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INTELLIGENCE

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INTELLIGENCE Powered By Docstoc
					             INTELLIGENCE
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

  CULTURE

  CONSTRUCT

STUDY OF INTELLIGENCE

   - PRACTICAL - RELIABLE TESTS

       PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH

   - THEORETICAL

       THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE




                        1
      HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

LATE 19TH / EARLY 20TH CENTURY

FRANCIS GALTON – BRITISH MATHEMATICIAN 

STATISTICS - MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE (I) 

FATHER OF TESTING MOVEMENT



JAMES CATTELL – AMERICAN – “MENTAL TEST” 

OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT OF MENTAL ABILITIES

THRO’ FORMAL TESTING


EARLY 20TH CENTURY – FRANCE – PUBLIC SCHOOLS

– SCALE 2 ID CHN  BENEFIT BINET, SIMON, HENRI:

INTELLIGENCE: ABILITY TO REASON

                DRAW ANALOGIES

                IDENTIFY PATTERNS

1905 – BINET-SIMON SCALE – PROTOTYPE

AGE-BASED COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 

SCORES FOR EACH AGE GROUP


                       2
WECHSLER – AMERICAN 

I = UNITARY TRAIT, CAN BE MEASURED BY –

PERFORMANCE WIDE RANGE OF INTELL. ACTIVITIES



WECHSLER I SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC) (1949)

WECHSLER ADULT I SCALE (WAIS) (1955)

WECHSLER PRESCHOOL & PRIMARY SCALE OF I

(WPPSI) (1967)

BASIS FOR MANY SUBSEQUENT IQ TESTS



TESTING IN SA

EARLY TESTS ADAPTATIONS OF OVERSEAS TESTS

STANDARDISED ON ENGLISH, AFRIKAANS SA

CURRENTLY:

JUNIOR SA INDIVIDUAL SCALE (JSAIS): 3-7 YEARS

SENIOR SA IND. SCALE – REVISED (SSAIS-R): 8-17 YRS.

SA WECHSLER ADULT IND. SCALE (SAWAIS-III): 17-65



                         3
      MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE



WHAT DOES A SCORE TELL US?



BINET  MENTAL AGE (MA)

MA COMPARED TO CHRONOLOGICAL AGE (CA)

PROBLEM: DEFICIT GREATER AT YOUNGER AGES



1912 STERN  INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) 

RATIO OF MA TO CA BETTER INDEX OF INT. FUNCT.

           IQ = MA X 100
                CA

PROBLEM: INT. ABILITY D/N INCREASE AFTER 16 YRS

WECHSLER  DEVIATION METHOD 

PERSON COMPARED TO OWN AGE GROUP 

SCORES STANDARDISED ON APPROP. SAMPLE 

MEAN 100 FOR EACH AGE GROUP




                       4
       USES OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS



 PREDICTION (PREDICTIVE VALIDITY)

 DECISION MAKING

     SCHOOL READINESS

     SPECIAL EDUCATION

     REMEDIAL PROGRAMS

 DIAGNOSIS

     ORGANIC

     EMOTIONAL

     PSYCHOLOGICAL




                    5
            THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE (I)

PSYCHOMETRIC THEORIES

IS I A GENERAL CAPACITY OR DIFFERENT ABILITIES?



SPEARMAN EARLY 20TH C  2 FACTORS:

    GENERAL (g)  COMMON SENSE & EXPER.

    SPECIFIC (s)  SPECIAL ABILITIES



THURSTONE (1930s)  7 PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES

I = NOT g, BUT SERIES OF SPECIAL ABILITIES



INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORIES

STERNBERG: HOW PPL PROCESS & CONTROL INFO

TRIARCHIC THEORY: 3 DIMENSIONS

   COMPONENTIAL: ANALYSIS, PROBLEM SOLVING

   EXPERIENTIAL: CREATIVE ABILITY

   CONTEXTUAL: PRACTICAL ABILITY



                         6
ECLECTIC APPROACHES

GARDNER:

ABILITY 2 SOLVE PROBLEMS & CREATE PRODUCTS

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (7):

  LINGUISTIC
  LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL
  SPATIAL
  MUSICAL
  BODILY-KINAESTHETIC
  INTERPERSONAL
  INTRAPERSONAL



LEARNING POTENTIAL THEORIES

I = POTENTIAL FOR CHANGE NOT FIXED CAPACITY

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVT = GAP BTWN:

UNASSISTED & ASSISTED LEARNING

PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT 

PRETEST-INTERVENTION-POSTTEST FORMAT




                       7
        RACE, CULTURE & INTELLIGENCE

RACIAL & CULTURAL DIFFS.  TEST PERFORMANCE

DO SCORES ON IQ TESTS REFLECT REAL DIFFS?

   TEST RELIABILITY

   TEST VALIDITY (CONSTRUCT/FACE)

   STANDARDISATION/NORMS

   CULTURE FREE/FAIR




                        8
                  SSAIS-R SUBTESTS



VERBAL

  VOCABULARY
         VERBAL INTELLIGENCE; VERBAL CONCEPTS;
         RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE DEVT.


  COMPREHENSION
         COMP. & JUDGMENTS BASED ON KNOWLEDGE OF
         SOCIAL SITUATIONS/RULES


  SIMILARITIES
         ABSTRACT REASONING; CONCEPT FORMATION


  NUMBER PROBLEMS
         NUMERICAL REASONING;
         LOGICAL DEDUCTIVE REASONING


  STORY MEMORY
         ATTENTION; SHORT TERM AUDITORY MEMORY FOR
         VERBAL MATERIAL


  MEMORY FOR DIGITS
         ATTENTION; CONCENTRATION;
         AUDITORY SHORT-TERM MEMORY FOR NUMBERS




                            9
NON-VERBAL



  PATTERN COMPLETION
        VISUAL CONCENTRATION;
        NONVERBAL CONCEPT FORMATION;
        INDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE REASONING




  BLOCK DESIGN
        VISUALISATION & SPATIAL REASONING




  MISSING PARTS
        VISUALISATION OF REAL SITUATIONS;
        VISUAL PERCEPTIVENESS




  FORM BOARD
        VISUAL ORGANISATION & INTEGRATION;
        CONCEPT FORMATION; VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SPEED




  CODING
        LEARNING OF UNFAMILIAR MATERIAL & APPLYING IT;
        VISUAL-PEREPTUAL SPEED




                           10
       CLASSSIFICATION OF IQ SCORES


SCORE          DESCRIPTIVE CATEGORY



140+           EXTREMELY GIFTED


130 – 140      HIGHLY GIFTED


120 – 130      GIFTED


110 – 120      HIGH AVERAGE


90 – 110       AVERAGE


80 – 90        LOW AVERAGE


70 – 80        BORDERLINE MENTAL RETARDATION


50 – 70        MILD MENTAL RETARDATION


35 – 50        MODERATE MENTAL RETARDATION


20 – 35        SEVERE MENTAL RETARDATION


LESS THAN 20   PROFOUND MENTAL RETARDATION




                  11

				
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Description: INTELLIGENCE