disaster response
                   plans are co-ordinated to reduce gaps, overlaps and confusion about who is in
                   charge and what procedures will be followed at various times and places;
             -     control access to the scene, including access by the media;
             -     work out in advance how private resources can be appropriately used to
                   supplement other SAR resources;
             -     ensure that SAR plans provide for logistics support for large numbers of rescuers
                   and survivors, including pre-arranged accommodations, if possible, and
                   availability of food, medical care and transportation;
             -     consider requesting assistance from airlines and shipping companies other than
                   the one whose aircraft or ship is involved in the incident, and know the types of
                   assistance that such organizations might provide;
             -     consider use of bar coded bracelets as an effective means of identifying children
                   before, during and after the emergency;



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             -     attempt to reduce the burden on a pilot or master and crews; if safe and
                   appropriate to do so, place a marine casualty officer on board to assist the master
                   and SAR personnel; and
             -     share capabilities, expertise and assets among government and industry to take
                   maximum advantage of the strengths of each.

Communications for mass rescue operations

6.14.33 Communication plans must provide for a heavy volume of communication use, as a
major incident will normally involve many responding organizations that need to communicate
effectively with each other from the beginning.

6.14.34 As necessary, advance arrangements should be made to link means of interagency
communications that are not inherently interoperable.

6.14.35 Interagency communications must be based on terminology that all involved
understand.

Major incident co-ordination

6.14.36 Regardless of the magnitude and priority of the lifesaving efforts involved in
responding to a major incident, if any other functions are being carried out concurrently on scene
by other than SAR personnel, the overall response involving SAR and the other functions, e.g.,
firefighting, should be well co-ordinated.

6.14.37 If certain basic concepts and terms are recognized and understood by all emergency
responders, they will be much better prepared to co-ordinate joint efforts.

6.14.38 Standard SAR procedures should typically be followed for the SAR part of the
response, but these procedures will be largely independent of other efforts. Companies or
authorities handling other aspects of the response will follow command, control and
communication procedures developed for their respective organizations and duties.

6.14.39 The SAR system can function in its normal manner or use modified SAR procedures
established to account for special demands of mass rescues, but it should be appropriately linked
and subjected to a scheme for management of the overall incident response.

6.14.40 For major incidents, crisis management for the overall response may also be needed.
The Incident Command System (ICS) is one simple and effective means of meeting this need.
ICS can be used where no equivalent means of overall incident management is in place. SAR
and transportation authorities are likely to encounter use of the ICS within emergency response
communities.

6.14.41 The ICS works best with some advance familiarization and exercising.



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6.14.42 Appendix [--] provides general information about ICS.

Industry planning and response

6.14.43 SAR authorities should co-ordinate MRO plans with companies that operate ships and
aircraft designed to carry large numbers of persons. Such companies should share in preparations
to minimize the chances that MROs will be needed, and to ensure success if become necessary.

6.14.44 Appendix [--] provides guidance on industry roles and discusses how companies could
arrange for use of field teams and emergency response centres as possible means of carrying out
their MRO responsibilities.

6.14.45 For passenger ships, SAR Plans of Co-operation required by the Safety of Life at Sea
Convention and developed by SAR authorities and shipping companies are part of MRO plans.

Public and media relations for MROs

6.14.46      Good public and media relations become very demanding and quite important
during MROs.

6.14.47 What the media reports may matter more than what SAR services do for shaping of
public opinion about MROs. The role of the media may be critical in shaping the actions of the
public and of those directly involved in the distress situation in a way that contributes to safety,
success and panic control. There should be no unwarranted delays in providing information to
the media.

6.14.48 Information should be readily available, clear, accurate, consistent and freely
exchanged among emergency responders and others concerned, such as the public and families
of persons on board.

6.14.49 Identify spokespersons and outline what they will say, staying factual. If SAR services
do not provide a public spokesperson for a major incident, the media likely will.

6.14.50 A single spokesperson not directly involved in the incident can be valuable in relieving
the IC and SMC of this duty.

6.14.51 Spokespersons should be cautious about speculating on causes of accidents and ensure
that the media understands that the main focus of current operations is on saving lives.

6.14.52 Ensure that the media knows who is in charge of co-ordinating rescue operations.

6.14.53 Interviews should be live if possible.




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6.14.54 Many entities are involved in a major incident, including ships, aircraft, companies and
SAR services. Co-ordination is required to ensure that there is one message with many
messengers.

6.14.55 Prompt establishment of a joint information centre (part of ICS discussed in Appendix
[-] away from the SMC will help to achieve this goal. The centre can establish proper
procedures for establishing what messages will be released to the public and how those messages
will be released. Since the messages may be sensitive, it is critical that everyone communicates
the same information. The centre can be responsible for co-ordinating information made
available via the internet and perhaps establishing and maintaining a public web site.

6.14.56 The media is a 24-hour global market, with news broadcast worldwide around the
clock. The media will find a way to get to the scene for first hand information, pictures and
video. By providing transportation to the scene and controlling media access, safety and what is
reported can be improved and better controlled.

6.14.57 Media outlets often have more resources to mobilize on scene than do SAR authorities,
and RCC operating plans should account for how to deal with such situations.

6.14.58 Information should be provided to the public on what SAR facilities are being used
and, if possible, a web address or list of contact phone numbers should be provided for families,
media and others to contact for more information.

6.14.59 Preparations should be made so that large numbers of callers can be accommodated
without saturating the phone system or crashing the computer server.

6.14.60 Advance preparation of standby web pages by transportation companies and SAR
authorities can help in responding to floods of requests for information. These pages can be
quickly posted to provide general information the media can use. Web information should be
timely and accurate.

6.14.61 Once posted, these pages can be easily updated with the status of the incident and
        could also include:

                   contact information;
                   basic government or industry facts;
                   industry and SAR definitions;
                   photographs and statistics of aircraft, ships and SAR facilities;
                   answers to frequently asked questions;
                   links to other key sites;
                   information on passenger capacity, crew size, vessel plans and firefighting
                   capabilities; and
                   library footage of a vessel inspection or of the crew performing lifesaving drills.

6.14.62 Besides the media, families and other organizations will also want this information.


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MRO follow up actions

6.14.63 It is very important to develop and share lessons learned from actual MRO operations
and exercises. However, concerns (often excessive) about legal liability may discourage
highlighting matters that could have been done better.

6.14.64 Since lessons learned can help prevent recurring serious mistakes, agreement should be
reached among principal participants on how lessons learned can be depersonalized and made
widely available. Lessons learned from MROs should be shared not just locally, but
internationally.

6.14.65 Careful accounting for survivors after they have been delivered to a place of safety
remains important. They need to be kept informed about plans for them and about the ongoing
response operations. With large numbers of persons often staying in different places, keeping
track of and working with them can be difficult.

6.14.66 Transportation companies are often best suited to handle and assist survivors during
this time.

6.14.67 Crewmembers may be placed at various locations to record passenger names and
locations. Another possibility is for airlines or passenger ships to attach plastic cards to life vests
to give passengers phone numbers for contacting the company. Some companies use bar coded
bracelets to track children who are passengers.

6.14.68 Communicating with passengers is more difficult in remote areas, where phone service
may be inadequate or lacking. If phones do exist, calling the airline or shipping company may
be the best way to check in and find out information. In more populated areas, local agencies
may have an emergency evacuation or other useful plan that can be implemented.

6.14.69 To protect passengers from harassment by interviewers and cameras, survivors might
be placed in hotels or other places of refuge. However, triage and landing locations must be
established and publicized to all rescue personnel and good Samaritans.


                                                       Appendix [--]

          Mass Rescue Operations: exercises; industry roles and incident management

MRO exercises

Since opportunities to handle actual incidents involving mass rescues are rare and challenging,
exercising MRO plans are particularly important. Mass evacuation and rescue operations are
difficult and costly, leading to a tendency to use simulation excessively during exercises rather
than physically exercising on scene efforts.


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MRO exercise objectives need not be addressed in a single large exercise, but may be satisfied in
part by routine incorporation into multiple drills, some intended mainly to test other systems.
However, realistic drills are necessary and costly, and over 1,000 volunteer ship passengers or
hundreds of volunteer aircraft passengers will likely be needed to conduct a realistic exercise.
Separate rooms can be used to simulate command posts that would normally be in separate
locations.

MRO exercises should ideally achieve the following objectives:

        Account for:

              - Crew and passenger lists
              - Rescued passengers and crew until they can return to their homes. All persons
                associated with the rescue and aftermath operations
              - Lifeboats, including empty boats or rafts
              - High freeboard issues for likely rescue facilities

        Identify and task available resources:

              - Use of Amver or other ship reporting system
              - Potential resources ashore and afloat
              - Resources from local agencies (medical personnel, hospital facilities, fire
                department, general community, transportation resources)
              - National and regional military and other resources

        Evaluate notification processes, resource availability, timeliness of initial response, real-
         time elements, conference capabilities and overall co-ordination
        Ensure all agency roles are sorted out, understood and properly followed
        Test capabilities of potential OSCs and ability to transfer OSC duties
        Evaluate span of control
        Evacuate a ship or aircraft
        Co-ordinate activities and achieve information exchanges

              - Communications (RCC-RCC, government-industry, RCC-OSC, on scene, shore-
                ship, ground-air, ship-air, SAR facility-survival craft, etc.)
              - Information for all concerned (identify, merge, purge, retrieve and transfer to the
                right place in the right form at the right time)
              - New communication and information management technologies
              - Media and next-of-kin

        Safely transfer and care for passengers (evacuation, in survival craft, rescue, medical,
         protection from environment, post-rescue transfers, etc.)




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        Test all communication links that may be needed for notification, co-ordination and
         support • Conduct medical triage and provide first aid
        Assess ship.s safety management system effectiveness
        Exercise co-ordination with local response agencies
        Provide food, water, lifejackets and other protective clothing to survivors
        Test mass rescue plans:

              - SAR services
              - Company (including aircraft and ship plans)
              - Any relevant emergency response organizations, e.g., disaster response, military,
                firefighting and medical
              - Transportation and accommodations

        Assess how effectively earlier lessons learned have been accounted for in updated plans
         and how well these lessons were disseminated
        Exercise salvage and pollution abatement capabilities
        Carry out emergency relocation of the disabled craft
        Exercise external affairs, such as international and public relations:

              - Necessary participants involved
              - Joint information centres established quickly and properly staffed
              - Press briefings handled effectively, e.g., consistent information from different
                sources
              - Notification of the next of kin and family briefings
              - Staff and equipment capacity to handle incoming requests for information
              - Rescued persons tracked, kept informed and needs monitored, and reunited with
                belongings

The following steps are normally carried out during exercise planning:

        Agree on the exercise scenario, goals and extent
        Assembly a multi-disciplinary planning team and agree on objectives for each aspect of
         the exercise
        Develop the main events and associated timetables
        Confirm availability of agencies to be involved, including any media representatives or
         volunteers
        Confirm availability of transportation, buildings, equipment, aircraft, ships or other
         needed resources
        Test all communications that will be used, including tests of radio and mobile phones at
         or near the locations where they will be used
        Identify and brief all participants and people who will facilitate the exercise, and ensure
         that facilitators have good independent communications with person who will be
         controlling the exercise



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        Ensure that everyone involved knows what to do if an actual emergency should arise
         during the exercise
        If observers are invited, arrange for their safety, and to keep them informed about the
         exercise progress
        For longer exercises, arrange for food and toilet facilities
        Use .exercise in progress. signs, advance notifications and other means to help ensure that
         person not involved in the exercise do not become alarmed
        Schedule times and places for debriefs
        Agree and prepare conclusions and recommendations with the entity responsible for
         handling each recommendation along with the due date for any actions
        Prepare a clear and concise report and distribute it as appropriate to the participating
         organizations
        Consider the outcome of this exercise in planning future exercises

MRO industry roles

SAR authorities should co-ordinate MRO plans with companies that operate aircraft and ships
designed to carry large numbers of persons. Such companies should share in preparations to
minimize the chances that MROs will be needed, and to ensure success if they are. This section
provides guidance on industry roles, and discusses how companies could arrange for use of
company field teams and emergency response centres as possible means of carrying out their
MRO responsibilities.

Early notification of potential or developing MROs is critical, due to the level of effort required
to mount a very large-scale response. It is much better to begin the response process and abort it
should it become unnecessary, than to begin it later than necessary should the actual need exist.
Pilots and masters should be advised and trained to notify SAR services at the earliest indication
of a potential distress situation.

Company response organizations should be able to help SAR services by organizing support,
equipment, advice and liaison any of their ships or aircraft.

Companies should be prepared to provide information to preclude the need for multiple sources
attempting communications with the aircraft pilot in command or ship captain for information
that is unavailable or available from another source. Receiving and handling requests for
information aboard the distressed craft can interfere with the pilot‘s or master‘s ability to handle
the emergency and handle critical on scene leadership needs.
Companies operating large aircraft or ships should be advised to be able to field a co-ordinated
team that can handle emergency response functions around the clock should the need arise. Such
a team might include staff as indicated in the following Table.




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                             Typical company field team
Team Leader                   Maintains overview, directs operations and keeps
                              management informed
Communicator                  Maintains open (and possibly sole) line of
                              communications to craft in distress
Co-ordinating Representative Usually a pilot or master mariner, who co-ordinates
                              with SAR and other emergency response authorities,
                              organizes tugs, looks at itineraries, arranges to position
                              ships or ground facilities that may be able to assist and
                              organizes security and suitable delivery points for
                              passengers crew when they are delivered to safety
Technical Representative      Maintains contact with regulatory authorities,
                              classification societies, insurers and investigators and
                              provides liaison and advice for firefighting, damage
                              control, repairs and other specialized or technical
                              matters
Environmental                 Involved with environmental impact and spill response
Representative
Medical Representative        Gives medical advice, tracks casualties and arranges
                              medical and identification services for survivors
Passenger    and       Crew Provides information and support to whoever is
Representatives               designated to care for next of kin and keep them
                              informed, identifies transportation needs, and may
                              need to deal with various countries, languages and
                              cultures
Media Representative          Gathers information, co-ordinates public affairs
                              matters with counterparts in other organizations,
                              prepares press releases, briefs spokespersons and
                              arranges availability of information by phone and web
                              sites
Specialists                   From within or outside the company who may
                              facilitate some special aspect of the response or follow
                              up

The company may operate an Emergency Response Centre (ERC) to maintain communications
with the craft in distress, remotely monitor onboard sensors if feasible, and keep emergency
information readily available. Such information might include passenger and crew data, aircraft
or ship details, incident details, number of survival craft and status of the current situation.
Transportation companies should have readily available contacts with tour companies, shore
excursion companies, airlines and cruise lines, hotels, etc., since such resources can be used to
address many problems experienced with landing large numbers of survivors into a community.
Contingency plans for co-operation should be developed between SAR authorities and
transportation companies, and these plans should be sufficiently exercised to ensure they would
be effective should an actual mass rescue situation arise. Such plans should identify contacts,



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co-ordination procedures, responsibilities, and information sources that will be applicable for
MROs. These plans should be kept up to date and readily available to all concerned.

Respective functions of the ERC and RCC should be covered in co-ordinated pre-established
plans, and refined as appropriate for an actual incident. These centres must maintain close
contact throughout the SAR event, co-ordinating and keeping each other appraised of significant
plans and developments.

There are other steps the transportation industry could be urged to undertake to improve
preparedness for MROs. The following are some examples:

        Carry SAR plans on board aircraft or ships
        Provide water and thermal protection for evacuees appropriate for the operating area
        Provide a means of rescue to bring people from the water to the deck of ships • Use
         preparation checklists provided by SAR authorities
        Conduct an actual physical exercise in addition to simulations
        Provide the capability to retrieve fully loaded lifeboats and rafts
        Enhance lifeboat lifesaving capabilities
        Provide ways to assist persons in lifeboats who are seasick, injured or weak
        Provide on-board helicopter landing areas and helicopters
        Prepare to assist survivors once they have been delivered to a place of safety
        Have aircraft or ship status and specifications readily available, such as inspection
         records, design plans, communication capabilities, stability calculations, lifesaving
         appliances, classification society contacts, passenger and cargo manifests, etc., so that
         such information will not need to be obtained directly from a pilot or master
        Work with SAR authorities to develop and be able to rapidly deploy air droppable
         equipment or supplies for survivors, maintain strategically located caches for this purpose

Acceptance of certain responsibilities by industry demonstrates commitment to passenger safety
and can free SAR services to handle critical arrangements relating to SAR resources, co-
ordination and communications

MRO incident management

For major incidents, crisis management for the overall response may also be needed. The
Incident Command System (ICS), one widely used means of meeting this need, but works best
with some advance familiarization and exercising within and among the transportation and
emergency response communities. Since SAR and transportation authorities are likely to
encounter use of the ICS within emergency response communities, this Appendix provides
general information for familiarization with ICS.

The following terms are relevant to the ICS:




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         Incident Commander (IC): the primary person functioning as a part of the incident
         command system, usually at or near the scene, responsible for decisions, objectives,
         strategies and priorities relating to emergency response;

         Incident Command Post (ICP): location at which primary functions are carried out for
         the Incident Command System;

         Incident Command System (ICS): on scene emergency management concept that
         provides an integrated organizational structure adaptable to the complexity and demands
         of an major incident involving multiple missions, response organizations or jurisdiction;

         Unified Command (UC): the incident commander role of the incident command system
         expanded to include a team of representatives that manages a major incident by
         establishing common objectives and strategies and directing their implementation.

The ICS is designed for use when multiple organizations and jurisdictions need to be jointly
involved in an emergency response activity and co-ordinate their efforts.

While organizations have their respective systems of command and control or co-ordination,
these should be compatible with systems others use so organizations can function well jointly
when necessary. Commonality and similarities among crisis management systems locally,
regionally and internationally foster effective joint efforts.

The ICS does not take control, responsibility or authority away from SAR services; SAR
services remain focused on lifesaving, while the ICS focuses on promoting an effective overall
incident response.

The ICS training, advance co-ordination and liaison will be rewarded by better performance and
success when a crisis situation arises.

As a tool for managing major incidents, the ICS:

                   Accommodates all risks and hazards;
                   Is simple, powerful and flexible;
                   Can easily expand or contract as the incident warrants;
                   Relieves the SAR system of co-ordinating non-SAR missions;
                   Enables SMC to use the ICS contacts to draw on additional resources; and
                   Ensures better communication and co-operation between agencies.

The ICS organization can grow or shrink as the situation dictates, and provides a logical process
and progression to achieve results. Its organization should be allowed to grow with increased
demand and shrink when operations decline, both of which require anticipation.




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Advantages of the ICS can be lost when organizations develop their own unique and relatively
complex versions of the ICS; it works best when it remains simple, flexible and standardized so
everyone on scene from all organizations understands it.

In its basic form a person is designated as the IC to handle overall co-ordination, including
setting objectives and priorities.

Support functions (sections supported by one or more persons) can be established as needed and
on the scale needed to keep the IC informed and assist in certain areas.

The four support sections in the ICS organization are as follows:

         Operations Section - helps manage resources to carry out the operations;

         Planning Section - helps develop action plans, collect and evaluate information,
         maintain resource status and arrange to scale up or scale down activities;

         Logistics Section - helps provide resources and services needed to support the incident
         response, including personnel, transportation, supplies, facilities and equipment; and

         Finance-Administration Section - assists with monitoring costs, providing accounting
         and procurements, keeping time records, doing cost analysis and other administrative
         matters.

Other additions to directly assist the IC might include:

         An Information Officer - assists the media and others seeking incident information,
         ensures the IC has appropriate information available, and helps to provide information to
         the public and families of persons in distress;

         A Safety Officer - monitors safety conditions and develops measures to ensure safety
         and reduce risks; and

         Liaison Officers - serve as primary contacts for on scene representatives of their
         respective organizations.




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The following Figure illustrates the basic ICS organization:

Incident Command System Organization

                                                         Safety
                         Incident                        Information
                        Commander                        Liaison




       Operation                 Planning                 Logistics    Finance
           s



The IC usually establishes an Incident Command Post (ICP) as a base for ICS activities.
For particularly demanding incidents, the ICS organization can be expanded. For example, for
operations that are particularly large-scale, sustained or complex, the IC can be augmented by
establishment of an actual or virtual (without everyone co-located) Unified Command (UC)
populated by operational managers representing the primary response organizations involved. If
the UC is made up of linked independent command posts, a government post and an industry
post for example, ideally there should still be a person from each command post assigned to
work at the other post(s) involved.

For a situation like a major passenger aircraft or ship disaster, a Joint Information Centre (JIC)
should be established, perhaps in association with the Information Officer position, to facilitate
and co-ordinate the vast information that will need to be managed internally and shared with the
public.

Whether the ICS should be used depends on the duration and complexity of the incident. If it is
used, co-ordination of SAR functions with other functions is usually achieved by assigning a
representative of the SAR agency or of the SMC to the Operations Section of the ICS
organization.

This allows SAR services to be plugged into the ICS and overall operations while still being able
to function with relative independence in accordance with normal SAR procedures. The ICS has
an overall incident focus, while SAR services must remain focused on lifesaving.

A determination should be made as early as possible on who will be responsible for overall co-
ordination, and how the overall response will be organized and managed. Procedures that all
involve understand and support should be applied to managing the overall response for mutual
support, effort prioritization, and optimal use of available resources, and to enhance on scene
safety and effectiveness.



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Inter-agency contingency planning should identify who the IC should be for various scenarios.
Typically, the IC will be assigned from the government organization with primary responsibility
for the type of function most prominent for the particular incident. However, with appropriate
access to experts and information from all agencies concerned, a key consideration in selecting
the IC should be familiarity and experience with the IC function, i.e., the IC should be a person
who can best handle the responsibility.

The IC should be someone good at managing on scene operations, and will usually be located at
or near the scene. Everyone involved, regardless of rank or status, will normally be in a support
role for the IC, similar to the way the SMC function is carried out.

The IC function can be transferred as the situation warrants, although such transfers should be
minimized as is the case for transfers of SMC functions during a mission. It is important to
designate an IC early, in contingency plans if possible, and make a transfer later as appropriate,
as delay in designating an IC can be quite detrimental.

Except when functions other than SAR are relatively insignificant to the incident response, the
IC should normally be someone other than the SMC. The priority mission will always be
lifesaving, and the SMC should normally remain unencumbered by additional non-SAR duties.

Similarly, the IC's command post should normally be at a location other than in the RCC,
because the RCC needs to remain focused on, and be vigilant and responsive to, its normal SAR
responsibilities in addition to handling SAR aspects of the major incident.




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                                                      APPENDIX E

         ICAO/IMO JOINT WORKING GROUP ON SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR)
                           ELEVENTH MEETING

                                ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/14
                     PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE IAMSAR MANUAL

                                                 (Presented by Sweden)

SUMMARY

         This working paper proposes amendments to the IAMSAR Manual
         Action by the ICAO/IMO JWG is in paragraph 5.

1        INTRODUCTION

1.1     In the process of assisting countries to implement or more closely to develop their SAR
services in compliance with existing conventions, resolutions, circulars and other guiding
principles a particular problem seems to be the legal background or the extent to which the
legislation supports SAR operations in accordance with the present guiding philosophy.

2        IDENTIFIED PROBLEM AREAS

2.1      Problem areas that have been identified:

         .1       The recommendation to assign a SMC for each case is used as an excuse not to
                  train the whole RCC staff but instead to rely on one or two qualified co ordinators,
                  normally the manager and assisting manager, that might not be present except on
                  call. This will delay the actions;

         .2       The manager is the only person that is allowed to make qualified decisions like
                  asking for facilities from outside his own organization or from other States;

         .3       The official RCC is not the actual co-ordinating body. Persons not properly trained
                  for SAR but trained for other types of maritime operations do the real co-ordination
                  on a lower level. The RCC will then be more or less a ―back-seat driver‖;

         .4       Military and other governmental facilities are not available through national
                  legislation and are not co-ordinated directly by the RCC; and

         .5       The RCC is not placed on a proper level of authority in the national hierarchy.




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3        POSSIBLE ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN

3.1    The conventions have just recently been revised and the revised regulations are not yet in
force. To propose further work on the conventions is not appropriate at the moment.

3.2     To amend or to clarify relevant parts of the IAMSAR manual is the best way forward.
The issue then is if the manual shall indicate one solution as today or give examples showing a
minimum level, but also best practices/highest efficiency solutions. The manual today is written
to suit any solution but is that really the way it should be? Shouldn‘t the manual try to promote
the most efficient SAR service?

3.3     The target group is not the national SAR experts or SAR administrators but policy
advisors and regulators who use the conventions and the manual to develop legislation, policies
and budget for the organizations involved. If the guidance given is unclear and open to national
interpretation the result will always be as presented in points 1 to 5.

3.4     Since the legal support for the SAR service is one of the most important cornerstones or
basic elements a good start to stronger focus on best practices/high efficiency should be in that
area.

3.5     Other areas that need to be addressed are for example number of staff, communications
and training.

4        PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE THREE VOLUMES

4.1      Volume I - Glossary, 1.5.6, 2.2.8, 2.2.10, 2.3.11, 5.3.6, 5.4.17, 5.4.19, 5.4.20.

4.2      Volume II – Glossary, 1.2.3, 1.2.3(a), 1.2.3(b).

4.3    Volume III - An, in general, more accurate description of the RCC/SMC role should be
introduced in Volume III.

5        ACTION BY THE ICAO/IMO JWG

5.1    The ICAO/IMO JWG is invited to consider the proposals given in the annex and decide
as appropriate.




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                                                            Annex

                     PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE IAMSAR MANUAL

Volume I

Glossary page xi
Search and rescue mission co-ordinator: The official/s assigned on a 24-hr basis responsible for
the RCC operations defined as search and rescue services.

Paragraph 1.5.6
Add the following text:

A better way is to include the use of military and other governmental facilities in the national
legislation as any other public resources.

Paragraph 2.2.8
Replace the second sentence with:

Communications with mobile facilities should preferably be handled by the RCC or RSC. If
alerting posts are being used the RCC or RSC must determine the quality or the performance of
the alerting post.

Replace the second last sentence with:

The SMC/ RCC should normally use pre-planned communication channels.

Paragraph 2.2.10
Replace the paragraph with:

The national legislation should among other things give the authority responsible for SAR the
right to, through the RCC to directly respond to requests from persons or crafts in distress or
from other RCCs. Such requests should always be routed directly to the RCC. In rare cases
diplomatic channels might have to be used.

Paragraph 2.3.11
Replace the paragraph with:

RCCs perform administrative and operational duties. Administrative duties are concerned with
maintaining the RCC in a continuous state of preparedness including planning, co-operation with
providers of facilities, exercises and case studies. In areas of low SAR activity the
administrative duties are of high importance since they is the best way to keep the staff in
readiness for real cases. The administrative duties should be shared between all RCC staff to
avoid that the RCC chief would be the only person fully updated with the different


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administrative duties. Operational duties are concerned with the efficient conduct of SAR
operations and are depending on a well functioning administrative process. The SAR operations
are the responsibility of the on duty SMC. The RCC chief should not normally assume the
responsibility as SMC. The RCC chief should during SAR operations act as a supervisor and
support the SMC and the co-ordinating team but normally not interfere in the co-ordination
process. To achieve this the training and qualification of the SMCs and the staff must be in
focus for the SAR managers. Personnel from services or organizations providing facilities can be
used as part of the RCC team if they are duly trained and qualified. They will normally serve in
support or expert functions such as fire fighting or, air or maritime safety. The plan to staff the
RCC must include the capability to undertake and continue operational duties 24-hours per day.

         a)       RCC Chief. The RCC chief may be a person who also performs other functions.
                  Whenever an RCC is placed in conjunction with an ATS unit or similar
                  aeronautical or maritime operations centre, responsibilities for the RCC are often
                  placed on the chief of that centre. In such instances, another person should be
                  appointed to handle the day-to-day management and the operations of the RCC.
                  The RCC chief must make appropriate preparations, plans and arrangements as
                  well as oversee, if not delegated, the daily operations of the RCC, to ensure that
                  when an incident occurs the SAR operation can be promptly performed.

         b)       RCC staff. The RCC staff consists of personnel who are trained and qualified to
                  plan and co-ordinate SAR operations. If the RCC staff has duties beside SAR, the
                  additional functions should be considered when determining the staffing needs.
                  The number of personnel required must be set taking account of traffic density,
                  seasonal conditions, meteorological conditions and other SRR conditions. An RCC
                  must be in a constant state of operational readiness with at least the duty SMC
                  directly available to receive and evaluate any information concerning potential or
                  actual emergencies. If the RCC is not constantly manned besides the SMC
                  provisions must be made for stand-by RCC staff to be mobilized rapidly.

         c)       SAR Mission Co-ordinator. A RCC should be manned with an on duty SMC on a
                  24-hour basis. Specially trained and qualified persons assisted by as many staff as
                  may be required should preferably perform the function. The SMC on duty is
                  responsible for all ongoing SAR operations within the RCC. The RCC plan of
                  operations should give the SMC the responsibility to any request facility and to
                  make any decision to successfully conduct the mission. Since SAR operations may
                  continue over a prolonged period a sufficient number of persons qualified to serve,
                  as SMCs must be available. The number of persons will depend on:

                  —       expected frequency of SAR incidents, including the possibility of more than
                          one incident occurring simultaneously

                  —       the need to allow for vacation, training courses, illness and relief.




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Paragraph 5.3.6
Replace the existing paragraph with:

Each SAR operation is normally carried out under the direction and supervision of an SMC.
Trained and qualified SAR staff performs this function. The SMC must in all cases be supported
by RCC staff members to undertake functions in the co-ordinating process such as
communications, plotting, logging and search planning. For complex cases or those of long
duration the assisting team must be replaced at regular intervals as well as the SMC. The SMC
must be able to competently gather information about emergencies, transform emergency
incident information into accurate and workable plans and dispatch and co-ordinate the facilities,
which will carry out the SAR missions.

Paragraph 5.4.17
Add a fourth sentence:

         —        defining the jurisdiction and legal authority of the RCC and the SMC to undertake
                  efficient SAR operations in accordance with relevant standards as set out by ICAO
                  or IMO.

Paragraph 5.4.19
Insert the words ―State owned‖ before the word SAR facilities at the end of the second line.

Paragraph 5.4.20

The sample legislation in Appendix A is too basic to serve its purpose. During JWG 10 a small
drafting group should get together and develop a more comprehensive text.


Volume II

Glossary as in Volume I

Paragraph 1.2.3
Replace the first part of the paragraph with:

Each SAR operation is normally carried out under the direction and supervision of an SMC.
Trained and qualified SAR staff performs this function. The SMC must in all cases be supported
by RCC staff members to undertake functions in the co-ordinating process such as
communications, plotting, logging and search planning. For complex cases or those of long
duration the assisting team must be replaced at regular intervals as well as the SMC. The SMC
must be able to competently gather information about emergencies, transform emergency
incident information into accurate and workable plans and dispatch and co-ordinate the facilities,
which will carry out the SAR missions.




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Paragraph 1.2.3(a)
Delete the second and third sentences since they are already covered in 1.2.3.

Paragraph 1.2.3(b)
Delete the second sentence since it already covered in 1.2.3.


Volume III

Glossary page xiv
SMC, as amended in Volume I.

Page 1-2, 1-3 and 1-4

To avoid the present confusion between administrative co-ordination and operational co-
ordination the description of SAR Co-ordination should read:

         "The SAR system has two kinds of coordination:

         —         Administrative co-ordination by SAR co-ordinators (SCs)
         —         Operational co-ordination by SAR mission co-ordinators (SMCs)"

The OSC being a subordinate function to the SMC should not be included in the explanation.

Replace the existing explanation of the SAR Mission Co-ordinator with:

         -         Each SAR operation is carried out under the guidance of a responsible RCC and
                   the on duty SMC. The SMC is normally assisted by a team to assist with
                   communications, logging and search planning.

         -         The SMC co-ordinates a SAR operation until a rescue has been effected or it
                   becomes apparent that further efforts would be of no avail. The SMC might
                   decide to use an OSC and/or an ACO to assist with the on scene co-ordination.
                   They will not unless in rare cases perform the normal duties of the SMC.

Retain the text as it is until the sentence "recommend to the RCC chief" replace the text with
"inform the RCC chief that the search is suspended".

Delete the whole section on OSC.

Page 3-1
Replace the text under ―Requirements for Co-ordination‖ with:




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         -         The method by which co-ordination is achieved is in principle the same all over
                   the world. Regardless of the different national organizations a centre is tasked to
                   perform the RCC function. Within the RCC the on duty SMC will be responsible
                   for all activities related to search for and rescue any human life in distress at sea.
                   The SMC will receive information on any emergencies, evaluate the information,
                   develop a plan for the operations, and obtain suitable facilities and co-ordinate the
                   operation until a successful rescue has been done or the search is suspended. The
                   SMC might designate an OSC and/or an ACO to carry out the plan to locate and
                   rescue survivors. If the communications between the RCC and the scene are lost
                   or inadequate the OSC or the ACO might have to perform some additional
                   functions normally handled by the SMC.

Note: In practice, the term RCC and SMC are often used interchangeable due to their close
association.

         -         When a person, vessel or aircraft becomes aware of an emergency situation at sea
                   directly they shall alert the appropriate RCC as follows:

                   the RCC responsible for the SRR where the incident occurred

Note: The information on SRRs and communications to RCCs to be found in the GMDSS Master
Plan published by IMO or the Admiralty List of Radio Signals, volume V the nearest RCC any
RCC that can be reached any communication facility (alerting post).

         -         The first facility to arrive in the vicinity of the SAR incident should assume OSC
                   or ACO duties if the SMC is not capable to communicate with the scene and
                   designate an OSC or ACO.

         -         For the maritime environment shipmasters will normally perform the OSC duties
                   unless in coastal waters where the OSC function might be undertaken by
                   specialized SAR units.

Page 3-2
Replace the existing text under ―Co-ordination by Land-Based Authorities‖ with:

         -         SAR operations are normally co-ordinated from specially equipped operational
                   centres, RCCs, manned 24 hrs a day with trained personnel. The working
                   language for these centres should be English.

         -         Each RCC is associated to a SRR. The SRR might be divided into sub-regions
                   with associated RSCs.

         -         Land-based communication facilities include:

                   land earth stations (LESs)


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                   Cospas/Sarsat Mission Control Centres with Local User
                   Terminals (LUTs)
                   Independent CRSs or CRSs associated the RCCs
                   ATS units
                   Mobile phone networks
                   Internet
                   112 systems

         -         LESs may also be referred to as aeronautical ground earth stations (GESs) or
                   maritime coast earth stations (CESs).




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                                                      APPENDIX F

         ICAO/IMO JOINT WORKING GROUP ON SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR)
                           ELEVENTH MEETING

                             Relevant Extract from ICAO/IMO JWG WP 11/7

              COMSAR/CIRC.18 ON MINIMUM COMMUNICATION NEEDS OF
                                    MRCCS

                                            (Presented by Cospas-Sarsat)

                                                            Annex

           COMSAR/Circ.18 “Guidance on minimum needs of maritime rescue co-ordination
                                  centres (MRCCs)

Proposed amendments

2.6      COSPAS-SARSAT and Inmarsat-E satellite alert systems

2.6.1 Alerts coming from the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system are transmitted to the MRCC mainly
by AFTN, telex or fax either from an MCC (COSPAS-SARSAT mission control centre), or from a SPOC
(SAR point of contact), or from another RCC*.

2.6.2 Distress alerts from ships equipped with Inmarsat-E EPIRBs are transmitted to MRCCs by certain
Coast Earth Stations specially equipped to receive these alerts.

         *      There are in the world a number of receiving stations (LUT) which receive satellite information and transmit it to
                COSPAS SARSAT mission control centres (MCCs). Each of these centres is responsible for distributing alerts
                to SAR services in its service area. When in a particular country which does not have an MCC, there are several
                maritime and/or aeronautical rescue co-ordination centres, one of the RCCs should be designated as the SAR
                point of contact (SPOC) for COSPAS-SARSAT alerts with responsibility to further distribute the alerts to the
                various RCCs in the country. If no SPOC has been designated by a country, the MCC that services the area in
                which the distress occurred provides alert information to the most suitable MRCC for further action.

4.4      COSPAS-SARSAT

4.4.1 If the country concerned has already designated a SPOC, it is sufficient to define internal data
transmission procedures between the country's SPOC and the MRCC.

4.4.2 If the country concerned so wishes, it may designate the MRCC (or one of the MRCCs if it has
several) as a SPOC to the COSPAS-SARSAT Secretariat* and to the supporting MCC. That country
should also coordinate the procedures for distributing alerts with the MCC.

4.4.3 If it does not designate a SPOC, the MCC that services the area in which the distress occurred
provides alert information to the most suitable MRCC for further action. The country concerned may ask
the MRCC of the country where the MCC is located to transmit information to it.



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         *      COSPAS-SARSAT Secretariat, 99 City Road, London EC1Y 1AX, United Kingdom
                (telephone + 44 20 77281391; fax + 44 20 7728 1170).




                                                         — END —




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