RE-CAP SO FAR by monkey6

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									RE-CAP SO FAR

What is a child?
 Cultural construction/s
 Rights & responsibilities

What is adversity?
 RISK (vulnerabilities)
 RESILIENCE (protective factors)

7-UP & Birth-to-20
  Longitudinal cohort designs
  Quantitative & qualitative research

CABA in media (Meintjies & Bray)
  “Aids orphans” as problematic term

DEVPSY theories/research in SA (Macleod)
  Euro-American organismic model
  Contextual approaches
  RISK – increasing vulnerability &
   insecurity due to HIV/Aids & poverty
  RESILIENCE – some children cope
   better than others

                                         1
KILLIAN (2004)

SOCIAL ECOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory
  Head Start, USA

“Systems theory” = any element is linked to
organized matrix of interconnected
elements, systems & influences

    Has purpose/function, i.e. regulates
     social exchanges through rules & roles

    Constant state of flux & multiplicity
     (not static “cultural cage”)

    Influence is bi-directional

DEVELOPMENT IS COMPLEX INTERACTION
BETWEEN:
  Personal characteristics
  Processes & relationships
  Contexts
  Time shifts

                                              2
EXTENT OF RISK/IMPACT &
RESILIENCE IN TRAUMA & ADVERSITY
DEPENDS ON:

 1. DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL: How old is
    the child? How is “trauma”
    understood?

 2. SUPPORT: What network of care
    embeds the child?

 3. DURATION & SEVERITY: One
    traumatic event, or long-term multiple
    adversities?

 4. SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT: How is
    “trauma” dealt with?

 5. HEALING: Are there resources for
    recovery, treatment, ongoing care?


Contextual factors crucial in determining
kind of childhood & trauma experienced.

                                             3
Bronfenbrenner:
  Child embedded in 5 nested systems

1. MICROSYSTEMS
Face-to-face interactions, activities & roles
in immediate environment
   Repetitive patterns influence dev

Child                  Parent/s
                       Siblings
                       Teacher/s

Child’s perception of relationships crucial
   +VE enduring, reciprocal, caring
   -VE destructive, neglectful

E.g. Family’s focus on illness or money

2. MESOSYSTEMS
Linkages between microsystems in which
child is active
   E.g. Home & School
   E.g. Sick mother & Grandmother


                                                4
3. EXOSYSTEMS
Environments that affect children’s
experiences from afar

E.g. Parent’s workplace, employment
conditions, remuneration & benefits

4. MACROSYSTEM/S
Ideological & institutional & cultural systems
that regulate societies
   Defines child’s (and parent’s) place/role

E.g. Beliefs, customs, rituals
E.g. Rights & laws

5. CHRONOSYSTEM/S
Passing of time transforms systems at
several levels:
  Patterning of events over 1 lifespan, e.g.
   maturation, recovering from trauma

    Socio-historical changes, e.g.
     size/structure of families,
     westernization, HIV/Aids

                                             5
CHILDHOOD RISKS & ADVERSITIES
ASSOCIATED WITH HIV/AIDS (Killian)

1. Medical & physical implications

HIV+ children infected by MTCT, injury or sexual
abuse – are immune-compromised

CABA suffer poor health generally

2. Psychosocial implications –
   “walking down the Aids road”

Due to different cultural childrearing styles &
HIV/Aids stigma, talking about Aids & sex in
families (and to children) is taboo

     Becoming aware of HIV/Aids
     Aids becomes personal
     Caring for sick family member
     Isolation due to stigma & leaving school -
      may be HIV+ themselves
     Experience death of loved one/s
     Conflicts & changes after parent death
     New custody-arrangements & risks of sexual
      abuse & labour exploitation

                                                  6
DONALD & CLACHERTY (2005)
CHILDREN LIVING IN CHHs

CHH: child-headed household
AHH: adult-headed household


Research study:
  10 CHHs & 10 AHHs in PmB
  14 child-participatory dimensions
   investigated over 6 themes

Compared CHHs & AHHs from poor
communities – why?
  Compare apples with apples
  Understand risk & resilience – i.e.
   degree of impact on children varies
  Counter myths about “Aids orphans”
  Explore children’s points of view

CHHs: all members under 18 years

AHHs: 1 competent adult in household –
typically grand/mother or aunt



                                         7
What do we know about households in
adverse/poor conditions?
  Rural households & urban migration
  Extended family structures
   (seldom nuclear)
  “Feminization of poverty”

    By western devpsy ideals, childrearing is
     “authoritarian” and/or “neglectful”
     – NOT “child-centred”

See Killian, p. 49: Traditional cultural
childrearing practices that increase risk:

    Severe punishment
    Focus on obedience
    Exclude children from decision-making
    Leave children to solve problems
    Unsupervised leisure time
    Not discussing sexuality
    Not discussing feelings or relationships




                                                8
Donald & Clacherty: Thandanani
Project – two themes

1. SOCIAL NETWORKING
Children asked to draw maps of area &
discuss supportive peers & adults

CHHs – drew on friends & women-
neighbours for homework, advice about
problems, food, money, emotional support

AHHs – had friends; did not mention adults
outside their families

2. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

CHHs VULNERABILITIES
Drew timelines & told their “stories”
  Many hurtful, disruptive life events &
   unresolved or unexpressed emotions
  Poor internal locus of control, i.e. low
   self-efficacy, confidence & worth
  Focus on daily survival & school;
   unrealistic long-term goals

                                              9
CHHs STRENGTHS
Gave children hypothetical situation & ask
them what they’d do
  Emotionally sensitive family interactions
   – empathy & mutual support
  Conflict resolution & sorting out
   problems
  Responsibility for one another
  Discussion about HIV/Aids & sex

OTHER THEMES FROM CHHs & AHHs:
 Cycle of poverty
 Food insecurity
 Poor access to (free) health services

FROM CCHs PARTICULARLY:
 Documents & grants
 Dependence on charity of others
 School problems (stigmatization)
 Rigid rules/routines: no time to be
  “children”


Features of resilient children… (Killian)

                                            10

								
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