Emissions of major pollutants based on year 2000 by monkey6

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Emissions of major pollutants based on year 2000

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									                                    Mozambique                                                                                                                  Country Fact Sheet
                                                   Emissions of major pollutants                                                Summary of air pollution information
                                                   based on year 2000                                                                              Estimates for the year 2000 indicate that, of the
                                                                                                                                                   pollutants inventoried, the emission load of carbon
                                                                                  Nitrogen oxides                                                  monoxide (CO) was the highest followed by non-
                                        250
                                                                                                                                                   methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs),
                                        200                                                                                                        particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and nitrogen
              NOx emissions kt/yr




                                                                                                                                                   oxides (NOx). Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia
                                                                                                                          National emissions
                                        150
                                                                                                                                                   (NH4) emissions were relatively low. Savanna
                                        100
                                                                                                                                                   burning was the most significant source of all
                                                                                                                                                   pollutants except NMVOCs, which came mostly
                                          50                                                                                                       from the residential sector (wood-fuel burning), and
                                           0
                                                                                                                                                   ammonia which mostly came from manure
                                                                                                                                                   management in the agricultural sector.
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                                                                                                                                                   Monitoring is currently very limited and confined to
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                                                                                                                                                   two cities, Maputo and Matola , where there is
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                                                                                                                                                   skilled personnel. Maputo and Matola are also the
                                                                                                                                                   most industrialised and populated cities in
                                                                                  Carbon monoxide                                                  Mozambique, with 20,530,714 inhabitants. From
                                                                                                                          Status of Monitoring                       1
                                    3500
                                                                                                                                                   the 2007 census , this is approximately 8.7% of the
                                    3000
                                                                                                                                                   country’s total population. Current monitoring data
                                                                                                                                                   indicate that ambient concentrations of particulate
CO emissions kt/yr




                                    2500
                                                                                                                                                   matter are at unhealthy levels in the air-shed over
                                    2000
                                                                                                                                                   these two cities.
                                    1500

                                                                                                                                                   Pollutants under surveillance include NO2, SO2,
                                    1000
                                                                                                                          Pollutants Monitored
                                     500
                                                                                                                                                   NMVOCs (as benzene), PM10 and PM2.5.
                                          0
                                                                                                                                                   Currently, measurements of the above air
                                                                                                                          Number of
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                                                                                                                                                   pollutants are conducted at 53 stations, located in
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                                                                                                                                                   Maputo and Matola.
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                                                                                                                          Capacity to Study Air
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                                                                                                                                                   Available at Eduardo Mondlane University.
                                                                                                                          Pollution
                                                                                          NMVOCs                                                   In 2004 the Government of Mozambique passed
                                        400                                                                                                        the Decree on Environmental Standards, which
                                                                                                                          Air Quality Standards
                                                                                                                                                   sets quality standards for all basic environmental
   NMVOC emissions kt/yr




                                        300                                                                                                        media including air, water and soils.

                                        200



                                        100



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                                                                   Particulate matter (PM10)
                                     500
 PM10 emissions kt/yr




                                     400


                                     300


                                     200


                                     100


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                                                                                                                                APINA Year 2000: Total emission of each pollutant in Mozambique (kt/yr)
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        Evidence for Impacts
Little if anything is known about impacts
of air pollution on human health and the
environment in Mozambique.
However, there is anecdotal evidence
that air pollution is impacting on people’s
health and on the quality of the
environment to a significant degree.
Urban dwellers living or working close to
or downwind of busy roads, bus
terminals, fuel filling stations, market
places, and solid waste disposal sites
are exposed to high and unhealthy
concentrations of airborne particulate
matter (PM10, PM2.5), NOx and NMVOCs
(see APINA’s RUA Factsheet).
Research projects have been initiated in
collaboration with institutions in southern
Africa, Europe, Brazil and the United
States of America, to assess the impacts
of air pollution on:
 Human and animal health.                                  Open-air waste burning is one of processes responsible for much of
 Ecosystems.                                               the NMVOC emissions in Mozambique. This photo was taken at
 Crops.                                                    “Lixeira de Hulene”, the Maputo Municipal open pit waste dump site.
 Man-made materials.                                       There are people living all around this site, and waste burning has
                                                            been going on continuously for over 10 years.
It will take some time before results from
these studies become available for
improved policy development.



        National response to air pollution
                     Environmental management in Mozambique is based on the Framework Law on the Environment (“Lei Quadro
                                   2
                     do Ambiente”) , which was passed by Parliament in July 1997. Based on this framework law, many regulations
                     to address specific environmental problems including air pollution have been developed. These include the
                     following Government directives, which touch on emissions to the atmosphere:
                      Directive on Environmental Impact Assessment, passed in 2004.
                      Directive on Environmental Standards, passed in 2004.

Environmental         Directives on Waste Management (domestic, industrial and biomedical), passed in 20032006.
Law                   Directive on Environmental Management in Mining Operations, passed in 2006.
                     Although these directives make reference to emissions to the atmosphere, they do not make specific
                     recommendations for air quality management (AQM).
                     Recently, with the assistance of APINA, the Government has initiated the development of a Strategic Framework
                     for Air Quality Management (SFAQM). A draft SFAQM document is now being circulated among relevant
                     stakeholders for comments and inputs, and will be endorsed by the Government as soon as it is ready. The
                     implementation of the SFAQM will start with the development of Clean Air Implementation Plans (CAIPs), which
                     will be specific to each region, province or municipality in the country.


   Challenges
                     Mozambique’ priorities on air pollution are:
                           Finalise the SFAQM and develop CAIPs.
Priorities                 Upgrade existing environmental legislation to accommodate AQM aspects and
                           ensure comprehensive environmental management.
                           Develop capacity to implement the SFAQM and CAIPs.
Capacity
building/            Currently, capacity to carry out AQM in Mozambique is very limited. The country requires assistance in
enhancement          developing such capacity, especially in the rapidly growing cities such as Beira, Nampula and Nacala.
needs


References
    1
        Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE) (2007): 3 Receamento Geral da População e Habitação. (Maputo
        <http://www.ine.gov.mz/censo2007/censo2007>; accessed on 20 February 2008).
    2
        Mininstério para a Coordenação da Acção Ambiental (MICOA) (2007): Portal da Legislação Ambiental de Moçambique.
        (Maputo, <http://www.legisambiente.gov.mz/>; accessed on 20 February 2008).
    For more information see www.york.ac.uk/inst/sei/rapidc2/apina/apina html or www.apina.org

								
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