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TECHNOLOGY

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									                                  TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9


Learning Outcome 1: TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SKILLS


The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and
communication technology.




Grade 6                                  Grade 7                                Grade 8                                Grade 9


Assessment Standards                     Assessment Standards                   Assessment Standards                   Assessment Standards


We know this when the learner:           We know this when the learner:         We know this when the learner:         We know this when the learner:


Investigates                             7.1.1 Investigates                     8.1.1 Investigates                     9.1.1 Investigates


Finds out about the background           7.1.1.1 Investigates the background    8.1.1.1 Investigates the background    9.1.1.1 Identifies and explains a
context when given a problem, need       context, the nature of the need, the   context, the nature of the need, the   problem, need or opportunity from a
or opportunity, and lists the            environmental situation, and the       environmental situation, and the       given real-life context, and
advantages and disadvantages that        people concerned when given a          people concerned when given a          investigates the context, the nature
a technological solution might bring     problem, need or opportunity set in    problem, need or opportunity set in    of the need, the environmental
to people and the environment.           a local context.                       a nationally relevant context.         situation, and the people concerned.


Finds out about existing products        7.1.1.2 Examines existing products     8.1.1.2 Compares existing products     9.1.1.2 Analyses existing products
relevant to a problem, need or           relevant to a problem, situation or    relevant to the problem situation      relevant to an identified problem,
opportunity, and identifies and          need based on the following key        based on:                              need or opportunity based on:
compares their design aspects (e.g.      aspects of design:
who it is for, what it is for, what it
looks like, what it is made of, how                                             • safety;                              • safety;
well it works, whether it will affect    • people;
the environment).
                                                                                • suitability of materials;            • suitability of materials;
                                         • purpose;


TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                              1
Performs, where appropriate,                                                  • fitness for purpose;                   • fitness for purpose;
scientific investigations about
                                      • appearance;
concepts relevant to a problem,
need or opportunity using science                                             • cost.                                  • cost;
process skills:
                                      • environment;
                                                                              8.1.1.3 Develops and performs            • manufacturing method.
• planning investigations;                                                    practical tests in the technological
                                      • safety;
                                                                              knowledge areas (Structures,
                                                                                                                       9.1.1.3 Develops and performs
                                                                              Processing, and Systems and
• conducting investigations;                                                                                           practical testing procedures to
                                      • cost.                                 Control).
                                                                                                                       determine or compare the suitability
                                                                                                                       or fitness for purpose of relevant
• processing and interpreting data;                                                                                    properties of materials, electrical or
                                      7.1.1.3 Investigates by performing      8.1.1.4 Uses appropriate
                                                                                                                       mechanical systems, structures,
                                      simple practical tests relating to      technologies and methods to:
                                                                                                                       processes or finished products.
                                      aspects of the technological
• evaluating and communicating
                                      knowledge areas (Structures,
findings.
                                      Processing, and Systems and             • collect relevant data from different
                                                                                                                       9.1.1.4 Uses a variety of available
                                      Control).                               sources or resources;
                                                                                                                       technologies and methods to:

                                      7.1.1.4 During investigations, plans    • extract relevant data;
                                                                                                                       • locate (e.g. use library referencing
                                      a strategy for collecting data and
                                                                                                                       system, database searches,
                                      information that includes:
                                                                                                                       indexes);
                                                                              • make meaningful summaries;

                                      • identifying technologies and
                                                                                                                       • collect (e.g. questionnaires, data
                                      methods;                                • use information to justify and
                                                                                                                       collection forms, requests for
                                                                              support decisions and ideas.
                                                                                                                       information, information, searches,
                                                                                                                       literature surveys);
                                      • considering the source, resources
                                      and copyright laws;
                                                                                                                       • compare;
                                      • uses search techniques;
                                                                                                                       • sort;
                                      • extracts relevant data for specific
                                      purposes;
                                                                                                                       • verify;




TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                                2
                                         • produces meaningful summaries.                                              • evaluate (e.g. cross-checking
                                                                                                                       different sources or resources);


                                                                                                                       • store information (e.g. filing
                                                                                                                       systems, indexes).


Designs                                  7.1.2 Designs                          8.1.2 Designs                          9.1.2 Designs


Writes or communicates a design          7.1.2.1 Writes or communicates a       8.1.2.1 Writes or communicates a       9.1.2.1 Writes or communicates a
brief for the development of a           short and clear statement design       short and clear statement or a         short and clear statement or a
product related to a given problem,      brief for the development of a         design brief in response to a given    design brief for the development of
need or opportunity that clarifies the   product or system related to a given   or identified situation for the        a product or system related to a
technological purposes of the            problem, need or opportunity.          development of a product or            context, problem, need or
solution.                                                                       system.                                opportunity that has been identified
                                                                                                                       by self.
                                         7.1.2.2 Lists product and design
Suggests and records at least two        specifications and constraints for a   8.1.2.2 Lists product and design
alternative solutions to the problem,    solution to a given problem, need or   specifications and constraints for a   9.1.2.2 Lists product and design
need or opportunity that link clearly    opportunity based on some of the       solution to an identified or given     specifications and constraints for a
to the design brief and to given         design key words:                      problem, need or opportunity based     solution to an identified problem,
specifications and constraints (e.g.                                            on most of the design key words        need or opportunity based on all of
people, purpose, safety,                                                        listed below:                          the design key words listed below:
environmental impact, appearance).       • people: age, target market, human
                                         rights, access;
                                                                                • people: age, target market,          • people: age, target market, human
Chooses one of these solutions,                                                 human rights, access;                  rights, access;
giving valid reasons for the choice,     • purpose: function, what the
and further develops the choice with     product will do;
graphics and/or modelling.                                                      • purpose: function, what product      • purpose: function, what product
                                                                                will do;                               will do;
                                         • appearance: colour, shape;

                                                                                • appearance: colour, shape;           • appearance and aesthetics: form,
                                         • environment: where the product                                              colour, shape, feel;
                                         will be used or made, impact on the
                                         environment;                           • environment: where the product
                                                                                will be used or made, impact on the    • environment: where product will be
                                                                                environment;                           used or made, impact on the
                                         • safety: for users and                                                       environment in the long and short

TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                                3
                                  manufacturers;                                                               term;

                                                                        • safety: for users and
                                  • cost: cost of materials, wastage,   manufacturers;                         • safety: for users and
                                  cost of manufacture, maximum                                                 manufacturers;
                                  selling price.
                                                                        • cost: cost of materials, wastage,
                                                                        cost of manufacture, maximum           • cost: cost of materials, wastage,
                                  7.1.2.3 Generates at least two        selling price.                         cost of manufacture, maximum
                                  alternative solutions and annotates                                          selling price;
                                  the ideas.
                                                                        8.1.2.3 Generates several
                                                                        alternative solutions and writes       • ergonomics;
                                  7.1.2.4 Chooses possible solutions,   notes, ideas that show some links to
                                  gives sensible reasons for choice,    the design brief, specifications and
                                  and develops a chosen idea using      constraints.                           • quality;
                                  graphics or modelling techniques.

                                                                        8.1.2.4 Chooses possible solutions     • production: mass production,
                                                                        based on well-reasoned argument        batch production, one-off
                                                                        and develops the chosen idea to        production.
                                                                        include more specific details using
                                                                        graphic and/or modelling
                                                                        techniques.                            9.1.2.3 Generates a range of
                                                                                                               possible solutions that are
                                                                                                               significantly different from each
                                                                                                               other, and that show clear links to
                                                                                                               the design brief and the
                                                                                                               specifications and constraints.


                                                                                                               9.1.2.4 Chooses possible solutions
                                                                                                               based on well-reasoned argument
                                                                                                               related to the specifications and
                                                                                                               personal opinions, and develops a
                                                                                                               chosen idea using graphics.


Makes                             7.1.3 Makes                           8.1.3 Makes                            9.1.3 Makes


Develops plans that detail the    7.1.3.1 Develops a plan for making    8.1.3.1 Develops a plan for making     9.1.3.1 Develops plans for making


TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                       4
making steps, including drawings        that details all of the following:     that outlines all of the following:   that include all of the following:
and sketches that help to clarify the
plans.
                                        • resources needed (e.g. materials     • resources needed (e.g. materials    • resource lists (e.g. materials lists,
                                        lists, tools, people, costs);          lists, tools, people, costs);         tools, people, costs);
Chooses and uses suitable tools to
make products by measuring,
marking out, cutting or separating,     • dimensions (e.g. lengths,            • sketches showing the necessary      • formal drawings showing
shaping or forming, joining or          breadths, depths, widths);             dimensions or quantities;             dimensions or quantities (e.g.
combining, and finishing the chosen                                                                                  orthographic, oblique or isometric
materials.                                                                                                           views, sequence drawings,
                                        • steps for making the product (e.g.   • all the steps necessary to making   exploded views);
                                        annotations, simple flow diagrams).    the product.
Works efficiently and safely.
                                                                                                                     • manufacturing sequence (e.g. flow
                                        7.1.3.2 Chooses and uses               8.1.3.2 Chooses and uses              diagrams, flow charts).
                                        appropriate tools and materials to     appropriate tools and materials to
                                        make products by measuring,            make products by measuring,
                                        marking, cutting or separating,        marking, cutting or separating,       9.1.3.2 Chooses and uses
                                        shaping or forming, joining or         shaping or forming, joining or        appropriate tools and materials to
                                        combining, and finishing different     combining, and finishing different    make designed products with
                                        materials with some accuracy.          materials accurately using            precision and control by measuring,
                                                                               appropriate techniques.               marking, cutting or separating,
                                                                                                                     shaping or forming, joining or
                                        7.1.3.3 Uses safe working practices                                          combining, and finishing a range of
                                        and shows awareness of efficient       8.1.3.3 Uses safe working practices   materials accurately and efficiently.
                                        ways of using materials and tools.     and shows awareness of efficient
                                                                               ways of using materials and tools.
                                                                                                                     9.1.3.3 Demonstrates knowledge
                                                                                                                     and understanding of safe working
                                                                               8.1.3.4 Changes and adapts            practices and efficient use of
                                                                               designs in response to checks in      materials and tools.
                                                                               order to improve the quality of the
                                                                               finished product.
                                                                                                                     9.1.3.4 Uses measuring and
                                                                                                                     checking procedures while making
                                                                                                                     to monitor quality and changes, and
                                                                                                                     adapts designs in response to
                                                                                                                     practical difficulties encountered
                                                                                                                     when making the products.




TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                                 5
Evaluates                              7.1.4 Evaluates                          8.1.4 Evaluates                          9.1.4 Evaluates


Evaluates the product according to     7.1.4.1 Evaluates the product or         8.1.4.1 Tests and evaluates the          9.1.4.1 Evaluates the product or
the design brief and given             system based on criteria linked          products or system with some             system based on self-generated
specifications and constraints (e.g.   directly to the design brief and some    objectivity, based on objective          objective criteria linked directly to
people, purpose, environmental         of the specifications and constraints,   criteria linked to the design brief,     the design brief, specifications and
impact, safety, appearance), and       and suggests improvements or             specifications and constraints, and      constraints using self-designed
suggests improvements and              modifications.                           suggests sensible improvements or        procedures (e.g. surveys,
modifications if necessary.                                                     modifications.                           questionnaires, testing procedures)
                                                                                                                         for self-testing, and suggests
                                       7.1.4.2 Evaluates the efficiency of                                               sensible improvements or
Evaluates the plan of action           the plan of action followed and          8.1.4.2 Evaluates the efficiency of      modifications that would clearly
followed and suggests                  suggests improving future plans.         the plan of action followed with         result in a more effective or higher-
improvements and modifications if                                               some objectivity, identifies areas of    quality end product.
necessary.                                                                      strength and weakness, and
                                                                                suggests sensible ways of
                                                                                improving personal performance.          9.1.4.1 Evaluates the efficiency of
                                                                                                                         the plan of action followed,
                                                                                                                         objectively demonstrates insight into
                                                                                                                         the consequences of key decisions,
                                                                                                                         and suggests sensible
                                                                                                                         improvements.


Communicates                           7.1.5 Communicates                       8.1.5 Communicates                       9.1.5 Communicates


Draws appropriate sketches (e.g.       7.1.5.1 Presents ideas (in a project     8.1.5.1 Presents ideas (in a project     9.1.5.1 Presents ideas (in a project
labelled two dimensional drawings      portfolio) using two-dimensional or      portfolio) using two-dimensional or      portfolio) using formal drawing
of ideas, enhanced drawings of final   three-dimensional sketches, circuit      three-dimensional sketches, circuit      techniques, in two-dimensional or
solutions and drawings showing         diagrams or systems diagrams that        diagrams or systems diagrams that        three-dimensional sketches, circuit
measurements) to communicate           include most of the following            include all of the following features:   diagrams or systems diagrams that
different information appropriately    features:                                                                         include all of the following features:
and effectively.
                                                                                • use of South African drawing
                                       • notes to communicate design            conventions (e.g. dimension lines,       • use of South African conventional
6.1.5.2 Chooses and uses               reasoning;                               labelling, line types, symbols);         drawing standards (e.g. scale,
appropriate technologies to present,                                                                                     outlines, dimension lines, first and
record or communicate the design                                                                                         third angle projection);
process (e.g. simple portfolio,        • dimensions;                            • notes to clarify and communicate
posters, charts, models).                                                       design features and reasoning;

TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                                    6
                                                                            enhancement of significant sketches     • notes that clarify design reasoning
                                                                            like final solution drawings (e.g.      and key choices;
                                      • quantities;                         colour, shade, texture, shadows,
                                                                            thick and thin lines).
                                                                                                                    • impressive enhancements of
                                      • enhancements of significant
                                                                                                                    significant sketches (e.g. colour,
                                      sketches (e.g. colour, texture,       8.1.5.2 Chooses and uses                texture, shade, thick and thin lines,
                                      shade, thick and thin lines,          appropriate technologies to produce     shadow).
                                      shadow).                              project portfolios, poster
                                                                            presentations or reports that present
                                                                            graphical and written information       9.1.5.2 Chooses and uses
                                      7.1.5.2 Chooses and uses              clearly in a form mostly suitable for   appropriate technologies to combine
                                      appropriate technologies (e.g.        the target audience.                    and organise graphics and text
                                      computers, photocopiers, stencils,
                                                                                                                    effectively to produce project
                                      audio-visual recordings) to present
                                                                                                                    portfolios, poster presentations,
                                      a combination of graphics and text
                                                                                                                    case study reports, and so on, that
                                      in order to record and communicate
                                                                                                                    have a formal organised structure
                                      progress.
                                                                                                                    appropriate for the target audience.


Learning Outcome 2: TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING


The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.




Grade 6                               Grade 7                               Grade 8                                 Grade 9


Assessment Standards                  Assessment Standards                  Assessment Standards                    Assessment Standards


We know this when the learner:        We know this when the learner:        We know this when the learner:          We know this when the learner:


Structures                            7.2.1 Structures                      8.2.1 Structures                        9.2.1 Structures


Demonstrates knowledge and            7.2.1.1 Demonstrates knowledge        8.2.1.1 Demonstrates knowledge          9.2.1.1 Demonstrates knowledge
understanding of materials suitable   and understanding of structures in    and understanding of frame              and understanding of structures:


TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                              7
for supporting loads (e.g. stiffness,   terms of:                                structures:
strength), how structures can be
made stable (e.g. base size, ground                                                                                        • properties of materials that affect
anchors), and how they can be           • specific properties and use of         • the use and application of basic        their performance in structures (e.g.
reinforced (e.g. using appropriate      materials (e.g. water resistance,        structural components (e.g.               mass, hardness, stiffness, flexibility,
cross-sections, cross-braces,           thermal insulation, fire resistance);    columns, beams, arches,                   corrosion resistance, strength in
triangular webs, folding).                                                       buttresses, struts, stays, guys, ties);   tension, compression, shearing);

                                        • stability (e.g. base size, centre of
                                        gravity);                                • reinforcing techniques for frame        • analysis (no calculations) of the
                                                                                 structures (e.g. triangulation, webs      effects of different loads
                                                                                 and fillets, orientation and cross-       (even/uneven, static/dynamic).
                                        • strengthening (e.g. corrugation,       sectional area of members);
                                        laminating, reinforcing);

                                                                                 • how frame structures can be made
                                        • joining techniques.                    strong (e.g. relationship between
                                                                                 the size and shape of the base, the
                                                                                 centre of gravity and stability).


Processing                              7.2.2 Processing                         8.2.2 Processing                          9.2.2 Processing


Demonstrates knowledge and              7.2.2.1 Demonstrates knowledge           8.2.2.1 Demonstrates knowledge            9.2.2.1 Demonstrates knowledge
understanding of the reasons            and understanding of how materials       and understanding of how materials        and understanding of how materials
different materials deteriorate and     can be processed to change or            can be processed to change or             can be processed (e.g. galvanised,
ways of preserving them (e.g.           improve properties (e.g. strength,       improve their properties by adapting      frozen, dried, painted, varnished,
drying, coating, canning, sealing).     fire resistance, waterproofing, taste,   them to suit particular purposes:         electroplated) to change or improve
                                        volume, texture).                                                                  properties (life-span), and how
                                                                                                                           recyclable materials can be re-
                                                                                 • to withstand forces (e.g. tension,      manufactured.
                                                                                 compression, bending, torsion,
                                                                                 shear);


                                                                                 • to increase strength or life-span;


                                                                                 • how specific properties suitable for
                                                                                 packaging can be achieved.



TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                                   8
Systems and Control                    7.2.3 Systems and Control              8.2.3 Systems and Control               9.2.3 Systems and Control


Demonstrates knowledge and             7.2.3.1 Demonstrates knowledge         8.2.3.1 Demonstrates knowledge          9.2.3.1 Demonstrates knowledge
understanding of how different types   and understanding of mechanical        and understanding of how                and understanding of interacting
of movement (e.g. linear, turning to   systems that change a direction of     mechanical systems (e.g.                mechanical systems and sub-
and fro, swinging) can be achieved     movement using components (e.g.        pneumatic or hydraulic systems,         systems by practical analysis and
and how mechanical, pneumatic or       cams, pistons, pivot and slider,       gears, belt drive systems, pulley       represents them using systems
hydraulic systems can be used to       eccentric wheels), and/or the value    systems, linked lever systems)          diagrams:
change the type and magnitude of       of force in systems (e.g. lever        convert motion and force to give
an input movement into a different     systems, linked lever systems,         mechanical advantage, and
output movement.                       pneumatic or hydraulic systems),       represents them using systems           • gear systems
                                       and represents them using systems      diagrams.
                                       diagrams.
Demonstrates knowledge and                                                                                            • belt drive or pulley systems with
understanding of the components of                                            8.2.3.2 Demonstrates knowledge          more than one stage;
simple electrical circuits (e.g.       7.2.3.2 Demonstrates knowledge         and understanding of how electrical
connecting wires, battery, switch,     and understanding of electrical        circuits with more than one input or
output device), and how electrical     circuits with more than one output     control device will work based on       • mechanical control mechanisms
energy can be converted into other     device in the circuit (series and      different logic conditions (‘AND’ and   (e.g. ratchet and pawl, cleats);
forms (e.g. light, heat, sound,        parallel), and represents them using   ‘OR’ logic), and represents them
movement).                             systems diagrams.                      using circuit diagrams, systems
                                                                              diagrams and truth tables.              • pneumatic or hydraulic systems
                                                                                                                      that use restrictors;


                                                                                                                      • one-way valves;


                                                                                                                      • systems where mechanical,
                                                                                                                      electrical, or pneumatic or hydraulic
                                                                                                                      systems are combined.


                                                                                                                      9.2.3.2 Demonstrates knowledge
                                                                                                                      and understanding of how simple
                                                                                                                      electronic circuits and devices are
                                                                                                                      used to make an output respond to
                                                                                                                      an input signal (e.g. resistors, light-
                                                                                                                      emitting diodes, transistors, push or
                                                                                                                      magnetic switches, thermistors,
                                                                                                                      light-dependent resistors).

TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                              9
Learning Outcome 3: TECHNOLOGY, SOCIETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT


The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science, technology, society and the environment.




Grade 6                                 Grade 7                              Grade 8                                 Grade 9


Assessment Standards                    Assessment Standards                 Assessment Standards                    Assessment Standards


We know this when the learner:          We know this when the learner:       We know this when the learner:          We know this when the learner:


Indigenous Technology and               7.3.1 Indigenous Technology and      8.3.1 Indigenous Technology and         9.3.1 Indigenous Technology and
Culture                                 Culture                              Culture                                 Culture


Describes similarities in problems      7.3.1.1 Explains how indigenous      8.3.1.1 Compares how different          9.3.1.1 Explores, compares and
and solutions in own and other          cultures in South African history    cultures have solved similar            explains how different cultures in
societies – past, present and future.   have used specific materials to      problems and relates the                different parts of the world have
                                        satisfy needs and the main reasons   differences to the culture and values   effectively adapted technological
                                        for the differences.                 of their societies.                     solutions for optimum usefulness.


Impact of Technology                    7.3.2 Impact of Technology           8.3.2 Impact of Technology              9.3.2 Impact of Technology


Suggests ways to improve                7.3.2.1Expresses some reasons        8.3.2.1 Expresses and details           9.3.2.1 Recognises and identifies
technological products or processes     why products of technology affect    opinions about the positive and         the impact of technological
to minimise negative effects on         the quality of people’s lives        negative impacts of products of         developments on the quality of
people and/or the health of the         positively and negatively.           technology on the quality of            people’s lives and on the
environment.                                                                 people’s lives and the environment      environment in which they live, and
                                                                             in which they live.                     suggests strategies for reducing any
                                                                                                                     undesirable effects.


Bias in Technology                      7.3.3 Bias in Technology             8.3.3 Bias in Technology                9.3.3 Bias in Technology

TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                            10
Suggests how technological         7.3.3.1 Expresses an opinion that    8.3.3.1 Produces evidence that          9.3.3.1 Produces evidence that
products or services can be made   explains how certain groups of       details opinions, backed up by          details opinions, backed up by
accessible to those presently      society might be favoured or         factual evidence, about the effect of   factual evidence, about bias (e.g.
excluded.                          disadvantaged by given products of   technological solutions on human        gender, age, access) in making
                                   technology.                          rights issues (e.g. age, disability).   technological decisions, and
                                                                                                                suggests strategies for redress.




TECHNOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, GRADE 7-9                                                                                       11

								
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