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					NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT




LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINES




  SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE




           JULY 2006
                           CONTENTS



SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION


SECTION 2: INTRODUCING LIFE SCIENCES

 2.1    WHAT IS LIFE SCIENCES?
 2.2    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF LIFE SCIENCES?
 2.3    WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE SCIENCES AND THE
        NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT PRINCIPLES?

 2.4    PROFILE OF A LIFE SCIENCES LEARNER
 2.5    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE SCIENCES LEARNING OUTCOMES
        AND CRITICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES
 2.6    WAYS TO ACHIEVE LIFE SCIENCES LEARNING OUTCOMES

SECTION 3: DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME FOR LIFE
           SCIENCES

  3.1   INTRODUCTION
 3.2    ISSUES TO ADDRESS WHEN DESIGNING A LEARNING
        PROGRAMME
 3.3    DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME


ANNEXURES




                               2
                                    SECTION 1

                                 INTRODUCTION




1.1    INTRODUCING THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT

1.1.1 BACKGROUND

In 1995 the South African government began the process of developing a new
curriculum for the school system. There were two imperatives for this. First, the scale
of change in the world: the growth and development of knowledge and technology
and the demands of the 21st Century required learners to be exposed to different and
higher level skills and knowledge than those required by the existing South African
curricula. Second, South Africa had changed: the curricula for schools therefore
required revision to reflect new values and principles, especially those of the
Constitution of South Africa.

The first version of the new curriculum for the General Education Band, known as
Curriculum 2005, was introduced into the Foundation Phase in 1997. While there was
much to commend the curriculum, the concerns of teachers led to a review of the
Curriculum in 1999. The review of Curriculum 2005 provides the basis for the
development of the Revised National Curriculum Statement for General Education
and Training (Grades R–9) and the National Curriculum Statement for Grades 10–12.

1.1.2 THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT

The National Curriculum Statement consists of 29 subjects. Subject specialists
developed the subject statements, which make up the National Curriculum Statement.
The draft versions of the subject statements were published for comment in 2001 and
then reworked to take account of the comments received. In 2002, twenty-four subject
statements and an overview document were declared policy through the Government
Gazette. In 2004, five subjects were added to the National Curriculum Statement. The
National Curriculum Statement now consists of the subject statements for the
following subjects:




                                          3
       Languages: 11 official languages (each counted as three subjects to cater for
       the three levels Home Language, First Additional Language and Second
       Additional Language); 13 non-official languages
       Mathematics; Mathematical Literacy; Physical Sciences; Life Sciences
       Computer Applications Technology; Information Technology
       Sport and Exercise Science
       Accounting; Business Studies; Economics
       Geography; History; Life Orientation; Religion Studies
       Consumer Studies; Hospitality Studies; Tourism
       Dramatic Arts; Dance Studies; Design; Music; Visual Arts
       Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Management Practices, Agricultural
       Technology
       Civil Technology; Mechanical Technology; Electrical Technology
       Engineering Graphics and Design

1.1.3 NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE

The National Senior Certificate: A Qualification on Level 4 of the National
Qualifications Framework (NQF) provides the requirements for promotion at the end
of Grades 10 and 11 and the awarding of the National Senior Certificate at the end of
Grade 12. This document replaces two of the original National Curriculum Statement
documents: the Overview and the Qualifications and Assessment Policy Framework.

1.1.4 SUBJECT ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES

the subject assessment guidelines set out the minimum internal or school-based
assessment requirements for each subject and the external assessment requirements.
These will be implemented and monitored in schools in 2006 and 2007, and
developed as policy from 1 January 2008. In addition, a National Protocol on
Assessment has been developed to standardise the recording and reporting procedures
for Grades R to 12. This protocol comes into effect on 1 January 2006 and
implementation will be monitored prior to it being finalised as policy.


1.2    INTRODUCING THE LEARNING PROGRAMME GUIDELINES

1.2.1 PURPOSE AND CONTENT OF THE LEARNING PROGRAMME
      GUIDELINES

The learning programme guidelines aim to assist teachers and schools in their
planning for the introduction of the National Curriculum Statement. The learning
programme guidelines should be read in conjunction with the National Senior
Certificate policy and the National Curriculum Statement subject statements.

Section 2 of each set of learning programme guidelines suggests how teaching the
particular subject may be informed by the principles which underpin the National
Curriculum Statement.




                                          4
Section 3 suggests how schools and teachers might plan for the introduction of the
National Curriculum Statement. The Department of Education encourages careful
planning to ensure that the high skills and high knowledge goals of the National
Curriculum Statement are attained.

The learning programme guidelines do not include sections on assessment. The
assessment requirements for each subject are provided in the subject assessment
guidelines, which come into effect on 1 January 2006.

1.2.2 WHAT IS A LEARNING PROGRAMME

INTRODUCTION

A learning programme assists teachers to plan for sequenced learning, teaching and
assessment in Grades 10 to 12 so that all learning outcomes in a subject are achieved
in a progressive manner. The following three phases of planning are recommended:

       Phase 1: Develop a Subject Framework for Grades 10 to 12
       Phase 2: Develop a Work Schedule for each grade
       Phase 3: Develop Lesson Plans

It is recommended that the teachers of a subject at a school or cluster of schools first
put together a broad subject outline (subject framework) for the three grades to arrive
at an understanding of the content of the subject and the progression which needs to
take place across the grades (see Section 3.3.1). This will assist with the demarcation
of content for each grade. Thereafter, teachers of the subject teaching the same grade
need to work together to develop a year-long work schedule. The work schedule
should indicate the sequence in which the content and context will be presented for
the subject in that particular grade (see Section 3.3.2). Finally, individual teachers
should design lesson plans using the grade-specific work schedule as the starting
point. The lesson plans should include learning, teaching and assessment activities
that reflect the learning outcomes and assessment standards set out in the subject
statements (see Section 3.3.3). Learning programmes should accommodate diversity
in schools and classrooms, but also reflect the core content of the national curriculum.

An outline of the process involved in the design of a Learning Programme is provided
on page 6.

DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME

A detailed description of the process involved in the design of a learning programme
is provided in Sections 3.3.1 – 3.3.3 of the learning programme guidelines. The first
stage, the development of a subject framework, does not require a written document,
but teachers are strongly advised to spend time with subject experts in developing a
deep understanding of the skills, knowledge and values set out in the subject
statements. The quality and rigour of this engagement will determine the quality of
teaching and learning in the classroom.




                                           5
Once the subject framework has been completed, teachers should develop work
schedules and lesson plans. Examples of work schedules and lesson plans are
provided in the learning programme guidelines. Teachers are encouraged to critically
engage with these formats and develop their own.

Developing a Subject Framework (Grades 10-12)

Planning for the teaching of subjects in Grades 10 to 12 should begin with a detailed
examination of the scope of the subject as set out in the subject statement. No
particular format or template is recommended for this first phase of planning, but the
steps recommended should be used as a checklist.

Although no prescribed document is required for this stage of planning, school-wide
planning (timetables, requisitioning, teacher development, classroom allocation) as
well as the development of grade-specific work schedules would benefit from short
documents which spell out the following:

          The scope of the subject (the knowledge, skills and values, content,
           contexts, themes, electives, etc. to be covered in the three grades for each
           subject )
          A three-year assessment plan for the subject
          The list of LTSM required for the subject

Designing Work Schedules

This is the second phase in the design of a learning programme. In this phase teachers
develop work schedules for each grade. The work schedules are informed by the
planning undertaken for the subject framework. The work schedules should be
carefully prepared documents that reflect what teaching and assessment will take
place in the 36-40 weeks of the school year.

Designing Lesson Plans

Each grade-specific work schedule must be divided into units of deliverable learning
experiences, that is, lesson plans. Lesson plans are not equivalent to periods in the
school timetable and each contains a coherent series of teaching, learning and
assessment activities. A lesson plan adds to the level of detail for each issue addressed
in the work schedule. It also indicates other relevant issues to be considered when
teaching and assessing a subject.




                                           6
FIGURE 1: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 3 STAGES OF PLANNING WHEN DEVELOPING A LEARNING PROGRAMME




                ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED
                  •Philosopy and policy
                  •NCS principles
                  •Conceptual
                  progression within
                                             IN   Stage 1                             -12
                                                            Subject Framework Grades 10
                  and across grades          C
                                             R
                  •Time allocation and                         Work        Work        Work
                  weighting                  E    Stage 2    Schedule    Schedule    Schedule
                                             A               Grade 10    Grade 11    Grade 12
                  •Integration of LOs
                  and ASs                    S
                                             E
                  •LTSM                                     Lesson       Lesson
                                             D    Stage 3                            Lesson
                  •Inclusivity and           D               plans        plans       plans
                  diversity
                                             ET
                  •Assessment                AI
                  •Contexts and              L
                  content
                  •Learning and
                  teaching
                  methodology



                                         7
                                      SECTION 2

              INTRODUCING SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE

                 WHAT IS SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE?


The subject Sport and Exercise Science involves the holistic and systematic study of
the human body. It includes, inter alia, the physiological, biomechanical,
psychological, sociological and motor development aspects of human movement in
various contexts. This includes the understanding of core concepts and their
application in relevant contexts.

The subject sport and exercise science is a new subject and draws from disciplines
such as anatomy, physiology, psychology, biology and physics.


1. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE?

The study of Sport and Exercise Science enables learners to explore knowledge that is
essential for understanding the human body during different forms of physical activity
and the manner in which the physiological, biomechanical, psychological and
sociological components of the human being and the environment are interrelated and
interconnected. Learners will develop, inter alia, skills in scientific inquiry, problem
solving and critical thinking, and use Sport and Exercise Science knowledge in
explaining and understanding the movement of the human body. They will be able to
apply scientific knowledge to their own personal well being and to the advancement
of their performance in sport, exercise, fitness and recreation. Through the study of
Sport and Exercise Science, learners can develop an understanding of the influences
of ethics and biases, technology, indigenous knowledge, the environment and society.
The subject enables learners to understand fitness principles in exercise, fitness, sport
and recreation, as well as the long-term physiological response of the human body to
exercise. Anatomical and biomechanical principles can be applied in movement
practice and the role of nutrition in providing energy for participation and in
maintaining a balanced lifestyle is explored. The values and attitudes required for
dealing with discrimination in society, interacting effectively with the environment
and coping with technology are considered.




                                            8
2.3    WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORT AND
       EXERCISE SCIENCE AND THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM
       STATEMENT PRINCIPLES?

The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) provides the basis
for curriculum transformation and development in South Africa. The National
Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) lays a foundation for the achievement
of these goals by stipulating learning outcomes and assessment standards, and by
spelling out the key principles and values that underpin the curriculum. The Sport and
Exercise Science curriculum supports the application of the nine NCS principles as
follows:

2.3.1 Social transformation

The importance of transforming South African society through various transformation
mechanisms arises from the need to redress the legacy of apartheid. Social
transformation, therefore, focuses on ensuring that the imbalances and discriminations
of the past are addressed, and that equal opportunities are provided for all sections of
our population. If social transformation is to be achieved, all South Africans must
receive a sound education in lifelong participation in sport. Sport and Exercise
Science will contribute to social transformation by ensuring the holistic development
of responsible, culturally sensitive, sport-literate citizens who are respectful of issues
of diversity. In addition, they would be be able to critically debate sport and exercise
science issues and participate in an informed way in democratic decision-making
processes for the development of sport.

2.3.2. Outcomes-based education

Sport and Exercise Science makes use of learning outcomes and assessment standards
to describe what a learner should know and be able to demonstrate i.e. the skills,
knowledge, and values that are the results of learning. The content in Sport and
Exercise Science is constructed and applied within four outcomes: Sport and Exercise
Physiology, Anatomical and Biomechanical Principles, Physical Growth and Motor
Development, and Psychosocial and Ethical Considerations. Sport and Exercise
Science encourages learners to develop inquiring and problem-solving skills which
support the practical application of knowledge in Sport and Exercise Science and
involve active, high levels of teaching, learning and assessment.

2.3.3 High levels of knowledge and skills

The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) aims to develop a high
level of knowledge and skills in learners. Sport and Exercise Science places particular
emphasis on creating opportunities for all learners to realise their full potential as
human beings who will contribute to an improved quality of life for themselves and
others in society.

A high level of knowledge is demonstrated by analysing situations and applying
principles to solve problems in sport and exercise participation. This is indicative of
the skills learners will acquire during their participation in and investigations of Sport
and Exercise Science.


                                            9
2.3.4 Integration and applied competence

Integration within a subject involves the grouping of assessment standards that link
naturally. This grouping is a mechanism that enriches learning, teaching and
assessment. Sport and Exercise Science allows for an integrated approach to learning,
teaching and assessment such that the issues dealt with in the subject are integrated
across the four learning outcomes. The scientific investigations and problem-solving
skills addressed in the learning outcomes reflect the nature of the subject and therefore
build on and interact with each other. It is important that the integrated nature of Sport
and Exercise Science is reflected in the development of a learning programme for
Sport and Exercise Science. This will ensure that the four learning outcomes are
learnt, taught and assessed in an integrated and holistic manner.

The following presents an example of how Sport and Exercise Science teachers can
integrate learning outcomes and assessment standards from Sport and Exercise
Science within the subject:

Integration within the subject Sport and Exercise Science is possible when the
following are integrated:

Learning Outcome 2:                   Learning Outcome 2:
Anatomical and                        Anatomical and
Biomechanical Principles              Biomechanical Principles

The learner is able to                The learner is able to construct
construct and apply                   and apply knowledge of sport
knowledge of sport and                and exercise science in the
exercise science in the               areas of anatomical and
areas of anatomical and               biomechanical principles and
biomechanical principles              sport injuries.
and sport injuries.


AS 1:Explain the                      AS 3:Investigate the aetiology       This is possible as both
anatomical structures,                and incidence of specific sport     deal with anatomical and
muscular and skeletal                 injuries                            biomechanical principles
systems of the human                                                       related to muscular and
body                                                                           skeletal injuries




                                           10
2.3.5 Progression

The Assessment Standards for each Learning Outcome in the National Curriculum
Statement Grades 10-12 (General) are designed at various levels of complexity and
depth to provide for progression as learners move from the beginning to the end of a
grade and from grade to grade.

Within Sport and Exercise Science an example of this progression can be seen when
looking at the first assessment standard of Learning Outcome 1 for Grades 10 to12.
Here the assessment standard increases in complexity as it moves from focusing on
understanding differences between concepts, to finding physiological reponses of the
body, and then to analysing and adapting training programmes. All assessment
standards are written to show progression in conceptual complexity.

2.3.6 Articulation and portability

The learning outcomes and assessment standards of Sport and Exercise Science in
Grades 10-12 link up closely with those in the General Education and Training Band
in that the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) focuses on similar
areas of skills, knowledge and values to the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-
9 (Schools). Sport and Exercise Science builds on the Natural Sciences and Life
Orientation learning areas in the GET Band, which includes the following knowledge
areas: (a) life and living (b) energy and change (c) physical growth and movement
development (d) diversity, gender and disability.

2.3.7 Human rights, inclusivity, and environmental and social justice

The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) seeks to promote human
rights, social and environmental justice and adopts an inclusive approach to learning,
teaching and assessment. The principles of human rights, inclusivity, and
environmental and social justice are essential components in the Sport and Exercise
Science and contribute to the development of responsible, culturally sensitive and
sport literate citizens who can critically debate the impact of sport and exercise on the
human body and participate in an informed way. (For example, learners will study the
environmental factors that impact on physical growth and motor development
(including socio-economic status and nutrition).

The development of appropriate skills, knowledge, values and attitudes together with
an understanding of the principles and processes of the Sport and Exercise Science
enable learners to make sense of the human body during sport and exercise.

Sport and Exercise Science teachers should be aware of the psychosocial, physical
and other needs of the learners as they develop Learning Programmes for the subject.
In addition, teachers should consider all barriers to learning and/or assessment that
affect learners in Sport and Exercise Science.




                                           11
2.3.8 Valuing indigenous knowledge systems

Indigenous knowledge systems in the South African context refer to the body of
knowledge embedded in African philosophical thinking and social practices that have
evolved over thousands of years, for example using traditional medicine as part of the
treatment of injuries.

Sport and Exercise Science recognises the richness of indigenous knowledge systems.
Thus the contribution of these systems to transforming the learner and instilling pride
in the learner’s indigenous knowledge features in Learning Outcomes 1 and 4 in Sport
and Exercise Science.

2.3.9 Credibility, quality and efficiency

The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) aims to achieve
credibility through pursuing a transformational agenda and through providing an
education that is comparable in quality, breadth and depth to those of other countries.
The Sport and Exercise Science curriculum focuses on exercise and sport physiology,
biomechanical and anatomical principles, physical growth and motor development,
and psychosocial ethical considerations. These are internationally recognised as
relevant areas for the learning, teaching and assessment of Sport and Exercise
Science.


2.4      PROFILE OF A SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE LEARNER
         ENROLLING FOR THE SUBJECT IN THE FURTHER
         EDUCATION AND TRAINING BAND

Sport and Exercise Science builds on the foundation laid by the Natural Sciences and
the Life Orientation learning areas in the General Education and Training Band. The
Natural Sciences learning area focuses on the following knowledge areas: (a) Life and
living (b) Energy and change. Life Orientation focuses on (a) Human Movement,
growth and development (b) Diversity, gender disability and race.

The scope, learning outcomes and assessment standards of Exercise Science in
Grades 10-12 are deeper, broader and cover the following:

       Understand and apply sport and exercise physiology as it relates to fitness,
        health and performance.
       Understand how nutrition relates to fitness, health and performance.
       Apply knowledge of anatomical and biomechanical principles to performance
        and injuries in exercise and sport.
       Understand the patterns of physical growth and motor development as they
        relate to changes in the performance capabilities of individuals of different
        ages, gender and disabilities.
       Understand the effects and influence of the psychosocial aspects of sport and
        exercise performance
       Construct ethical considerations in relation to the challenges of the
        environment during exercise and performance in sport.



                                           12
In addition, learners in Sport and Exercise Science are expected to develop the
following competencies:

          Scientific inquiry skills , investigative skills and problem-solving skills.
          The ability to construct and apply Sport and Exercise Science knowledge,
           skills and values.
          An understanding of the interrelationship of Sport and Exercise Science,
           technology, the environment and society.

The envisaged Sport and Exercise learner will be empowered with skills and
knowledge for life-long learning, and will be in a position to pursue careers at tertiary
level such as sport science, medicine, sport psychology, education, physiology and
human movement science.




                                           13
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE,
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND CRITICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL
OUTCOMES

SPORT AND EXERCISE          CRITICAL OUTCOMES                            DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES
SCIENCE LEARNING
OUTCOMES
LO 1: Sport and Exercise    CO 1: Solve problems, decision-making        DO 1: Reflect and explore variety of
Physiology                  and thinking                                 learning strategies
                            CO 4: Collect, analyse, organise and         DO 2: Participate as responsible citizens
                            critically evaluate information              in the life of local, national and global
                            CO 5: Communicate effectively using          communities
                            visual, language, symbolic and other modes   DO 3: Be culturally sensitive across a
                                                                         range of social contexts

LO 2: Anatomical and        CO 6: Use science and technology             DO 1: Reflect and explore variety of
Biomechanical Principles    effectively and responsibly towards          learning strategies
                            environment and people                       DO 2: Participate as responsible citizens
                            CO 3: Organise and manage themselves         in the life of local, national and global
                            and their activities responsibly and         communities
                            effectively                                  DO 3: Be culturally sensitive across a
                            CO 7: Demonstrate understanding of the       range of social contexts
                            world as a set of related systems by
                            recognising that problem-solving contexts
                            do not exist in isolation


LO 3: Physical growth and   CO 2: Work with others as members of a       DO 1: Reflect and explore variety of
Motor development           team, group, organisation and community      learning strategies
                            CO 6: Use science and technology             DO 2: Participate as responsible citizens
                            effectively and responsibly towards          in the life of local, national and global
                            environment and people                       communities
                                                                         DO 3: Be culturally sensitive across a
                                                                         range of social contexts


LO 4: Psychosocial and      CO 7: Demonstrate understanding of the       DO 3: Be culturally sensitive across a
ethical considerations      world as a set of related systems by         range of social contexts
                            recognising that problem-solving contexts    DO 5: Develop entrepreneurial
                            do not exist in isolation                    opportunities
                                                                         DO 4: Explore education and career
                                                                         opportunities




                                              14
2.6    WAYS TO ACHIEVE SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE LEARNING
       OUTCOMES

The four learning outcomes of Sport and Exercise Science should not be covered in
isolation. Where possible, learning outcomes and assessment standards should be
linked and integrated. This integration should not be forced. Opportunities for
integration should be identified and learning programmes should be designed around
this interrelatedness.

The approach to teaching and learning Sport and Exercise Science emphasises
learning through experience and/or simulations. Assessment standards for each
learning outcome specify more complex, deeper and broader knowledge, skills, values
and understanding to be achieved in each grade. The assessment standards per grade
are the minimum requirements expected of a learner in order to progress to the next
grade.




                                        15
                                     SECTION 3

  DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME FOR SPORT AND
                 EXERCISE SCIENCE


3.1    INTRODUCTION

A learning programme is a tool to plan for sequenced learning, teaching and
assessment across Grades 10-12 so that all three learning outcomes in Sport and
Exercise Science are achieved in a progressive manner. It is recommended that the
Sport and Exercise Science teachers at a school first put together a broad subject
outline (i.e. subject framework) for Grades 10-12 to arrive at an understanding of the
progression which needs to take place across the grades (see Section 3.3.1). This will
assist with the demarcation of content for each grade. Thereafter, Sport and Exercise
Science teachers teaching the same grade need to work together and draw from the
content and context identified for their grade in the subject framework, to develop a
work schedule in which they indicate the sequence in which the content and context
will be presented for Sport and Exercise Science in that particular grade (see Section
3.3.2). Finally, the individual Sport and Exercise Science teacher should design lesson
plans using the grade-specific work schedule as the starting point. The lesson plans
should include learning, teaching and assessment activities (see Section 3.3.3).

An outline of the process involved in the design of a learning programme for Sport
and Exercise Science is provided in the diagram below:



                                         STAGE 1:
                Sport and Exercise Science subject framework for Grades 10-12




                                         STAGE 2:
                          Sport and Exercise Science work schedule
                                      for each GRADE




                                     STAGE 3:
                       Sport and Exercise Science lesson plans
                                for each TEACHER




                                             16
The process to be followed in the development of a learning programme is not a
neatly packaged sequence of numbered steps. Teachers may find themselves moving
back and forth in the process as they plan and critically reflect on decisions taken
before moving on to the next decision in the process. The process is therefore not
strictly linear, but is reflective in nature. For this reason the steps provided in this
section are a guide and should be used as a checklist in the planning process.

3.2       ISSUES TO ADDRESS                     WHEN         DESIGNING            A     LEARNING
          PROGRAMME

The issues to be addressed in the development of a Sport and Exercise Science
learning programme are presented in a tabular format to indicate the implications of
each issue at each of the three stages of the development of a learning programme:

         Stage 1 – Subject framework
         Stage 2 – Work schedule
         Stage 3 – Lesson plan

3.2.1 Policies and principles

 STAGE 1       The various policies that impact on curriculum implementation should be considered throughout the
   Subject     planning process. NCS: • Principles: Refer to Section 2.3 to see how Sport and Exercise Science
framework      supports the application of the nine principles of the NCS • Critical and developmental outcomes: Refer
 STAGE 2       to Section 2.5 to see how Sport and Exercise Science supports the application of the critical and
    Work       developmental outcomes, other policies and legislation: • White Paper 6, Language in Education Policy,
  schedule     Religion and Education Policy, HIV/AIDS Policy: All have implications for LTSM and teaching
 STAGE 3       methods in Sport and Exercise Science • White Paper 7: Gives an indication on the use of computers in
Lesson plan    the classroom and therefore has implications for LTSM and teaching methods in Sport and Exercise
               Science




3.2.2 Content

In the NCS, “Grades 10-12 content” means the combination of knowledge, skills and
values.

 STAGE 1       The ASs provides the content. These give an indication of the knowledge, skills and values (KSVs) to
   Subject     be covered in each of the three grades. The subject framework sets out the content for the three years
framework      (i.e. Grades 10, 11 and 12).
 STAGE 2       The work schedule sets out the content for one year. Here the focus falls on the grade-specific KSVs
    Work       required by the NCS.
  schedule
 STAGE 3       The lesson plans set out the content to be covered in each coherent series of learning, teaching and
Lesson plan    assessment activities. Each lesson plan can be one or more weeks in duration.




                                                  17
3.2.3 Integration

Integration involves the grouping of assessment standards according to natural and
authentic links.

STAGE 1       Integration within the subject should be considered in broad terms during discussions at this stage. All
  Subject     Grade 10-12 teachers should consider integration of ASs within and across the grades.
framework
STAGE 2       The integration and sequencing of the ASs is undertaken in the work schedule to ensure that all ASs for
   Work       a particular grade are covered in the 40-week contact period. Refer to Section 2.3.4 for an example of
 schedule     integration within Sport and Exercise Science.
 STAGE 3      The same groupings of LOs and ASs, as arrived at in the work schedule, should be used to develop a
Lesson plan   coherent series of learning, teaching and assessment activities for each lesson plan.



3.2.4 Conceptual progression

 STAGE 1      The subject framework should indicate the increasing depth of difficulty across Grades 10-12.
   Subject    Progression across the three grades is shown in the ASs per learning oOutcome.
framework
 STAGE 2      Progression in a grade is evident in the increasing depth of difficulty in that particular grade. Grade-
    Work      specific progression is achieved by appropriately sequencing the groupings of integrated LOs and AS in
  schedule    the work schedule.
 STAGE 3      In the individual Sport and Exercise Science classroom increasing depth of difficulty is shown in the
Lesson plan   activities and lesson plans. Progression is achieved by appropriately sequencing the activities contained
              within each lesson plan and in the series of lesson plans.

3.2.5 Time allocation and weighting

STAGE 1       4 hours per week is allocated to Sport and Exercise Science in the NCS. This is approximately 160
  Subject     hours per year. The teachers of the subject should plan how this time will be used for the teaching of
framework     Sport and Exercise Science in the three grades. The suggested weighting of the four LOs for Sport and
              Science in Grades 10-12 is approximately equal.
 STAGE 2      The groupings of ASs as arrived at in the integration process should be paced across the 40 weeks of the
    Work      school year to ensure coverage of the curriculum.
  schedule
 STAGE 3      The amount of time to be spent on activities should be indicated in the lesson plans.
Lesson plan




                                                 18
3.2.6 LTSM

LTSM refers to any materials that facilitate learning and teaching. LTSM need to be
chosen judiciously because they have cost implications for the school and the learner.
The NCS provides scope for the use of a variety of resources. All teachers and
learners must have a textbook. However, teachers are required to go beyond the
textbook. They do not necessarily need exotic, specialised materials. Rather common
and readily available items can be used.

 STAGE 1      Compile a list of general LTSM (text books and other resources) that will be necessary and useful in the
   Subject    teaching, learning and assessment of the content. This assists with the requisition and availability of
framework     LTSM at a school.
 STAGE 2      List grade-specific LTSM (resources) required in the learning, teaching and assessment process for the
    Work      grade.
  schedule
 STAGE 3      Identify specific resources related to the individual activities contained within a lesson pPlan.
Lesson plan

3.2.7 Assessment

All Grade 10, 11 and 12 learners are expected to complete seven internal tasks for
Sport and Exercise Science. Of the seven tasks, two must be tests, two must be
examinations and the remaining three tasks should take any form suitable to the
teaching and assessment of Sport and Exercise Science (See Section 3 of the Subject
Assessment Guidelines for Sport and Exercise Science for further details). In addition,
Grade 12 learners are expected to complete an external examination for Sport and
Exercise Science.

In order to administer effective assessment one must have a clearly defined purpose. It
is important that all the tasks are well covered as spelt out in the subject assessment
guidelines document. By answering the following questions the teacher can decide
what assessment activity is most appropriate:

      What concept, skill or knowledge needs to be assessed?
      What should the learners know?
      At what level should the learners be performing?
      What type of knowledge is being assessed? Reasoning, memory or process?

Observation-based assessment requires that learner performance be assessed while
the learner is actually demonstrating a skill in the classroom, as there will be no
concrete product for the teacher to assess after the performance. Not all observations
need culminate in a formally recorded assessment of learner performance.
Performance-based assessment relies on the availability of a product as evidence of
learner performance that can be assessed by the teacher after the completion of the
performance. Test-based assessment focuses on assessing the presentation and
application of knowledge.




                                                  19
 STAGE 1      Develop a three-year assessment plan using the Subject Assessment Guidelines for Sport and Exercise
  Subject     Science. This should ensure the use of a variety of assessment forms relevant to the subject and
framework     progression across the three grades.
 STAGE 2      Use the Subject Assessment Guidelines for Sport and Exercise Science to develop a grade-specific
   Work       assessment plan. The forms of assessment listed must facilitate the achievement of the particular LOs
 Schedule     and ASs in each grouping.
 STAGE 3      Indicate more classroom-specific assessment strategies, by mentioning the methods, forms and tools that
Lesson Plan   will be used to assess learner performance in each activity. Note that not all activities need to be
              assessed – some may just be introductory in nature or for enrichment. The LOs and ASs that have been
              grouped together for a particular lesson plan determine the choice of an assessment strategy. The
              assessment strategy chosen must facilitate the achievement of these particular LOs and ASs in the
              classroom.



3.2.8 Inclusivity and diversity

The following steps can be taken to effectively address diversity in the classroom
when planning Sport and Exercise Science teaching activities:

      Consider individuals’ past experiences, learning styles and preferences;
      Develop questions and activities that are aimed at different levels of ability;
      Provide opportunities for a variety of participation levels such as individual,
       pairs and small group activities;
      consider the value of individual methods; and
      Assess learners based on individual progress.

STAGE 1       Teachers should be sensitive to inclusivity and diversity when identifying content, teaching styles and
  Subject     methods, forms of assessment and LTSM (resources). Diversity should be accommodated in the
framework     following areas:
STAGE 2        • Learning styles: Provide optional activities or different ways of carrying out the same activity • Pace
   Work       of learning: Provide for both slower and faster learners by providing optional extra activities, reading or
 schedule     research, as well as multiple assessment-opportunities
               • Differences in levels of achievement: Provide optional extra activities, challenges and materials that
              cater for these differences between learners.
              • Gender diversity: Ensure that teachers do not inadvertently allow or contribute towards discrimination
              against boys or girls in the classroom
              • Cultural diversity: Recognise, celebrate and be sensitive when choosing content, assessment tasks and
              LTSM.
 STAGE 3      This is catered for as EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES in the lesson plan. Enrichment is provided for
Lesson plan   high achievers and remediation or other relevant opportunities for learners requiring additional support.
              It is not necessary to develop an activity to cater for each type of diversity, which arises in the
              classroom. With effective planning, teachers may find it possible to cater for different diversities within
              one activity with effective planning.




                                                  20
3.2.9 Learning and teaching methodology

STAGE 1
  Subject
framework
 STAGE 2      It is not necessary to record teaching methods for either of these stages.
    Work
  schedule

 STAGE 3      This is catered for as TEACHING METHOD in the lesson plan. It provides an indication of how
Lesson plan   teaching and learning will take place, that is, how each activity will be presented in the classroom.


3.3 DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME

A detailed description of the process involved in the design of a learning programme
for Sport and Exercise Science is provided in this section (see Sections 3.3.1 – 3.3.3).
The process presented here is a suggestion of how to go about designing a learning
programme.

3.3.1 Subject framework (Grades 10-12) for Sport and Exercise Science

Planning for the teaching of Sport and Exercise Science in Grades 10 to 12 should
begin with a detailed examination of the scope of the subject as set out in the subject
statement. No particular format or template is recommended for this first phase of
planning, but the five steps below should be used as a checklist.

Although no prescribed document is required for this stage of planning, school-wide
planning (timetables, ordering, teacher development, and classroom allocation) as
well as the development of grade-specific work schedules would benefit from short
documents, which spell out:

      The scope of the subject: the knowledge, skills, values, content,
       contexts, themes, electives, etc. to be covered in the three grades
       (See Annexure 1).
      A three-year assessment plan.
      The list of LTSM required.




                                                  21
Clarify the learning outcomes and assessment standards

The essential questions for Sport and Exercise Science are:

      “What Learning outcomes do learners have to master by the end of grade 12?”
      “What assessment standards should they achieve to show that they are on their
       way to mastering these outcomes?”

All learning, teaching and assessment opportunities must be designed down from
what learners should know, do and produce by the end of Grade 12. The learning
outcomes and all learning, teaching and assessment opportunities must be designed
down from what learners should know, do and produce by the end of Grade 12. The
learning outcomes and assessment standards that learners should master by the end of
Grade 12 are specified in the Sport and Exercise Science Subject Statement.

Study the conceptual progression across the three grades

Study the assessment standards for Sport and Exercise Science across the three
grades. Progression should be clearly evident across the grades.
Analyse the assessment standards to identify the skills, knowledge and values to be
addressed in each grade. Also consider the content and context in which they will be
taught.

Identify three-year plan of assessment

Use the Subject Assessment Guidelines to guide the three-year assessment plan.
Consider what forms of assessment will be best suited to each of the learning
outcomes and assessment standards. This ensures that assessment remains an integral
part of the learning and teaching process in Sport and Exercise Science and that
learner participate in a range of assessment activities.


Identify possible LTSM (resources)

Consider which LTSM will be best suited to the learning, teaching and assessment of
each learning outcome in the three grades using the assessment standards as guidance.




                                          22
3.3.2 Designing work schedules for Sport and Exercise Science

This is the second phase in the design of a learning programme. In this phase teachers
develop work schedules for each grade. The work schedules are informed by the
planning undertaken for the subject framework. The work schedules should be
carefully prepared documents that reflect what teaching and assessment will take
place in the 40 weeks of the school year. See Annexure 2 for examples of work
schedules for Grades 10, 11 and 12.

The following steps provide guidelines on how to approach the design of a work
schedule per grade for Sport and Exercise Science:

Package the content

Study the learning outcomes and assessment standards prescribed for the particular
grade in Sport and Exercise Science and group these according to natural and
authentic links.


Sequence the content

Determine the order in which the groupings of learning outcomes and assessment
standards will be presented in the particular grade in Sport and Exercise Science.
Besides the conceptual progression in the assessment standards for Sport and Exercise
Science, context can also be used to sequence groupings in Sport and Exercise
Science.

Pace the content

Determine how much time in the school year will be spent on each grouping of
learning outcomes and assessment standards in the particular grade.

Review forms of assessment

Revisit the forms of assessment listed for the particular grade in the subject
assessment guidelines, and refine them to address each grouping of learning outcomes
and assessment standards as developed in Step 1.

Revisit the LTSM (resources) listed for the particular grade in the subject framework,
and refine them to address each grouping of learning outcomes and assessment
standards as developed in Step 1.

3.3.3 Designing lesson plans for Sport and Exercise Science

Each grade-specific work schedule for Sport and Exercise Science must be divided
into units of deliverable learning experiences, that is, lesson plans. A lesson plan adds
to the level of detail in the work schedule. It also indicates other relevant issues to be
considered when teaching and assessing Sport and Exercise Science.




                                           23
A lesson plan is not equivalent to a subject period in the school timetable. Its duration
is dictated by how long it takes to complete the coherent series of activities contained
in it. See Annexure 3 for an example of a lesson plan.

The following steps provide guidelines on how to design lesson plans for Sport and
Exercise Science:

Indicate the content, context, learning outcomes and assessment standards

Copy this information from the work schedule for the particular grade.

Develop activities and select teaching method

Decide how to teach the learning outcomes and assessment standards indicated in
Step 1 and develop the activity or activities that will facilitate the development of the
skills, knowledge and values in the particular grouping. Thereafter, determine the
most suitable teaching method(s) for the activities and provide a description of how
the learners will engage in each activity.

Consider diversity

Explore the various options available within each activity that will allow expanded
opportunities to those learners that require individual support. The support provided
must ultimately guide learners to develop the skills, knowledge and values indicated
in the grouping of learning outcomes and assessment standards.

Review assessment and LTSM

Indicate the details of the assessment strategy and LTSM to be used in each activity.

Allocate time

Give an indication of how much time will be spent on each activity in the lesson plan.



3.3.4 Reflection on and review of the Sport and Exercise Science learning
      programme

After the learning programme has been delivered by means of lesson plans in the
classroom, the teacher should reflect on what worked; how well it worked; and what
could be improved. Teachers need to note these while the experience is still fresh in
their minds, so that, if necessary, they can adapt and change the affected part of the
Sport and Exercise learning programme for future implementation. It is advisable to
record this reflection on the lesson plan planning sheets.




                                           24
ANNEXURE 1:          KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS PER LEARNING OUTCOME


TOPIC AREAS:         OUTCOME 1 - SPORT AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY


GRADE 10                                    GRADE 11                                  GRADE 12


     Warm-up exercises and stretching           Efficient body functioning               Training methods and how they
      (benefits)                                 Postural requirements                     are adjusted according to
     Principles of conditioning                 Effects of relaxation                     environment and physical
      (interval training, over-training,         Self-fulfilment                           conditions
      flexibility)                               Short- and long-term benefits            Adapting conditioning to fitness
     Basic differences caused in the            Long-term physiological response          status
      body by exercise and training               of the body                              Effective recovery programmes
     Recovery from fatigue                      Sources of energy                        Conditioning programmes
     Energy systems and exercise                Differentiating between the types        Appropriate energy systems
     Forms of energy and different               of energy the body will use for           associated with certain sports or
      sporting activities                         exercises of varying intensities          exercises and the interrelationship
     Effects of exercise and training on        Different exercises by which the          between each
      the energy systems                          various energy systems can be            Contribution of each system and
     Exercises that improve energy               improved                                  comparison of recovery times
      systems                                    Expressing in units the energy           Gender and disabilities
     Determining heart rate during rest          used by the body during exercise         Environmental factors
      and exercise                               Role and function of heart, lungs        Use of different food pyramids
                                                  and oxygen during exercise




                                                                25
   Air composition of the                 Heart-rate during exercise and        Energy needs and expenditure
    atmosphere and performance              rest                                  Keeping a personal nutritional
   Transport of oxygen and carbon         Composition of the atmosphere          diary
    dioxide through the blood and its       on performance                        Food intolerances and allergies
    effect on exercise                     Effect of the increase in height      Current dietary guidelines for
   Importance of iron in the               above sea-level on sport               physical activity and healthy
    transportation of oxygen                performance                            living
   Food groups- appropriate portions      Levels and classes of ergogenic
   Use of different food pyramids          substances
   Energy needs and expenditure           Known drugs listed in sport
   Interpreting food labels               Performance enhancing
   Differentiating between the             substances
    sources of energy                      Use of steroids in sport
                                           Dangers of misuse and abuse




                                                          26
TOPIC AREAS:        OUTCOME 2 - ANATOMICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES


GRADE 10                               GRADE 11                                 GRADE 12


     Composition of muscles, bones         Different muscle tissue and             Changing range of movement or
      ligaments, tendons                     types of skeletal tissue                 degree of movement
     Structures, locations and             Origin of muscle power and              Engaging in a range of
      functions of the anatomical            strength                                 examples
      system                                Muscles and joints involved is a        Safety considerations and
     Functions of bones, joints,            specific movement                        efficiency
      ligaments and tendons when            Modifying forces and levers to          Modifying forces and levers to
      participating in sport                 change intensity or increase             change exercise intensity or
     Actions of various types of            difficulty                               increase difficulty
      joints during movement                Changing range of motion or             Different ways of moving in
     Where and what the centre of           degree of movement                       sport
      gravity is and its function in        Sport mechanics                         Understand the influences of
      sport                                 Different forms of movement in           balance and stability in sporting
     Influences of balance and              sport and what is important for          actions
      stability on sporting actions          each form of movement                   Intrinsic, extrinsic and traumatic
     What can be done                      Applying sport mechanics so              and over-use injuries
      biomechanically to ensure good         that different movements in             Precautions aimed at avoiding
      balance                                sport are performed more                 the various degrees of injury
                                             effectively                             Role and importance of each
                                            Fitness and training measures to         member of a multi-disciplinary
                                             prevent injury                           team
                                            Causes of injury in selected            Emergency and contingency
                                             sport and the impact of each             plans
                                             injury




                                                             27
   Identifying the causes of and           Responding to sudden injuries
    recommendations for                      in sport
    prevention of                           First aid and emergency
    -lower extremity injuries                procedures
    -upper extremity injuries               Recovery activities
    -back and spinal injuries               Overuse injuries and strategies
    -head injuries                           to avoid them
    -eye and ear injuries.
   Basic causes and appearance of
    injuries
   Intrinsic, extrinsic and traumatic
    injuries
   Pain cycle
   Basic treatment and first aid




                                                             28
TOPIC AREAS:        OUTCOME 3 - PHYSICAL GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT


GRADE 10                                 GRADE 11                                   GRADE 12


     Maturity: Associated variation          Talent identification                     Socio-economic status
      in body size                            What is motor development?                Family size
     Maturity: Associated variation          Motor patterns and skill                  Area of residence
      in physique                             Classifications of motor activity         Rearing styles
     Variation in body composition           Fine and gross motor skill                Sibling interactions
     Variation in adipose tissue             Fundamental and specialised               Climate, performance,
      distribution                             motor skills                               physical activity, etc.
     Variation in strength and motor         Process and Product of movement           Body dimensions and
      performance                             Physical fitness                           composition
     Activity and stature                    Measures of strength and motor            Physical growth patterns
     Activity, body weight and body           performance                                establishes
      composition                             Performance in early childhood            Personal development profile
     Activity and physique                   Performance in middle childhood           Considerations: variations in
     Activity and specific tissue             and adolescence                            growth
     Activity and biological maturity        Relationship of strength and motor        Maturity and variations in
     Activity, growth and maturation          performance to size, physique, and         motor development,
     Gender differences and growth            body composition                           performance and activity.
      patterns                                Conditions that affect motor              Talent identification
     Physical disabilities and                development in female athletes            Long-term athlete
      performance                             Conditions that impact on the              development
                                               disabled athlete
                                              Impact on capabilities
                                              Impact on training and
                                               performance




                                                               29
TOPIC AREAS:         OUTCOME 4 - PSYCHOSOCIAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS


GRADE 10                                 GRADE 11                                 GRADE 12


     Introduction to motivation              Psychological effects of                Dynamics of leadership in the
      (achievement, participation,             physical activity                        sport context
      confidence)                             Motivation for physical activity        Group/team cohesion
     Moods and emotions (anxiety)            Exercise adherence                      Strategies for team and group
     Individual differences                  Identifying stressors and                goals
      (personality)                            strategies to combat these              Coaching behaviour that
     Interpersonal processes (social,        Aggression, arousal, anxiety             promotes positive feelings of
      conformity, compliance,                  and frustration                          group membership
      obedience)                              Motivation and self-motivation          Mental preparation and
     Group processes                         Implications of traumatic injury         psychological skills
     Motivation                               for performance and, where              Goal setting (long term and
     Arousal and anxiety                      applicable, for the team                 short term goals)
     Concentration                           Implications of chronic injury          Concentration
     Confidence                               for potential and self-                 Self-talk and self-control
     Imagery                                  confidence.                             Imagery and dealing with stress
     Positive self-talk                      Strategies to include injured           Dealing with winning and
     Stress                                   performers in continuing                 losing
     Coping                                   development                             Mental preparation
     Burnout and over-training               Social conditions, growth and           Mind and attitude
     Psychosocial stressors (history          maturation                              Discovering positive self
      of stressors, personality and           Physical activity and diversity          identity
      coping resources)                       Cultural influences and                 Developing confidence in one’s
     Recovery from injury                     challenges                               ability




                                                               30
   Slumps and staleness
   HIV & AIDS                                 Impact of chronic diseases of
   Chronic diseases such as                    lifestyle
    tuberculosis and obesity                   HIV & AIDS
   Appropriate participant                    Guidelines for the intensity and
    behaviour                                   duration of training sessions
   Self-governance                            Guidelines for the intensity and
   Respect for competitors                     duration of training sessions
    Participation versus winning at           Regular medical evaluations
    all costs                                  Protocol for managing data
   Active promotion of playing                 related to all injuries and
    according to the rules of                   illnesses
    activities                                 Maintaining rules about first aid
   Acting against unfair play                  and emergency procedures
   Striking a balance between                 Confidentiality about health
    achieving success and avoiding              issues
    failure
   Code of conduct
   Ergogenic aids (banned
    substances)




                                       31
ANNEXURE 2:      EXAMPLES OF WORK SHEDULES PER GRADE (Example of a Grade 10 work schedule)


LEARNING      NUMBER       TOPIC AREAS AND CONCEPTS                                    RESOURCES                   ASSESSMENT
OUTCOMES      OF WEEKS
AND
ASSESSMENT
STANDARDS
LO 1          6-10 weeks        Exercise, training and fitness                        Textbooks, charts,          Tests, portfolio work,
                                Body systems and physiological factors                brochures, videos,          class work, homework,
                                Role and function of the heart and lungs during       reference books, internet   practical work, projects,
(ALL Ass)                        sport and exercise                                    programmes, OHP, OHP        data, oral presentations,
                                Nutritional principles for optimal health and         transparencies, computer    reports, posters and
                                 performance                                           software                    interviews

LO 2          6-10 weeks        Anatomical structures, muscular and skeletal
                                 systems of the human body
                                Influence and function of kinetics and kinematics
(ALL Ass)                        on sport and movement participation
                                Aetiology and incidence of specific sport injuries

LO 3          6-10 weeks        Major variables of physical growth that influence
                                 participation in sport and exercise.
                                Patterns of physical growth that influence the
(ALL Ass)                        development of sport skills at different stages and
                                 ages in athlete development.
                                Influence of gender (and disability) on physical
                                 growth and their impact on capabilities for sport
                                 training and performance.




                                                                 32
LO 4            6-10             Various components of sport psychology that
                Weeks             influence performance.
                                 Mental skills and strategies as they apply to sport
(ALL ASs)                         performance and exercise
                                 Psychological and environmental factors related
                                  to health issues (sport injuries, HIV and AIDS,
                                  chronic diseases of lifestyle, etc.
                                 Meaning of ethics, values and attitudes in sport
                                  and exercise




Example of a Grade 11 work schedule

LEARNING         NUMBER      KNOWLEDGE AREAS AND CONCEPTS                                  RESOURCES                   ASSESSMENT
OUTCOMES AND     OF WEEKS
ASSESSMENT
STANDARDS




LO 1             6-8 Weeks               Physiological response of the body to            Textbooks, charts,          Tests, portfolio work,
                                          exercise as well as the immediate and long-      brochures, videos,          class work, homework,
                                          term effects                                     reference books, internet   practical work, projects,
(ALL ASs)                                 Effect of exercise and training on the energy   programmes, OHP, OHP        data, oral presentations,
                                          systems of the body                              transparencies, computer    reports, posters and
                                         Adaptations and effect of exercise and           software                    interviews
                                          training on the heart, lungs on exercise
                                         Ergogenic aids, common myths and fallacies
                                          associated with nutrition.




                                                                    33
LO2 2       6-8 Weeks      Analysis of movement in relation to
                            biomechanical principles and anatomical
                            structures.
(ALL ASs)                  Principles of kinetics and kinematics of
                            sporting actions
                           Anatomical and biomechanical factors
                            underlying injuries in sport


LO 3        6-8 weeks      Major variables of motor development that
                            influence participation in sport and exercise.
                           Patterns of motor development that influence
(ALL ASs)                   the learning of sport skills at different stages
                            and ages in athlete development.
                           Influence of gender (and disability) on motor
                            development and their impact on capabilities
                            for sport training and performance.




LO 4        6-8 Weeks      How exercise psychology relates to exercise
                            and performance
                           The psychological build-up to events and its
(All ASs)                   effects on performance
                           Psychological and environmental impact of
                            health issues on sport performance
                           Diversity in relation to sport




                                                       34
ANNEXURE 3:                 EXAMPLE OF A LESSON PLAN

Teacher:                         Grade:                                      School:

Focus: Learning outcome          LO 1
Assessment standard/s            AS 1
Integrated Sport and Exercise    LO 1: AS 2, AS 3
Science learning outcomes
Learning outcomes and            LO 1: AS 1, AS 2, AS 3, AS 4
assessment standards

Knowledge and skills area(s)     Exercise, training and fitness
                                 Nutrition
TEACHER ACTIVITIES               LEARNER ACTIVITIES                 RESOURCES           ASSESSMENT         TIME
                                                                                        METHODS
Organise learners into           Activity 1: What is the            Printed matter,     Teacher and        3 hours
working groups.                  difference between exercise,       charts, diagrams,   peer assessment;   minimum
 Prepare workstations for        training and fitness? (LO 1,       models, reading     self-assessment;
activities.                      AS 1). The first question to ask   matter, work        pen and paper
 Provide resources for           is: What is the difference         sheets and          tasks; Practical
activities.                      between exercise and training?     exercises           tasks and
 Prepare worksheets.             Learners discuss in groups the                         observation.
Supervise learners’ activities   following comments: “Look
                                 how fit she is from all the
                                 exercise.” “ Your heart rate is
                                 low because you train so hard.”
                                 “Exercise makes me fit.”
                                 Learners then list 5 acute
                                 responses of the body when
                                 exercising. Explain the
                                 adaptations after 6 months of
                                 exercise.




                                                   35
                                Activity 2: Cornerstones of a
                                training programme. The
                                FITT principle is explained.
                                (Frequency, Intensity, Time and
                                Type)
                                Learners choose 2 athletes from
                                different sport codes. Each
                                athlete explains his or her
                                training programme of the
                                previous day Learners then
                                identify the FITT principles in
                                their respective programmes.
                                Activity 3 Nutrition: (LO1
                                AS4) To a certain extent we are
                                what we eat. Learners view
                                photos of different athletes and
                                discuss this saying and report on
                                their deliberations.
                                 Learners review several food
                                pyramids. They then determine
                                3 types of food groups that fit in
                                every level.
                                Learners are presented with 2
                                case studies of athletes and their
                                particular diets; list the
                                particular eating patterns; and
                                write down the lessons learnt.
                                Learners are exposed to the
                                basic nutrients, and discuss the
                                functions they fulfil in the body.
                                Focus on carbohydrates: How
                                important are the different types
                                of carbohydrates in sport and
                                exercise?
                                Learners make a list of 6 food
                                types that contain (a) refined
                                and (b) complex carbohydrates.

Expanded opportunities:                                              Enrichment:
Slow learners are given extra time; limit number of applications.    Developing research and reporting skills
Special needs:                                                       Homework:
Provide relevant adaptations for learners with barriers to           Homework preparation and homework tasks.
learning.                                                            Teacher assigns homework tasks related to Activity
                                                                     1 and Activity 2 and Activity 3




                                                  36

				
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