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					Module: Leadership
                                                                   Leadership


                                 Leadership


In this section we will look at leadership within a community radio station.



By the end of this section you will be able to:

         Identify the elements of good leadership

         Identify their own natural leadership style

         Select appropriate leadership styles for specific situations and

         Distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate leadership
          behaviours




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                                                              Leadership


           Activity 1. The Leader from hell



Individually: (10min)

Think of your experience in a community organisation, or at work,

     Who was the worst leader or manager you have ever encountered?

     What was it that makes him/her the worst?

     What made him/her ineffective as a leader or manager?




Group: (45 min)

    Share your experience with the others in the group.

    As a group, use your experiences to draw "The Leader From Hell".




Plenary:

Group Reports: You will be putting up your drawing, and the reporter will be
asked to explain the drawing to the rest of the group.

.




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                                                                          Leadership


           Activity 2. Different types of leaders


Example 1:

Lisa walked into the offices of Radio A1. She went straight to the kettle and made herself
a cup of coffee. On her way to her office, she asked Joe, the programme manager to come
in with the schedule for the next month. “Good morning, Joe,” she said, “ how did you
sort out the problem with the health slots?” Joe explained what they had worked out in
the programming meeting. “Great!” she exclaimed, “Please ask Tatiana to come in. “

When Tatiana walked in, Lisa immediately began asking her about the
advertising sales: “How are you doing against the targets we set last month?
Have you managed to get more local advertisers?” Tatiana showed her the sales
figures and the schedule of adverts. “OK!” said Lisa, “Now, what about special
events, what are you planning for May?”

After the meeting with Tatiana, Lisa rushed off to an appointment. As she
walked through the reception, she thought that Thulani, the receptionist, was
looking a bit sad. “I wonder what‟s going on?” Lisa thought, but she had no time
to stop and ask. “Please take messages for me,” she shouted on her way out, “I‟ll
be back at 2.00.”




Example 2:



At Radio Up! Amos walked into the office. The receptionist was looking a bit
upset. “What‟s going on, Bongani ?” he asked. Bongani told him that his granny
had died. “ Of course you must take time off!” Amos exclaimed, “I‟ll find a


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                                                                    Leadership

replacement, don‟t worry about a thing.” By the time Bongani left the office, he
was feeling a little bit better.

“Bra Piet, come and talk to me, you said you had figures about advertising.” Piet
walked into Amos‟s office. “Sit down, Piet, how is your baby? Is she getting over
the flu?” he asked. “It‟s so horrible when the little ones are sick.” He listened
while Piet talked about the visit to the doctor, and how much better the baby
was. “Well that‟s great, Piet. Now, let‟s talk about advertising, How is it going?”
Piet gave him a detailed report on the local and national advertisements, and
then talked about the plans for a promotional event. “Thank you, Piet,” Amos
said at the end of the meeting, “I really appreciate all the hard work.“

The next meeting was with Boitumelo, the programme manager. “Boitumelo, I
really liked the programme you put together yesterday. How did you manage?”
He listened carefully while she explained, and asked a number of questions.
Boitumelo really felt good about the work she had done.

Then it was time to talk about the health programmes. “How is that coming on,
Boitumelo? Last time you told me you were having trouble finding an „expert‟ to
come onto the show.” Boitumelo explained how she had tracked down a retired
nurse who used to teach at the nursing college, Amos smiled. “Well done!” he
said, “ That will really make a difference.”




Discussion:

What is the difference between Lisa and Amos? How do their styles differ?

In what situations is each style appropriate?

Which would you like as the head of your radio station?




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                                                                             Leadership


     Activity 3. T-P Leadership Questionnaire
Your task:

1.        Complete the following questionnaire, individually, following the
          instructions. Then score yourself as explained.

2.        Discuss with your partner whether the results of the Leadership
          Questionnaire are accurate for you and whether they really do
          show your preferred style of management.

Instructions

The following items describe aspects of leadership behaviour. Respond to
each item according to the way you would most likely act if you were the
leader of a work group or a team in your radio station. Please be honest.

(NB: The word “member” is used to represent staff or volunteers, etc)




Tick your response:

always (A), frequently (F), occasionally (O), seldom (S), or never (N).



               (A) always, (F) frequently, (O) occasionally, (S) seldom, or (N) never.
     1           I act as the spokesperson of the group.                           A F O S N
     2           I encourage members to work extra hours                           A F O S N
     3           I allow members complete freedom in their work.                   A F O S N
     4           I encourage the use of uniform/standard procedures                A F O S N
     5           I permit members to use their own judgement in solving            A F O S N
                 problems.
     6           I stress being ahead of competing groups.                         A F O S N
     7           I speak as a representative of the group.                         A F O S N
     8           I encourage members to make a greater effort.                     A F O S N
     9           I try out my ideas in the group.                                  A F O S N
     10          I let the members do their work they way they think               A F O S N
                 best.
     11          I work hard for promotion.                                        A F O S N
     12          I am able to allow postponement and uncertainty.                  A F O S N
     13          I speak for the group if visitors are present.                    A F O S N


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                                                           Leadership

14   I keep the work moving quickly.                           A F O S N
15   I turn the members loose on the job and let them at it.   A F O S N
16   I settle conflicts when they occur in the group.          A F O S N
17   I get overwhelmed by details.                             A F O S N
18   I represent the group at outside meetings.                A F O S N
19   I am reluctant to allow members any freedom of action.    A F O S N
20   I decide what should be done and how it should be         A F O S N
     done.
21   I push for increased production.                          A F O S N
22   I let some members have authority which I can keep        A F O S N
     control over.
23   Things usually turn out as I have predicted.              A F O S N
24   I allow the group a high degree of initiative.            A F O S N
25   I assign group members to particular tasks.               A F O S N
26   I am willing to make changes.                             A F O S N
27   I ask the members to work harder.                         A F O S N
28   I trust the group members to exercise good judgement.     A F O S N
29   I schedule the work to be done.                           A F O S N
30   I refuse to explain my actions.                           A F O S N
31   I persuade others that my ideas are to their advantage.   A F O S N
32   I permit the group to set its own pace.                   A F O S N
33   I urge the group to beat its own previous record.         A F O S N
34   I act without consulting the group.                       A F O S N
35   I ask that group members follow standard rules and        A F O S N
     regulations.



                 T________ P ________




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                                                            Leadership



                       T-P LEADERSHIP STYLE

                           SCORING SHEET




To score yourselves on the questionnaire, proceed as follows:



1.    Make a cross in the column next to the items numbered 8, 12, 17,
      18, 19, 30, 34, 35.



2.    Then write a number 1 in front of the crossed item number if you
      responded S (seldom) or N (never) to that item.



3.    Look at the numbers without a cross, write a number 1 in front of
      these item numbers if you responded A (always) or F (frequently).



4.    Tick the number 1s which you have written in front of the following
      items: 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35.



5.    Count the ticked number 1s. This is your score for “concern for
      people”. Record the score in the blank following the letter P at the
      end of the questionnaire.



6.    Counte the unticked number 1s. This is your score for “concern for
      task”. Record this number in the blank following the letter T.




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                                                                Leadership

                            T-P LEADERSHIP STYLE

                                 PROFILE SHEET


 Directions

 1.        To determine your style of leadership, mark your score on the
           concern for task dimension (T) on the left hand arrow below.

 2.        Next, move to the right hand arrow and mark your score on the
           concern for people dimension (P).

 3.        Draw a straight line that intersects the P and T scores.

 The point at which that line crosses the shared leadership arrow
 indicates your score on that dimension.



Autocratic Leadership           Shared Leadership                     Laissez Faire
                                                                       Leadership
   High Productivity             High productivity and
                                        morale                        High Morale

                                High Morale and
                                productivity
                                                   1.1.1  H
                                                          I
      20                                                  G
                                                   1.1.2 M                    15
                                                          H
             15                                           E
                                                          D
                  10                                          10
                                                     1.1.3I L
                                                          U O
                        5                                 MW
                                                         5




 T: Concern for Task                              P = Concern for People

 Shared /participative Leadership results from balancing concern for task
 and concern for people


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                                                           Leadership

Self Reflection:

What have you learned about your leadership style?




Are you happy with this?




What aspect of your leadership style would you like to build on?




What aspect of your leadership style would you like to change?




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                                                                                     Leadership



Activity 4. Continuum of Leadership Behaviour


 Use of authority by manager




                                                               Participation by group members




Manager makes   Manager “sells”   Manager          Manager          Manager           Manager
decision and    the decision      presents ideas   presents         defines limits    permits group
announces it                      and invites      problems, gets   and asks the      members to
                                  questions        suggestions      group to make     make decisions
                                                   and makes the    the decisions     in their area of
                                                   decision                           work, in line
                                                                                      with the
                                                                                      organisation
                                                                                      policy




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                                                                      Leadership

            Activity 5. Task and Maintenance1
                   Task                                   Maintenance
1 Initiating Getting the group started      1 Encouraging Being friendly,
  on the task. Offering new suggestions,      responding to and building on
  topics for discussion, plans, etc.          suggestions made by others, showing
                                              aceeptance and appreciation of others
                                              and their ideas.
2 Asking for information Drawing out        2 Gatekeeping Giving a quiet person a
  the resources of the group and              chance to join the discussion (e.g.
  identifying information which need to       'John was about to say something').
  be found elsewhere.
3 Giving information or facts or            3 Setting Standards 'Shall we agree
  sharing relevant experiences.               that everybody speaks once and
                                              nobody speaks more than twice?' or
                                              'Let's try to stick to the point and avoid
                                              discussing outside situations.'
4 Asking for Opinions Good decision         4 Diagnosing Difficulties 'I think we
  making depends on what all members          cannot make this decision until we get
  think and feel about a suggestion.          more information.' Or 'Maybe some
                                              of us are afraid of the consequences
                                              of this decision.'
5    Giving Opinions Some do this too       5 Expressing Personal and Group
    much and some too little. Sometimes       Feeling 'I'm getting bored. This is a
    a quick way to get all opinions needs     small point and we have spent half an
    to be found (e.g. straw vote).            hour on it.'
6 Explaining Giving practical               6 Harmonising Helping those with
  examples to make a point clear.             conflicting views to understand one
                                              another's views.
7 Clarifying Asking a question or           7 Evaluating Creating an opportunity
  repeating a point in different words to     for people to express feelings and
  make it clear to all.                       reactions towards the working of the
                                              group.
8 Summarizing Stating briefly the main      8 Relieving Tension By bringing it out
  points made so far.                         into the open, putting a problem in a
                                              wider context, or making a well-timed
                                              joke.
9 Checking Consensus Seeing if
  everyone, especially silent members
  agree on a point.
10 Suggesting a Process for Decision-
   making.




1
 This table comes from Community Workers Handbook, Volume 2, by Anne Hope and
Sally Timmel.


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Leadership




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                                                             Leadership


 Activity 6. The Responsibilities of Leadership
The responsibilities of a leader can be summarised in the following
diagram.




                                     Task




                        Team                  Individual




The diagram shows that leadership is about:

       The task:

              Making sure that it is done as well and as efficiently as
              possible.

              Managing the task includes

              1. Managing resources ie: ensuring the station earns or
                 raises enough money, ensuring that it has the correct
                 resources and equipments, and ensuring that all the
                 resources are well used and their use is monitored and
                 controlled.
              2. Managing the work: working out the structures and how
                 the work will be organised, ensuring that planning
                 happens, that tasks are allocated, that there is follow-
                 up or reporting to ensure the work has been done, etc




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                                                           Leadership

       The team:

             To get the task done, you need to have a team that is
             effective and working together. Leaders must understand
             how teams work, they must help the teams to understand
             and fulfil their tasks, and they must ensure that conflicts
             and problems are dealt with quickly .

       The individuals in the team:

             Making sure that they are motivated and satisfied so that
             the team can be productive. Managing the people includes
             giving out work, ensuring the work is done, giving positive
             feedback for work well done, ensuring that pe



It is important to understand all three aspects, and to keep them in
balance.

Underlying all of these aspects of management, is the vision and mission
of the organisation. Strong leaders help people to keep remembering the
vision and mission so that they feel inspired and committed.

Leadership in community radio is often a collective leadership. Many radio
stations have a leadership team comprising the managers of different
function within the station. The leadership team needs to be united, so
that it can lead, and manage effectively.




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                                                              Leadership

                       Something to think about:

                  Leadership in the sector
While we have only talked about your role as managers of one radio
station, the truth is that you will have to play a leadership role in the
sector as a whole.

Community radio is no different from any other new sector emerging and
developing in South Africa. It is important to realise that, as a new
sector, community radio will need time to grow, to recognise its strengths
and weaknesses, to reach sustainability and to build capacity at different
levels. Stations will have to support and learn from each other, and from
other experiences around the world.

Because community radio is still at the infant stage, station managers
have a crucial role to play as leaders:

   station managers will lead development of their own stations

   station managers will also be leaders in developing the community radio
    sector as a whole; and

   because community radio stations are there to respond to the
    community‟s expressed needs, the station manager will also be a leader
    in process of ensuring that the station does contribute to meeting
    those needs.

Balancing these leadership roles – of station development, sectoral
development and social development – make managing community radio
station a complex job requiring sound leadership and management skills.




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Description: Leadership module