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Design and Access Statement - Leckhampton Glebe

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									                                                                            Mar 13, 2009


                             El248 – Assignment 2 – Development Proposals

Page 1                                     Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                                                        Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe


     1. Background & Context......................................................... 2
     2. Vision .....................................................................................3
     3. Principles ...............................................................................3
     4. Green Infrastructure .............................................................3
     5. Land Use - Sustainable community .................................... 4
     6. Permeability & Transport .................................................... 5
     7. Sustainability - Energy ......................................................... 6
     8. Sustainability – Waste Recycling......................................... 7
     9. Masterplan ........................................................................... 8
     10. Number and Type of Dwellings........................................... 9
     11. Scale of Dwellings ................................................................ 9
     12. Appearance - Built ............................................................... 11
     13. Typical Layout Plan............................................................. 13
     14. Appearance - Landscape ..................................................... 14

Page 1                                                                                                                      Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                         Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

1. Background & Context                                                                                                                           GENERAL CHARACHTER MAP

                                                                                                                                                  1. Playing Fields, open recreational grass area
1.1 This document builds upon the Leckhampton Landscape
Character Assessment (Crooks et al, Feb 2009). The summary,                                                                                       2. Meadows, open Green Land
conclusions and recommendations were as follows:
                                                                                                                                                  3. Nurseries (working and closed),abandoned commercial
     “Summary of landscape character                                                                                                                 greenhouses and derelict land

     “Although the site lies on the edge of Cheltenham, it retains a                                                                              4. Small holdings with animals
     strong semi-rural character with large tracts of vegetation and
     little built development. It provides a small piece of typically                                                                             5. Flat fields with open views to Leckhampton Hill
     ‘English’ countryside that is easily accessible from an urban
                                                                                                                                                  6. Residential area with surrounding land overgrown
     area. It is also an important setting for, and entrance to, the
     SSSI land at Leckhampton Hill and Charlton Kings to South                                                                                    7. Buildings between area 2 running along Kidnappers Lane
     East and the Cotswold AONB to the South. The key features of
     the site, which contribute to its strength of character, include
     the unadulterated views to Leckhampton Hill, the historic field
     pattern and hedgerows, the listed buildings and tree-lined
     watercourses. There are a number of public rights of way and
     bridleways through the site, which are well-used by the local
     community. Since its inception in 1995, LEGLAG has sustained
     an assertive local campaign against development, highlighting
     the strength of local feeling in favour of conserving or
     protecting the existing landscape. Although LEGLAG’s website
                                                                                                                                                     District 1 (the playing fields) was the only area which [the
     suggests that the smallholdings are used more intensively than
                                                                                                                                                     report] concluded should not be subject to development. This is
     in previous years, there are areas of the site which appear to be       “Districts 2, 4 and 6 have some capacity for built development,         due to the scarcity of alternative sports facilities in the vicinity
     underused or falling into neglect. Examples include the derelict       but in our view these areas would merit conservation and
                                                                                                                                                     and its location close to the school which its serves.”
     nursery and the apparently disused fields adjoining                    enhancement or conservation and restoration...
     Shurdlington Road. Some of these areas could benefit from                                                                                 1.2     This document does not simply describe and justify the
     conservation; others might provide opportunities for new               “District 2 (the open fields including Lott Meadow) would be       building of 500 houses on the largely green-field site at
     development.                                                           most suited to allocation as a public open park or nature          Leckhampton. Firstly it describes the enhancement of the green
                                                                            reserve. We recommended that district 4 be conserved as            infrastructure on the site for the benefit of wildlife. Second, it
     Conclusion and recommendations                                         smallholdings given the benefits to the local community,           describes the creation of a sustainable village community on what
                                                                            economy and biodiversity.                                          remains a site of essentially rural character. Third, it describes how
     The report “identified seven distinct ‘districts’ within the site
     and assessed the development capacity of each district (see            “The report “recommended that district 6 (the unmanaged land       these two environments are intrinsically linked and intertwined to
     General Character Map below).                                          by Leckhampton Court) be conserved and enhanced. If properly       provide a robust and sustainable habitat for the mutual benefit of
                                                                            managed, this area could provide a public green space and/or a     both man and nature.
     The report “concluded that districts 3, 5 and 7 offered the
                                                                            community orchard or smallholding.
     greatest development capacity because the nurseries and the
     fields adjoining Shurdlington Road are currently underused and
     there is opportunity to extend the existing residential
     development along Kidnappers Lane.

Page 2                                                                                                Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                           Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

2. Vision                                                                  ii.    The biodiversity of the site will not only be conserved,        4. Green Infrastructure
                                                                                  but enhanced and managed actively;
                                                                                                                                                  4.1     PPS1 includes policies on protection & enhancement of the
2.1 The European Landscape Convention states: Landscapes [are] an          iii.   The developed, built footprint of 500 dwellings will be as      environment and states that “a high level of protection should be
essential component of people’s surroundings, an expression of the                small as practical, implying high density as appropriate;       given to most valued townscapes and landscapes, wildlife habitats
diversity of their shared cultural and natural heritage and a                                                                                     and natural resources.” The document goes on to say that “planning
foundation of their identity.”                                             iv.    Dwellings will be mixed size, however number of beds            should seek to maintain and improve the local environment and help
                                                                                  per dwelling will be low to reduce excessive human              to mitigate the effects of declining environmental quality through
2.2 In addition, PPS1 –Delivering Sustainable Development, lists the
                                                                                  collateral impact on the site;                                  positive policies on issues such as design, conservation and the
Governments four aims for new developments:
                                                                                                                                                  provision of public space.” In addition, “development plans should
           “social progress which recognises the needs of everyone;       v.     Dwellings will be mixed use and tenure favouring - in           take account of - the protection of the wider countryside and the
                                                                                  the village centre - a robust, flexible opportunity for         impact of development on landscape quality; the conservation and
           effective protection of the environment;                              either residential and/or small commercial use;                 enhancement of wildlife species and habitats and the promotion of
           the prudent use of natural resources;                                                                                                 biodiversity”
                                                                           vi.    All value-added jobs required to sustain the community
           the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth          will be performed by community residents living in              4.2    Water Courses: The two streams flowing north from the
            and employment.”                                                      dwellings tied to those jobs. ;                                 Cotswold escarpment form two natural blue/green corridors
                                                                                                                                                  through the site.
2.3 With this in mind, the intended genius locus is as follows:            vii.   The community will be energy self-sufficient with
                                                                                  surplus energy being sold for community benefit;
          Leckhampton Glebe will be a sustainable mixed-use
                                                                           viii. Dwellings will be carbon-neutral (achieve level 6 of the
community with a village feel running along Kidnapper’s lane.                    BREEAM Code for Sustainable homes);
 The village will have minimal impact on the environment and
            be set within a beautiful, vibrant wildlife refuge.            ix.    Through recycling, the waste leaving the site now
                                                                                  (surface water, grey water, black water and refuse) will
     From outside the site, the built environment will merge into
                                                                                  be reduced in absolute terms, from current levels. No
           the green infrastructure. Views out to and in from                     mains services, except water, will be required;
     Leckhampton Hill will be preserved - it will be an “invisible
                                                                           x.     The Active transport will be encouraged. The footpath
                                                                                  and cycle network will be improved and extended. The
 People will be desire to live here and others will want to visit.                public transport network will connect to the site;
          Neighbours will be happy that this space was created.
                                                                           xi.    No new roads will be built. Kidnapper’s Lane will
                                                                                  become one-way and also the realm of pedestrians and
3. Principles                                                                     cyclists. If this is inconvenient for motorists, then that is   4.3    These watercourses have been widened and joined at both
                                                                                  the fair price to pay to achieve the Vision;                    the south and northern edges. This creates a green-belt around the
3.1    To achieve the vision or “spirit of place” for Leckhampton                                                                                 majority of Kidnapper’s Lane that will form the new village. The
Glebe village, the following principles will be applied:                   xii.   In residential areas, no additional footprint will be           nature reserve to the south will be co-utilised as space for re-cycling
                                                                                  allocated to car parking, i.e. it will either be                of excess surface water run-off, grey water and black water (see
i.        The green infrastructure will be conserved and enhanced                 underground or under-croft (if dwellings do have front          “waste recycling”. Keeping this area free from development will
          wherever possible;                                                      gardens they cannot be used for parking).                       protect the view of Leckhampton Hill from the A46, which is
                                                                                                                                                  valuable as a scenic gateway into Cheltenham.

Page 3                                                                                                    Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                         Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

                                                                                                                                                5. Land Use - Sustainable community

                                                                                                                                                5.1     There will be 500 dwellings forming the village of
                                                                                                                                                Leckhampton Glebe, including those used wholly or partly as
                                                                                                                                                commercial enterprises. The majority of building will be to create a
                                                                                                                                                village street feel along most of the length of Kidnapper’s lane, save
                                                                                                                                                for where it crosses the new nature reserve.

                                                                                                                                                5.2     In line with PPS1, this development will be a “high quality
                                                                                                                                                development through good and inclusive design, and the efficient use
                                                                                                                                                of resources”. Leckhampton Glebe also comply with PPS1 as it
                                                                                                                                                “supports existing communities and contributes to the creation of
                                                                                                                                                safe, sustainable, live-able and mixed communities with good access
                                                                                                                                                to jobs and key services for all members of the community.” A main
                                                                                                                                                objective of PPS7 – Sustainable Development in Rural areas - is “to
                                                                                                                                                raise the quality of life and the environment in rural areas through
                                                                         However, rather than plant a monoculture and coppice entire areas      the promotion of:
4.4     Hedgerows: All existing hedgerows will be kept and               at once, a species mix will be selected that will help increase
enhanced. These will continue to form green corridors as well as         biodiversity criteria necessary for the Code for Sustainable homes           thriving, inclusive and sustainable rural communities,
internal boundaries within the site, so to keep wildlife disruption to                                                                                 ensuring people have decent places to live by improving the
                                                                         level 6.
a minimum. Kidnapper’s Lane is narrow, but it will not be widened                                                                                      quality and sustainability of local environments and
so as to retain the dense hedges that lie along much of its length.      4.6     Green Space: In summary, a massive 62% (42 hectares) of               neighbourhoods;
                                                                         the site has been allocated as public green space. This includes the
                                                                                                                                                      sustainable economic growth and diversification.”
                                                                         valuable playing fields which will not be developed in accordance
                                                                         with PPG17 – Sport & Recreation.                                       Sustainability here means ensuring that there are adequate
                                                                                                                                                employment and wealth generation opportunities in the village.

                                                                                                                                                5.3    Commercial: The range of commercial activities that could
                                                                                                                                                be extremely useful for village residents to have within a 400m
                                                                                                                                                walking distance would include:

                                                                                                                                                      Cobbler / Locksmith
                                                                                                                                                      Pharmacy
                                                                                                                                                      Restaurant & Take-Away
                                                                                                                                                      News agent/Village store/Post office
                                                                                                                                                      Green-grocer (selling produce from local market gardens)
                                                                                                                                                      Butcher (selling produce from local small-holdings)
                                                                                                                                                      Bicycle repair shop
4.5     Coppice: A large bund of land surrounding the village will                                                                                    Accountant/Solicitor
provide some visual screening and opportunities for earth                                                                                             Village pub
dwellings/geothermal heat production. This land will also be used
for biomass fuel generation, by planting willow (for example) for                                                                               In addition, other revenue generation activities might include:
coppicing (see energy generation). The willow will also be used as
                                                                                                                                                      Arts and crafts, e.g. wicker / willow baskets (using reeds
part of the waste water recycling process.
                                                                                                                                                       from reed beds and coppiced willow)

Page 4                                                                                                  Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                          Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

5.4      Commercial centre: PPS7 goes on to state that “people who               green energy engineers (solar, geothermal, hydro-thermal)     6. Permeability & Transport
live or work in rural areas should have reasonable access to a range of
services and facilities.” To that end a commercial centre will be                                                                               6.1       The objectives of PPG13 – Transport are to: “integrate
created within Leckhampton Glebe Village at the centre of a 400m                                                                                planning and transport at the national, regional, strategic and local
“ped-shed”, i.e. vast majority of dwellings will be within 5 minutes                                                                            level to:
walk of this centre.
                                                                                                                                                   1. promote more sustainable transport choices for both people
                                                                                                                                                      and for moving freight;

                                                                                                                                                   2. promote accessibility to jobs, shopping, leisure facilities and
                                                                                                                                                      services by public transport, walking and cycling, and

                                                                                                                                                   3. reduce the need to travel, especially by car.

                                                                                                                                                In particular, Leckhampton Glebe meets this policy guidance in that
                                                                                                                                                it will “locate day to day facilities which need to be near their clients
                                                                                                                                                in local centres so that they are accessible by walking and cycling”
                                                                                                                                                and “ensure that development comprising jobs, shopping, leisure and
                                                                                                                                                services offers a realistic choice of access by public transport,
                                                                                                                                                walking, and cycling”.
                                                                          5.8    Dwellings: The density of dwellings near the village centre
                                                                          will be medium (45 to 63 dph), moving to low density (35dph)
                                                                          south-east along Kidnapper’s Lane into nature reserve proper.

5.5     Smallholdings: The smallholdings have been retained and
in the same location, as this provide a useful green extension to the
new nature reserve in the north east corner.

5.6     Nurseries: Land necessary for market gardening and
nurseries has been kept albeit relocated to the south western corner
of the site. This was an area of ancient orchards and the intention is
that these orchards be re-established. The intention is to place a
combined heat and power (CHP) facility in this district adjacent to
the existing light industrial development. The village would benefit
from the power, but the nurseries and market gardens will be close
enough to benefit from piped heat.
                                                                                                                                                6.2    Paths: There is already a good network of paths that
5.7      Other employment: The CHP plant will employ a number
                                                                                                                                                connect the site to the surrounding urban areas of Leckhampton (to
of skilled engineers to operate and maintain the plant. These jobs
                                                                          5.9     Community facilities: There will be a community hall and      the East) including its primary school. However, the hard edge of
will be contractually linked to village residents and tied
                                                                          undercover market near a central village square. There will also be   the A46 prevents a dangerous physical barrier between the site and
accommodation will be made for plant workers. This applies also to
                                                                                                                                                Warden Hill (9to the North West), where there are larger shops and
the following workers:                                                    a library cum bookshop nearby. There is no need for school
                                                                          provision as there are two primary schools within 10m (800m)          another primary school).
      coppiced woodmen
      nature reserve wardens                                             walking distance which will be addressed through improved             6.3    All new paths will be made suitably wide enough (3.5m) and
                                                                          connectivity outside the site.
      water engineers                                                                                                                          kerbed to separate cyclists and pedestrians for safe use. In the
      waste recycling engineers

Page 5                                                                                                  Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                          Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

village areas, they will be paved with permeable block paving, but        Alternatively, Kidnapper’s Lane could remain two-way and widened       7.2    In summary, Leckhampton Glebe will use the following
“hoggin” or wooden boards will be used in the nature reserve areas.       with the loss of only one hedge, but be made a dead-end at the         sources of renewable energy:
                                                                          point it crosses the nature reserve and is unmade. This is a point
6.4     Calming the A46: PPG13 also states that planners should:          for discussion at consultation.                                         Energy Source                                               Used
give priority to people over ease of traffic movement and plan to                                                                                   Community wind turbines                                   No
provide more road space to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport     6.7    Public Transport: There will be on average 50 dph. With            Dwelling wind turbines                                    No
in town centres, local neighbourhoods and other areas with a mixture      2.2 people per dwelling on average, this results in 110 people per        Geothermal                                                No
of land uses”. In addition to being a barrier to Leckhampton Glebe        hectare (pph).     The Urban Design Compendium suggests a                 Hydro-thermal                                             Yes
residents, the A46 will also restrict residents of Warden Hill and Up     minimum of 100 pph to support a bus service, and these numbers            Combined Heat and Power (willow and waste)                Yes
Hatherley enjoying the new nature reserve. Therefore, two traffic         are also likely to be increased by visitors to the nature reserve,        Photovoltaic                                              Yes
calming (raised paved pedestrianised zones) will be created.              which will not have any specific parking allocation. Therefore, a         Solar thermal                                             Yes
                                                                          new (or re-routed) half-hourly bus service running between
6.5.    Notwithstanding this, PPG13 also aims to “protect sites and
                                                                          Leckhampton Glebe and Cheltenham town centre will be requested.
routes which could be critical in developing infrastructure to widen                                                                             7.3    Resource and energy efficient buildings: The “Code for
transport choices for both passenger and freight movements. As the                                                                               Sustainable Homes level 6” and the design of individual dwellings is
A46 is such an important artery for Cheltenham, no additional site                                                                               discussed later, as it does not have a significant effect on land-use.
exit will be created onto it.                                             7. Sustainability - Energy
                                                                                                                                                 Other elements of sustainable design do require land to be set-
6.6      Kidnapper’s Lane: The main proposal is that Kidnapper’s
Lane will not be widened. This is partly to protect existing              7.1     The Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA)
                                                                          regional guidance R5 states “the first priority is the reduction and   7.4     The use of combined heat and power: TCPA R8 is an aim
hedgerows. It will be made one –way (in the direction Farm Lane to
                                                                          avoidance of climate change by making carbon-neutral decisions”. R7    to “conserve materials and other resources and promote use of locally
Church Road) and turned into a shared path for cyclist and
                                                                          states that “zero energy or net export of energy should be the goal    sourced, recycled or sustainably managed resources”. The willow
pedestrians. The stretch that crosses the nature reserve nearer
                                                                          through energy efficiency, embedded renewable energy generation,       grown on the bunds and water recycling areas (see below) will be
Church lane will be paved and be a pedestrian zone. These
                                                                          and energy efficient supply systems”                                   used to power a village CHP plant located near the existing slaked
measures may seem of great inconvenience to car drivers, but they
                                                                                                                                                 lime works. Digestible waste from the village (and from nearby
are in line with the vision and principles of the village and will make
                                                                          The “prudent use of natural resources” is one of the four              districts subject to transport considerations) could also be utilised.
life much safer for most village users and visitors. Further, these
                                                                          Government aims for sustainable development, highlighted in PPS1.      CABE suggests that a village of 500 dwellings (each 80m2) would
measures will stop Kidnapper’s Lane being a “rat-run” or short-cut
                                                                          A specific key principle is to “ensure that development plans          require 180m3 of wood chips, which must also be stored. The
other residents of Cheltenham trying to reach the A46.
                                                                          contribute to global sustainability by addressing the causes and       material is either burnt directly in a generator or digested
                                                                          potential impacts of climate change – through policies which reduce    anaerobically first to create Biogas for burning. The electricity will
                                                                          energy use... promote the development of renewable energy resources,   power the village and surplus will be sold to the grid to finance
                                                                          and take climate change impacts into account in the location and       other community activities. The “waste” steam and hot water will
                                                                          design of development”. Under the heading “Prudent Use of Natural      be piped to the nearby market garden and nursery district. (The
                                                                          Resources”, the document states we “should promote:                    building density of the village is too low for an efficient district
                                                                                                                                                 heating system (source Poundbury CHP proposals).
                                                                                resource and energy efficient buildings;
                                                                                community heating schemes,                                      7.5     Community wind energy: According to CABE UDC2, a
                                                                                the use of combined heat and power,                             500kW 40m diameter wind turbine could offset 320 tonnes CO2
                                                                                small scale renewable and low carbon energy schemes in          and power 300 of the 500 dwellings. This technology is disregarded
                                                                                 developments”                                                   for this site as it is not in keeping with the character of the
                                                                                                                                                 landscape and the vision of the “invisible village”. A 2.5m diameter
                                                                          In particular, PPS22 paragraph 8 states that ”local planning           wind turbine could offset 1 tonne and power one dwelling, but these
                                                                          authorities may include policies in local development documents that   are disregarded on aesthetic grounds and because of the additional
                                                                          require a percentage of the energy to be used in new residential,      footprint required.
                                                                          commercial or industrial developments to come from on-site
                                                                          renewable energy developments.”

Page 6                                                                                                   Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                         Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

7.6     Geo and hydro-thermal heat pumps: In the relatively              8. Sustainability – Waste Recycling                                       required of 3.3ha. This figure will be set aside for this purpose, but
dense village centre there is insufficient space for horizontal geo-                                                                               will be ratified with water treatment engineers.
thermal systems, although vertical borehole or aquifer systems will
be investigated further. All dwellings could have air to air heat        8.1   Under the heading “Prudent Use of Natural Resources”, the           The reed beds and polishing ponds will be an important wildlife
                                                                         document states we “should promote:                                       habitat. The ponds can also be used for recreation of food
pumps (reverse air conditioners.) These have on average 4x
efficiency ratio, i.e. 4Kw of heat is generated for 1Kw of electricity                                                                             production, e.g. fishing, water cress etc.
                                                                               resource and energy efficient buildings;
input (see below).
                                                                               community heating schemes,
7.7    Hydro-thermal heat pumps: These systems work in a                       the use of combined heat and power,
similar way to geothermal systems, but extract the latent heat                 small scale renewable and low carbon energy schemes in
within water bodies and are in fact more efficient. The two streams             developments;
on the site will be partly diverted to create a lake. (This lake is            the sustainable use of water resources and;
located exactly where the existing flood risk is.)                             the use of sustainable drainage systems in the management of

                                                                         TCPA regional guidance R9 aims to “conserve water both internally
                                                                         and externally”.

                                                                         8.2     Rainwater: All rainwater falling on roofs will be harvested
                                                                         through green roof technology and/or gutters and water butts. The
                                                                         technology through which this can be treated for potable use is
                                                                         discussed below (as there are no land use implications in that it can
                                                                         be stored in dwelling basements).
                                                                                                                                                   8.5     SuDS: The entire site will be a Sustainable Drainage System
                                                                         8.3     Grey-water: All water from wash basins, showers, baths            (SuDS). Any new public hard surface will be permeable (to allow
                                                                         (and potentially kitchen sinks, washing machines and dishwashers)         water infiltration) and existing surfaces such as Kidnapper’s Lane
                                                                         will be collected in communal stores. It will be treated and then         will be replaced with a permeable surface. Any surplus water, i.e.
                                                                         pumped to communal tanks ready for non-potable use, such as to            surface water run-off, will be channelled into rills and swales which
                                                                         flush toilets, water gardens and even feed washing machines. Again,       flow downhill into storage sump underground
                                                                         as there are no significant land use implications, this is discussed
                                                                                                                                                   In storm-water scenarios, the sump overflows into the willow/reed
                                                                                                                                                   bed areas (use to treat black-water, see above) and/or the polishing
                                                                         8.4     Black-water: As at the Hockerton Housing Project, the site        ponds, which also act as balancing ponds to prevent flood risks
                                                                         will require no new mains sewage. All waste water from toilets will       downstream in Hatherley Brook.
Heat pumps will be placed inside this water-body and the hot air
                                                                         flow downhill along pipes to large septic tanks to the north of the
extracted will be used to heat the commercial centre. Before                                                                                       8.6    Spoil: The spoil from creating the main lake, the reed beds
                                                                         site, where solid matter will settle for 5 to 10 days. The solid matter
returning to the streams, the water will be piped via a vertical fall                                                                              and the polishing cum balancing pond will not be taken off-site, but
                                                                         will be removed periodically for compost by the nurseries/market
generator to generate electricity. Robinswood Cottage will be                                                                                      be used to construct the bunds.
                                                                         gardens. The effluent then flows through an area of willow and
converted into a community hydro-power-station.
                                                                         then into a floating reed-bed system. The willow roots and bacteria       8.7    Household waste: TCPA local guidance L12, aims to
The stream water will be cooled in this process and an ecological        on the reed beds digest the effluent for about 3 months. The              “promote sustainable waste behaviour in new and existing
survey will be conducted to evaluate any negative impact.                purified water then passes through a limestone gabion wall into a         developments, including support for local integrated recycling
However, a new wetland habitat will have been created for                deep lake (polishing pond) before it is allowed to be discharged into     schemes”. All household waste will be collected and recycled on
exploitation.                                                            Hatherley Brook. Assuming 1,100 residents (500 dwellings at 2.2           site, with biodegradable waste being potentially used for
                                                                         ppd) use 60 litres per day, 66,ooo litres of black-water need to be       composting or biogas generation in the CHP.
                                                                         treated. A reed bed depth requirement of 2m results in an area

Page 7                                                                                                   Richard Crooks (s0810793)
9. Masterplan
The land use of each component, when put together, creates the following layout plan for the village and nature reserve of Leckhampton Glebe:

Page 8                                                                                          Richard Crooks (s0810793)
10. Number and Type of Dwellings                                         Historically, villages are not necessarily low density locations and      11. Scale of Dwellings
                                                                         some people are always willing to “trade space for place”. Building
                                                                         more densely towards Farm Lane, however, allows a more
10.1    The Government’s key housing policy is set out in PPS3 with      sympathetic lower density to be achieved near the nature reserve.         11.1   Floor-space: Whilst dph is a commonly used measure,
the main goal “to ensure that everyone has the opportunity of living                                                                               “square metres per hectare” is a better measure of how efficiently
in a decent home, which they can afford, in a community where they       10.2   Number: The Leckhampton Glebe site has the capacity to             the land is being used provides a better feel of visual density.
want to live. To achieve this, the Government is seeking:                support 500 dwellings.
                                                                                                                                                   The typical footprint of each dwelling is shown in the table below.
        to achieve a wide choice of high quality homes, both            10.4  Mixed Use and Tenure: Leckhampton Glebe will not be a               Note: These figures exclude basements/under-croft areas. All
         affordable and market housing, to address the requirements      dormer village, deserted during the day. There will be a good range       dwellings will have basements, which will be used for recycling,
         of the community.                                               of commercial activities catered for (see above) sitting alongside        services and car parking.
                                                                         community and residential use.
        to widen opportunities for home ownership and ensure high                                                                                   Type                         Floors         M2          Rear Garden
         quality housing for those who cannot afford market housing,     A range of lifestyles and social groups are catered for, including for                                             (per floor)         (M2)
         in particular those who are vulnerable or in need.              key workers and those on lower incomes. The Gloucestershire                 3 + 4 bed detached             2         120 (60)            80
                                                                         Structure Plan has policies relevant to housing mix:
        to improve affordability across the housing market, including                                                                               3 + 4 bed “townhouse”          3        150 (50)              55
         by increasing the supply of housing.                               “H.7 Provision should be made to meet the needs of those unable
                                                                                 to compete in the housing market. Such provision should             2-3 bed terrace                2        100 (50)              64
        to create sustainable, inclusive, mixed communities in all              meet a demonstrable local need
         areas, both urban and rural.                                                                                                                1-2 bed flats                  3        180 (60)       54 (communal)
                                                                            H.8 Provision should be made for a range of dwellings in terms
10.2    Density: The Gloucestershire Structure Plan states that                 of location and size to meet local requirements
“H.9 - Provision should be made for residential densities at a level,
                                                                         There will be a mixture of tenure with private ownership and rented       11.2   Density of commercial centre: Combining the mix of
which makes the best use of land consistent with environmental
                                                                         accommodate. There will be tied houses provided by developer and          housing types with the typical footprint results in the following
considerations.” Low density areas (near Church Road) will be
                                                                         then owned by the new community the key community                         density figures for the higher density area near the village
35dph. Higher density areas (towards Farm Lane and near the
                                                                         jobs/services listed above. Social and rented housing will be well        commercial centre at 45dph (63dph including all flats). For one
commercial centre) will be 45 to 63dph. Varying the density will
                                                                         integrated with private housing in terms of location, with no             hectare (10,000 m2), there will typically be the following:
offer a variety of visual experiences. Higher density areas are a
more efficient use of land and make communal activities such as          ghettos.
                                                                                                                                                     Type                          No       Beds    Footprint      Garden
water recycling more efficient.                                          10.5   Housing type:           To cater for a sustainable, mixed                                                  (mean)     (M2)          (M2)
                                                                                                                                                     3 + 4 bed detached             8        28        480           640
                                                                         community, dwellings - especially near the commercial centre - will
                                                                         be robust, i.e. adaptable to changing use, e.g. 3 storey townhouses.        3 + 4 bed “townhouse”          14       49           700           770
                                                                         Many dwellings in the centre will be mixed commercial and
                                                                         residential use, e.g. studios flats over shops. The mix of dwellings is     2-3 bed terrace                14       35           700           896
                                                                         shown below:
                                                                                                                                                     1-2 bed flats (x3)             9        40           540           486
                                                                           Type                                            Number          %                                       (27)
                                                                           Tenure:                                                                                        Total     45      152         0.242 ha    0.281 ha
                                                                               Private                                       300         60                                       (63)
                                                                               Rented                                        170         34
                                                                               Tied                                           30         6
                                                                           Use:                                                                    The overall dwelling footprint is 24% or 52% including rear gardens.
                                                                               Residential                                   450         90       A built footprint of 24% is low for a medium density development at
                                                                               Commercial (inc Tied)                         50          10       45dph (63dph with flats) and means a greater percentage of space
                                                                           Type:                                                                   can be allocated to public green space which is vital for genius locus
                                                                               3 and 4 bed detached                          100         20       and also for the health and wellbeing of the residents.
                                                                               3 + 4 bed terrace (“townhouse”)               150         30
                                                                               2-3 bed terrace                               150         30       11.3     Dimensions: Dwellings will receive maximum natural light,
                                                                               1-2 bed flats                                 100         20       so artificial light needs are reduced. For dwellings to be naturally lit
Page 9                                                                                          Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                         Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

and ventilated they need a depth of 9-13 metres (assuming both
elevations are exposed to light and air). The dwellings at
Leckhampton Glebe will have depths ranging from 7.5-9.2 metres.

Storey heights will not be so high so as to create excessive internal
volumes to heat or cool. Storey 1 will be 3.5m high, storey 2 6.5m
and with the third 9.5m to the eves.

 Type                         M2      Depth     Front      Height
                                                          (to eves)
3 + 4 bed detached            60        7.5       8.0        6.5
2-3 bed terrace               50        7.7       6.5        6.5
3 + 4 bed “townhouse”         50        8.3       6.0        9.5
1-2 bed flats                 60        9.2       6.5        9.5

11.4    Massing – Public v private space: There will be a clear
distinction between the private space (to the rear of dwellings) and
an active, public space at the front of buildings (the streetscape).
Dwellings will not have front gardens per se, but 3m set back of
slightly raised “defensible space” offering some opportunity for
personalisation of that space.     Much of this space is taken by
under-croft access (see below), but this is a small price to pay for a
streetscape not dominated by cars.

11.5    Massing – “Perimeter blocks”. Application of the above
principle means that there will be back to back gardens. Rear
gardens range in length from 8.3 to 10m, and 17-20m is sufficient to
allow privacy to the rear of the buildings.

11.6    Massing – Mews and squares: The dwellings will be
massed into mews (i.e. narrow streets). These will be about 1 to 1.5x
the height of the surrounding eves (about 13m including 2x3m of
building fronts). The mews will open out onto occasional public
spaces, i.e. “squares” or “greens”, which will be 5x the surrounding
height (about 40m wide). These squares will also be used for
overspill parking, especially for flats.                                 11.7    Parking – Residential The low building footprint is            To increase the connectivity of dwelling front to street and the
                                                                         achieved mainly through parking policy. Principle xii above states     feeling of defensible space through overlooking, note how the bay
The commercial centre will be a particularly large square                that: “In residential areas, no additional footprint will be           windows at ground floor level protrude 1.5m over the street.
approximately 80m wide. This will be the site for the central            allocated to car parking, i.e. it will either be underground or
landmark - a covered market and potable fountain.                        under-croft (if dwellings do have front gardens they cannot be         There are successful precedents for under-croft parking, e.g. Nieuw
                                                                                                                                                Terbreggen in Holland. The village will have a sprit that is not
                                                                         used for parking).”
The mews will not be consistently wide and straight, but wary in                                                                                dominated by cars and a continuous street-front uninterrupted by
width and direction slightly to create visual richness and also to       The figure (below) above is a section through a townhouse showing      garages.
help prevent wind speeds growing uninterrupted                           the slope down from street-level to the under-croft/basement level
                                                                         garages. There is a drainage rill at the bottom of the slope to take
                                                                         the surface water run-off to the reed beds.

Page 10                                                                                                 Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                        Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

                                                                        solar panels for hot water, which will operate at 90-95% efficiency
                                                                        even at 30 degrees off due south.

                                                                        The mews width of 13m mans that only 30-40% of total annual solar
                                                                        radiation will be lost. The diagram below shows the shadow cast at
                                                                        noon on March 21.

Research by Essex County Council suggests that 78% of garages are
not used for parking. This is partly because garages are too small                                                                            11.9    Accessibility:     All buildings will be built to code M
for modern cars. The garages will be 2.8m wide and the minim                                                                                  regulations for access by less able bodied people with level surfaces
depth of the building (7.5m). This exceeds current Government                                                                                 and no kerbs where possible.
guidance (2.5m x 5m) and is sufficient for modern MPVs.
Covenants built into ownership and rental contracts will prevent
                                                                        The figure below is noon on December 21 and shows how the back
residents using garage space for uses other than parking and to
                                                                        to back garden massing offers about 18m between buildings,            12. Appearance - Built
prevent using the street front for parking.
                                                                        meaning only 20% of all possible solar gain is lost.
11.8   Parking – Overflow/Visitor: For visitors parking (and for
the overflow from residential buildings, e.g. flats) will be provided                                                                         12.1    The Cheltenham Local Development Plan objective L14
in communal parking areas overlooked where possible for security.                                                                             states that planners must “ensure appropriate development form
There will be 25 spaces for each 100 dwellings.                                                                                               (building and neighbourhood scale) in relation to the characteristics
                                                                                                                                              of the existing site and surrounding conserve and enhance
                                                                                                                                              the setting of Cheltenham”. Objective O12 aims to “to conserve and
                                                                                                                                              improve Cheltenham’s landscape character and green environment”.

                                                                                                                                              12.2    Active front & private back: People will experience an
                                                                                                                                              active public front when walking around Leckhampton Glebe.
                                                                                                                                              There are no front gardens per se and frontages are directly onto
                                                                                                                                              the street. Dwelling gardens are at the rear and quite private, i.e.
                                                                        11.9   Massing – Bund: At various locations around the edge of        there is a clear demarcation between private and public space.
                                                                        the development, dwellings will have their northern aspect built
                                                                        into the bund. The figure below shows an example bund and             12.3   Streetscape: The Mews facade is largely uninterrupted,
                                                                        dwelling cover by earth with a green roof. The bund screens the       except for “squares” which open up as green public realm that can
                                                                        development from the outside, but also provides thermal insulation    be used for reflection or for impromptu play.
                                                                        to those dwellings. Extra measures to create natural light will       With all parking being off-street, under-croft parking, the
                                                                        include “sun tubes” or “roof domes”.                                  streetscape is not dominated by cars. All areas off Kidnapper’s lane
11.8   Massing - orientation: To achieve maximum passive solar                                                                                will be pedestrian domain. They will be paved with no kerbs or
gain for space heating within the dwellings, the long face will be                                                                            traffic-related street furniture, using Poundbury as a precedent.
oriented within 15-20 degrees of due south. All dwellings will have                                                                           There is no segregation of pedestrians and vehicles. Speeds are kept
photovoltaic (PV) modules for electricity generation and active                                                                               low by alignment of buildings and landscaping through strategic
                                                                                                                                              planting of deciduous native trees, leaving gap between surface

Page 11                                                                                               Richard Crooks (s0810793)
                                                                          Design & Access Statement – Leckhampton Glebe

edge and canopy edge wide enough for service and emergency
vehicles (3.7m). Rubbish bins will be collected from the front of
houses and stored in purpose built structures at building fronts.

12.4    Social housing: Social housing will be well integrated with
private housing and should not be distinguishable in terms of visual

12.5    Rhythm: Buildings have the same height levels at first and
second storey, which creates unity and cohesion. However, the
building types are mixed 2 and 3 storeys (almost at random) along
the street front to create visual interest and even rhythm.

12.6    Materials & colour - Local vernacular: The majority of
terraced houses in nearby character areas are cream rendered              12.8    Street furniture: Street furniture, especially traffic related,   cycle-ways in the rural locations will be “hoggin”.
(“stucco”), with some sections of terrace being red brick. Some of        will be kept to an absolute minimum. Studies at Poundbury, Dorset
the detached houses, in addition to render and red brick either use       show that a lack of traffic signs sows a seed of doubt into driver’s
stone or are faced with stone (“ashlar”). This creates an interesting     minds. This in turn leads to slower speeds and more care being
and attractive visual contrast within the streetscape that will be re-    taken.
created in Leckhampton Glebe. Roof tiles are generally slate.
                                                                          No additional lamp posts will be erected if street lighting can be
12.7    Materials & colour - new: In addition to materials already        attached to dwellings or even placed into the trees lining the
used locally, the architect’s palette will be increase to include large   streets.
triple-glazed windows to maximise the natural light entering the
building. Finally, cedar wood cladding will also be permitted in the      12.9    Road and path materials: All hard surfaced paths (roads
architect’s material palette (but horizontal not vertical) to blend       and footpaths/cycle-ways) in urban areas will be paved with
into the wooded landscape. All houses will have slated roofs to the       permeable paving in a random block design. There will be no traffic
north and solar panels/PV cells on the southern aspect.                   versus pedestrian domain, so there will not need to be any colour or
                                                                          material changes used for to denote such demarcation. Paths and

Page 12                                                                                                   Richard Crooks (s0810793)
13. Typical Layout Plan
The following plan is a typical plan of a higher density region (45 - 63dph) complying with the built attributes described above.

Page 13                                                                                            Richard Crooks (s0810793)
14. Appearance - Landscape
                                                                                                                                              14.4    Urban Landscape: Green fingers of landscape will
14.1    eveloping Leckhampton Glebe is to retain as much of the                                                                               penetrate from the surrounding nature reserve into the urban areas.
existing vegetation as possible, especially the hedgerows and                                                                                 Tree planting will be heavy and will be used to add legibility to the
mature trees. A full landscape survey will be conducted by a                                                                                  streetscape. Populus nigra will be planted along Kidnapper’s Lane.
professional arboriculturalist to assess the health and maintenance                                                                           The green finder of Hatherley Brook will sweep through the urban
needs.    Where some hedgerows are lost (see discussion of                                                                                    area as a line of Salix bablylonica. Public green spaces in the urban
Kidnapper’s Lane), this will be more than made up for by additional                                                                           areas will be used as in formal kick-about and natural play areas and
planting elsewhere.                                                                                                                           will be planted with Pinus nigra Maritima. The streets will be
                                                                      The line of Populus nigra along Kidnapper’s lane will be mirrored on
                                                                                                                                              dotted with the stunning sculptural white bark of Betula utilis.
14.2    New vegetation: The majority of the site is being given       the other side of the lane to form an avenue.
over to nature reserve including:                                                                                                             14.5    In summary, the green spaces that have been created and
                                                                                                                                              enhanced to form Leckhampton Glebe are a significant
         Two broad waterside (blue) corridors along the brooks                                                                               improvement on those existing. Significant new employment has
         A new lake                                                                                                                          been created, along with green energy opportunities. This is
         Lott meadow                                                                                                                         combined with creation of an exciting and diverse wildlife habitat
         Landscaped bunds planted with willow                                                                                                that offers additional recreation for residents and visitors alike.
         Willow / reed beds for water treatment
         Polishing pond(s)

14.3   Landscape Characters: The blue corridor will be planted
with native waterside trees such as Salix sp and Alnus sp.            The bunds will largely be planted for biomass, but planted with a
                                                                      mixture of suitable species - not just Salix sp. - in order to create
                                                                      biodiversity/habitat. These areas will be managed by the operators
                                                                      of the biomass generator.

The new lake will planted with marginal plants such as Iris sp. and
will have water lilies in the slightly deeper water.
                                                                      The reed beds will have Typha latifolia and Phragmites sp. and be a
                                                                      wildlife haven for birds to feed and nest. They will be cut and
                                                                      managed by the water engineer.

The remainder of Lott meadow will be turned into parkland with
clumps of native deciduous trees, e.g. Quercus sp. and Acer sp. The
grassland will be grazed by sheep owned and kept by the locals and
retained with wooden stock fencing and or metal “cattle grids”.

Page 14                                                                                     Richard Crooks (s0810793)

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